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Name TestBanks Chapter 9 Economic Growth II: Technology, Empirics, and Policy

Description

Instructions

Question

The efficiency of labor is a term that does not reflect the:

Answer high output that comes from labor cooperating with a large amount of capital.

health of the labor force.

education of the labor force.

skills of the labor force acquired through on-the-job training.

Question

The efficiency of labor:

Answer is the marginal product of labor.

is the rate of growth of the labor force.

includes the knowledge, health, and skills of labor.

equals output per worker.

Question

The number of effective workers takes into account the number of workers and the:

Answer amount of capital available to each worker.

rate of growth of the number of workers.

efficiency of each worker.

saving rate of each worker.

Question

The rate of labor-augmenting technological progress (g) is the growth rate of:

Answer labor.

the efficiency of labor.

capital.

output.

Question

Assuming that technological progress increases the efficiency of labor at a constant rate is called:

Answer endogenous technological progress.

the efficiency-wage model of economic growth.

labor-augmenting technological progress.

the Golden Rule model of economic growth.

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Question

If the labor force is growing at a 3 percent rate and the efficiency of a unit of labor is growing at a 2 percent rate, then

the number of effective workers is growing at a rate of:

Answer 2 percent.

3 percent.

5 percent.

6 percent.

Question

In a steady-state economy with a saving rate s, population growth n, and labor-augmenting technological progress g,

the formula for the steady-state ratio of capital per effective worker (k*), in terms of output per effective worker (f(k*)), is

(denoting the depreciation rate by ):

Answer sf(k)/( + n + g).

s/((f(k))( + n + g)).

f(k)/((s)( + n + g)).

(s f(k))/( + n + g).

Question

In the Solow growth model with population growth and technological change, the break-even level of investment must

cover:

Answer depreciating capital.

depreciating capital and capital for new workers.

depreciating capital and capital for new effective workers.

depreciating capital, capital for new workers, and capital for new effective workers.

Question

In the Solow growth model, the steady-state growth rate of output per effective worker is ______, and the steady-state

growth rate of output per actual worker is ______.

Answer the sum of the rate of technological progress plus the rate of population growth; zero

zero; the rate of technological progress

zero; zero

the rate of technological progress; the rate of population growth

Question

In the Solow growth model with population growth and technological change, the steady-state growth rate of income

per person depends on:

Answer the rate of population growth.

the saving rate.

the rate of technological progress.

the rate of population growth plus the rate of technological progress.

Question

In a steady-state economy with population growth n and labor-augmenting technological progress g, persistent

increases in standards of living are possible because the:

Answer capital stock grows faster than does the labor force.

capital stock grows faster than does the number of effective workers.

rate of depreciation constantly decreases.

saving rate constantly increases.

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Question

According to the Solow model, persistently rising living standards can only be explained by:

Answer population growth.

capital accumulation.

saving rates.

technological progress.

Question

In the Solow model with technological change, the Golden Rule level of capital is the steady state that maximizes:

Answer output per worker.

output per effective worker.

consumption per worker.

consumption per effective worker.

Question

With population growth at rate n and labor-augmenting technological progress at rate g, the Golden Rule steady state

requires that the marginal product of capital (MPK):

Answer net of depreciation be equal to n + g.

net of depreciation be equal to the depreciation rate plus n + g.

plus n be equal to the depreciation rate plus g.

plus g be equal to the depreciation rate plus n.

Question

In the Solow model with technological progress, the steady-state growth rate of capital per effective worker is:

Answer 0.

g.

n.

n + g.

Question

In a Solow model with technological change, if population grows at a 2 percent rate and the efficiency of labor grows at

a 3 percent rate, then in the steady state, output per effective worker grows at a ______ percent rate.

Answer 0

2

3

5

Question

In a Solow model with technological change, if population grows at a 2 percent rate and the efficiency of labor grows at

a 3 percent rate, then in the steady state, output per actual worker grows at a ______ percent rate.

Answer 0

2

3

5

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Question

In a Solow model with technological change, if population grows at a 2 percent rate and the efficiency of labor grows at

a 3 percent rate, then in the steady state, total output grows at a ______ percent rate.

Answer 0

2

3

5

Question

In the Solow model with technological progress, the steady-state growth rate of output per effective worker is:

Answer 0.

g.

n.

n + g.

