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A. NumericalProblemswithhints:

Q1. A parent nucleus with radius R is broken into three equal size
daughter nuclei. What is the ratio of volume of parent to one of the
daughters? Assume that all nuclei are perfectly spherical.

Hint: Use equation R = R0A1/3.

Q2. Considering masses of proton and neutron to be 1.007825 amu and

1.008665 amu, determine binding energy of 52Te nucleus (mass =
125.903322 amu).

Hint. Use the following relation

B.E. = [Zmp + Nmn ZMA] c2.

Q3. Calculate binding energy of last added neutron to the following

nucleus 82Pb206.

Hint. The binding energy of last added electron to a nucleus (A,Z) is

given by2:

BE (n) = [M (A-1,Z) + mn M (A,Z)] c2.

Q4. Two nuclei (A = 20 and 30) fuse with each other and form a nucleus
with A ~ 50. Use a standard plot to calculate energy release in this

Hint. Use Fig. m1.9 and calculate.

Q5. Packing fraction of a nucleus is defined as (/A) 104, where is the

mass defect (actual atomic mass mass number). From the above
definition show that packing fraction of O16 nucleus is ~ 3.2.

Hint. Determine atomic mass of O16 and use the formula for packing

Q6. Symmetric fission process is considered as breaking of a heavier

nucleus into two exactly equal mass nuclei. Considering this write an
expression for energy in such fission process from se empirical mass

Hint. Efission = M (A,Z) - 2 M (A/2, Z/2). Now use semiempirical mass

formula and get the final expression.
B. Short answer type Questions:

1. Although protons are positively charged particles, nucleus does not


2. Whyhighlymassivenucleihaveanaturaltendencytobreak?

3. Whichphysicalquantitydeterminestheshapeofthenuclei?

4. WhyathigherandlowerAvaluesB.E./Adoesnotremainconstant?

5. WhyQuantummechanicsismusttounderstandthepropertiesofthe


6. Whyasymmetryenergytermcomesinbindingenergyformula?

7. Howdoyoudefineisobar?Howdoyouselectmoststableisobarinan


8. WhatisthevalueofQ+?

9. Whataremagicnumbers?Whichmodelexplainsthesenumbers?

10.What is the basic assumption in the single particle concept in shell



Module 2

A. Numerical problems with hints.

m2t1.1 In a tandem Van de Graaff generator a C ion coming from the ion
source is completely stripped off. If the terminal potential is 10 MV, with
what energy C will hit the target?

Hint: Use equation Etotal = (q + 1) V, where q = 6.

m2t1.2 A cyclotron has a magnetic field of 2.0 Wb/m2. The extraction

radius is 0.8 m. Calculate the frequency of the radio frequency oscillator
necessary for accelerating deuterons and the energy of the extracted

Hint. The frequency of revolution of a particle in the circular orbit is:

f = v/2R. In order to maintain a resonance condition so that the particle
always gets a right direction to accelerate, the frequency of the oscillator
should be same as f. Now using equation m2.3 and m2.4, get the answer.

m2t1.3 Au+10 ion beam of energy 100 MeV falls on a Cu thin film target.
If a detector is placed at an angle 300 in forward geometry, what would
be the maximum energy of Cu atom detected by it?

Hint. Use equation m2.13.

m2t1.4 In an experiment involving cosmic ray muons, a 5 cm thick

plastic scintillation counter is used to detect the passage of these
particles. What is the mean energy deposited in the counter?2

dE/dx = 1.9 MeV/g-cm2 and density of plastic scintillator is 1.03 g/cm3.

Hint. Use the relation: E = (dE/dx) d, where d is the thickness of the

m2t1.5 A gas ionization detector is connected to an electrometer of

capacity 1 picofarad and voltage sensitivity of 10 divisions per volt. A
beam of alpha particles causes a deflection of 1 division. What is the
energy of the alpha particle as detected by the detector? One ion pair
requires 35 eV (W, say), e = 1.6 x 10-19 C.

Hint. Use relation V = Q/C, calculate total number of ion pairs (N)
generated. Calculate energy of alpha particle using N and W.

m2t1.6 A proportional counter operated at 1 kV has the following

specifications: (i) anode wire radius 1.5 mm, ii. Cathode radius 15 mm.
Calculate the maximum field strength at the wire.

Hint. Use equation m2.27.

m2t1.7 A Si detector of active are (A) 2 cm2 and depletion layer

thickness (d) 200 m receives a alpha particle of energy 7 MeV. Calculate
the capacitance of the detector and the potential developed across the
capacitance. Dielectric constant of Si = 12 and the permittivity = 8.85 x
10-12 in S.I. unit.

Hint. Calculate capacitance from the relation C = A/d. Determine no. of

electron-hole pairs generated (N). Use N and C to get the potential
developed across it.

m2t1.8 The overall amplification factor and gain of a photomultiplier

(PM) depends on the number of dynodes in the multiplier section and the
secondary electron emission factor, ( = kVd), where Vd is the If total
number of dynodes is n, bias voltage is Vb and gain is g ( = n). Show
that n = ln g.

Hint. Use relation Vb = nVd and dVb/dn = 0.

m2t1.9 Show that a CR circuit works as a differentiator, while an RC

circuit works like an integrator.
Hint. For CR circuit, Vin = Q/C + Vout and for RC circuit, Vin = iR + Vout.

m2t1.10 A one dimensional spectrum (channel no. versus count) at the

MCA output with a detection set up with 10% resolution. If the FWHM of
the signal is 5 channels, find the peak position.

Hint. Use the following relation:

Resolution = FWHM/peak position.

B. Short answer type questions

1. A charged particle attains higher energy in a Tandem Van de Graaf

generator as compared to Van de graaff even if the terminal potentials of

the two are kept equal?

2. Why in a linear accelerator the lengths of the successive tubes are


3. How much energy a proton gains for one revolution (starting from the

mid of the gap and coming back) in a cyclotron when the dees are

connected to an AC source having peak voltage V?

4. A carbon beam is directly backscattered from a C foil. What is the

kinematic factor?

5. Why straggling is associated with mean range?

6. What is the basic difference between gas ionization chamber and

proportional counter?

7. Why G-M counter is conveniently used to count the number of


8. How the effective detection medium can be varied in a Si detector?

9. How do you decide number of dynodes in a PM tube?

9. Why a pre amplifier stage is required before spectroscopic amplifier?

10. Why an analog signal from the detector needs to be digitized?


Module -3

A. Numerical problems with hints.

m3t1.1: Find out the unknown particle (X) in the following nuclear

52Te (X,d)53I124

Hints: Use appropriate conservation law.

m3t1.2: On fission, U-235 yields two fragments of A = 95 and A = 140

roughly. Assuming that the two fragments are ejected with equal and
opposite momentum, find their energy ratio.

Hints: Use linear momentum conservation and take the ratio of their

kinetic energies.

m3t1.3: Considering an ideal case, calculate how many fission reactions

are required to generate 1 kW power?

Hints: Look at example m3.3.

m3t1.4: In order to reduce energy of fast neutrons (E = 2 MeV) a Be

moderator layer is used. If neutrons undergo 40 collisions with Be, what
would be the energy of neutrons after moderation?

Hints: Use equation n = ln 0 , where n is the number of collisions.
m3t1.5: Using liquid-drop model, Bohr and Wheeler first calculated Ecrit

(see the potential energy curve) and established an equation

Z (Z 1)
E crit = 0.89 A 2 / 3 0.02 MeV
A1 / 3

Show that for U fission only 0.1 MeV neutron is required (It is known
that for U fission the added binding energy of the added neutron is 6.8

Hints: Calculate Ecrit. Try to understand that Ecrit = K. E. of neutron +

neutron binding energy.

m3t1.6: Many reactor designes have plate type fuel elements which can
be idealized as an infinite slab with uniformly distributed thermal source.
It can be shown that t0-t1 = = QL2/2k.

Fig. 1

where Q is the volumetric thermal source (heat generated per unit

volume per unit time). In case of heat transmission in a clad plate type
fuel (Fig. 2) element what is the temperature difference between central
plane and coolant?
Fig. 2

m3t1.7: A nuclear power generating station has a capacity of 50,000

kilo-Watt. If only 10% of the thermal energy generated is converted into
electricity, and if 200 MeV energy is produced per fission, calculate the
amount of U-235 spent per year. If natural uranium is used as fuel, how
much uranium would be needed per year if the relative abundance of U-
235 in natural uranium is 0.7 % ? (1 MeV = 1.6 10-13 J).

Hints: First calculate energy released by the fission of 1 kg of U-235.

Calculate electric energy obtained from this fission process. Determine
amount of U-235 spent per hour.

m3t1.8: Estimate the volume of water in the Great Lakes and calculate
the amount of energy released if all the deuterium atoms in the water are
used up in fusion. (Area of the lake: 256 000 km2, average depth of the
lake: 0.08 km, abundance of deuterium is 0.0156 %). Q = 7.17 MeV.

Hints: First calculate volume of the lake, mass of water and total number
of water molecules present in the lake. Determine total number of
deuterium atoms present in the lake.

m3t1.9: A thermonuclear device consists of a torus of diameter 3 m with

a tube of diameter 1 m, containing deuterium gas at 10-2 mm Hg pressure
and at room temperature. A bank of capacitors of 1200 F is discharged
through the tube at 40 kV. If only 10% of the electrical energy is
transformed to plasma kinetic energy, what is the maximum temperature
attained? Assuming that the energy is equally shared between the
deuterons and electrons in the plasma.x

Hints: Use gas law PV = NKT to determine NK value for T = 300 K. Use
E = 3/2 KTp = 1/CV2 to determine plasma temperature Tp. Take care of
the fact that energy is equally shared between the deuterons and
electrons in the plasma
B. Short answer type questions

1. How do you decide which nuclear reaction will give positive energy?

2. What is the typical distribution of fission fragments from a nuclear

fission reaction?

3. What is the condition of criticality of a reactor?

4. If the number of neutrons suddenly increases in the core, what

action should be taken?

5. What is the role of reflector in designing a nuclear reactor?

6. Why boron is used as radiation shielding material?

7. In the evolution of a star which cycle comes first, proton-proton or


8. What is exact meaning of Lawson criterion?

9. What is the role of a poloidal magnetic field in plasma container?

10. Why kink developes in a plasma column?


Module -4

A. Numerical Problems

m4t.1 Calculate the activity (in Curie) of 0.1 gram of Ra whose half life is

1622 years.

Hints: Use the following equation: A = A0e-t

m4t.2 If the half lives of R-226 (1 Ci equivalent) and radon are 1622 years

and 3.8 days respectively, find the volume of radon gas at N.T.P.

Hints: Use the condition for secular equilibrium.

m4t.3 A patient has 5 liters of blood. He is injected intravenously a dose of

4 mCi of Na-24 which is radioactive. Find the counting rate per ml of blood

withdrawn from the patient 5 days after injection. Assume (i) Na-24 gets

uniformly distributed in blood immediately after injection, (ii) the counter is

10% efficient and the (iii) half life of Na-24 is 15 hours.

Hints: Use activity equation and determine count rate of radioactive atom in

blood. Use also the actual count detected by the counter.

m4t.4 The production and decay (14C 14

N+- with half life T1/2 = 5730
year) of radioactive C is in equilibrium in the earths atmosphere. The
equilibrium mass ratio of C/12C is 1.3 x 10-12 in organic material. Show that
the decay rate of C in living organic material amounts to one disintegration

per second for each 4 gm of C.

Determine the age of C species of 64 g in which two disintegrations per

second are measured.

Hints: Use equation m4.34.

m4t.5 Calculate the absorbed dose in air for 1 Roentgen of -rays. The

average energy to create an ion-electron pair in air is 33.7 eV. [1 R = 2.58 x

10-4 Coul/kg].4
B. Short answer type questions

1. What is the physical meaning of activity of a radioactive source?

2. What is the difference between secular and transient equilibrium?

3. For determination of radioactive constants which law is to be followed?

4. For determination of the age of archeological object which radioactive

dating method is used?

5. What is the normalized unit of radiation dose?

6. How radioisotope is produced?

7. For positron emission tomography, which radiation source is used?

8. What is Larmor precession?

9. How the organ contrast is obtained in MRI?

10. What are the advantages of heavy ion cancer therapy over gamma ray



Module 5


M5t1: Draw qualitative sketch of RBS spectrum of the following system:

400 nm Al film with front and back Au layers (2 monolayers thick). The

incident He+2 ion energy is 3 MeV, kAl = 0.55, (dE/dx)in = 22eV/angstrom,

(dE/dx)out = 29 eV/angstrom.

Hint: Calculate backscattered energy from AuF layer, Al and AuB

layers. Ignore energy loss in AuF layer.

M5t.2 Make a RBS depth profile (qualitative sketch only) of the following

trilayer system.

Hint: Use equations m5.8 to m5.10.

M5t.3 How the backscattering spectra will look like in the following cases?

(i) A Si film (100 nm) containing 1% uniformly distributed Au impurity.

(ii) A Au film (100 nm) containing 1% uniformly distributed Si impurity.

(iii) A Si wafer (300 micrometer) covered with 100 nm Pt film.

Hint: Use standard RBS formulations.

M5t.4 Three element A, B and C are uniformly mixed in a sample. Their

RBS profiles have equal area. If the atomic concentration of element C is

0.5, deduce a relation between their cross sections.

Hint: Use following relations:

Y = () . . Q. Nt = E H

and NC/(NA+NB+NC) = 0.5

M5t.5 C A 2 inch diameter, 0.1 mm thick 10mg magnesium (Mg) foil is kept

in front of a cyclotron for irradiation with a deuterium beam of 22 MeV

(beam current 100 microamps), scanned over the entire foil surface.
Sodium-24 (half life = 15.0 h) is formed by the Mg (d, )24Na reaction,

which has an average cross section 25 mbarns, throughout the thickness of

the foil. What is the activity (in Ci) of Na in the foil if the foil is kept 2

hours in front of the cyclotron?

Hint: Use equation m5.2.

M5t.6 Fluorine is incorporated in Al thin film and depth analysis is performed

19 16
with 1.25 MeV protons for the following reaction F (p,) O. Depth

analysis of the same sample is also performed with 3meV 4He ions. Compare

the depth scale in both the cases in eV/angstrom.

Hint: Use equations m5.17 and m5.8 to m5.10.

B. Short answer type questions

1. For RBS, He is a better probe than C, why?

2. How RBS gives both element information and depth distribution?

3. How the qualitative depth profile sketch of Si changes when (i) 100 nm Si

film and (ii) 500 micron Si wafer?

4. How would you determine concentration of any element present in

material using RBS?

5. What are prompt and delayed gamma rays?

6. What are the physical quantities to be considered for identification of

elements in activation analysis?

7. A trace level of impurity is located deep inside in a material. An

experimentalist prefers NAA over RBS to identify the element and quantify

the concentration. Why?

8. What is prompt radiation analysis?

9. Write down a suitable nuclear reaction for O depth profile.

10. What is the advantage of micron size beam in PIXE?