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De La Salle University-Dasmarias

College of Engineering, Architecture, and Technology


Engineering Department

MAGNETISM AND ELECROMAGNETISM

Magnetic attract magnetic materials but not non-magnetic materials. Magnetism is a non-
contact force (acts at a distance)

MAGNETISM

- The ability to attract iron and steel. The knowledge of magnetism goes back to the
Ancient Greeks who realized that a certain rock (Iodestone) attracted pieces of iron.
When the hang a piece of this material, it rotates until it is pointing in a north-south
direction of the earth.

- Magnets are named after the town magnesia (a district in Thessaly) in Lydia, Asia Minor
where the Iodestone was mined in ancient times. Natural permanents were called
Lodestone (magnetic, 3 4) after Iodestar (or guiding star). Lodestone was first
permanent magnetic material to be identified and studied. The regions near the ends of
a magnet are called its poles.

Magnetic Materials:

Iron
Steel
Nickel
Cobalt

CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER ACCORDING TO THE MAGNETIC


PROPERTY

1. Ferromagnetic
- If materials such as cobalt, nickel or iron are put near a magnet they begin to act like
another magnet.
- Ferromagnetic materials are characterized by spontaneous magnetism that exists in the
absence of a magnetic field. They can retain the ability to attract metals (particularly

Second Semester, S. Y. 2016 2017


Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra
those belonging to ferrous family) even after the magnetic field that induced magnetism
to it has been removed. Iron is a soft ferromagnetic material. This means it will become

- magnetized very easily, but quickly loses its magnetic properties if the magnetized force
is removed. Steel is more difficult to magnetize, but once it is magnetized, it retains its
magnetic properties for a long time. Steel is called a hard ferromagnetic material.
2. Diamagnetic
- Have the ability to slightly repel magnetic field. Faraday discovers these materials in
1845. He found that bismuth and glass are repelled from magnetic fields.

3. Paramagnetic
- Also discovered by Faraday. He noted that some substances clearly not permanent
magnets are nevertheless attracted by magnetic fields and these materials are named
paramagnetic.

MAGNET

A magnet is any object that has a magnetic field. It attracts ferrous objects like pieces of iron,
steel, nickel and cobalt. One of the most common magnets - the bar magnet - is a long,
rectangular bar of uniform cross-section that attracts pieces of ferrous objects. The magnetic
compass needle is also commonly used. The compass needle is a tiny magnet which is free to
move horizontally on a pivot. One end of the compass needle points in the North direction and
the other end points in the South direction.

The end of a freely pivoted magnet will always point in the North-South direction. The end that
points in the North is called the North Pole of the magnet and the end that points South is
called the South Pole of the magnet. It has been proven by experiments that like magnetic
poles repel each other whereas unlike poles attract each other.

The region around a magnet where a magnetic force can be felt is called the magnetic
field.

Second Semester, S. Y. 2016 2017


Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra
The magnet field is strongest at the poles of a magnet.
Like poles repel

N S

N S

Unlike poles attract

N S

S N

MAGNETIC FIELD

Magnetic field is the space surrounding a magnet, in which magnetic force is exerted. If a bar
magnet is placed in such a field, it will experience magnetic force. However, the field will
continue to exist even if the magnet is removed. The direction of magnetic field at a point is the
direction of the resultant force acting on a hypothetical North Pole placed at that point.

A magnetic field around a bar magnet has a shape and direction.

The magnetic field is represented using magnetic field lines (lines of force , flux lines) that show
the shape, direction and strength of the field.

HOW IS A MAGNETIC FIELD CREATED?

When current flows in a wire, a magnetic field is created around the wire. From this it has been
inferred that magnetic fields are produced by the motion of electrical charges. A magnetic field
of a bar magnet thus results from the motion of negatively charged electrons in the magnet.

Magnetic fields are produced by electric currents, which can be macroscopic currents in wires,
or microscopic currents associated with electrons in atomic orbits. The magnetic field () is
defined in terms of force on moving charge in the Lorentz force law. The interaction of
magnetic field with charge leads to many practical applications. Magnetic field sources are
essentially dipolar in nature, having a north and south magnetic pole.