Question

In the Solow model with technological progress, the steady-state growth rate of output per (actual) worker is:

Answer 0.

g.

n.

n + g.

Question

In the Solow model with technological progress, the steady-state growth rate of total output is:

Answer 0.

g.

n.

n + g.

Question

Over the past 50 years in the United States:

Answer output per worker hour, capital stock per worker hour, the real wage, and the real rental price of capital

have all increased about 2 percent per year.

output per worker hour, the real wage, and the real rental price of capital have all increased about 2

percent per year, whereas capital stock per worker hour has increased faster.

output per worker hour and the real wage have both increased about 2 percent per year, whereas capital

stock per worker hour has increased faster and the real rental price of capital has remained about the

same.

output per worker hour, the real wage, and capital stock per worker hour have all increased about 2

percent per year, whereas the real rental price of capital has remained about the same.

Question

In the Solow model with technological progress, by increasing the efficiency of labor at rate g:

Answer the real wage and the real rental price of capital both grow at rate g.

the real wage grows at rate g but the real rental price of capital is constant.

the real wage is constant but the real rental price of capital grows at rate g.

both the real wage and the real rental price of capital are constant.

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Question

The balanced growth property of the Solow growth model with population growth and technological progress predicts

which of the following sets of variables will grow at the same rate in the steady state?

Answer output per effective worker, capital per effective worker, real wage

output per worker, capital per worker, real wage

real rental price of capital, real wage, output per worker

capital-output ratio, output per worker, capital per worker

Question

The Solow model predicts that two economies will converge if the economies start with the same:

Answer capital stocks.

populations.

steady states.

production functions.

Question

Conditional convergence occurs when economies converge to:

Answer the same steady state as other economies.

the Golden Rule steady state.

the balanced-growth steady state.

their own, individual steady states.

Question

International data suggest that economies of countries with different steady states will converge to:

Answer the same steady state.

their own steady state.

the Golden Rule steady state.

steady states below the Golden Rule level.

Question

If two economies are identical (including having the same saving rates, population growth rates, and efficiency of

labor), but one economy has a smaller capital stock, then the steady-state level of income per worker in the economy

with the smaller capital stock:

Answer will be at a lower level than in the steady state of the high capital economy.

will be at a higher level than in the steady state of the high capital economy.

will be at the same level as in the steady state of the high capital economy.

will be proportional to the ratio of the capital stocks in the two economies.

Question

If two economies are identical (with the same population growth rates and rates of technological progress), but one

economy has a lower saving rate, then the steady-state level of income per worker in the economy with the lower

saving rate:

Answer will be at a lower level than in the steady state of the high-saving economy.

will be at a higher level than in the steady state of the high-saving economy.

will be at the same level as in the steady state of the high-saving economy.

will grow at a slower rate than in the high-saving economy.

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Question

Empirical investigations into whether differences in income per person are the result of differences in the quantities of

the factors of production available or differences in the efficiency with which the factors are employed typically find:

Answer a negative correlation between the quantity of factors and the efficiency of use.

a positive correlation between the quantity of factors and the efficiency of use.

no correlation between the quantity of factors and the efficiency of use.

large gaps between the quantity of factors accumulated and the efficiency of use.

Question

Hypotheses to explain the positive correlation between factor accumulation and production efficiency include each of

the following except:

Answer the quality of a nation's institutions influences both factor accumulation and production efficiency.

capital accumulation causes greater production efficiency.

efficient economies make capital accumulation unnecessary.

an efficient economy encourages capital (including human capital) accumulation.

Question

International differences in income per person in accounting terms must be attributed to differences in either ______

and/or ______.

Answer factor accumulation; production efficiency

constant returns to scale; the marginal product of capital

unemployment rates; depreciation rates

consumption; interest rates

Question

Differences in factor accumulation and/or differences in production efficiency must account for all international

differences in:

Answer human capital and physical capital.

saving rates and population growth rate.

income per person.

labor efficiency.

Question

The preponderance of empirical evidence supports the hypothesis that economies that are open to trade _____ than

comparable closed economies.

Answer grow more rapidly

have lower steady-state levels of income per worker due to foreign competition

have faster rates of population growth and technological progress

converge more slowly to a steady-state equilibrium

Question

Empirical evidence supports the theory that free trade:

Answer increases economic growth.

decreases economic growth.

increases imports, but decreases exports because of greater global competition.

increases both imports and exports, but does not contribute to overall economic growth.

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Question

If the marginal product of capital net depreciation equals 8 percent, the rate of growth of population equals 2 percent,

and the rate of labor-augmenting technical progress equals 2 percent, to reach the Golden Rule level of the capital

stock, the ____ rate in this economy must be _____.

Answer saving; increased.

population growth; decreased

depreciation; decreased

total output growth; decreased

Question

If the marginal product of capital net of depreciation equals 10 percent and the rate of population growth equals 2

percent, then this economy will be at the Golden Rule steady state if the rate of technological progress equals _____

percent.

Answer 0

2

8

10

Question

Which of the following changes would bring the U.S. capital stock, currently below the Golden Rule level, closer to the

steady-state, consumption-maximizing level?

Answer increasing the population growth rate

increasing the rate of capital depreciation

increasing the rate of technological progress

increasing the saving rate

Question

The analysis in Chapter 9 of the current capital stock in the United States versus the Golden Rule level of capital stock

shows that the capital stock in the United States is:

Answer well above the Golden Rule level.

about equal to the Golden Rule level.

well below the Golden Rule level.

slightly above the Golden Rule level.

Question

Other things being equal, all of the following government policies are likely to increase national saving except:

Answer decreasing taxes on savings accounts.

running a budget deficit.

running a budget surplus.

retiring part of the national debt.

Question

Economic research shows that ______ in explaining international differences in living standards.

Answer physical capital is more important than human capital

human capital is at least as important as physical capital

human capital is much more important than physical capital

infrastructure is the most important factor

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Question

A possible externality associated with the process of accumulating new capital is that:

Answer a reduction in labor productivity may occur.

new production processes may be devised.

old capital may be made more productive.

the government may need to adopt an industrial policy.

Question

English-style legal systems give ______ protections to shareholders and creditors than French Napoleonic Codes,

typically resulting in ______ capital markets and faster rates of economic growth.

Answer greater; more developed

greater; more corrupt

less; more developed

less; less corrupt

Question

The type of legal system and the level of corruption in a country have been found to be:

Answer unrelated to the rate of economic growth in a country.

significant determinants of the rate of economic growth in a country.

important topics for political discussion, but not economic explanations of growth.

important variables explaining the Golden Rule level of capital.

Question

One explanation for greater economic development in moderate versus tropical climates is that institutions established

by colonial settlers in moderate climates ______, while institutions established by colonists in tropical climates ______.

Answer were based on English common law; were based on the Napoleonic Code

were based on the Napoleonic Code; were based on English common law

protected property rights; were extractive and authoritarian

were extractive and authoritarian; protected property rights

Question

Public policies in the United States designed to stimulate technological progress do not include:

Answer tax breaks to encourage homeownership.

the temporary monopoly granted by the patent system.

tax breaks for research and development.

subsidies given by the National Science Foundation.

Question

The recent worldwide slowdown in economic growth began in the early:

Answer 1960s.

1970s.

1980s.

1990s.

Question

If productivity growth in the United States had remained at its level before the recent productivity slowdown, real

income today would be more than ______ percent higher.

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Answer 10

20

30

40

Question

The productivity slowdown that began in the 1970s has been attributed, at least partly, to each of the following except:

Answer running out of new ideas about how to produce.

a deterioration in the quality of education.

a decline in the number of workers in the labor force.

a lower average level of experience among workers.

Question

Increases in the rate of growth of income per person in the United States in the mid-1990s is mostly likely the result of:

Answer increases in human capital.

increases in physical capital.

advances in information technology.

an increase in the saving rate.

Question

Endogenous growth theory rejects the assumption of exogenous:

Answer production functions.

rates of depreciation.

population growth rates.

technological change.

Question

In the Solow growth model, technological change is ______, whereas in endogenous growth theories, technological

change is ______.

Answer assumed; explained

explained; assumed

persistent; constant

constant; persistent

Question

In the Solow growth model, capital exhibits ______ returns. In the basic endogenous growth model, capital exhibits

______ returns.

Answer constant; diminishing

constant; constant

diminishing; constant

diminishing; diminishing

Question

In the basic endogenous growth model, income can grow forevereven without exogenous technological progress

because:

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the saving rate exceeds the rate of depreciation.

capital does not exhibit diminishing returns.

capital exhibits diminishing returns.

