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Section 9-25 S505

M. MARCIC,M. ZGONIK, J. AVSEC

Combustion of the Diesel Fuel Spray

The paper deals with the computer simulation of the Diesel fuel sprap combustion under the similar conditions as in
Diesel engines. A mathematical model of the spray propulsion and combustion is treated which allows the observation
of the phenomena in the spray during its movement through air. Fuel droplets of the spray are vaporized due to the
transfer of heat from hot air. In a certain moment when required conditions are met selfignition of mixture occurs.
In order to determine the points where selfignitions occurs first, we have introduced the term ignition probability
referring to the local air ratio and fuel dispersion an the spray.

1. The Physical Model

The paper deals with the computer simulation of t h e Diesel fuel spray combustion under the similar conditions as
in Diesel engines. The mathematical model of combustion consists of submodels describing individual combustion
stages. The paper describes in detail only the fuel ignition stage. The mathematical model of the Diesel spray
(Fig. 1) is obtained from the continuity and momentum equation. Spray is divided into small elementary volume.
The mathematical model allows the computation of the quantity of fuel and fuel vapours, air, mean, maximum and
minimum fuel droplet diameter [l]as well as their number in each elementary volume. Due t o the varying fuel
output velocity u(t) from the nozzle and different positions of elementary volumes in the spray, their velocities differ
one from another. We assume that inside each elementary volume all the dropleta move at the same velocity.
The most efficient combustion with regard to the consumption and emission will be in those elementary volumes
containing the stoichiometric air ratio and the fuel droplets with the lowest mean diameters. At the same time,
there is a strong probability that under normal operating conditions in Diesel engines self-ignition the fuel vapour-air
mixture occurs in those elementary volumes containing stoichiometric air ratio and fuel droplets with the lowest
diameters. In order to determine the points or elementary volumes where self-ignition occurs first, we have introduced
the term ignition probability @ referring to the local air ratio and fuel dispersion quality in the spray.

!D = @,Qd 5 1 (1)
The term Qc takes into account the local air ratio in the spray and has the highest value for stoichiometric air ratio.
In the equation 2 mg is mass of fuel and ma is mass of air.

@a= ($) etoichiometric

takes
@ ,iinto account the fuel spray dispersion quality and has the maximum value at the droplet diameter dopt =
0 0 6 5 mm. This diameter is considered the optimum for combustion in Diesel engines. The droplets with the
diameter 0.0065 mm may already be treated as those burning as a gas [2]. In the equation 3 d, is a mean droplet
diameter in each elementary volume.

The points where Q has equal value are joint into curves so as t o obtain the areas where the self-ignition probability
is the strongest. In the point st (Fig.l), the fuel jet changes from the fully liquid into the spray containing air, fuel
vapours and fuel droplets. To calculate the evaporation of fuel droplets we used the law of droplet evaporation(3].

2 . Computer Simulation and Comparison w i t h Measured Results

The simulation results of the combustion of Diesel spray injected into stagnant S32c/10 bar air are presented.
The injected fuel amount is 128 mm3/cycle and the duration of injection 1,84 ms. The highest probability of the
S 506 ZAMM . Z. Angcw. Math. Mcch. 81 (2001) 53

mixture self-ignition is at the end of the spray (Fig. 2) where the majority of the fuel has been evaporated, the
droplets have very low diameters and the local air ratio is approximately one.
T h e experiments have been carried out in a combustion bomb allowing t h e measurements of spray diameter,
concentration in spray, combustion temperature and combustion shooting. Fig. 3 shows t h e radial temperature
distribution in the spray at the distance of 40 mm from t h e injection nozzle. T h e matching of the measured and
computed temperatures is good over the entire crass section of t h e spray.

Fig. 1: Diesel spray

I-x- exper. - - - - - - ana1.1

2500 2000 1500 1000


T tdeg cl

Fig. 2: Probability of t h e mixture self-ignition Fig. 3: Measured and computed temperature

3. References

1 Sinamon J. V., Lancaster A. N., Steiner I. C.: An Experimental and Analytical Study of Engine Fuel Spray Trajectories,
SAE 800135
2 Chiger, N.: Energy and Combustion Science, Pergamon Press, London, New York, 1978.
3 Hiroyasu, H., Kadota, T., Arai, M., Development and Use of a Spray Combustion Modelling to predict Diesel Engine
Efficiency and Pollutant Formation, JSME 26, No. 214, 1984, Part I, 11,111.

Addresses: Milan Marcic, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor