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Chapter 13 KINETICS OF PARTICLES:

ENERGY AND MOMENTUM METHODS

Consider a force F acting on


A2 a particle A. The work of F
ds
s2 corresponding to the small
A dr a displacement dr is defined as
A1 F
s dU = F dr
s1
Recalling the definition of scalar product of
two vectors,
dU = F ds cos a
where a is the angle between F and dr.

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dU = F dr = F ds cos a
A2
ds
s2 a
A dr The work of F during a finite
A1 F displacement from A1 to A2 ,
denoted by U1 2 , is obtained
s
s1 by integrating along the path described by
the particle.
A2
U1 2 =
A1
F dr

For a force defined by its rectangular components, we write


A2
U1 2 =
A1
(Fxdx + Fydy + Fzdz)
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A2
The work of the weight
W
W of a body as its
dy center of gravity moves
y2 from an elevation y1 to
A
y2 is obtained by setting
A1
Fx = Fz = 0 and
y1 y Fy = - W .

y2
U1 2= -

y1
Wdy = Wy1 - Wy2

The work is negative when the elevation increases, and


positive when the elevation decreases.
Dr. Ashok Kaushal
spring undeformed The work of the force F exerted by a
spring on a body A during a finite
displacement of the body from A1 (x = x1)
to A2 (x = x2) is obtained by writing
B AO

dU = -Fdx = -kx dx
x2
B
x1
F
A1 U1 2=

-
x1
k x dx

1 2 1 2
A = 2
kx1 - kx
2 2
x

The work is positive when


the spring is returning to.
B A2 its undeformed position.
x2 Dr. Ashok Kaushal
A2
The work of the gravitational force
A F exerted by a particle of mass M
dr located at O on a particle of mass
m
m as the latter moves from A1 to
r2 A2 is obtained from
A r2
r
dq F

A1
U1 2 =
r1
GMm dr
r2
-F
M q r1 GMm GMm
= -
O r2 r1

Dr. Ashok Kaushal


The kinetic energy of a particle of mass m moving with a
velocity v is defined as the scalar quantity

1
T= 2 mv2

From Newtons second law the principle of work and energy


is derived. This principle states that the kinetic energy of a
particle at A2 can be obtained by adding to its kinetic energy at
A1 the work done during the displacement from A1 to A2 by the
force F exerted on the particle:

T1 + U1 2= T2

Dr. Ashok Kaushal


The power developed by a machine is defined as the time rate
at which work is done:
dU
Power = =F v
dt
where F is the force exerted on the particle and v is the velocity
of the particle. The mechanical efficiency, denoted by h, is
expressed as

power output
h = power input

Dr. Ashok Kaushal


When the work of a force F is independent of the path followed,
the force F is said to be a conservative force, and its work is
equal to minus the change in the potential energy V associated
with F :

U1 2= V1 - V2
The potential energy associated with each force considered
earlier is
Force of gravity (weight): Vg = Wy
GMm
Gravitational force: Vg = -
r
1
Elastic force exerted by a spring: Ve = 2 kx2
Dr. Ashok Kaushal
U1 2= V1 - V2
This relationship between work and potential energy, when
combined with the relationship between work and kinetic
energy (T1 + U1 2 = T2) results in

T1 + V 1 = T2 + V 1

This is the principle of conservation of energy, which states that


when a particle moves under the action of conservative forces,
the sum of its kinetic and potential energies remains constant.
The application of this principle facilitates the solution of
problems involving only conservative forces.

Dr. Ashok Kaushal


v When a particle moves under a
f
central force F, its angular momentum
P about the center of force O remains
v0 constant. If the central force F is also
r
conservative, the principles of
r0 f0 conservation of angular momentum
O and conservation of energy can be
P0 used jointly to analyze the motion of
the particle. For the case of oblique
launching, we have

(HO)0 = HO : r0mv0 sin f0 = rmv sin f

T0 + V0 = T + V : 1 GMm 1 GMm
2 mv02 - = 2
mv2 -
r0 r
where m is the mass of the vehicle and M is the mass of the earth.
Dr. Ashok Kaushal