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Employee productivity/Performance:

Impact Author Source Article


The use of social networking (AT&T, 2008), (Bennett, SNS and Job Performance,
helped employees be more 2010), Invalid source Murad Moqbel
productive and increases specified., Invalid source
employees job performance specified.,
Use of social media such as (AT&T, 2008), (Bennett, Enhancing creativity or
social networking sites leads 2010), (Leidner, 2010), (Li, wasting time (four authors)
to better employee 2010), (Patel, 2010)
productivity .
Social media use at work (Harlan Lebo , 2014) The 2014 digital future
helps employees be more report- Surveying the digital
productive future (selection articles ref)
Engaging in personal (Kirchmeyer, 1999), (Polach, Engaging in Personal
business on the job improves 2003), (Hobson, 2001), Business on the Job:
job satisfaction, (Nord, 2002) Extending the Presenteeism
organizational commitment, Construct- DAbate
productivity, organizational
effectiveness, and other work
outcomes like recruitment,
absenteeism, tardiness,
turnover, job satisfaction,
stress, productivity,
organizational commitment
and loyalty, performance,
and health care costs.
taking time to socialize online (Arnold, 2009), (Whadcock, Employee Attitude towards
during the workday will keep 2010), (Kesten, 2009) SNS, North
them happier and thus more
productive during the
periods when they are
focused on their work
the use of ICT in Greek firms (Arvanitis, 2009) Effect of online networking
has led to positive on employee productivity
productivity effects

Improved Communication:

CMC has increased the (Santra, 2009), Invalid Whats Trending? Social
participation of source specified., Invalid Media and its Effects on
organizational members Organizational
source specified., Invalid
because it has created more Communication, Langer
source specified.
equality and less social
pressure.
Oracle chose to leverage (Jue, 2010), (Postman, Effectiveness of SM
social networking because it 2009), (Safko, 2010), transformational change,
enabled them to foster a thesis.
(Katz, 2012), (Groysberg,
shared view of the
organizations direction, 2012)
greater collaboration, and
faster innovation across the
globe.
Social media flattens
communication. Social
networking facilitates a kind
of lateral communication,
ignoring traditional
structures that limit free flow
of information, making it
available to all.

Better connected:

usage of social media (Christakis, 2009) Effectiveness of SM


tools causes better transformational change,
connection among thesis.
coworkers.
social networks are typical (Golder, 2007), (Coyle, Effect of online networking
characterisations of human 2008) on employee productivity
behaviour to fulfil the need
to communicate and connect
with people they know, meet
new people who share a
common interest,
collaborate, participate and
share information and
knowledge as well as gain
new knowledge.
efcient means of initiating (Nardi, 2002), (Lange, Workplace impact of social
and maintaining hundreds, or 2008) networking, James Benett.
even thousands of
acquaintances,
simultaneously and with little
effort.
enhancing collaboration (Huhetal.,2007 Enterprise SM (improves
comm and connectedness)

Employee satisfaction:

Social Networking 2.0 (IBM, 2007), (Smith, 1999) The impact of Social
rewards contributions Networking 2.0 on
through ratings, feedback, organisations
and the creation of a
following. This increased
visibility satises most
individuals desire for
prestige and recognition and
increases their job
satisfaction
Through implementing (Akkirman, 2005) Workplace impact of social
communication tactics using networking. James Benett.
SM, employee satisfaction
and related variables such as
turnover and motivation can
improve as well

Knowledge sharing:

social networking sites create (Boothby, 2006), (Wenger, Effect of online networking
an electronic platform where 2004), (Bryan, 2007), (Boyd, on employee productivity
knowledge workers can work 2007), (Ryberg, 2008),
in large virtual teams thereby (Khanna, 2008),
improving their skills through
knowledge sharing
permits a robust blend of (KPMG, 2007), (Barker P. , Effect of online networking
member profile and contact 2008), (Bernoff, 2008), on employee productivity
information, rich presence (Violino, 2008)
information, collaborative
document creation,
distribution tracking and
other features that 'build a
pulse' inside the
organisation.
directional communication Fulk & Yuan, this issue, and Enterprise SM history and
through leaky pipes may be Majchrzak et al., this issue) types of use
quite advantageous for the
organization, writ large,
especially when it comes to
processes like learning and
knowledge sharing

Negative influence of Social Media use at work:


Employee productivity/Performance:

Impact Author Source Article


SNS use may be seen as a (D'Abate, 2007), (Nucleus, SNS and Job Performance,
source of reduced productivity 2009), (OMurchu, 2004), Murad Moqbel
since it can be a waste of time. (Rooksby, 2009), (Shepherd,
2011), Invalid source
specified., Invalid source
specified.
Full access to Facebook alone (Nucleus, 2009) SNS and Job Performance,
at the workplace results in a Murad Moqbel
1.5 percent drop in
productivity
employees use of social media (Computing, 2009) Enhancing creativity or
causes loss of labor wasting time (four
productivity as a result of time authors)
wasted at work
They lost productivity and even (Blades, 2010), (Whadcock, Attitude towards SNS,
decreased quality of work 2010) North
performed because of social
networking distractions are
expensive
Online social networking spurs (Hathi,2008), (Perkins, 2008), Effect of online social
social activity and is associated (Star Technology, 2008), networking on Employee
with developing addictive (Violino, 2008), (European Productivity , A.Ferreira,
Behavior. If not managed Network and Information T. du Plessis
properly, results in declining Security Agency, 2007)
employee productivity.
Non-work related (Greengard, 2000), (Herring, Engaging in Personal
presenteeism could cost firms 2004, January 25) Business on the Job:
over $800 million lost Extending the
productivity and non-work Presenteeism Construct-
related internet usage could DAbate
cost firms billions of dollars
annually.
employees may be focusing on (Warnakula, 2010) The Impact of Social
responding to the social media, Media in the Workplace
the tasks they are executing (OB robins ref)
may be done inadequately,
leading to productivity losses.
SNS & tools have the capacity (Maltby, 2009), (Mellon- Employee Attitude
to have such significant Hogan, 2009), (Holmes, 2010), towards SNS, North.
benefits but with greater risks (Markel, 2009), (Schiller, 2009)
to both productivity and
quality.
employee Internet abuse can (Stewart, 2000), (Adschiew, EMPLOYEE INTERNET
represent billions in lost June 2000) ABUSE: STRATEGIES
revenue

Distraction:

Organizations are also (Mastrangelo, 2006), The Impact of Social


facing the adverse side of (Sherman, 2009) Media in the Workplace
(OB robins ref)
social media, which is the
distraction of employees
while performing their
jobs. time employees
spend with social media
while ignoring their work
duties
employee distractions (Holmes, 2010), (Markel, Employee Attitude
have never been higher 2009), (Arnold, 2009) towards SNS, North.

Waste of Time:

Worker spending between 21 (Frauenheim, 2009), Employee Attitude towards


and 26 percent of his or her SNS, North.
paid time engaged in
personal activities online

Communication and connectedness:

Social media has grown into the most popular platform of computer mediated communication in our
society because of increased acceptance of technology so much so that it has how impacted
organizational communication takes place (Leonardi, 2013).
Computer mediated communication has enhanced participation of organizational members by creating
more equality and decreasing social pressure. Since organisations are geographically dispersed and face
to face communication is not feasible every time, computer mediated communication can slowly enable
establishment of shared meanings and develop a sense of organizational identity (Santra, 2009).

Creating dialogue and enabling easy information sharing is one of the main component of Social media.
It connects people who were not aware of each other earlier.(Jue A. A.-M., 2010).

The usage of social media at workplace can flatten communication. As opposed to traditional
communication where the flow was typically vertical, social media serves as a platform for lateral and
flat communication ignoring structures that limit flow of information (Jue A. A.-M., 2010).

Oracle chose to leverage social media to enable a shared view of the organization, greater connection
and collaboration among its scattered workforce (Jue A. A.-M., 2010).

The different generations of a workforce has a different view and attitude on the usage of social media
at workplace. Just like other kind of conversations, some initiate some respond and others just observe.
Despite the differing levels of participation, social media is here to stay and grow (Jue A. A.-M., 2010).

(Postman, 2009) says social media has brought a revolution in participatory communications.

Social medias immediacy provides that level of real time feedback (Safko, 2010). Arranged to some
extent.

Types of organizational communication:

Organisation to individual- Communication that flows from one level of a group or organization to a
lower level is known as a downward communication (Stephen P. Robbins, 2005). Such communication is
used to assign goals, provide job instructions, inform employees of policies and procedures, point of
problems that need attention and offer feedback about performance (Stephen P. Robbins, 2005).
However, (Groysberg, 2012) has pointed out that the era of downward communication is over. The
requirement is of flexible and interactive communication channels wherein stakeholder can be engaged
in a conversation. That flattening of communication hierarchy can be accomplished by leveraging social
media. The new way of communication in an organization is different from the traditional corporate
communication due to the fact that now leaders must talk with employees, not at them for a to
communicate a clear agenda and for the acceptance of a shared vision (Groysberg, 2012). Intimacy is
important for a conversation to take place (Groysberg, 2012). Now fill in examples of social media usage.

Individual to Organization- Such communication generally flows upwards to a higher level and is used to
provide feedback to higher ups, inform them of progress towards goals and relay current problems
(Stephen P. Robbins, 2005). Suggestion boxes, employee attitude surveys, grievance procedures,
superior subordinate discussions and informal gripe sessions in which employees have the opportunity
to identify and discuss problems with their boss or representatives of higher management (Stephen P.
Robbins, 2005). Now develop further in the direction, how social media has brought about changes in
this dimension of communication.

Individual to individual- When communication takes place among members of the same work group,
among the same level or among any horizontally equivalent personnel, it is described as lateral
communications (Stephen P. Robbins, 2005). (yet to be rearranged)
Better Connected

(Christakis, 2009) The heavy usage of Social media can be owed to its ability to facilitate connection and
contagion. Speaking about the first characteristic connection, social media has been seen effective in
turning the weak or latent connections into strong ones due to its ability to reduce the barriers that
would otherwise hinder the development of strong connections.

(Nardi, 2002) (Lange, 2008) Have supported this point of view that social networks are extremely
efficient ways of initiating and nurturing thousands of acquaintances simultaneously with little effort.
(yet to be rearranged)

Knowledge Sharing

Authors (Boothby, 2006) argue that todays knowledge workers work efficiently in virtual teams due to
the electronic platform that social networking sites provide and invariably end up sharing knowledge. It
is supported by (Wenger, 2004) (Bryan, 2007) who say groups who interact virtually in a work
environment regularly are bound have improved skills and knowledge. Similarly, in organizations the use
of SNS by work groups may prove to be a catalyst for improved interaction (Boyd, 2007) (Ryberg, 2008).

Social networking builds a pulse inside an organization by providing a simple approach for members of
the same community of employees to find each other based on complementary knowledge (KPMG,
2007).

Availability of internet connections and access at workplace not only helps organisations boost their
business operations but also can improve employee communications through intra- organization social
media platforms. This allows employees the platform to share knowledge and collaborate with each
other (Skeels, 2009).