Question

The endogenous growth model's assumption of constant returns to capital is more plausible if capital is defined to

include:

Answer plant and equipment.

knowledge.

depreciation.

technology.

Question

If Y is output, K is capital, u is the fraction of the labor force in universities, L is labor, and E is the stock of knowledge,

and the production Y = F(K,(1 u) EL) exhibits constant returns to scale, then output (Y) will double if:

Answer K is doubled.

K and u are doubled.

K and E are doubled.

L is doubled.

Question

In the two-sector endogenous growth model, the saving rate (s) affects the steady-state:

Answer level of income.

growth rate of income.

level of income and growth rate of income.

growth rate of the stock of knowledge.

Question

In the two-sector endogenous growth model, the fraction of labor in universities (u) affects the steady-state:

Answer level of income.

growth rate of income.

level of income and growth rate of income.

level of income, growth rate of income, and growth rate of the stock of knowledge.

Question

In the two-sector endogenous growth model, income growth persists because:

Answer the production function shifts exogenously.

the saving rate exceeds the rate of depreciation.

the creation of knowledge in universities never slows down.

the fraction of the labor force in universities is large.

Question

In the two-sector endogenous growth model, the steady-state stock of physical capital is determined by _____, and the

growth in the stock of knowledge is determined by _____.

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the efficiency of labor; the saving rate

the production function; the efficiency of labor

the saving rate; the fraction of labor in universities

Question

Empirical studies indicate that the rate of social return from positive standing on others' shoulders externalities of

research ______ the negative stepping on toes externalities of research.

Answer greatly exceed

approximately equal

are substantially less than

are only slightly less than

Question

Empirical results justify substantial government subsidies to research based on the finding that the:

Answer the private return to research is greater than the social return to research.

the private return to research is approximately equal to the social return to research.

the private return to research is less than the social return to research.

the private return to research is positive, but the social return to research is negative.

Question

Schumpeter's thesis of creative destruction is an explanation of economic progress resulting from:

Answer using up scarce natural resources to create new products.

breaking down barriers to trade and development.

new product producers driving incumbent producers out of business.

creating new methods to destroy the environment.

Question

When capital increases by K units, output increases by:

Answer L units.

MPL L units.

K units.

MPK K units.

Question

When capital increases by K units and labor increases by L units, output (Y) increases by:

Answer K + L units.

MPL + MPK units.

(MPK K) + (MPL L) units.

(MPL K) + (MPK K) units.

Question

If capital grows at 3 percent per year and labor grows at 1 percent per year, and capital's share is 1/3 while labor's

share is 2/3, if there is no technological progress and the neoclassical assumptions hold, the growth rate of output will

be:

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1-2/3 percent per year.

3 percent per year.

2-1/3 percent per year.

Question

Total factor productivity may be measured by:

Answer subtracting the rate of growth of capital input and the rate of growth of labor input from the rate of growth of

output.

subtracting the rate of growth of capital input, multiplied by capital's share of output, plus the rate of growth

of labor input, multiplied by labor's share of output, from the rate of growth of output.

adding the rate of growth of capital input to the rate of growth of labor input.

adding the rate of growth of capital input, multiplied by capital's share of output, to the rate of growth of

labor input, multiplied by labor's share of output.

Question

Changes that can increase measured total factor productivity include:

Answer increased expenditures on education.

regulations requiring reductions in pollution.

regulations requiring increases in worker safety.

increases in the capitallabor ratio.

Question

The Solow residual measures the portion of output growth that cannot be explained by growth in:

Answer capital and labor.

technology.

the money supply.

the saving rate.

Question

Prescott interpreted fluctuations in the Solow residual as evidence that:

Answer technology shocks are an important source of short-run economic fluctuations.

the Solow growth model does not converge to a steady-state equilibrium.

endogenous growth models are better explanations of growth than the Solow model.

the marginal product of labor fluctuates more than the marginal product of capital.

Question

An alternative to Prescott's explanation of the cyclical behavior of the Solow residual is that it is the result of:

Answer labor hoarding in recession and cyclical mismeasurement of output.

bad weather, strict environmental regulations, and oil shocks.

declines in capital utilization and labor force participation.

technology shocks.

Question

Labor hoarding refers to:

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using less capital in production so that more workers will have jobs.

continuing to employ workers during a recession to ensure they will be available in the recovery.

contractually preventing workers from obtaining jobs with competing firms.

Question

The Solow residual equals the percentage change in output:

Answer plus the percentage changes in factor inputs weighted by each factor's share of output.

minus the percentage changes in prices of factor inputs.

minus the percentage changes in factor inputs weighted by each factor's share of output.

plus the percentage changes in each factor's share of output.

Question

The Solow residual will fall even if technology has not changed if there is:

Answer population growth.

endogenous growth.

labor hoarding.

balanced growth.

Question

A recent study suggests that the spectacular growth rates experienced by Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and

Taiwan are largely due to:

Answer rapid growth in total factor productivity.

increases in factor inputs.

high rates of saving.

low rates of capital depreciation.

Question

1/2

If the production function is y = k , the steady-state value of y is:

Answer

y = ((s + g)/( + n))1/2.

y = (s + g)/( + n).

y = (2/( + n + g))1/2.

y = s/( + n + g).

Question

If the U.S. production function is CobbDouglas with capital share 0.3, output growth is 3 percent per year,

depreciation is 4 percent per year, and the capitaloutput ratio is 2.5, the saving rate that is consistent with

steady-state growth is:

Answer 12.5 percent.

14 percent.

17.5 percent.

20 percent.

Question

In a steady state with population growth and technological progress:

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the labor share of income increases.

the capital share of income, in some cases, increases, and sometimes the labor share increases.

the capital and labor shares of income are constant.

Question

In a steady state with population growth and technological progress:

Answer the real rental price of capital is constant and the real wage grows at the rate of technological progress.

the real rental price of capital grows at the rate of technological progress and the real wage is constant.

both the real rental price of capital and the real wage grow at the rate of technological progress.

both the real rental price of capital and the real wage are constant.

Question

In comparing two countries with different levels of education but the same saving rate, same rate of population growth,

and same rate of technological progress, one would expect the more highly educated country to have:

Answer a higher growth rate of total income and a higher real wage.

a higher growth rate of total income and the same real wage.

the same growth rate of total income and a higher real wage.

the same growth rate of total income and the same real wage.

Question

If the per-worker production function is y = Ak, where A is a positive constant, then the marginal product of capital:

Answer increases as k increases.

is constant as k increases.

decreases as k increases.

cannot be measured in this case.

Question

If the per-worker production function is y = Ak, where A is a positive constant, in the steady state, a:

Answer lower saving rate does not affect the growth rate.

higher saving rate does not affect the growth rate.

lower saving rate leads to a higher growth rate.

higher saving rate leads to a higher growth rate.

Question

2/3 1/3

If the production function is Y = AK L in the land of Solovia, and the labor force increases by 5 percent while capital

is constant, labor productivity will:

Answer increase by 3.33 percent.

increase by 1.67 percent.

decrease by 1.67 percent.

decrease by 3.33 percent.

Question

In year 1, capital stock was 6, labor input was 3, and output was 12. In year 2, capital was 7, labor was 4, and output

was 14. If shares of labor and capital were each 1/2, between the two years, total factor productivity:

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increased by 1/18.

decreased by 1/12.

decreased by 1/18.

Question

The rate of growth of labor productivity (Y/L) may be expressed as the rate of growth of total factor productivity:

Answer plus the capital share multiplied by the rate of growth of the capitallabor ratio.

minus the capital share multiplied by the rate of growth of the capitallabor ratio.

plus the rate of growth of capital productivity.

minus the rate of growth of capital productivity.

Question

Assume that an economy described by the Solow model is in a steady state with output and capital growing at 3

percent, and labor growing at 1 percent. The capital share is 0.3. The growth-accounting equation indicates that the

contributions to growth of capital, labor, and total factor productivity are:

Answer 0 percent, 1 percent, and 2 percent, respectively.

0.3 percent, 0.7 percent, and 2 percent, respectively.

0.9 percent, 0.7 percent, and 1.4 percent, respectively.

1.8 percent, 0.3 percent, and 0.9 percent, respectively.

Essay 1 points

Question

0.3 0.7

Assume that a country's production function is Y = AK L . The ratio of capital to output is 3, the growth rate of output

is 3 percent, and the depreciation rate is 4 percent. Capital is paid its marginal product.

a. What is the marginal product of capital in this situation? (Hint: The marginal product of capital may be

computed using calculus by differentiating the production function and using the capitaloutput ratio or

by using the fact that capital's share equals MPK multiplied by K divided by Y.)

b. If the economy is in a steady state, what must be the saving rate? (Hint: The saving rate multiplied by Y

must provide for gross growth of ( + n + g)K, where is the depreciation rate.)

c. If the economy decides to achieve the Golden Rule level of capital and actually reaches it, what will be

the marginal product of capital?

d. What must the saving rate be to achieve the Golden Rule level of capital?

Add Question Here

Essay 1 points

Question

Use the data in the exhibit to complete a and b.

Exhibit: Factors of Production Data

Period Y K L Share of Labor in Output

1 100 200 100 0.5

1 106 205 102 0.5

3 111 210 104 0.5

4 110.5 215 104 0.5

5 110 220 104 0.5

a. Compute and report the value of growth in total factor productivity ((A A )/A ) in each period from

t t1 t1

periods 2 through 5. If the value of A is 1.000 in period 1, also report the value of A in each period.

b. Does the value of A rise in each period? If it declines, do you think this decline is because technological

progress works backward? If so, explain your answer. If not, provide another explanation.

Answer a. Growth in A is equal to plus 3.75 percent, plus 2.52, minus 1.64 percent, and minus 1.62 percent in

periods 2 through 5. The values of A in the five periods are 1.0000, 1.0375, 1.0636, 1.046, and 1.0293,

respectively.

b. A does not rise in each period. Many explanations are possible, but one explanation is that the economy

goes into a recession (output drops in periods 4 and 5) and management hoards labor instead of

laying workers off.

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Essay 1 points

Question

Suppose a government is able to permanently reduce its budget deficit. Use the Solow growth model of Chapter 9 to

graphically illustrate the impact of a permanent government deficit reduction on the steady-state capitallabor ratio and

the steady-state level of output per worker.

Be sure to label the: a. axes; b. curves; c. initial steady-state levels; d. terminal steady-state levels; and e. the direction

curves shift.

Answer

Essay 1 points

Question

Suppose Congress passes significant tax cuts on household income but does not reduce spending, so that the

government budget deficit is larger. Use the Solow growth model of Chapter 9 to graphically illustrate the impact of the

tax cut on the steady-state capitallabor ratio and the steady-state level of output per worker.

Be sure to label the: a. axes; b. curves; c. initial steady-state levels; d. terminal steady-state levels; and e. the direction

curves shift.

Answer

Essay 1 points

Question

Suppose a government is able to impose controls that limit the number of children people can have. Use the Solow

growth model of Chapter 9 to graphically illustrate the impact of the slower rate of population growth on the

steady-state capitallabor ratio and the steady-state level of output per worker.

Be sure to label the: a. axes; b. curves; c. initial steady-state levels; d. terminal steady-state levels; and e. the direction

curves shift.

Answer

16 of 19 12/8/2012 11:38

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Essay 1 points

Question

Suppose that technological change is not labor-augmenting, but affects only capital. Use the Solow growth model of

Chapter 9 to graphically illustrate the impact of the slower rate of technological change that increases the rate at which

capital wears out (the rate of depreciation increases) on the steady-state capitallabor ratio and the steady-state level

of output per worker.

Be sure to label the: a. axes; b. curves; c. initial steady-state levels; d. terminal steady-state levels; and e. the direction

curves shift.

Answer

Essay 1 points

Question

Two countries, Highland and Lowland, are described by the Solow growth model. Both countries are identical, except

that the rate of labor-augmenting technological progress is higher in Highland than in Lowland.

a. In which country is the steady-state growth rate of output per effective worker higher?

b. In which country is the steady-state growth rate of total output higher?

c. Does the Solow growth model predict that the two economies will converge to the same steady state?

Answer a. The steady-state growth rate of output per effective worker is zero in both countries.

b. The steady-state growth rate of total output will be higher in Highland because of the higher rate of

technological progress.

c. No, the Solow growth model predicts that the economies will converge to different steady states

because they have different rates of technological progress.

Essay 1 points

Question

Based on the Solow growth model with population growth and labor-augmenting technological progress, explain how

each of the following policies would affect the steady-state level and steady-state growth rate of total output per person:

a. a reduction in the government's budget deficit

b. grants to support research and development

c. tax incentives to increase private saving

d. greater protection of private property rights

Answer a. The reduction in the budget deficit increases the saving rate, which will increase the steady-state level

of output per person, but not alter the steady-state growth rate of output per person.

b. Grants to support research and development may improve the rate of technological progress, which will

increase the steady-state level and growth rate of output per person.

c. Greater private saving increases the saving rate, which will increase the steady-state level of output per

person, but not alter the steady-state growth rate of output per person.

d. Greater protection of property rights may be an institutional improvement that improves the rate of

technological progress, which will increase the steady-state level and growth rate of output per person.

Essay 1 points

Question

Explain how the Solow growth model differs from models of endogenous growth with respect to:

a. the sources of technological progress.

b. returns to capital.

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Answer a. The Solow growth model assumes technological growth exists, while endogenous growth models try to

explain where technological progress comes from.

b. The Solow growth model assumes diminishing returns to capital, while endogenous growth models

assume constant returns to capital.

Essay 1 points

Question

Income per person exceeds $25,000 in many countries, but it is below $1,000 per person in many other countries.

Based on the Solow growth model, suggest at least four possible explanations for this gap in living standards.

Answer Possible explanations include: richer countries have higher saving rates, lower population growth rates, lower

capital-depreciation rates, higher rates of technological progress, or institutions that better facilitate economic

growth.

Add Question Here

Essay 1 points

Question

The economy of Macroland can be described by the Solow growth model. In Macroland the labor force grows at 3

percent per year, labor-augmenting technology increases at 2 percent per year, the saving rate is 15 percent per year,

and the rate of capital depreciation is 10 percent per year. Choosing from among the following variablesoutput per

effective worker, output per worker, total output, labor force, capital per worker, and capital per effective workerwhich

variables will be growing at a:

a. 2 percent rate?

b. 3 percent rate?

c. 5 percent rate?

d. 0 percent rate?

b. labor force

c. total output

d. output per effective worker, capital per effective worker

Essay 1 points

Question

The Solow model with population growth and labor-augmenting technological progress predicts balanced growth in the

steady state. Growth rates of which variables are predicted to be balanced (i.e., will be equal) in the steady state?

Answer Output per worker, capital per worker, and the real wage will all grow at rate g, the growth rate of technological

progress in the steady state. Output per effective worker, capital per effective worker, the capitaloutput ratio,

and the real rental return on capital will all be constant in the steady state.

Add Question Here

Essay 1 points

Question

What is the difference between convergence and conditional convergence with respect to predictions of the Solow

growth model? Explain.

Answer Convergence applies to economies with the same saving rate, population growth rate, depreciation rate, rate

of technological progress, and production function. These economies will converge to the same steady state

according to the Solow growth model, with the same level of output per worker, capital per worker, and growth

rates (even if the levels were initially different). Conditional convergence applies to economies with different

saving rates, population growth rates, depreciation rates, rates of technological progress, and/or production

functions. These economies will move to different steady state equilibria with different levels of output per

worker, capital per worker, and growth rates determined by the key variables.

Add Question Here

Essay 1 points

Question

Explain why additional capital generates both positive and negative impacts on steady-state consumption per worker in

the Solow growth model with population growth and technological change.

Answer Increasing the capital per effective worker ratio increases output available for consumptiona positive impact

on consumption per worker. Increasing the capital-per-effective-worker ratio requires that more of the

additional output be devoted to investment in order to replace a larger depreciating capital stock and to equip

a growing workforce of effective workers with the higher ratio of capital per effective workera negative

impact on consumption per worker.

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Essay 1 points

Question

Suggest three explanations for the productivity slowdown experienced since 1972.

Answer Possible explanations include: mismeasurement of quality improvements, increases in oil prices, declines in

worker quality, and depletion of ideas.

Add Question Here

Essay 1 points

Question

a. What is the Solow residual?

b. Compare Prescott's interpretation of the fluctuations of the Solow residual over the business cycle with

more standard explanations of these fluctuations.

Answer a. The Solow residual is the percentage change in total output minus the percentage change in inputs. It is

a measure of total factor productivity.

b. Prescott interprets the cyclical change in the Solow residual, decreasing in recessions and increasing in

expansions, as evidence that business cycles are the result of technological shocks. Critics of this

interpretation suggest that the Solow residual would decline during a recession without any change in

technology if there is labor hoarding during recessions, and if a different type of output, which is more

difficult to measure, is produced during recessions.

19 of 19 12/8/2012 11:38

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