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Integration of Electric Vehicles into An Industrial

Grid: Impact Assessment and Solutions

T. Tran-Quoc, Senior Member, IEEE L. Nguyen-Van
CEA-lNES, 50 avenue du Lac Leman CEA-lNES, 50 avenue du Lac Leman
73377 Le Bourget-du-lac, France, 73377 Le Bourget-du-lac, France,
e-mail : QuocT uan.Tran@cea.fr

Study the ancillary services with the help of a simulation

Abstract-- In this paper, a simulation tool based on the
tool to measure the impacts and opportunities for the
probabilistic three phase Load Flow (PLF) program has been
developed by using Monte Carlo techniques. By using this tool,
network, users, and vehicle manufacturers
technical and economic impacts of EV integration on the Evaluate the intelligent management of charging and
distribution network are assessed. Studies of the potential services such as V2H (Vehicle to Horne) or V2G (Vehicle
opportunities of ancillary services provided by EV are also carried to Grid) [13-17].
out by using this tool. Considering the probabilistic nature of the EV charging
In order to reduce congestion problems caused by EV integration combined with the one ofloads and PV production, a simulation
into the network. The paper proposes EV charging strategies to tool with a probabilistic three phase Load Flow (PLF) program
reduce the peak charging consumption. These strategies are based
on the interruption (on/off) of EV charging. A binary linear
has been developed by using Monte Carlo techniques.
programming combined with the bisection scheme is used to A better knowledge of the induced constraints becomes
manage the charging plan of electric vehicles. necessary in order to determine the EV penetration level and to
An industrial grid is used for these studies. assess impacts of EV integration on the distribution network.
Index Terms-- Electric vehicle, LV network, stochastic This simulation tool can be used to estimate technical and
approach, impact, charging management, optimization, peak economic constraints and opportunities associated with power
tlow passing between electric vehicles and power grids. The
model integrates the physical modeling of electrical networks,

taking into account technical and economic criteria.
ECENTL Y, there has been a rapid growth of electric Loads in distribution grids are highly unbalanced. This is
vehicles (EV) connected to the grid. Electric vehicles why in the developed simulation tool, modeling of all three
(EVs) play an important role in the transition towards a phases is carried out in order to provide a good estimation of
cleaner energy future . The intersection of energy and
possible EV integration, in particular to assess the allowed EV
automotive sectors and the Smart Grid potential given by
penetration level for a given network by maintaining voltage
electric mobility is followed with great interest [1]. In France in
and current within limits.
2020 this enthusiasm for electric vehicles will result in the
In order to propose solutions to reduce peak charging
cons~mption of 4 to 5 TWh for 2 million electric vehicles [3].
The connection of a large number of electric vehicles to the consumption, the charging of EVs in an industrial charging
grid can raise several technical problems or can have significant stations is considered. It supposes that all EV batteries should
impacts on power systems such as [2-12] : be filled at the end ofthe afternoon when EVs leave the parking.
Changing the load profile of the network with an increase The charging station is connected to the distribution grid via an
in peak demand aggregator. In this paper, the charging management of EVs in
order to determine a planning of EVs switched on or off
Increasing the risk of congestion (overload)
(interruption strategy) is proposed to minimize the power
Changing the voltage profile
exchange with the main grid or following a signal received from
Increasing the voltage unbalance between phases
the Distribution System Operator (DSO).
Increasing losses This paper proposes a new approach that divides the
Increasing harmonics on the network ... charging time into many intervals with a constant or variable
Marketing of electric vehicles will be accompanied by charging power which is fixed by the chargers. At each interval
energy services to be offered to customers. These energy of time, the aggregator sends the decision to the individual
services are based on the battery of electric vehicles that offer charging point in order to connect or disconnect the vehicle for
an opportunity for energy storage to the power grid. Studies are the interruption strategy.
needed to understand the constraints and technical and Based on this strategy, the paper proposes a control for two
economic opportunities provided by electric vehicles. applications to peak shaving. The first application is proposed
The study purpose ofEV penetration to the network is to: to reduce the peak consumption of a parking for charging EV
Assess technical and economic impacts of EV charging on in the daytime. The second application is the same as the first
power systems application but it can take into account of power limit of the

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charging power during a time defined by DSO (or TSO). These /

two obj ectives can be carried out by the same energy

management scheme.


A. Development 0/ the Simulation Tool

From random variables of EV charging such as the battery
SOC (state of charge), the starting time and charging time, a
probabilistic three phase Load Flow (PLF) is developed by
using Monte Carlo techniq ues. Two modes of simulation can be Fig. I: Industrial grid with EV and PV system
realized by using this tool:
2) Load Modeling
- Deterministic simulation: all parameters are fixed (EV
Industrial loads (Fig. 2) are concerned for the study. The
SOC, starting time and stop time of charging)
industrial load reaches peak values and varies slowly between
- Monte-Carlo simulation: set of simulations are performed,
7 and 18 H.
some parameters are defmed as random variables such as
SOC, starting and stop time of charging, PV production .. .
- / I- ,..... -
0 .9
a O.8 f- I- f- f- ---- f--- 1- f- f- f-
In order to assess impacts ofEV on the distribution network, - 0 .7 --
the following indicators are proposed:
.2 0 .6 I- f-- I-
FI l- I--- I--- I--- f- I-
- Indicators related to power flow in lines, cables or
transformer (SI Sn: actual power/rated power)

0 .5
~ 0 .4
0 .3
.3 0 .2
.l.- ) +- - +-- f--- +-+--- \--\--_. 1\
+-- I - f---\ - +--- f---- f---
- Indicators related to the minimal voltage (V min = 0.9 pu) 0 .1 f---l - i- +- I- +-- l- I-
and the maximal voltage (Vmax= l.l pu) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 11 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 61718 1 9 2 0 2 1 22 2 3 2 4
T e mps (H)
- Indicators related to unbalance voltage rate (V 2N J: Fig. 2: Daily load curve for residential and industrialloads
Negative voltage IPositive voltage)
- Indicators related to variation oflosses 3) Electric Vehicle Load Modeling
- Indicators related to economic criteria (charging cost). In our study, two types of charging are considered: normal
In particularly, the neutral currents and losses in neutral (3 kW) and fast charging (43 kW). It is assumed that the process
conductors are also calculated. The program shows also: of electric vehicle recharging is random and determined by
three random variables:
Max or min values ofthese quantities and their occurrence
- The charging start time
Distribution of over-voltage, under-voltage or overcurrent
- The charging time (in function of stope time)
- The EV battery state of charge SOC at the charging start time.
.Critical instants and locations (buses) in the network.
For slow charging, it is assumed that the power is constant
The developed tool based on the Monte Carlo simulation has
during the charging time (3 kW). The charging start and stop
the following advantages:
time of the EV is a uniform distribution or normal distribution
A three-phase load flow program with a fast calculation (Fig. 3.a and 3.b) between 7 and 9 H; 17 and 18 H with a
A simulation which takes into account the unbalance
charging time as a function of the state of charge at the instant
between phases (single or three-phase loads)
of charging. The initial state of charge is a random variable that
An ability to determine the voltage unbalance and losses in
is described by a uniform distribution (Fig. 5.c). The SOC at the
neutral conductors
instant of charging is assumed to be independent from the

The identification of critical time, locations (buses) and
charging time.
occurrence probability ofEV charging

An easy analysis of results with the help of proposed
The proposed program allows an assessment of the impacts
of EV on distribution and also the determination of the 7H 8H 9H 17H 17H30 18HOO 20% 80%
penetration rate of EV. After identifying the critical cases by
(a) (b) (c)
using the developed tool, solutions can be developed end re- Fig. 3: Distribution of charging start, stop time and EV SOC
evaluated in particular to avoid the congestion, to maintain For a fast charging, it is assumed that the power is constant
voltage in limits ... during the charging time and about 43 kW. The charging start
B. Modeling time ofthe EV is a uniform distribution between 8 and 17 H.
4) TarifJmodel
1) LV Industrial Grid
To evaluate economically these different scenarios, two
In order to study impacts ofEV on L V distribution network,
tariffmodels are proposed (Fig. 4):
in this paper an industrial grid is used. This network is supplied
Peak/off-peak tariff
by a 2010.4kV, 1600 kV A transformer with a total power load
Dynamic tariff.
of 900 kV A (without EVs). This network consists of 85 buses
The peak/off-peak tariffs are data currently in use in France.
(Fig. 1).
The dynamic tariffis built from the tariffofRTE (transmission

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system operator In France) by taking into account the 6) Economic indicators related to EV
distribution tariff. Total energy ofEV: 1103.67 kWh/jour

0 . 14
0 . 1 6 ~~~~~~~~~~1 ~
I ~
I ~
il~r :11~ ea
+-+--1-- 7~ro;: .......... .

EV charging cost (dynamic tarift): l.35 /EV/day
EV charging cost (peak/off peak tarift): 1.66
0 . 1 2r-t-t--t--t-t-I1- ...... ....... V t+ ++' .. t l t -t /EV/day.
I 0 1 I-+-t-I-+-t-f-.. V~'=t-- ....."'t.... V+++ ++t\.'d t -t -!""C.I

.8 0
~ - Psys f'I.,.1 I Loss-neuq ~I
....-.. . t-. ........................................................ ~R
Qsys 0
-+7I'..1-....-.. +-....-1... '. .-...+ .rJ: tt\ (r.\ 1 - ~~i~ft~1
0 .08 r-t-++-+-+
V + .-. . . . . .

;;0- - Pload
Qloac 0
0 .06 N--t--t--l::7f'-1i-
...... _~ .2
/& .~
---: ~l~:~ o jS
1/ \\
:'; IP "---' ~ 11 '\ 1'. /
0 .04 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111 2 13 141 5 16 1718192021222324

.8 ~
;> 11 o ;

~ Ci

Fig. 4: Dynamic and peak/off-peak tariff
.6 ~

~ c:- 0
5) PV production .4 ~ 11
.2 -----./
\ 0
/""" "- \
f--, ~V '\ ..-=
5 10 15 20 10 15 20 25
Time(H) Time(H)

Fig. 6: Power flow oftransformer and Fig, 7: Losses in phase conductors,

total loads neutral and totallosses
~ 120
Fig. 6 shows active and reactive power of total load and
80 those of transformer. Fig. 7 shows losses on three phases and
2) Monte-Carlo simulation
The instant of charging, the charging time (in function of
TifTle (H)

Fig. 5: Solar PV production stop time) and SOC are random . After simulation, the EV
PV system is represent by a PV production curve such as charging energy, the costs for dynamic and peak/off-peak tariff
shown in Fig. 5. For Monte-Carlo simulations, PV production are obtained.
Distribution of $-transfo > S-transfo-max
is a random variable. 1.8 2
C. Simulation Results 1.4

By using the developed tool, several scenarios are carried out ~1 .2

~ .o
to assess impacts ofEV on the distribution grid. In this part, we ~ 0.8
present only two cases: a deterministic simulation and Monte- tL

Carlo simulations for the industrial grid. For this case, 78 EV 0.4

with slow charging (3 kW, 25 kWh) and 10 EV with fast


charging in parking (43 kW, 25kWh) are connected to the 10 15
20 25 10 15
20 25

industrial grid (Fig. 1). Fig. 8: Power flow oftransformer Fig. 9: Distribution of overloads
1) Deterministic simulation 1.7 , - , - , - , - 'S""imT"'ul",,ati'j"0n'O.s'p.by-",M'j"0n""le'T'.c""ar'T'-lo- ,
This part presents the deterministic simulation results with
100% ofEV penetration and without PV production. 1.6a1--+-+-~.I-~~~~1!='1
Number ofEV: 88 (78 EV slow + 10 EV fast charging) ~ 1.66....."""''''''''' -+-+--+--+--+--+--1 ~ 50f - --+1J-+ -
Penetration rate ofEV: 100% (88 EV) ~ 1.641-t-t-t-t-t--t--t--t--+--I ~ 40 r----+~-+---+~+4--~
fi. S,o r---~~-+---+--*+--~
1) Indicators related to power flow oftransformer 1.62 1-t-t-t-t- - - - - t -
Dally average power: 872.99 kV A
S_transformer > Sn (moy 10min): 0.69 % 1.580 100200 300400 500 600 700 8009001000
Number of simulations

2) Indicators related to voltage Fig. 10: Evolution of power in Fig, 11 : Total power losses
function of simulation number
Min voltage in phase a : 0.95 pu Simulations by Monte-Carlo
Rate ofvoltage < 0.9 pu: 0% va-~
0 .97 Vb-~
Min voltage in phase b : 0.97 pu
r- furI n
0.96 r,
Rate ofvoltage < 0.9 pu: 0% .8:0.95
Min voltage in phase c : 0.98 pu ~ ~

Rate ofvoltage < 0.9 pu: 0% ~ >0 .93 t-
3) Indicators related to losses 0.92

0.91 t-
Losses: 776.50 kWh/day
4) Indicators related to voltage unbalance 0.9 0 1002003004005006007008009001000
Number of simulations

Rate of voltage unbalance per day: 0.60%

5) Economic indicators related to loads Fig. 12: Voltages ofthe network Fig, 13: Evolution of voltage in
Total energy : 18506.95 kWh/day function of simulation number

Losses in neutrals : 147.25 kWh/day

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1.8 ~~-~-~-~~
1.4 f---+ ___'"'i'W I Xit * T = Ti (2)
~1.2 1------1-1----l----' t=1
~ .O 1-----+1--+-+-----.+_-----1 Finally, the objective function is to minimize the total peak
~ O.~-+~-f--~-~-~ consumption ofthe charging station:
~0 ~-+--1------1-~-~

min {,:,,~x (P,}) ~ min {,:,,~x {~ P", X" }}

O . ~~+_-f--~-~. .~
00 10 15 20 25
Time (H) 25
Where N EV is the number ofvehicles
Fig. 14: Power flow o f transfonner in Fig. 15 : Losses in case with PV PEVi the rated power of vehicle i
case with PV production production
XiI is the integer variable (0 or 1)
In this case, the initial load of system is 300 kV A
D is a set charging time.
(S transfo= 1600 kVA). In case with 100% VE penetration rate,
With respect to:
78 EV slow charging and 10 EV fast charging are used to NEV
simulation. The Monte-Carlo simulation with 1000 simulations
is carried out by using the developed tool for each scenario.
I PEViXil ~ bwith Vt E 0
Fig. 8 shows active and reactive power of total load and NT (4)
those oftransformer. Fig. 9 presents the distribution of overload
numbers (S > Sn). Fig. 10 shows evolution of transformer IXil*T = Ti
power flow in function of simulation number. Fig. 11 presents
Xii E {0,1}
totallosses of the network. Voltages profile and evolution of Here Max{Pt} =b. Unfortunately, solving this problem (3)
voltage in function of simulation number are shown in Figs. 12 with a great number ofEV is very hard. This is why, a bisection
and 13. Figs 14 and 15 show power flow of transformer and scheme is used to convert the nonlinear problem to linear
losses in case with PV production (200 kW). problem that is easier to solve. The optimization ofthe problem
3) Synthesis in (3) is converted to solve the following optimization problem :
From studies carried out for the studied networks with the NEV NT
assumptions presented above, we can see:
Z=I I PEViXil (5)
o There is less risk of voltage problems on this network i=1 1=1
because it has a short length and a big cross section of In order to solve (5), a bisection strategy is proposed. In each
underground cables. But this network has risks for iteration of the bisection, (5) is a binary linear programming
congestion problem because it has generally an important problem. To solve this problem, we use a branch-and-bound
load and a great number ofEV; algorithm that uses linear programming (LP) relaxation .
o There are no problem ofvoltage unbalance between phases 2) EV charging scheduling
o With the help of PV production (200 kW), congestions are The simulations are carried out with charging parking in an
avoided and losses can be reduced for 4%. industrial grid with 100 electric vehicles with normal charge
(3kW). The capacity of each EV is 25kWh. EV charging can be
III. OPTIMAL CHARGlNG SCHEDULTNG OF EV switched on or switched off each 30 minutes (or 10 min). The
charging start time is varied randomly with a normal distribution
1) Methodology
in the parking between 7am and 9am. The charging stop time is
In this part, the management system determines the
randomly varied between 5pm and 6pm with anormal
charging planning of EV in order to minimize the total peak
distribution. The initial SOC ofEVs is randomly varied between
consumption. The management system determines when each
20 and 80% with a uniform distribution.
EVi is activated (on) or deactivated (off). A binary charging
variable XiI in the interval t is used to indicate the operation 300 I~-T-~:-"-~-~--;'============;l
- P-EV w ltho ut o pt
state ofEVi. IfXil= 1 then EVi is tumed on and ifXil=O then EVi 250
- - P - EV wlth Opt
is turned off. - - Grid w ithout opt
- - G r l d wlth o pt
For each EVi, the necessary charging time Ti is determined 200

by (1). A linear approach for Lithium battery is used, in which ~

the relation between charging duration and SOC is determined ~ 150 ~~_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _1~r-_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~_ _~

by: a..
Tcharge = (1- SOC o) -p-- (1) 50
Tcharge is the time needed to fully charge ofbattery (h) o
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
SOCo is the initial state of charge (%) Time (H)
Ern x is the rated capacity ofthe battery (kWh) Fig. 16: EV tota l power and power exchange with grid without management
P charge is the charging power. and with management (without PV production)
The relation between XiI and Ti is:

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In this paper, a simulation tool based on the probabilistic
three phase Load Flow (PLF) program has been developed by
using Monte Carlo techniques in order to determine the EV
penetration rate, to assess impacts of EV on the distribution
network and opportunities contributed by EV. Impacts of EV
integration on the distribution network are easy to assess by
technical and economic indicators proposed in this paper.
From critical problems identified from simulations,
Time (H)
Fig. 17: Evolution of E Vs ' SOC (without PV production) solutions to reduce the peak consumption of EV charging have
been proposed. These strategies are based on the interruption of
charging power. It has been shown that the proposed algorithm
is carried out with a fast computing time and can be applied for
a large number of EVs with satisfactory results. This
proposition can be applied for different scenarios such as
daytirne and nighttime.

[I] Maren Kuschke, Kai Strunz, " Decentralized Energy Systems in Germany:
Development and Research", XlII APB::Waklcll:pm~~i1AMl
Time (H)
~at:lSrmt.Qidi1APEC, Aug. 2011 , Taipei
Fig. 18: Time charging schedule ofEVs (without PV production)
[2] Larry Dickerman, Jessica Harrison, "A New Car, a New Grid", IEEE
In Fig. 16, the simulation results show that without power & energy magazine, March/April 20 I 0
management the total peak consumption can reach 300 kW [3] Smart-Grids - CRE, http ://www.smartgrids-
between 9:00am and 10:00am. With the proposed solution, the cre.fr/ index.php?rubrique=doss iers&srub=vehicules
[4] K. Schneider, C. Gerkensmeyer, M. Kintner-Meyer, and R. Fletcher.
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..... - - P-EV without Opt
- - P-EV wlth Opt
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- - - OptwlthDSO
I. Prague, 8-11 J une 2009
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oL-~--~--~--~--~--~--~ ____ ~ __ ~ __ ~
[9] J. Taylor, A. Maitra, M. Alexander, D. Brooks and M. Duvall,
7 " Evaluation of the impact of plug-in electric vehicle loading on
Time (H)
distribution system operations", IEEE Power and Energy Society General
Fig. 19: EV total power and power exchange with grid without management Meeting 2009, Calgary, Canada, July 2009.
and with management (with DSO; without PV production) [10] Richardson, Peter; Flynn, Damian; Keane, Andrew, " Impact assessment
With the proposed solution according to the requirement of of varying penetrations of electric vehicles on low voltage distribution
DSO (signal received from DSO) to reduce total charging power systems", IEEE/PES General Meeting 2010
[11] S. Acha, T.C. Green, N. Shah, "Optimal Charging Strategies of Electric
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, , - - P-EV without opt
- - P-EV with Opt
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and with management (with PV production)

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