Social media can also be leveraged as a training tool allowing flexibility of time and location (Cox, 2011),
(Ferreira, 2009). (yet to be rearranged)

Negative Consequences

Impact Author Source Article


SNS use may be seen as a (D'Abate, 2007), (Nucleus, SNS and Job Performance,
source of reduced productivity 2009), (OMurchu, 2004), Murad Moqbel
since it can be a waste of time. (Rooksby, 2009), (Shepherd,
2011), Invalid source
specified., Invalid source
specified.
Full access to Facebook alone (Nucleus, 2009) SNS and Job Performance,
at the workplace results in a Murad Moqbel
1.5 percent drop in
productivity
employees use of social media (Computing, 2009) Enhancing creativity or
causes loss of labor wasting time (four
productivity as a result of time authors)
wasted at work
They lost productivity and even (Blades, 2010), (Whadcock, Attitude towards SNS,
decreased quality of work 2010) North
performed because of social
networking distractions are
expensive
Online social networking spurs (Hathi,2008), (Perkins, 2008), Effect of online social
social activity and is associated (Star Technology, 2008), networking on Employee
with developing addictive (Violino, 2008), (European Productivity , A.Ferreira,
Behavior. If not managed Network and Information T. du Plessis
properly, results in declining Security Agency, 2007)
employee productivity.
Non-work related (Greengard, 2000), (Herring, Engaging in Personal
presenteeism could cost firms 2004, January 25) Business on the Job:
over $800 million lost Extending the
productivity and non-work Presenteeism Construct-
related internet usage could DAbate
cost firms billions of dollars
annually.
employees may be focusing on (Warnakula, 2010) The Impact of Social
responding to the social media, Media in the Workplace
the tasks they are executing (OB robins ref)
may be done inadequately,
leading to productivity losses.
SNS & tools have the capacity (Maltby, 2009), (Mellon- Employee Attitude
to have such significant Hogan, 2009), (Holmes, 2010), towards SNS, North.
benefits but with greater risks (Markel, 2009), (Schiller, 2009)
to both productivity and
quality.
employee Internet abuse can (Stewart, 2000), (Adschiew, EMPLOYEE INTERNET
represent billions in lost June 2000) ABUSE: STRATEGIES
revenue
Some authors maintain that the use of social media at workplace by employees may have positive
impact on productivity though effects on intermediate variables like high morale (AT&T, 2008),
(Bennett, 2010), (Leidner, 2010), (Patel, 2010), (Li C. a., 2008).

Bennett et al. (2010) report that the benefits of social networking site use in the workplace can include
enhanced collective knowledge, improved knowledge, increased productivity, and improved morale.

As per (Bennett, 2010), use of social networking sites at workplace can boost collective knowledge,
improve productivity and morale.

Studies have shown benefits of social medias/ ICTs (respectively as per author) potential to positively
influence employee performance and productivity (AT&T, 2008) (Arvanitis, 2009).

Some authors opine that it is possible that doing personal work while on job improves job satisfaction,
organizational commitment productivity and there is some evidence too to suggest this relationship
(Kirchmeyer, 1999), (Polach, 2003). The effect of traditional steps for maintaining work-life balance such
as providing family holiday programs, flexi timing, child care centers etc. upon absenteeism, tardiness,
turnover and job satisfaction (Hobson, 2001), (Nord, 2002), compels us to find the effect of evolving
ways of work-life balance on organizational outcomes. (write this line after establishing that SM use
beings about work life balance and is stress relieving). (yet to be done)

Negative impact of SM at workplace on productivity and performance

Contrary to the view that use of social media at workplace improves employee performance and
productivity there is another body of authors that argue that online social networking at work leads to
waste of time and a resultant loss of productivity (Nucleus, 2009), (OMurchu, 2004), (Rooksby, 2009),
(Shepherd, 2011), (Computing, 2009), . Authors (D'Abate, 2007) described a term presenteeism as the
act of not functioning to best of ones potential because of lack of concentration resulting from non-
work related activities such as checking emails, talking over the phone for personal work and internet
surfing. Which means, employees may not perform to the best of their abilities due to distractions at
work thus showing presenteeism. In line with this concept relating to work related presenteeism, in a
study it was found that full access to Facebook at workplace may result in 1.5% drop in workers
productivity (Nucleus, 2009). Even back in early 2000 it was reported that loss to employers resulting
from employee use of internet at work ran into billions of dollars (Greengard, 2000), (Herring, 2004,
January 25) (Adschiew, June 2000). Use of social media at workplace brings risk of development of
addictive behavior among employees which if not attended to may result in reduced employee
productivity (Hathi, 2008). There are other risks that pertain to online social networking at work that
have caught the attention of authors. Risks such as increased spam or unsolicited information, exposing
intellectual property to the outside world, exposing members to malware thereby making way for
viruses into organisations internal IT infrastructure and bandwidth storage consumption stemming from
sharing of high definition video, audio and image files (Hathi, 2008), (Perkins, 2008), (Violino, Social
networking, 2008) (Agency., 2007). (Maltby, 2009) Writes extensively about the potential risks of using
social media at workplace that may be in the form of waste of time and significant negative impact on
both productivity and quality.
In a study based in Sri Lanka, (Warnakula, 2010) found that more than 60.8% of the participants said
they checked Facebook at work. Employees are meant to perform their work at the workplace as per
(Mastrangelo, 2006) where attending to every beep and ping may be a means of distraction.
(Mastrangelo, 2006) opines that distraction through social media is the adverse side of its use at
workplace that the organisations are struggling with. (Sherman, 2009) same thing.

The issue of lost revenue from employee internet use at work, as organizations attempt to resolve it, has
become a critical one (Stewart, 2000),

The generation of graduate students now joining the workforce has grown up with technology personal
computers at their homes and owning a smart phone as they grew up (Arnold, 2009). Stronger and more
cost efficient internet connectivity has contributed to the making of a generation that is impatient and
requires instant gratification, terms that are harmful for productivity at workplace (Sujansky, 2009). This
generation, generally referred to as the Millennials expects uninterrupted internet availability and
access at work and feels its their right to enjoy at work even if it is through activities not related to the
job requirements (Blades, 2010). A research study in 2008 done in European IT service companies
showed that 39% of 18 to 24 year old employees would consider leaving their jobs if Facebook ban were
imposed (Sujansky, 2009). (yet to be rearranged)

Most research studies on social networking sites relied on college student data (Clark and Roberts, 2010;
Dwyer, 2007; Dwyer et al., 2007; Ellison et al., 2007; Hargittai, 2008; Mainier and OBrien, 2010; North,
2010 use this line somewhere (SNS and Job performance, Moqbel)

Use of OSN has attracted media attention but has not been researched academically as much as it
should be (see Wills and Reeves, 2009. Further, , Kotlarsky and Oshri (2005 opined that the literature
that is available on IT workforce that is scattered geographically is focused more on technical issues
rather than on behavioral aspects. The few research studies that are available on ONS at workplace
((e.g. ClearSwift, 2007; Department for Communities and Local Government, 2008; Dougherty and
Fanelli, 2008; Hu et al., 2006);),are either not academic research ((e.g. ClearSwift, 2007; Department for

Communities and Local Government, 2008; Dougherty and Fanelli, 2008; Hu et al., 2006) or they are
authors view on OSN than being empirical studies ((e.g. Boyd and Ellison, 2007; Lai and Turban, 2008;

Schneckenberg, 2009; van Zyl, 2009). And the few empirical research that is available on this subject
((e.g. Brandtzg et al., 2010; Ferreira and du Plessis, 2009; Hasgall and

Shoham, 2007; Ji et al., 2010; Kim et al., 2010) do not apply to the world at large. Put references and sue
this somewhere to establish that work was required in this area.
Risk associated with SNS use at work outweighs the benefits 3, 4, 15(Attitude towards SNS, North) these
yellow part not incorporated in 12th may17 draft.

Distraction:

Organizations are also (Mastrangelo, 2006), The Impact of Social


facing the adverse side of (Sherman, 2009) Media in the Workplace
(OB robins ref)
social media, which is the
distraction of employees
while performing their
jobs. time employees
spend with social media
while ignoring their work
duties
employee distractions (Holmes, 2010), (Markel, Employee Attitude
have never been higher 2009), (Arnold, 2009) towards SNS, North.

(Frauenheim, 2009) Time on the job lost due to distraction from usage of social media has been a
concern for employers. By the year 2008, the average American worker was spending between 21 and
26 percent of his or her paid time engaged in personal activities online (Frauenheim, 2009).

Main arguments in favor of the usage of social media at workplace are that socializing during work
makes employees happier and thus more productive during work hours (Kesten, 2009) (Arnold, 2009)
(Whadcock, 2010). However, it has been seen that even though benefits mentioned seem rational,
employers surveyed in many studies are unwilling to accept the argument. (Mellon-Hogan, 2009)
(Markel, 2009). (yet to be rearranged and mixed with negative impact of sm on productivity.)

Organizational Policy relating to the use of Internet at workplace

(Young, 2004) Internet use policy may be an agreement for employees to abide by the rule of not
misusing internet at workplace.

To combat problems like employee over use of social media at workplace and to ensure its appropriate
usage, organizations formulate policies relating to internet use. (Chen, 2008), (Ferreira A. a., 2009),
(Welebir, 2005).

Although, organisations may have an internet use policy in place, many employees who are addicted to
internet fail to comply to the rules according to (Chen, 2008).
(Kimberley & Case, 2003) in their empirical examination of the effectiveness of risk management
practices to reduce employee misuse of internet state that organizations policy on internet use not only
provides the necessary guideline on the appropriate use of internet at workplace but also outlines how
violations will be handled.

The influence of mobile technology in shaping the social relationships is such that it has become an
integral part of policy framing (Julsrud, 2014).

Key areas of an organizations social media policy should include- employees should not speak on behalf
of the company unless permitted, check on personal usage of social networking during work hours and
not posting content that may be perceived as ill willed, distasteful or discriminatory. Such policy should
also guidelines about non-disclosure of companys confidential and proprietary information. (copied and
improvised from a web source but cant find it any more) ignored the disclaimer and treated it like my
own line.

(L. L. C., 2008) states on the same lines that employees clearly understand and abide by companys
policy on appropriate use of online social networking.

In a study, (Nucleus, 2009) claims that allowing access to Facebook during work hours makes companies
lose an average 1.5% of total office productivity and that evaluating Facebook policy and cost that the
company bears due to such access may actually bring a gain of 1.5% in productivity.

Employees are social beings whose family roles and relationships do not cease to exist when they are at
work therefore, organizations may develop policies and practices that is flexible about employees life
realms (Kirchmeyer, 1999), (Ashforth, 2000), (Friedman, 2000).

It is up to the organization to define the degree to which they would allow shifting between the
boundaries of work and non-work activities depending upon the culture (Kossek, 1999) while keeping
the policy on allowing personal business on the job an informal one (Kossek E. E., 1999).

Authors, (Hobson, 2001), (Nord, 2002) also endorse that meeting the demands of personal life while at
work may benefit the organization.

In sum, many managers and HR practitioners are using social networking websites to make important
HR decisions such as recruiting, selecting, and terminating

HR practitioners are using social networking websites in taking key HR decision related to recruitment
(Bing, 2011), selection and termination however, most organizations do not have a policy to provide a
guideline to the HR practitioners for the same (Deloitte, 2009), (SHRM, 2008).

(Moqbel, Nevo, & Kock, 2013) Studied the relationship between SNS use at work and job performance
mediated by job satisfaction and affective commitment with control variables like age, gender, SNS use
policy etc. and found that the presence or absence of SNS use policy did not make any significant effects
on the result of the study.
Researchers have suggested that organizations should adopt a deterrence approach through the use of
Acceptable Use Policies (AUPs) for internet based applications (D' Arcy, 2009), (Straub, 1998) along with
internet monitoring mechanisms to time wasted on the internet at work. But the effectiveness of this
approach is questionable given that the problem of waste of time through internet continues (D' Arcy,
2009), (Straub D. , 1990), (Herath, 2009).

The result of a study by (Joseph, 2013) show that the awareness of right and wrong does guide actions
through the anticipation and effects of punishments and consequences.

(yet to be rearranged)