Second Semester, S. Y. 2016 2017


Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra
FLUX DENSITY ()

It is given by the flux passing per unit area through a plane at right angles to the flux. It
is measured in Wb/2


= = H = H

Direction of the magnetic field at any point is defined as the direction of motion of a change
particle on which the magnetic field would not exert force.

Magnitude of the magnetic field vector is proportional to the force acting on the moving
charge, the magnitude of its velocity and the angle between velocity and magnetic field. Unit is
the Tesla or Gauss

SI CGS ENG

Wb/2 (Tesla) Max/2 (Gauss) lines/2

FLUX PER UNIT POLE ( ) OR MAGNETIC LINES OF FORCE

Just as an electric field is described by drawing the electric lines of force, in the same way, a
magnetic field is described by drawing the magnetic lines of force. When a small north
magnetic pole is placed in the magnetic field created by a magnet, it will experience a force.
And if the North Pole is free, it will move under the influence of magnetic field. The path traced
by a North magnetic pole free to move under the influence of a magnetic field is called a
magnetic line of force. In other words, the magnetic lines of force are the lines drawn in a
magnetic field along which a north magnetic pole would move.

The direction of a magnetic line of force at any point gives the direction of the magnetic force
on a north pole placed at that point. Since the direction of magnetic line of force is the direction
of force on a North Pole, so the magnetic lines of force always begin on the N-pole of a magnet
and end on the S-pole of the magnet. A small magnetic compass when moved along a line of
force always sets itself along the line tangential to it. So, a line drawn from the South Pole of
the compass to its North Pole indicates the direction of the magnetic field.

Properties of the magnetic lines of force

The magnetic lines of force originate from the North Pole of a magnet and end at its
South Pole.
The magnetic lines of force come closer to one another near the poles of a magnet but
they are widely separated at other places.
The magnetic lines of force do not intersect (or cross) one another.

When a magnetic compass is placed at different points on a magnetic line of force, it aligns
itself along the tangent to the line of force at that point.

Second Semester, S. Y. 2016 2017


Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra
Magnetic Flux () - It is the number of magnetic lines of forces in a magnetic field.

-Maxwell-unit of magnetic flux equal to one line of force.

- Weber- SI unit of magnetic flux equal to 108 lines or Maxwell. 1Wb = 1x108 Maxwell

Conversion

q = 1.602x1019 C 1 = 9.81 N 1 N = 105 Dynes

1 = 4.4484 N 1 Tesla = 104 Gauss

Absolute and Relative Permeability of a medium

Permeability - the ability of a material to conduct magnetic flux through it.

Relative Permeability- ration of the permeability of material to the permeability of air or


vacuum.

The phenomena of magnetism and electromagnetism are dependent upon a certain property
of the medium called its permeability. Every medium is supposed to possess two
permeabilities:

Absolute permeability,
Relative permeability,
For measuring relative permeability, vacuum or free space is chose as the reference
medium. It is allotted an absolute permeability of vacuum with reference to itself is
unity. Hence, for free space,
Absolute permeability, = 4x107 Henry/meter, constant 33
Relative permeability, = 1
Now, take any medium other than vacuum. If its relative permeability, as compared to
vacuum is , then its abs. permeability is = =

MAGNETISING FIELD STRENGTH/FORCE/MAGNETIC INTENSITY (H)

- Field strength at any point within a magnetic field is numerically equal to the
force experienced by a N-pole of one Weber placed at that point.
- It should be noted that the field strength is a vector quantity having both
magnitude and direction.
- mmf (magnetomotiveforce) per unit length of path of the magnetic flux. It is
also called as the magnetizing force or the magnetic gradient
OERSTED- cgs unit of magnetic field strength equal to gilbert per centimeter.
AT/m SI unit for H
1 oersted = 79.577 AT/m

a. Long Straight Wire


H= where: r distance

N- Number of turns

I Current in Amperes (A)

Second Semester, S. Y. 2016 2017


Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra
b. Long Solenoid


H=

c. Circular Coil


H= where: r radius

d. Square Coil


H= where: a distance from the corner

SAMPLE PROBLEMS

1. A solenoid 30cm long is wound with 300turns. What is the value of its field strength
inside the solenoid, when the coil is carrying a current of 2 Amperes?

