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LINK BOXES

LINK BOX
QUALITY, SAFETY, RELIABILITY GUARANTEED

Introduction
AK Power Solutions have a comprehensive range of fully tested stainless steel link boxes and
sheath voltage limiters covering the full range of HV cable sheath earthing applications.

These boxes provide a sealed dry environment for the HV cable metal sheath earthing
connections (links). These links may be removed to facilitate cable sheath inspection and
testing. The boxes are pressure type tested to withstand the specified pressure increase due
to an unforeseen internal fault.

Pit installed Link Box

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Link Box Design
Link boxes are used for a range of high voltage cable systems. They provide a weather
proof environment for the connecting links used for earthing or Cross Bonding of the metallic
sheaths of high voltage cables.

Differing HV cable sheath earthing practices, to minimise sheath currents and provide sheath
voltage protection, require a number of link box designs (see diagrams on following pages):
Direct earthing and earthing through an SVL surge arrester
Cross bonding with appropriate insulation withstand between phases
Provision of metal oxide SVL sheath voltage surge limiters for the protection of the HV
cable sheath
Both single core and coaxial (concentric) bonding cable type terminations are available.
Our ranges of link boxes are available for in-door and out-door installations, and in pits, with
fully tested box seals against any moisture ingress, even should total immersion occur during
extreme weather conditions.
Depending on the particular HV cable design, the HV cable metallic sheath may be earthed
at specified points along the cable run or the phase sheaths may be transposed in the link box
to minimise sheath circulating currents. The link box connector terminals and conductor system
are type tested to demonstrate their ability to withstand the HV cable fault current conditions.
The link box is type tested to ensure that insulation is appropriate for the voltages on the
sheath conductor insulation components.

Sheath Voltage Limiters (SVLs)


External transient voltages from faults, switching and lightning may generate damaging
over-voltages for which sheath voltage limiters are employed to control from the HV cable
metallic sheath to earth as shown in the attached drawings. The HV cable sheaths may be
directly earthed or earthed through an SVL surge arrester.

SVL arresters, although of relatively low continuous operating voltage under quiescent
HV cable conditions, (i.e. from the HV cable metal sheath voltage to earth). This voltage

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increases during an HV cable fault or a transient overvoltage occurrence. The necessary SVL
minimum a.c. voltage withstand, (often loosely referred to as the SVL rated voltage) is determined
by the need to withstand the highest a.c. voltage occurring on the HV cable sheath during the
high current HV cable fault. SVLs must additionally withstand the range of transient surge voltages
and consequent lightning and switching surge currents that may occur. These impulse currents
may be relatively large so that the SVLs need to be a heavy duty arrester design specifically for
this application. These arresters need to have a significantly higher long duration surge energy
(thermal) withstand capability and a higher impulse current withstand than is usual for lower
voltage system arresters. They are designed to withstand high current surges and to have the
thermal capacity to absorb and dissipate the energy of surges they conduct to earth.

AK Power Solutions zinc oxide SVLs are 20kA class arresters and still have a high resistance at
lower voltages so that, at usual routine high voltage sheath testing (to establish that the HV
cable sheath insulation is still in acceptable working condition), testing can be carried out
without the necessity of disconnecting all SVLs across the HV cable sheath insulation.

CABLE SCREEN

R R
MAIN CONDUCTOR

Y Y

B B

A configuration of a Link Box with, or without an SVL installed in the terminal box

Cross Bonding
In Cross Bonding applications, the HV cable length is sectionalised into (typically three) equal
sections which are phase rotated. This induces voltages with a phase shift of 120 degrees in
each segment cable sheath. When the cross bonding is used, the summation of the induced
voltages for the three phases then cancels out, resulting in reduced sheath current.

With the sheath current near zero, the screen losses are minimised, and the end of the
sections can then be directly earthed. A typical cross bonding of adjacent cables diagram
is shown on page 5.

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Cross Bonding and Transposition
In addition to cross bonding the screen, the induced voltage can be minimized and
reduced by cyclically transposing the main conductor of power cables in a 3 Phase system.

E E

SVL

Link Box earthed via SVL Link Box BC6P

The connection and concentric cable connected inside the Link Box and earthed via an SVL

Since the current is near zero, losses in the screen are minimal, and the total summation of
the 3 Phase voltage is zero, the end of the three sections can be earthed. In addition to
cross bonding the screens, the induce voltage can be reduced by cyclically transposing the
main conductor as well.

R R

Y Y

B B

CROSSBONDING OF THE SHEATH

ZERO VOLTAGE

UR UY ZERO VOLTAGE

UB
Ures

Demonstration of the cross bonding (transposition) of screens belonging to the adjacent cables

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Link Box Selection Guide
Link Box Code Example

L C 6 S - B

Modification Code
(when applicable)

Type of mounting
P = pit mounting
S = structure mounting
F = Fibreglass Construction

Number of bonding cables


1 = one bonding cable entering link box (1)
3 = three bonding cables entering link box (3)
6 = six bonding cables entering link box (2 x 3)

Bonding cable type


S = Single core bonding cable
C = Concentric bonding cable

Application
B = Cross bonding link boxes
E = Direct earthing link boxes
L = SVL earthing link box
T = Combined direct and SVL earthing link box

Ordering Information
Select the required design configuration (use the selection table for the part number).
For modification or non standard requirements, contact AK Power Solutions.

Price and delivery is by quotation and depends on the construction requested and
modifications or special features.

When requesting a quotation please include:


Whether pit or structure mounted
Cable size of bonding and earth cables
If cross bonding or SVL earthing boxes
Any special requirements or modifications which you may require

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Link Box Design Configurations

LINK BOX ES1 RANGE


Application Bonding Lead Type & Nominal Size Cable Entry SVL AK Ref.

GANTRY SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 120mm 54mm


GANTRY SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 240mm 54mm
ES1S
GANTRY SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 300mm 54mm
GANTRY SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 500mm 54mm
BURIED SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 120mm 54mm
ES1P
BURIED SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 240mm 54mm

LINK BOX LS1 RANGE


Application Bonding Lead Type & Nominal Size Cable Entry SVL AK Ref.

GANTRY SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD120mm 54mm


GANTRY SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 240mm 54mm
LS1S
GANTRY SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 300mm 54mm
GANTRY SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 500mm 54mm
BURIED SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 120mm 54mm
BURIED SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 240mm 54mm
LS1P
BURIED SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 300mm 54mm
BURIED SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 500mm 54mm

LINK BOX EC1 RANGE


Application Bonding Lead Type & Nominal Size Cable Entry SVL AK Ref.

GANTRY CONCENTRIC BONDING LEAD 120/120mm 54mm


EC1S
GANTRY CONCENTRIC BONDING LEAD 240/240mm 54mm
BURIED CONCENTRIC BONDING LEAD 120/120mm 54mm
EC1P
BURIED CONCENTRIC BONDING LEAD 240/240mm 54mm

Enclosures are manufactured from Stainless Steel Grade 316 (Shells = 4mm and Lids = 8mm thick)
Sheath Voltage Limiters (SVLs) are available from 1.5kVrms to 9.0kVrms

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LINK BOX LS3 RANGE
Application Bonding Lead Type & Nominal Size Cable Entry SVL AK Ref.
GANTRY SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 120mm 54mm
GANTRY SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 240mm 54mm
LS3S
GANTRY SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 300mm 54mm
GANTRY SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 500mm 54mm
BURIED SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 120mm 54mm
BURIED SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 240mm 54mm
LS3P
BURIED SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 300mm 54mm
BURIED SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 500mm 54mm

LINK BOX ES3 RANGE


Application Bonding Lead Type & Nominal Size Cable Entry SVL AK Ref.
GANTRY SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 120mm 54mm
GANTRY SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 240mm 54mm
ES3S
GANTRY SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 300mm 54mm
GANTRY SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 500mm 54mm
BURIED SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 120mm 54mm
BURIED SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 240mm 54mm
ES3P
BURIED SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 300mm 54mm
BURIED SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 500mm 54mm

LINK BOX ES3 RANGE


Application Bonding Lead Type & Nominal Size Cable Entry SVL AK Ref.
GANTRY SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 120mm 54mm
GANTRY SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 240mm 54mm
ES6S
GANTRY SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 300mm 54mm
GANTRY SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 500mm 54mm
BURIED SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 120mm 54mm
BURIED SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 240mm 54mm
ES6P
BURIED SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 300mm 54mm
BURIED SINGLE CORE BONDING LEAD 500mm 54mm

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LINK BOX EC6 RANGE
Application Bonding Lead Type & Nominal Size Cable Entry SVL AK Ref.
GANTRY CONCENTRIC BONDING LEAD 120/120mm 54mm
GANTRY CONCENTRIC BONDING LEAD 240/240mm 54mm EC6S
GANTRY CONCENTRIC BONDING LEAD 300/300mm 54mm
GANTRY CONCENTRIC BONDING LEAD 500/500mm 67mm EC6S
BURIED CONCENTRIC BONDING LEAD 120/120mm 54mm
BURIED CONCENTRIC BONDING LEAD 240/240mm 54mm EC6P
BURIED CONCENTRIC BONDING LEAD 300/300mm 54mm
BURIED CONCENTRIC BONDING LEAD 500/500mm 67mm EC6P

LINK BOX BC6 RANGE


Application Bonding Lead Type & Nominal Size Cable Entry SVL AK Ref.
BURIED CONCENTRIC BONDING LEAD 120/120mm 54mm
BURIED CONCENTRIC BONDING LEAD 240/240mm 54mm BC6P
BURIED CONCENTRIC BONDING LEAD 300/300mm 54mm
BURIED CONCENTRIC BONDING LEAD 500/500mm 67mm BC6P

LINK BOX TC6 RANGE


Application Bonding Lead Type & Nominal Size Cable Entry SVL AK Ref.

BURIED CONCENTRIC BONDING LEAD 120/120mm 54mm


BURIED CONCENTRIC BONDING LEAD 240/240mm 54mm TC6P

BURIED CONCENTRIC BONDING LEAD 300/300mm 54mm


BURIED CONCENTRIC BONDING LEAD 500/500mm 67mm TC6P

LINK BOX LC6 RANGE


Application Bonding Lead Type & Nominal Size Cable Entry SVL AK Ref.
BURIED CONCENTRIC BONDING LEAD 120/120mm 54mm LC6P

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Features

Mechanical features Electrical features


Enclosures Through Current Withstand
Pit and Structure mounted enclosures are Link boxes are generally tested to short
rated at a minimum of IP67 circuit withstand current up to 63KArms but
alternative withstand can be tested
Materials
Fabrication of box from 4mm 316 Voltage Withstand
stainless steel, 8mm SS316 for lids Cross Bonding Link Boxes
Insulation is 60kV impulse phase-to-phase
Conductors
and 30kV impulse phase-to-earth
Extruded copper in hard drawn high
For link boxes fitted with SVL arresters refer to
conductivity 300mm2 minimum
technical data sheet for more information
Mounting Arrangements
Solid Earthing Link Boxes
Universal design to suit Pit mounted and
These boxes are 25kVdc phase-to-phase
Structure mounted
and phase-to-earth
Plating, all conductors plated with 8m
Routine Test: 25kVdc between-phases and
of tin
phase-to-earth for 5 minutes
Stress cones in polyurethane elastomer
Insulators in high tension porcelain with Contact Resistance
all stainless steel hardware The link box terminal to the link and to the
cable termination are 5

Tests
Internal explosion pressure test (type tested)
250kPa

Design
Link boxes of all types for both single core
bonding cables and concentric bonding
cables. Types include:
Cross bonding link boxes
Solid earthing link boxes
Earthing through SVL arresters.
We also provide Link Boxes to our customers
specific requirements.

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Cable Sheath Voltage Limiters
Designed, manufactured and tested in Australia by AK Power Solutions
Used on major cable projects up to 800kV throughout Australia and
internationally
Highly reliable and effective at managing cable sheath voltage rises and the
associated power flows that can result under fault conditions
Low cost and safe method for protection of expensive cable installations
Available in 1.5kV, 3.0kV, 4.5 kV, 6.0kV, 7.5kV and 9.0kV voltages
Suitable for Indoor or Outdoor Applications

Sheath Voltage Limiter (SVL) Electrical Characteristics


SVL Type TZS1.5 TZS3.0 TZS4.5 TZS6.0 TZS7.5 TZS9.0
Rated Voltage kVrms 1.5 3.0 4.5 6.0 7.5 9.0
Maximum Continuous Operating Voltage kVrms 1.3 2.5 3.8 5.1 6.4 7.7
Rated 8/20s current kA 20 20 20 20 20 20
20kA 8/20 20 shot duty cycle with power frequency voltage applied 1s/shot kVrms 1.8 3.6 5.4 7.2 9.0 10.8
High current 4/10s withstand kVrms 100 100 100 100 100 100
Low current rectangular 2000s duration withstand (20) shot A 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000
Energy absorption (on each of 20 shots) kJ 5 10 15 20 25 30
Energy absorption on 20 shots before cooling kJ 6.5 13 20 26 33 40
Maximum 8/20s residual voltage at:
1.5kA kV 3.6 7.1 10.5 14.1 17.6 21.1
3kA kV 3.7 7.4 11.0 14.7 18.4 22.1
5kA kV 3.9 7.7 11.5 15.4 19.2 23.0
10kA kV 4.1 8.2 11.8 16.3 20.4 24.5
20kA kV 4.4 8.8 13.2 17.6 22.0 6.4
40kA kV 4.9 9.7 14.5 19.3 24.2 29.0
100kA (4/10s) kV 6.0 12.0 18.0 24.0 30.0 36.0
Residual at 15kA 1s current rise time kV 4.7 9.3 14.0 18.6 23.3 28.0
Resistance at 2500Vdc N/A N/A >107 >107 >108 >108
Resistance at 1500Vdc >107 >107 >107 >107 >108 >108
Temporary over-voltage (TOV) 1s withstand:
from no prior load kVrms 1.9 3.9 5.9 7.8 9.8 11.8
after 7kJ/kVrms of rated voltage kVrms 1.8 3.7 5.6 7.4 9.3 11.2
TOV of 5kV dc withstand time S 2
TOV of 3.5kV dc withstand time S 50
TOV of 2.5kV dc withstand time S 2
Current at 5kV dc A 3 10 -4
10-5
10-5 10-5
Reference Current mA dc 1 1 1 1 1 1
Reference Voltage (minimum) kV dc 2.1 4.18 6.28 8.36 10.46 12.54
Mechanical robustness Dropped 1.5m without internal damage

SVL arresters are available as OUTDOOR (porcelain housing) and INDOOR (polyurethane housing) in pedestal.

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Guaranteed
quality
safety
reliability

Proven
in the field
for over
20 years

22 Healey Circuit Huntingwood


NSW 2148 Australia
Phone
+61 2 9676 3500
Fax
www.akpowersolutions.com +61 2 9676 3511
Email
sales@akpowersolutions.com
Disclaimer All information and data provided in our documents/website relating
to our companys products is illustrative and indicative only. No reliance may
be placed on any such information or data without first contacting
AK Power Solutions Pty Limited to discuss and clarify
your individual user requirements.