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# TutorialSections

Module1:

A. NumericalProblemswithhints:

Q1. A parent nucleus with radius R is broken into three equal size
daughter nuclei. What is the ratio of volume of parent to one of the
daughters? Assume that all nuclei are perfectly spherical.

## Q2. Considering masses of proton and neutron to be 1.007825 amu and

126
1.008665 amu, determine binding energy of 52Te nucleus (mass =
125.903322 amu).

nucleus 82Pb206.

given by2:

## BE (n) = [M (A-1,Z) + mn M (A,Z)] c2.

Q4. Two nuclei (A = 20 and 30) fuse with each other and form a nucleus
with A ~ 50. Use a standard plot to calculate energy release in this
process.

## Q5. Packing fraction of a nucleus is defined as (/A) 104, where is the

mass defect (actual atomic mass mass number). From the above
definition show that packing fraction of O16 nucleus is ~ 3.2.

Hint. Determine atomic mass of O16 and use the formula for packing
fraction.

## Q6. Symmetric fission process is considered as breaking of a heavier

nucleus into two exactly equal mass nuclei. Considering this write an
expression for energy in such fission process from se empirical mass
formula.

## Hint. Efission = M (A,Z) - 2 M (A/2, Z/2). Now use semiempirical mass

formula and get the final expression.

## 1. Although protons are positively charged particles, nucleus does not

explodebycoulombrepulsion,why?

2. Whyhighlymassivenucleihaveanaturaltendencytobreak?

3. Whichphysicalquantitydeterminestheshapeofthenuclei?

5. WhyQuantummechanicsismusttounderstandthepropertiesofthe

nucleus?

6. Whyasymmetryenergytermcomesinbindingenergyformula?

7. Howdoyoudefineisobar?Howdoyouselectmoststableisobarinan

oddisobaricfamily?

8. WhatisthevalueofQ+?

9. Whataremagicnumbers?Whichmodelexplainsthesenumbers?

model?

TutorialSections

Module 2

## A. Numerical problems with hints.

m2t1.1 In a tandem Van de Graaff generator a C ion coming from the ion
source is completely stripped off. If the terminal potential is 10 MV, with
what energy C will hit the target?

## m2t1.2 A cyclotron has a magnetic field of 2.0 Wb/m2. The extraction

radius is 0.8 m. Calculate the frequency of the radio frequency oscillator
necessary for accelerating deuterons and the energy of the extracted
beam.

## Hint. The frequency of revolution of a particle in the circular orbit is:

f = v/2R. In order to maintain a resonance condition so that the particle
always gets a right direction to accelerate, the frequency of the oscillator
should be same as f. Now using equation m2.3 and m2.4, get the answer.

m2t1.3 Au+10 ion beam of energy 100 MeV falls on a Cu thin film target.
If a detector is placed at an angle 300 in forward geometry, what would
be the maximum energy of Cu atom detected by it?

## m2t1.4 In an experiment involving cosmic ray muons, a 5 cm thick

plastic scintillation counter is used to detect the passage of these
particles. What is the mean energy deposited in the counter?2

## dE/dx = 1.9 MeV/g-cm2 and density of plastic scintillator is 1.03 g/cm3.

Hint. Use the relation: E = (dE/dx) d, where d is the thickness of the
slab.

## m2t1.5 A gas ionization detector is connected to an electrometer of

capacity 1 picofarad and voltage sensitivity of 10 divisions per volt. A
beam of alpha particles causes a deflection of 1 division. What is the
energy of the alpha particle as detected by the detector? One ion pair
requires 35 eV (W, say), e = 1.6 x 10-19 C.

Hint. Use relation V = Q/C, calculate total number of ion pairs (N)
generated. Calculate energy of alpha particle using N and W.

## m2t1.6 A proportional counter operated at 1 kV has the following

specifications: (i) anode wire radius 1.5 mm, ii. Cathode radius 15 mm.
Calculate the maximum field strength at the wire.

## m2t1.7 A Si detector of active are (A) 2 cm2 and depletion layer

thickness (d) 200 m receives a alpha particle of energy 7 MeV. Calculate
the capacitance of the detector and the potential developed across the
capacitance. Dielectric constant of Si = 12 and the permittivity = 8.85 x
10-12 in S.I. unit.

## Hint. Calculate capacitance from the relation C = A/d. Determine no. of

electron-hole pairs generated (N). Use N and C to get the potential
developed across it.

## m2t1.8 The overall amplification factor and gain of a photomultiplier

(PM) depends on the number of dynodes in the multiplier section and the
secondary electron emission factor, ( = kVd), where Vd is the If total
number of dynodes is n, bias voltage is Vb and gain is g ( = n). Show
that n = ln g.

## m2t1.9 Show that a CR circuit works as a differentiator, while an RC

circuit works like an integrator.
Hint. For CR circuit, Vin = Q/C + Vout and for RC circuit, Vin = iR + Vout.

## m2t1.10 A one dimensional spectrum (channel no. versus count) at the

MCA output with a detection set up with 10% resolution. If the FWHM of
the signal is 5 channels, find the peak position.

## 2. Why in a linear accelerator the lengths of the successive tubes are

increased?

3. How much energy a proton gains for one revolution (starting from the

mid of the gap and coming back) in a cyclotron when the dees are

## 4. A carbon beam is directly backscattered from a C foil. What is the

kinematic factor?

## 6. What is the basic difference between gas ionization chamber and

proportional counter?

particles?

TutorialSections

Module -3

## A. Numerical problems with hints.

m3t1.1: Find out the unknown particle (X) in the following nuclear
reaction:

122
52Te (X,d)53I124

## m3t1.2: On fission, U-235 yields two fragments of A = 95 and A = 140

roughly. Assuming that the two fragments are ejected with equal and
opposite momentum, find their energy ratio.

Hints: Use linear momentum conservation and take the ratio of their

kinetic energies.

## m3t1.4: In order to reduce energy of fast neutrons (E = 2 MeV) a Be

moderator layer is used. If neutrons undergo 40 collisions with Be, what
would be the energy of neutrons after moderation?

E
Hints: Use equation n = ln 0 , where n is the number of collisions.
E
m3t1.5: Using liquid-drop model, Bohr and Wheeler first calculated Ecrit

## (see the potential energy curve) and established an equation

Z (Z 1)
E crit = 0.89 A 2 / 3 0.02 MeV
A1 / 3

235
Show that for U fission only 0.1 MeV neutron is required (It is known
235
that for U fission the added binding energy of the added neutron is 6.8
MeV).

## Hints: Calculate Ecrit. Try to understand that Ecrit = K. E. of neutron +

neutron binding energy.

m3t1.6: Many reactor designes have plate type fuel elements which can
be idealized as an infinite slab with uniformly distributed thermal source.
It can be shown that t0-t1 = = QL2/2k.

Fig. 1

## where Q is the volumetric thermal source (heat generated per unit

volume per unit time). In case of heat transmission in a clad plate type
fuel (Fig. 2) element what is the temperature difference between central
plane and coolant?
Fig. 2

## m3t1.7: A nuclear power generating station has a capacity of 50,000

kilo-Watt. If only 10% of the thermal energy generated is converted into
electricity, and if 200 MeV energy is produced per fission, calculate the
amount of U-235 spent per year. If natural uranium is used as fuel, how
much uranium would be needed per year if the relative abundance of U-
235 in natural uranium is 0.7 % ? (1 MeV = 1.6 10-13 J).

## Hints: First calculate energy released by the fission of 1 kg of U-235.

Calculate electric energy obtained from this fission process. Determine
amount of U-235 spent per hour.

m3t1.8: Estimate the volume of water in the Great Lakes and calculate
the amount of energy released if all the deuterium atoms in the water are
used up in fusion. (Area of the lake: 256 000 km2, average depth of the
lake: 0.08 km, abundance of deuterium is 0.0156 %). Q = 7.17 MeV.

Hints: First calculate volume of the lake, mass of water and total number
of water molecules present in the lake. Determine total number of
deuterium atoms present in the lake.

## m3t1.9: A thermonuclear device consists of a torus of diameter 3 m with

a tube of diameter 1 m, containing deuterium gas at 10-2 mm Hg pressure
and at room temperature. A bank of capacitors of 1200 F is discharged
through the tube at 40 kV. If only 10% of the electrical energy is
transformed to plasma kinetic energy, what is the maximum temperature
attained? Assuming that the energy is equally shared between the
deuterons and electrons in the plasma.x

Hints: Use gas law PV = NKT to determine NK value for T = 300 K. Use
E = 3/2 KTp = 1/CV2 to determine plasma temperature Tp. Take care of
the fact that energy is equally shared between the deuterons and
electrons in the plasma

1. How do you decide which nuclear reaction will give positive energy?

## 2. What is the typical distribution of fission fragments from a nuclear

fission reaction?

carbon-nitrogen?

## 10. Why kink developes in a plasma column?

TutorialSections

Module -4

A. Numerical Problems

226
m4t.1 Calculate the activity (in Curie) of 0.1 gram of Ra whose half life is

1622 years.

## Hints: Use the following equation: A = A0e-t

m4t.2 If the half lives of R-226 (1 Ci equivalent) and radon are 1622 years

and 3.8 days respectively, find the volume of radon gas at N.T.P.

## m4t.3 A patient has 5 liters of blood. He is injected intravenously a dose of

4 mCi of Na-24 which is radioactive. Find the counting rate per ml of blood

withdrawn from the patient 5 days after injection. Assume (i) Na-24 gets

## 10% efficient and the (iii) half life of Na-24 is 15 hours.

Hints: Use activity equation and determine count rate of radioactive atom in

## m4t.4 The production and decay (14C 14

N+- with half life T1/2 = 5730
14
year) of radioactive C is in equilibrium in the earths atmosphere. The
14
equilibrium mass ratio of C/12C is 1.3 x 10-12 in organic material. Show that
14
the decay rate of C in living organic material amounts to one disintegration

## Hints: Use equation m4.34.

m4t.5 Calculate the absorbed dose in air for 1 Roentgen of -rays. The

10-4 Coul/kg].4

## 9. How the organ contrast is obtained in MRI?

10. What are the advantages of heavy ion cancer therapy over gamma ray

therapy?

TutorialSections

Module 5

NumericalProblemswithhints

## M5t1: Draw qualitative sketch of RBS spectrum of the following system:

400 nm Al film with front and back Au layers (2 monolayers thick). The

## incident He+2 ion energy is 3 MeV, kAl = 0.55, (dE/dx)in = 22eV/angstrom,

(dE/dx)out = 29 eV/angstrom.

## layers. Ignore energy loss in AuF layer.

M5t.2 Make a RBS depth profile (qualitative sketch only) of the following

trilayer system.

## Hint: Use equations m5.8 to m5.10.

M5t.3 How the backscattering spectra will look like in the following cases?

## Hint: Use following relations:

Y = () . . Q. Nt = E H

## and NC/(NA+NB+NC) = 0.5

M5t.5 C A 2 inch diameter, 0.1 mm thick 10mg magnesium (Mg) foil is kept

## in front of a cyclotron for irradiation with a deuterium beam of 22 MeV

(beam current 100 microamps), scanned over the entire foil surface.
26
Sodium-24 (half life = 15.0 h) is formed by the Mg (d, )24Na reaction,

## which has an average cross section 25 mbarns, throughout the thickness of

24
the foil. What is the activity (in Ci) of Na in the foil if the foil is kept 2

## M5t.6 Fluorine is incorporated in Al thin film and depth analysis is performed

19 16
with 1.25 MeV protons for the following reaction F (p,) O. Depth

analysis of the same sample is also performed with 3meV 4He ions. Compare

## 2. How RBS gives both element information and depth distribution?

3. How the qualitative depth profile sketch of Si changes when (i) 100 nm Si

## 7. A trace level of impurity is located deep inside in a material. An

experimentalist prefers NAA over RBS to identify the element and quantify