2. If a current of 5A flows through a long wire of radius 0.004 meter, what is the intensity
of magnetic field produced 0.02 meter away from the surface of the wire?

3. A flat circular coil with 40 loops of wire has a diameter of 32 cm. What current must
flow in its wires to produce a field of 3.0x 104 Wb/2 ?

Second Semester, S. Y. 2016 2017


Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra
MAGNETIC FORCES

FORCE ON A CHARGE

The amount of attraction or repulsion between charged objects can be put in


quantitative terms by the introduction of the electric force. The simplest case to
consider is the force between two points charges (charges with a negligible size)

F = qvsin (N) where: q charge in Coulomb

angle between wire and magnetic field

v velocity in m/s

flux density in Tesla

FORCE ON A CURRENT CARRYING CONDUCTOR LYING IN A


MAGNETIC FIELD

The magnetic force on a charged particle depends on the relative orientation of the
particle's velocity and the magnetic field.
A magnetic force cannot change the speed of a charged particle, only its direction.
When a charged particle enters a uniform magnetic field in a direction perpendicular to
that field, its motion is continuously changed by the magnetic force
A current consists of many small charged particles running through a wire. If immersed
in a magnetic field, the particles will be experience a force; they can transmit this force
to the wire through which they travel.
The force on a section of wire of length L carrying a current I through a magnetic field B
is

F = ILsin (N) where: Tesla

I Current in Ampere (A)

L length in meter (m)


F= (Dynes) where: Gauss

I Current in Ampere (A)

L length in centimeter (cm)


F= ( ) where: lines
.

I Current in Ampere (A)

L length in in/ft

Because forces are easy to measure, it is the force exerted on a current-carrying wire which is
used to define the SI unit of current, the ampere.

Second Semester, S. Y. 2016 2017


Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra
FORCE BETWEEN TWO PARALLEL CONDUCTORS

Current in the same direction. The field strength in the space between the conductors is
decreased due to the two fields there being in the opposition to each other. Hence, the
two conductors are attached towards each other.
Current in the opposite direction. The field strength is increased in the space between
the two conductors due to the two fields being in the same direction there. Because of
the lateral repulsion of the lines of force, the two conductors expensive a mutual force
of repulsion.


F= where: - constant permeability, const 33

- relative permeability
- length in meter (m)

F= I current in amperes (A)

d distance between two conductors

SAMPLE PROBLEMS

1. An armature conductor 12cm long moves right angle to the magnetic flux of 1.20 Tesla
and carrying 5A. What is the force experienced by the conductor?

2. Two straight parallel wires 2m long and 3mm apart carries a current of 8A in opposite
direction. Calculate the force between these conductors?

Second Semester, S. Y. 2016 2017


Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra
3. A coil of moving instrument is wound with 250 turns of wire. The flux density in the gap
is 0.085 Tesla and the effective length of the coil side in the air gap is 5cm. Find the force
doing acting on each coil side when carrying current of 60mA? In Dynes.

LORENTZ RIGHT HAND RULE

The Lorentz Force Law can be used to describe the effects of a charged particle moving in a
constant magnetic field.

In an open right hand, the direction of the four fingers points to the direction of the magnetic
field, the thumb pointing perpendicular to the four fingers points to the direction of the
magnetic force in a positive charge is in the direction in which your open palm would push.

The implications of this expression include:

1. The force is perpendicular to both the velocity (v) of the charge (q) and the magnetic
field (B)
2. The magnitude of the force F=qvBsin where is the angle<180 degrees between the
velocity and the magnetic field. This implies that the magnetic force on a stationary
charge or a charge moving parallel to the magnetic field is zero.
3. The direction of the force is given by the right hand rule. The force relationship above is
in the form of a vector product.

