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Capacitors

13.2.1 Parallel connection with two capacitors

Objective:

Set up the circuit as in the figure. Adjust the voltage to 10V. Measure the voltage across the
capacitor Uc while charging and discharging in the shortest possible time period (5s). Enter
the values and calculate and mark the time constant in each case.

= R.C

Where, R= Resistance, C= Capacitance

Here, capacitors are connected in parallel.

So total capacitance C = C1 + C2

= 100+100

= 200

= 200*10-6 F

R = 100

= 100* 103

So, Time constant = 200*10-6 * 100* 103

=20 s
Process of charging:

t/s 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70
Uc/V 0 2.1 3.36 4.45 5.55 6.38 6.99 7.52 7.91 8.21 8.5 8.7 8.87 9.01 9.14

t/s 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130


Uc/V 9.24 9.33 9.4 9.45 9.5 9.55 9.58 9.61 9.63 9.65 9.67 9.68

Uc/ V
12

10

6
Uc/ V
4

2 5

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

Charging characteristic Uc (V) Vs. t(s)

Time constant = Time to reach 63% of final voltage

= 20 s
Process of discharging:

t/s 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55
Uc/V 9.76 7.95 6.43 5.30 4.23 3.43 2.79 2.27 1.85 1.48 1.21 .98

t/s 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120


Uc/V 0.81 0.66 0.54 0.44 0.37 0.30 0.25 0.21 0.17 0.14 0.12 0.10 0.09

Uc/V
12

10

6
Uc/V
4 5

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

Discharging characteristic (Uc /V Vs. t /s)

Time constant = Time period required to decrease the voltage to 37% of impressed value

= 21 s

Observation:

When a voltage is applied across the capacitor, and turns the switch into charging
position, the capacitor is charged gradually from minimum voltage to a maximum
voltage.

When the switch is turned into discharging position, the charge in the capacitor
deteriorates gradually to 0 C.

In Parallel Connection, total capacitance is the sum of individual capacitors. So total


capacitance is very high and it takes some time to charge.
13.2.2 Series connection with two capacitors

Objective:

Set up a circuit as in the figure. Set the voltage to 10v. . Measure the voltage across the
capacitor Uc while charging and discharging in the shortest possible time period. Enter the
values and calculate and mark the time constant in each case.

= R.C

Where, R= Resistance, C= Capacitance

Here, capacitors are connected in parallel.

So total capacitance C =

= 50*10-6 F

R = 100

= 100* 103

So, Time constant = 50*10-6 * 100* 103

Calculated time constant =5 S

Process of Charging:

t/S 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
UC/ V 0 8.22 9.66 9.82 9.85 9.88 9.89 9.90 9.90 9.90 9.90
UC/ V
12

10

6
UC/ V
4

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12

Charging characteristic

Process of Discharging:

t/S 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
UC/ V 9.90 0.80 0.23 0.13 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0

UC/ V vs. t/S


12

10

6
UC/ V
4

0
0 2 4 6 8 10
-2

Discharging characteristic
Observation:

1. In Serial Connection, the capacitor charges very quickly because the equivalent
capacitance C is inversely proportional to the sum of capacitors C1 and C2, thus total
capacitance is less than the individual capacitors.
2. When the voltage is applied across the capacitor, and the switch is turned to
charging position, the capacitor starts charging from minimum voltage to a
maximum voltage very quickly.
3. Discharging time was also small when the switch is turned into discharge position.

13.2.3 Parallel connection with two capacitors

Objective:

Repeat the experiment 13.2.1 with software. Connect the measuring interface according to
figure. Make the following settings in the interface and on the interface. Print out the
characteristics.

Selection : Analog

Record setting:

Recorder Type : Time recorder (Y-t)

Recording time : 2 min

Range of measurement : 0 10V

Measuring interface : Analog input measuring range 0 ..10V


Charging characteristic

Discharging characteristic
13.2.4 Series connection with two capacitors

Objective:

Repeat the experiment 13.2.1 with software. Connect the measuring interface according to
figure. Make the following settings in the interface and on the interface. Print out the
characteristics.

Selection : Analog

Record setting:

Recorder Type : Time recorder (Y-t)

Recording time : 2 min

Range of measurement : 0 10V

Measuring interface : Analog input measuring range 0 ..10V


Charging characteristic

Discharging characteristic
Evaluations:

1. What do you observe when you compare the results of experiment 1 and 2 or 3 and 4?
In Parallel Connection of capacitors, total capacitance is the sum of
individual capacitors. Thus total capacitance is very high and it takes some time to
charge.
In Serial Connection of capacitors, equivalent capacitance Ceq is
inversely proportional to the sum of capacitors C1 and C2, thus total capacitance is
very low and so charging time and time constant is less.

2. What is the charge in a 47F capacitor if the voltage connected is 5V?


Given: C=47F, V= 5V
C= Q/V
Q= CV = 47 F x 5V
= 235x 10^6 C

3. The voltage of the 470 F capacitor steadily raises to 15V in 45 seconds. What is the
load current?
Given: C= 470 F, t=45 seconds, V=15V
Q= CV = 470 F x 15V = 7050x10^-6
IF = V/R+jwC = V/(R+j2fC) = V/(R+j2C/t)
= 15/(0+j2 x 470 F/45)
= -j(15/65.51)
= -0.22j A

4. A capacitor consists of two plates each of which has a surface area of 100 cm2. The
distance between two plates is 2mm. what is the capacitance of this capacitor, if
polystyrole is used as a dielectric?
Given: A=100cm2, r = 2mm=0.2cm
C= A/d
= 100/0.2
= 500 F

5. When is a capacitor charged?

If a capacitor is connected to the DC Power supply and Current flows in the circuit.
Both plates have equal and opposite charges and potential difference Vc, is produced during
the charging of capacitor. Capacitor will be charged to full until the voltage at the terminals
of the capacitor is equal to the applied voltage
6. What are the two parameters used to determine the charging time of the capacitor?
Charging time depends on the capacitance and resistance of the
circuit
=RC (Resistance and Capacitance).

7. What is the value of the energy stored in a 100F capacitor when it is connected to a
direct voltage of 10V?
Given: C =100F, U=10V
Q =CU = 1x10-3 C
Electrical energy W = C.U2
= 100*10-6F* 102
= 0.005 W

8. How is the storage capacity of a capacitor expressed?


Storage capacity of a capacitor is known as capacitance.
Capacitance of a capacitor C= 0 * r*

Where 0= Electric field constant


r = Permittivity

A= Area of plate in m2

l= Distance between plate in m

9. What should be kept in mind while connecting an electrolytic capacitor in a circuit?

While connecting an electrolytic capacitor in a circuit, pay special attention to


their polarity.
Diodes
14.2.1 Diode in a DC circuit

Objective:

Set up a circuit as in the figure. Note down the observation when the diode is operated in
forwards and reverse direction.

Observation:

Current flow through the circuit when diode is connected in forward


direction. And hence lamp E1 in the circuit glows.

When the diode is operated in the reverse direction no current flow in the
circuit so the lamp E1 does not glow.
14.2.2 Characteristics of Silicon diode

Objective:

Set up the circuit as in the figure. Adjust the forward voltage and measure the value of
forward current IF. Enter the measured values and plot the characteristic of the diode.

UF/V 0 0.5 0.6 0.62 0.64 0.66 0.68 0.7 0.72 0.74 0.76
IF/ mA 0 0.7 0.97 1.35 2.12 3 4.4 6.3 9.02 12.43 18.12

IF/ mA
20
18
16
14
12
10
IF/ mA
8
6
4
2
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

Characteristic of Diode
Observation:

The threshold voltage of Silicon Diode is 0.7V

The forward voltage is increased by adjusting the potentiometer.

There is a sudden hike in forward current IF is obtained when the threshold voltage is
reached.

14.2.3 Characteristic of a Germanium Diode

Objective:

Set up the circuit as in the figure. Adjust the forward voltage and measure the value of
forward current IF. Enter the measured values and plot the characteristic of the diode.

UF/V 0 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5


IF/ mA 0 0.12 0.25 0.47 0.73 1.18 1.57 2.06 2.76

IF/ mA
3

2.5

1.5
IF/ mA
1

0.5

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

Characteristic of a Germanium diode

Observation:

The threshold voltage of Silicon Diode is 0.3V

The forward voltage is increased from 0 by adjusting the potentiometer.

There is a sudden increase in forward current IF is observed when the voltage reaches
threshold level.

The forward current IF increases with respect to voltage and the forward characteristic
curve is obtained.
Light Emitting Diode
15.2.1 Determining the dropping resistance RV and the characteristic of an LED

Objective:

1. Calculate the dropping resistance Rv for a red LED operating at a voltage of 12 V and
a maximum permissible forward current of 20 mA.
2. Set up the circuit as in the figure and plot the characteristic of the LED by varying the
forward voltage and measure the forward current.

Dropping resistance RV = Operating voltage/ Imax

=20 mA/12V = 600

UF/V 0 1 1.5 1.52 1.54 1.56 1.58 1.6 1.62 1.64


IF/mA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.001 0.003

IF/mA
0.0035
0.003
0.0025
0.002
0.0015 IF/mA
0.001
0.0005
0
-0.0005 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
Observation:

1. Calculated the dropping resistance for an LED


2. Plotted the characteristic of the LED by varying the forward voltage with the
potentiometer and measuring the forward currents.
Zener Diode
16.2.1 Determine the dropping resistance RV and characteristic of a Zener Diode

Objective:

1. Calculate the dropping resistance for the Zener diode operating at a voltage of U= 12V.

2. Set up the circuit as in the figure. Take the characteristic of the zener in the backward
range by varying the zener voltage with the potentiometer and measure the zener current.

Uz/ V 0 1 2 2.5 2.75 3 3.25 3.5 3.75 4 4.25


Iz/ 0 0 0.07 0.51 1.17 2.51 4.82 9.15 17.68 36.3 77
mA

Calculation of dropping resistance

Iz max = P tot/ Uz

= 500 mW/ 3.3 V

=0.15 A

Rv = U/I zmax

= 12v/0.15 A

= 80

So Rv chosen as 100
Iz/ mA
90
80
70
60
50
40 Iz/ mA
30
20
10
0
-10 0 1 2 3 4 5

Observations:

1. Operated the zener diode in backward region by varying the by varying the zener
voltage with potentiometer and measured the zener current.
2. When the breakdown voltage is exceeded, current increases steeply in the backward
direction.
3. Zener diode differs from rectifying diode due to their small breakdown voltage
(Zener voltage)

16.2.2 DC voltage limitation with Zener diode

Objective:

Set up the circuit as in the figure. Vary the DC voltage UE and measure the corresponding
output voltage UA .Plot the characteristic.
UE/V 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
UA/V 0 1 2 2.74 3.16 3.39 3.55 3.67 3.76 3.83 3.89 3.94 3.98

UA/V
4.5
4
3.5
3
2.5
2 UA/V
1.5
1
0.5
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

DC voltage limitation with a Zener Diode

Observations:

1. It is possible to limit the DC voltage with a Zener diode due to the steep rise of
current in the backward range of a zener diode
2. The limited output voltage is same as the zener voltage and depends on the type of
diode chosen.
3. Varied the DC voltage UE from 0 to 12V. Voltage UA was limited to less than 4V due to
the steep rise of current in the backward range of a zener diode.