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Carburetion Systems

Functions of the carburetion system are:


• To mix the fuel with the proper proportion of air.
• To vaporize the fuel
• To deliver the correct amount of the air-fuel mixture
to the cylinder.

Carburetor

• A device for automatically mixing fuel in the proper proportion with air to
produce a combustible gas mixture.

Kinds of Air/Fuel Mixture


• Optimum Mixtures

• The chemically correct mixture of air and fuel, its ratio is 15 air to
1 part petrol by mass.

• Rich mixtures

• Mixtures containing more than the optimum amount of petrol,


usually produce more power than optimum and weak mixture
• Its maximum mixture has an air-fuel ratio of between 12 to 1 and
13 to 1.
• The exhaust products of these rich mixtures normally have an
excess of carbon monoxide and have dark cloudy exhaust smoke.

• Weak Mixtures

• Mixtures containing less than the optimum amount of petrol,


usually produce less power than the optimum and rich ones, but
gives fuel economy.
• Its mixture has an air-fuel ratio of between 17 to 1 and 18 to 1.
• Burning is generally slow and misfiring, overheating and
incomplete combustion.

Parts and Functions of the Carburetor


• Main jet

• Part of the main fuel supply circuit, the main jet is basically a screw
with a very accurately sized hole through it. This hole's size determines
the maximum flow rate of fuel into the venturi. The carburetor uses the
main jet's full flow capacity. It is the main passage of fuel from the float
bowl to the carb throat.

• Idle mixture screw

• Adjusts the flow of fuel through the idle jet at a constant air flow. This
screw controls the air/fuel mixture of the idle circuit from almost no
fuel added(lean) to full capacity of the idle jet, according to the idle jet
size (rich, possibly).

• Idle screw
• Adjusts a slight amount of throttle slide displacement at closed
throttle. Controls idle engine speed.

• Idle jet

• Part of the carburetor's Idle circuit, the Idle jet controls the maximum
amount of fuel that the idle circuit will supply. Sometimes, after
replacing a carburetor with a more elaborate one, the idle jet might be
too rich to let the engine idle correctly.

• Throttle

• A spring loaded gate valve which is directly controlled by the twistable


throttle grip. The linear vertical displacement of this valve is equal to
the linear vertical displacement of the needle.
• To regulate engine operating speed a throttle valve is employed to
restrict air flow.
• This is mounted just beyond or above the venturi
• When the throttle valve is fully opened the air flow is affected very
little.
• When as the throttle is closed the flow of air is restricted to the intake
passage
• This decreases the speed and power of the engine.
• At the same time it allows the pressure in the venturi area to increase.
• The difference between the air pressure in the fuel chamber and the
venturi is decreased.
• Therefore the movement of fuel through the nozzle is reduced.

• Float

• Part of a float valve system that regulates flow into the float bowl, the
Float is usually a hollow plastic floating device inside the float bowl
attached to a pivoting hinge. As the fuel level in the float bowl varies,
the vertical level (angular displacement) of this float changes as well.
This movement controls the opening and closing of the float needle.

• Float bowl

• Stores fuel at atmospheric vapor pressure.

• Float needle

• Part of a float valve system that regulates flow into the float bowl, the
Float needle is a two force compression member which is about a
centimeter if not smaller in length. It usually has a pin connection at
one end and a rubber sealing element at the other end. As the float
bowl moves, the float needle moves linearly. Its rubber seal blocks an
opening through which fuel flows from the gas tank. Many leaky
carburetor problems are due to a damaged float needle.

• Venturi

• A venturi in the the carburetor increases the velocity of the incoming


air.
• When the air is forced through a restricted area, it must accelerate in
order to maintain the volume of flow.
• This is a lot like a narrow space in between to buildings.
• An area in an air flow tube of a carburetor that restricts the flow of air
through the tube resulting in a high velocity and low pressure at the
restricted area.
• Venturies may differ in their general configuration from one carburetor
to another.

• Fuel Filter

• It filters the fuel going through the float chamber.

• Choke Plate

• It controls the air entering the carburetor for rich mixture when
starting the cool engine.

CARBURETOR PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS


The following is a chart of potential carburetor problems and possible remedies. This chart
is intended to be a helpful guide and is not complete. Each incident varies in accordance to
individual use. Regular inspection of carburetor parts is recommended.

PROBLEM POSSIBLE SOLUTION

• Engine hunts (at idle or high speed) Examine idle and main mixture adjustment
screws and O-Rings for cracks and damage.
Carburetor Leaks
• Carburetor out of adjustment Adjust main mixture adjustment screw;
• Engine will not start some models require finger tight
• Engine will not accelerate adjustment
• Engine hunts (at idle or high speed)
• Engine will not idle
• Engine lacks power at high speed
• Engine over speeds

Engine starves for fuel at high speed (leans


out)
• Carburetor out of adjustment Adjust idle mixture screw
• Engine will not start
• Engine will not accelerate
• Engine hunts (at idle or high speed)
• Engine will not idle
• Engine lacks power at high speed

Idle sped is excessive


• Engine hunts (at idle or high speed) Check sequence of gaskets and diaphragms
• Engine lacks power at high speed for the particular carburetor being repaired
• CarburetorS floods
• Idle speed is excessive

Engine starves for fuel at high speed (leans


out)
• Engine will not start Check diaphragm for cracks or distortion
• Engine will not idle and check nylon check ball for function if
• Engine lacks power at high speed available
• Carburetor floods

Idle speed is excessive


• Engine hunts (at idle or high speed) Check float shaft for wear and float for leaks
• Engine will not idle or dents

Carburetor floods
• Engine hunts (at idle or high speed) Adjust float settings if float type carburetor
• Engine will not idle
• Engine lacks power at high speed
• Carburetor floods

Engine starves for fuel at high speed (leans


out)
• Carburetor out of adjustment Adjust governor linkage
• Engine will not idle
• Engine lacks power at high speed
• Carburetor leaks

• Engine over speeds


• Carburetor leaks Check sealing of Welch plugs, caps, plugs
• Engine over speeds and gaskets

• Idle speed is excessive


• Carburetor floods Check inlet needle and seat for condition
and proper installation
• Engine starves for fuel at high speed
(leans out)
• Carburetor out of adjustment Clean carburetor after removing all non-
• metallic parts that are serviceable.
• Engine will not start

• Engine over speeds


• Engine will not start Adjust control cable or linage, to assure full
• Engine hunts (at idle or high speed) choke and carburetor control
• Engine will not idle
• Engine over speeds
• Idle speed is excessive

• Engine starves for fuel at high speed


(leans out)
• Carburetor out of adjustment Check for bent choke and throttle plates
• Engine will not idle

• Idle speed is excessive

Carburetor Types
• Suction Feed Carburetor

• It is very similar to the float type.


• The one exception is there is no float to meter and control the
level of fuel in the fuel chamber.
• The difference in pressure between the tank and the carburetor
throat lifts the fuel up the fuel pipe past the main needle valve
and through the discharge holes.

• The Diaphram carburetor

• It has a rubber Diaphram exposed to the cylinder intake stroke


vacuum on one side and to atmospheric pressure on the other.
• The Diaphram moves against the inlet needle allowing it to move
from its seat.
• A spring returns the needle to its seat when the vacuum stops.

• Float Feed carburetors


• Locate their fuel tanks some distance from the carburetor.
• The fuel flows either be gravity, or due to the force of a fuel
pump, through fuel lines to the lower part of the carburetor.
• The position of the float controls the fuel level in the bowl.

Kinds of Carburetor
• Compound Barrel Differentially Operated Carburetor

• This is a very efficient carburetor which has two barrel, the low
and high speed conflicting venture requirements can be mainly
overcome by having a pair of barrels.
• The primary of these two barrels operates alone up to medium
speed and the secondary barrel is phased in to assist the primary
barrel when the engine load and speed conditions necessitate the
additional supply of air.

• Simple Barrel Carburetor

• Has only one barrel, the major problem in this kind is that the
venture-tube must be small enough to maintain an air speed that
will support the air/fuel mixture but it restricts the speed in
higher level for it needs more mixture.
• When the venture-tube is large it can not carry heavy loads.

Carburetor Adjustments
• Carburetors need adjustment to meet climatic conditions of both
sea level and temperature variations.
• Carburetors should be adjusted so it will not exhaust an
unnecessary amount of unburned hydrocarbons or it should not be
so lean that it will give unsatisfactory power performance.
• Idle and Main Needle Valve Adjustments

• The main needle valve adjustment is has many different names.

• Power load adjustment, high speed adjustment screw,


main jet, etc…

• The valve is usually turned by hand or by a screwdriver.


• The turning moves the needle’s tapered point in and out of a seat in
the lower part of the nozzle, thus varying the amount of fuel that
can be metered.

• Idle and Main Needle Valve Adjustments

• Adjustments of the main needle valve should be done before


adjusting the idle valve.
• Turn the main needle until the engine starts to flood.
• Then quickly turn the valve in the opposite direction until the
engine starts to miss from the lack of fuel.

• Idle and Main Needle Valve Adjustments

• Somewhere between these points will be the correct main needle


valve setting.
• The idle valve should be adjusted next.

Additional engine parts closely related to the carburetor include:

• Fuel Tank
• It is where the fuel is stored

• Fuel Lines

• Tubes connecting the fuel system

• Air Cleaner

• It filters the air that enters through the carburetor


• It is important to prevent dirt and dust from being cared into the
engine through the carburetor.

• Governor

• It is a speed control device; its function on an engine is to


maintain a desired speed regardless of load.
• It is a fixed throttle position, the engine will speed up or slow
down depending on the load applied

Diagrams for Illustration


REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. It is a device for automatically mixing fuel in the proper proportion with air to
produce a combustible gas mixture?

a. CARBURETOR c. CARBURETION

b. FUEL MIXER d. NONE OF THE ABOVE

2. It is a part of the main fuel supply circuit and its hole`s size determines the
maximum flow rate of fuel into the venturi?

a. IDLE JET c. MAIN JET

b. JET SUPPLY d. POWER VALVE

3. This screw controls the air/fuel mixture of the idle circuit?

a. IDLE SCREW c. MIXTURE SCREW

b. IDLE MIXTURE SCREW d. CONTROL IDLE SCREW

4. It is use to adjust the amount of fuel mixture that flows through the venturi
when the throttle is closed?

a. ADJUSTER SCREW c. MIXTURE SCREW

b. FUEL MIXTURE SREW d. IDLE SCREW

5. It is a spring loaded gate valve which regulates the engine operating speed,
controlling the fuel through the intake manifold?

a. THROTTLE c. SPEED REGULATOR

b. CHOKE PLATE d. GOVERNOR

6. It stores fuel at atmospheric vapor pressure?

a. FUEL TANK c. BOWL TANK

b. FLOAT BOWL d. FUEL PRESSURE

7. It is a valve that controls the air entering the carburetor for rich mixture
when starting the cool engine.

a. CHOKE PLATE c. AIR CONTROLER

b. AIR FILTER d. BUTTERFLY VALVES

8. Part of the float valve system that regulates the flow of fuel to the float bowl
from the fuel tank, it close and open the inlet of the fuel?
a. FLOAT c. FUEL REGULATOR

b. FLOAT NEEDLE d. VALVE OPENER

9. It filters the fuel going through the float chamber?

a. SCREEN FUEL c. CHAMBER CLEANER

b. FLOAT REGULATOR d. FUEL FILTER

10. It is an area in an air flow tube of a carburetor that restricts the flow of air
through the tube resulting in a high velocity and low pressure at the restricted
area?

a. VENTURI c. AIR TUBE

b. DISCHARGE NOZZLE d. PRESSURE TUBE

11. Its function on an engine is to maintain a desired speed regardless of load?

a. LOAD REGULATOR c. GOVERNORS

b. SPEEDOMETER d. ENGINE SPEEDER

12. It prevents the dirt and dust which can carry by air to the carburetor?

a. AIR CLEANER c. DIRT-DUST SHIELD

b. DUST PREVENTER d. VACCUM

13. What is the mixture that has the correct ratio of air and fuel for combustion?

a. OPTIMUM MIXTURE c. WEAK MIXTURE

b. RICH MIXTURE d. CORRECT MIXTURE

14. It is a carburetor that is very efficient to use because it can run in good
condition in any speed at amount of any load because of its two barrel?

a. COMPUND BARREL DIFFERENTIALLY OPERATED CARBURETOR

b. DOUBLE CARBURETOR

c. COMPACT BARREL CARBURETOR

d. UNIQUE CARBURETOR
15. It is like the float type carburetor but it does not have a float to
control the fuel in the fuel bowl instead depend on the difference in
pressure between the tank and carburetor throat?

a. FLOAT FEED CABURETOR c. DIAPRAM


CARBURETOR

b. SUCTION FEED CABURETOR d. NONE OF THE


ABOVE

16. An air-fuel mixture that gives fuel economy but causes overheating
and incomplete combustion?

a. OPTIMUM MIXTURE c. WEAK MIXTURE

b. RICH MIXTURE d. CORRECT


MIXTURE

17. It is the process of mixing the fuel and air correctly for combustion?

a. CARBURETION c. CARBURETOR

b. FUEL-AIR MIXING d. MIXING PROCESS

18. What is the maximum ratio of air-fuel mixture for rich mixtures?

a. BETWEEN 17-1 AND 18-1 c. BETWEEN 15-1


AND 13-1

b. BETWEEN 12-1 AND 13-1 d. BETWEEN 14-1


AND 16-1

19. What is the system in the carburetor that supplies air-fuel mixture in
the engine when the butterfly valve or throttle valve is closed?

a. CARBURETION SYSTEM c. AIR-FUEL SYSTEM

b. IDLE SYSTEM d. ENGINE


SUPPLY SYSTEM

20. What is the size of venturi tube that restricts the speed of the
engine?

a. LARGE c. EXTRA LARGE

b. MEDIUM d. SMALL SIZE


1. Answer: CARBURETOR

2. Answer: MAIN JET

3. Answer: IDLE MIXTURE SCREW

4. Answer: IDLE SCREW

5. Answer: THROTTLE

6. Answer: FLOAT BOWL

7. Answer: CHOKE PLAT

8. Answer: FLOAT NEEDLE

9. Answer: FUEL FILTER

10. Answer: VENTURI

11. Answer: GOVERNORS

12. Answer: AIR CLEANER

13. Answer: OPTIMUM MIXTURE

14. Answer: Compound Barrel Differentially Operated Carburetor

15. Answer: SUCTION FEED CABURETOR

16. Answer: WEAK MIXTURE

17. Answer: CARBURETION


18. Answer: BETWEEN 12-1 AND 13-1

19. Answer: IDLE SYSTEM

20. Answer: SMALL SIZE