Second Semester, S. Y. 2016 2017


Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra
B Magnetic field (Wb/2 (Tesla) Max/2 (Gauss) lines/2

F Force N Dynes

v- velocity/speed m/s cm/s in/s,ft/s

FLEMING LEFT AND RIGHT HAND RULE

Whenever, a current carrying conductor comes under a magnetic field, there will be force
acting on the conductor and on the other hand, if a conductor is forcefully brought under a
magnetic field, there will be an induced current in that conductor. In both of the phenomenons,
there is a relation between magnetic field, current and force. This relation is directionally
determined by Fleming Left Hand rule and Fleming Right Hand rule respectively. 'Directionally'
means these rules do not show the magnitude but show the direction of any of the three
parameters (magnetic field, current, force) if the direction of other two are known. Fleming Left
Hand rule is mainly applicable for electric motor and Fleming Right Hand rule is mainly
applicable for electric generator. In late 19th century, John Ambrose Fleming introduced both
these rules and as per his name, the rules are well known as Fleming left and right hand rule

Second Semester, S. Y. 2016 2017


Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra
Fleming Left Hand rule

It is found that whenever a current carrying conductor is placed inside a magnetic field, a force
acts on the conductor, in a direction perpendicular to both the directions of the current and the
magnetic field. In the figure it is shown that, a portion of a conductor of length L placed
vertically in a uniform horizontal magnetic field strength H, produced by two magnetic poles N
and S. If i is the current flowing through this conductor, the magnitude of the force acts on the
conductor is, F = BIL

Fleming Right Hand rule

As per Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction, whenever a conductor moves inside a


magnetic field, there will be an induced current in it. If this conductor gets forcefully moved
inside the magnetic field, there will be a relation between the direction of applied force,
magnetic field and the current. This relation among these three directions is determined by
Fleming Right Hand Rule This rule states "Hold out the right hand with the first finger, second
finger and thumb at right angle to each other. If forefinger represents the direction of the line
of force, the thumb points in the direction of motion or applied force, then second finger points
in the direction of the induced current.

Second Semester, S. Y. 2016 2017


Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra
SAMPLE PROBLEMS

1. Using the right hand rule, find the direction of the missing information in the diagram

2. Each of the lettered dots shown in the figure represents an electric charge of 5C
moving at speed 3x10^6 m/s in the direction shown. Determine the magnetic force
(magnitude and direction) acting one each charges due to the 0.15 Tesla magnetic fields
that points in the positive y-direction?

Second Semester, S. Y. 2016 2017


Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra
TORQUE ON A FLAT COIL IN A UNIFORM MAGNETIC FIELD

When a current carrying loop is placed across a magnetic field, it has the tendency to be
rotated either clockwise or counter-clockwise dependent on the direction of the magnetic field
and the current. Its direction of rotation is determined using the right hand rule.

Before considering the mathematical nature of the forces on currents in magnetic fields it is
worth just looking at the simple magnetic field diagrams that give rise to these effects. These
are shown in Figure 1. (a) is the field between two magnets, (b) the field due to a current in a
straight wire and (c) the resulting field if they are put together. This last field is known as the
"catapult" field because it tends to catapult the wire out of the field in the direction shown by
the arrow.

T = INAsin (N-m) where: N- turns

I current in amperes (A)

A area of the coil

angle between magnetic field and a perpendicular to the


plane of the coil

SAMPLE PROBLEM

1. A rectangular loop 10cm high and 5cm wide is placed in magnetic field of 0.01 Tesla.
If the loop contains turns and carries a current of 50mA. What is the torque on it?
Assume that the face of the loop is parallel to the field? Given 250 turns.

Second Semester, S. Y. 2016 2017


Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra
MAGNETIC CIRCUIT

- A closed path in which magnetic induction or flux flows.


- A system of magnetic conductors which magnetism maybe established upon
the application of magnetomotive force (mmf)

MAGNETOMOTIVE FORCE (mmf)

- A force that sets up or tends to set up magnetic flux in a magnetic circuit. By


an electric current through a number of turns of a wire produces it

mmf = NI (if the unit is in AT)

= 0.4NI (if the unit is in Gilberts)

RELUCTANCE (R)

- Property of material that opposes flux flow. It is equal to the ration of the
mmf in a magnetic circuit to the magnetic flux through any cross section of
the magnetic circuit.


R= =v units: AT/Wb; Gilbert/Max

Where:

Mean length of the magnetic path (m)

- Free space of permeability

Relative permeability

A Cross sectional area of the magnetic path (sq. m)


1
v reluctivity ; the reciprocal of permeability =

- mean length / circumference

d ; where d = mean diameter

2r; where r = radius

= 79.577 106

Permeance (P) reciprocal of reluctance

- Implies the ease or readiness with which magnetic flux is developed.



P==

Second Semester, S. Y. 2016 2017


Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra
FLUX ( )

- Used to indicate the apparent stress in the space surrounding an energized


coil or magnet.

.
= = =

SAMPLE PROBLEMS

1. A certain laminated steel core has a permeability of 3000. The length is 5cm and the
cross sectional area is 2sq.m. What is the reluctance?

2. A magnetic circuit consists of silicon steel of 3000 permeability and air gap. The length
of the steel core is 10cm and the air gap is 2cm. Both have the same cross section of 1.5
sq.cm. A current of Ampere flows through the windings to produce 2351 Maxwell flux.
How many turns are there in the coil?

Second Semester, S. Y. 2016 2017


Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra
3. A solenoid has 250 turns. What is the magnetomotive force (mmf) in Gilbert when the
current is 0.12 Amp?

4. A coil with 900 turns is wound over a magnetic core with a reluctance of 10000 AT/Wb.
If a current of 2A is passed through the coil, determine the flux density inside the coil?

UNITS

SYMBOL MKS CGS

Wb/2 (Tesla) Max/2 ( Gauss)

Wb ( Weber) Max (Maxwell)

A 2 2

0 Const 33 1

- -

H AT/m Oersted

R AT/Wb Gilbert/Max

mmf AT Gilberts

Second Semester, S. Y. 2016 2017


Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra
ENERGY STORED IN A MAGNETIC FIELD

The energy stored in a magnetic field is equal to the work needed to produce a current through
the inductor.

When a conductor carries a current, a magnetic field surrounding the conductor is produced.
The resulting magnetic flux is proportional to the current. If the current changes, the change in
magnetic flux is proportional to the time-rate of change in current by a factor called inductance
(L). Since nature abhors rapid change, a voltage (electromotive force, EMF) produced in the
conductor opposes the change in current, which is also proportional to the change in magnetic
flux. Thus, inductors oppose change in current by producing a voltage that,in turn, creates a
current to oppose the change in magnetic flux; the voltage is proportional to the change in
current.

Due to energy conservation, the energy needed to drive the original current must have an
outlet. For an inductor, that outlet is the magnetic fieldthe energy stored by an inductor is
equal to the work needed to produce a current through the inductor.


W = R W = (LA) [ ] W =

Where: w energy stored in Joules (J) - Flux

- permeability of core Magnetic flux density

R Reluctance

L Inductance

I Current

FARADAYS LAW

A law that states an electrical field is induced in any system in which a magnetic field is
changing with time.

FARADAYS FIRST LAW OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION. Whenever the flux linking a


coil or current changes, an emf is induced in it.
FARADAYS SECOND LAW OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION. The magnitude of the
induced emf is proportional to the rate of change of flux linkages.

INDUCED EMF it is the voltage generated by a conductor or coil moving in magnetic field.

e=N
where: e induced emf (Volt)
N number of turns

- rate of change of flux (Weber per second)

Second Semester, S. Y. 2016 2017


Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra
INDUCED EMF

A voltage can be developed in a wire by moving the wire across a magnetic field so that
flux cutting results (Faradays Principle)

e = Lv sin

where: e induced emf (volt)

flux density at the location of the conductor (Tesla)

L length of the conductor (meter)

v relative velocity (meter per second)



e = L

where: e self- induced emf (volt)

L self inductance (Henry)

di/dt rate of change of current ( Ampere per second)

SAMPLE PROBLEMS

1. Find the electromotive force in a conductor of length 50cm moving perpendicular at


a velocity 590m/s to a region of flux density 1 Tesla?

2. A magnetic coil produces 100,000 Maxwells with 2000 turns and with a current of 2
Amp. The current is cut-off and the flux collapses in 0.01sec. What is the average
voltage that will appear across the coil?

Second Semester, S. Y. 2016 2017


Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra
3. The flux density emanating from a pole of a generator is 20,000 Gauss. A conductor
one meter long cuts the flux perpendicularly at a speed of 40m per second. What
voltage is developed?

INDUCTANCE

A property of an electric circuit by which emf is induced in it as the result of


changing magnetic flux. it is also a circuit element, typically a conducting coil, in which
emf is generated by electromagnetic induction.

Self Inductance the ratio of emf produced in a circuit by self induction to the rate of
change of current producing it, expressed in Henries (H)


L= L= L=

Where: L inductance (Henry)


0 - permeability of free space (const 33, 4 107 Henry per meter
- relative permeability of the core used
A cross sectional are of the magnetic path( square meter)
N number of turns
flux (Weber)
I Current (Ampere)
- mean length of the magnetic path (meter)
R reluctance of the magnetic path (AT/Weber)

Mutual Inductance the ratio of emf in a circuit to the corresponding change of current
in a neighboring circuit. Measures the mutual induction between two magnetically
linked circuits, given as the ratio of the induced emf to the rate of charge of current
producing it, measured in Henries (H)


M= M=

Second Semester, S. Y. 2016 2017


Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra
Series Coil with mutual inductance

Series aiding sources of electromotive force (emf) which give the ability to the current
to flow in the same direction.

= 1 + 2 + 2M

Series opposing sources of electromotive force (emf) which give the ability to the
current to flow in opposite direction.

= 1 + 2 - 2M

Parallel Coil with mutual inductance

Parallel aiding this is where connected coils increasing the total equivalent
inductance.

2
= 1+ 2
1 2 2

Parallel opposing this is where connected coils decreasing the total equivalent
inductance compared to coils that have zero mutual inductance.

2
= 1+ 2
1 2 + 2

Where: 1 , 2 - self inductance in H (Henry)

M Mutual inductance

M=

Coupling Factor/ Coefficient of coupling



k=

SAMPLE PROBLEMS

1. Two coils in a network are positioned such that there is 80% coupling between them. If
the inductance of one coil is 20mH and the inductance of the other coil is 16mH. Find the
mutual inductance?

Second Semester, S. Y. 2016 2017


Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra
2. A current of 2 Amp through a coil sets up flux linkages of 4Wb-turns. What is the
inductance of the coil?

3. Two coils of inductance 1 = 1.16 mH, 2 = 2 mH are connected in series. Find the total
energy stored when the steady current is 2 Amp?

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Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra
ENERGY CONVERTION
GRADING RUBRIC FOR PROBLEM SET

Name: _________________________________ Course/Section:_______________

InstructorName:_____________________ Date:_______________________

Problem Set No: __________

Component Exceptional Acceptable Marginal DESPONDENT GRADE


Completeness All components All components One or more No genuine
are present are present, but components are attempt at a
and complete some are missing, or all complete
somewhat components are solution.
incomplete. severely
incomplete.
Correctness All components At least one At least one Multiple
are completely component component contains major errors,
correct. contains a minor a major error. or an entirely
error. incorrect
response.
Style A professional, Minor issues of Major tone or Exceedingly
polished tone tone, voice, presentation issues. terse, sloppy,
and format are spelling, or otherwise
maintained punctuation, or unpolished
throughout the formatting.
writing.
solution.
Clarity All components Occasional or Truly confusing Exceedingly
are clear, minor issues of writing that can only confusing
organized, and clarity, causing be interpreted with writing.
easy to follow. confusion that significant effort.
can be overcome
by careful
reading and
charitable
interpretation by
the reader.
Precision No meaningful Occasional or Major precision Severely
ambiguity. minor issues of errors that cause underspecified
precision, meaningful instructions,
causing ambiguity in the definitions,
meaningful interpretation of the claims, or
ambiguity that solution, which can arguments
can be overcome only be resolved
by charitable with difficulty (if at
interpretation by all)
the reader.

Second Semester, S. Y. 2016 2017


Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra
DIRECTION: On a long plain bond paper copy and solve the following problems
completely. Use engineering lettering and use straight edge for figures. Failure to follow
direction will get your work rejected.

1. The force acting on a pole of 3Wb is 12N. The magnetic intensity of the magnetic field is
__.

2. A wire 12cm long and carrying a current of 30A is placed in between the pole face of a
magnet whose magnetic flux density is 0.9 Tesla. If the wire is inclined at an angle
60degrees from the plane of the magnetic field, what is the force exerted on the wire?

3. The reluctance of a non-magnetic circuit is 12 units. How much flux will be set up if
surrounded by a coil 600 turns carrying a current of 3A.

4. The relative permeability of a certain silicon steel is 4500. A certain magnetic loop
consists of a silicon steel of 10cm square, 20cm long and an air gap of cm. What is the
reluctance of the magnetic circuit?

5. A coil with 900 turns is wound over a magnetic core with a reluctance of 10,000 AT/Wb.
If a current of 0.5A is pass through the coil, how much is the magnetic flux that the coil
generates?

6. A given magnetic circuit has a magnetic field intensity of 400AT/m. If the length of the
magnetic path is doubled maintaining the same magnetomotive force, how much is the
new magnetic field intensity?

7. A magnetomotive force is supplied by a current of one ampere through 100 turns. The
magnetic circuit consists of a steel core of 1000 permeability, 10cm long and 4 sq. cm.
area and an air gap one cm long. What is the field intensity at the air gap?

8. A non magnetic ring having a cross sectional area of 10 cm2 is uniformly wound with 300
turns of a given wire. If a current of 1A is passed through the coil, 2.4Wb of flux is
generated inside the ring. Determine the average diameter of the ring.

9. A coil with 250 turns is wound over a 200cm a cylindrical iron core whose relative
permittivity is 250. If a current of 2A is pass through the coil, determine the flux density
in the core.

10. A toroidal core with a mean circumference of 100cm and a cross sectional area of
10cm2 is wound with 500 turns of wire. What current would be required to generate a
flux of 1 mWb in the core. Assume the core has a relative permeability of 800.

Second Semester, S. Y. 2016 2017


Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra
11. A magnetic ring (relative permitivitty=800) has a mean radius of 10cm and a cross
sectional area of 5cm2. An air gap measuring 1.5mm is cut in the ring. Determine the
required mmf in order to produce a flux of 0.25mWb in the air gap.

12. A magnetic ring with a mean diameter of 25cm and a cross sectional area of 5cm 2 is
wound with a coil of 600 turns. An air gap 4mm is made by cutting a section of the ring.
A current of 10A is passed through the coil. Determine the energy stored in the air gap.
Assume relative permittivity of the ring to be 1000.

13. How much is the inductance of a coil that induces 500V when the current changes at the
rate of 5mA in 2s?

14. The energy (Wo) stored in a coil is dependent in the inductance (L) of the coil and the
current flowing. If the inductance were doubled with the same current flowing, what
would be the resulting stored energy?

15. A 6.0 H coil whose resistance is 12 ohms is connected in series with a 24 ohms resistor
and to a 144 V battery and a switch. The switch is closed at t=0. Determine the energy
stored in the magnetic field at steady state.

Second Semester, S. Y. 2016 2017


Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra