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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 6, June 2013)

Micromilling Strategies for Machining of Micro EDM


Electrodes
Bhattacharyya Pulakesh1, Sam Jesson G 2
1, 2
Production Dept.Indo German Tool Room, P-31 MIDC Industrial area, Aurangabad M.S-431006
Abstract The thin and miniature component with precise On the one hand, because of the scaling effect, the micro
dimensional tolerances is always a changeable promise cutting tools become vulnerable to excessive cutting
towards the enhancement of micro machining process. The conditions; big cutting force will break the tool directly
three-dimensional electrodes are difficult to fabricate in terms from first contact. On the other hand, the process
of its complicated shape and a very precise dimensional
parameters for micromilling of hardened tool steel are
tolerances. Recent advances micro machining techniques is a
tangible process in those directions. Tungsten-copper sintered unknown. There is no handbook available for Micromilling
composite material is used to produce microelectrodes for as a reference [4]. At this moment the selection of cutting
electrical discharge machining. In this paper, a milling parameters are mainly from the recommend values by tool
strategy accounting a tool path-planning concept is suppliers, which are mostly based on trial and error
introduced by the overall CAD/CAM considerations. Series of practice. So comply with to those reasons still no
experiment are conducted to achieve desired dimensional alternative to fabricate electrodes.Experimentals evidences
accuracy in microelectrodes. A statistical model is developed are found that graphite and etp copper are not suitable as
for dimensional accuracy by considering the feed, rpm, and Wcu electrodes material to producing microelectrodes. S
axial depth of cut for finish programming of those electrodes.
Dimov et al study the advantages and disadvantages of
KeywordsMicroelectrodes, WCu, CAD/CAM, Factorial using different machining strategies for micromilling and
design, ANOVA, Half Normal Plot, Main Effect Plot, then verify their capabilities experimentally and proposing
Interaction Plot, Contour Plot. an approach for storing and re-using expert knowledge
about micromachining strategies associated with different
I. INTRODUCTION feature types [5]. Eckart Uhlmann, et al first time
demonstrates that the micro milling of tungstencopper
Microelectrodes are potentially used through electrical
sintered composite materials with end mills is possible if
discharge machining to produce micro injection mouldings,
suitable machine tool equipment is available and the
microchanells, tooling inserts etc. Tungstencopper
cutting speed as well as the feed per tooth is adjusted
sintered composite material (WCu) is well suitable
correctly [6]. But there is little research done on the milling
electrode materials [1]. Admittedly, they are known for
strategies to producing micro electrodes of WCu sintered
micro structural inhomogenities, which have a bad
composite material. The aim of the work to find out the
influence on the subsequent cutting process if products
appropriate milling strategy to producing microelectrodes
with very fine structures shall be made. The achievable
evolving a tool path concept through CAD/CAM
surface roughness and the dimensional and shape accuracy
considerations and also deriving a mathematical model for
are affected by the WCu specifications properties of the
dimensional accuracy with the interaction of rpm,feed,and
material [2]. Micromilling with a hard metal micro end mill
axial depth of cut .
is the most flexible and economical machining process in
the small and medium lot sizes for performing real 3D
geometries, also for ferrous materials. The most important II. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
application of micromilling is the manufacturing of micro-
sized dies and moulds. Due to the tool problems, the work
piece quality is not satisfying requirements in terms of burr
formation, surface quality and form accuracy. There are
several reasons for the poor performance of micro end
mills, such as unsuitable tool geometry, unknown cutting
conditions, lack of knowledge in machine tools,
machinability of work piece material, and wrong milling FIGURE 1 THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF SPECIMEN MICRO EDM
strategies [3]. It was reported that the error in depth of cut ELECTRODES

led to tool breakage.


558
International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 6, June 2013)
For more slender electrode use semifinishing and finishing
method in single operation.
6. The feed rate to be smoothed and adjusted to avoid the
sharp tool motion.
7. Set the motion output as nurbs or circular-perp to TA for
FIGURE 2 SPECIMEN MICRO EDM ELECTRODES AFTER MACHINING better accuracy of a tool path.
The material for microelectrode machining is Tungsten 8. Verify the generated tool path and check for in process
copper sintered composite materials of grade WCu work piece, excess material and gouges and set the
75/25.The 3 dimensional electrodes have the all over tolerances.
profile dimension of 100 m (vertical wall and two 9. Put the value of the spindle speed, in such a way that it
projections) and the dimensional accuracy in order of 5 m minimizes the chatter. And Feed rate and depth of cut, that
unilaterally in positive direction. The machining of the it does not violate the tolerance level for tool deflection.
electrode is carried out in v33 Makino VMC, which has the
highest RPM of 20000.and positioning accuracy of IV. DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT
0.1 m .Diameter 1mm solid carbide end mill is used in
The experiment was conducted to analyze the effect of
finishing programming of microelectrodes. ZEISS CMM
spindle speed (N), axial depth of cut (Ae), and feed rate
(Coordinate Measuring Machine) of least count.05m is
(Vf) on the dimensional accuracy (d). Each factor was set
used to check the dimensional accuracy of the profile.
to the low and high levels as defined in table1
III. THE OVERALL CAD/CAM CONSIDERATION FOR TOOL TABLE 1
TWO LEVEL FACTORIAL DESIGN
PATH GENERATION
There are some requirements, which required to be Parameter High Low
fulfilled designing the milling strategy of microelectrodes Cutting speed(N) 20000(rpm) 8000(rpm)
as follows Feed(Vf) 400(m/min) 100(m/min)
1. Use FEA method to validate the electrode model Axial depth of cut(Ae) .2mm .025mm
accounting to dynamic flexibility, natural frequencies and The selected experimental design is 2 level full factorial
shape mode to consider the cutting forces to compensate designs and the design matrix is shown in Table 2.
for deflection of the cutting tools and their paths as well as
TABLE 2
for fixturing of microelectrodes. DESIGN MATRIX
2. To avoid the data translation error, electrode should be
designed in same software that is used for CAM. While the Axial Feed Dimensional
Spindle
separate software may not heal importing the part geometry Standard Depth of Rate accuracy
speed(N)
if gap of .01mm arises of two adjacent surface and it may order Cut(MM) (M/MIN) (MM)
RPM
(Ae) (Vf) (d)
generate unreliable tool path that can damage the
1 8000 0.025 100 0.005
microelectrodes. Integrated CAD/CAM software curtails
the risk of happening to such type of inaccuracy 2 20000 0.025 100 0.012
maintaining the integrity of that part. 3 8000 0.2 100 0.015
3. While generating the CAM programme it often require 4 20000 0.2 100 0.013
that some sort of part geometry modification in accordance 5 8000 0.025 400 0.017
6 20000 0.025 400 0.018
tool path generations. The software must enable to do
7 8000 0.2 400 0.021
those modifications maintaining the tangency and
8 20000 0.2 400 0.022
continuity of the related surfaces of microelectrodes. 9 14000 .125 250 0.016
4.The software should support tool path calculation with tol
erances down to 0.1 and should be capable enough to V. RESULT & DISCUSSION
post processing of those tool paths considering the machine
tool motion control and feedback system. A. Half Normal Plot
5. Divide the method as roughing, semifinishing and In the half normal plot of the effects, points that do not
finishing operation and use the in process workpiece or fall near the line usually signal significant effects.
knowledge of remaining stock for sequential operation.
559
International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 6, June 2013)
Such effects are larger and generally further from the The result of half normal plot is confirmed by the basis
fitted line than unimportant effects. Insignificant effects of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) in Table3.
tend to be smaller and close to zero. In a half normal plot, The regression model for dimensional accuracy (d) is
all the significant effects are labelled and fall toward the d= -0.00783129 + 8.92857E-007 spindle speed +
right. 0.114337 axial depth of cut + 5.90476E-005 Feed rate -
5.71429E-006 spindle speed * axial depth of cut -
Half Normal Plot of the Standardized Effects 2.02381E-009 spindle speed * Feed rate - 0.000228571
(response is d, Alpha = 0.05) axial depth of cut * Feed rate + 1.42857E-008 spindle
Effect Type
speed * axial depth of cut * Feed rate
Not Significant
Significant
The Summary of above model is
99.98
Factor Name S = 0.000269069, R-Sq = 99.97%, R-Sq (adj) = 99.72%,
A N
B Ae
PRESS = 0.0000445261
C Vf
R-Sq (pred) = 78.82%The above summary can be
Percent

98 explicated as The R-Sq statistic, which is the measure of


95
the proportion of total variability explained by the model, is
C equal to 0.9997 or close to 1, which is desirable. The
85 adjusted R-Sq is also utilized to consider the model
80 B
significance since it is useful when comparing model with
50 different number of terms. The results show that the adjust
20
R-Sq (0.9972) is not significantly different from the
0 ordinary R-Sq (0.9997). Another statistic, the prediction
0 10 20 30 40
error sum of squared (PRESS), is used as a measure of how
Absolute Standardized Effect
accurate the model will predict new data.
FIGURE 3 HALF-NORMAL PLOT OF EFFECTS C. Main Effect
According to the half-normal plot in Fig.3, feedrate (C)
contribute the highest effect on the dimensional accuracy, Main Effects Plot for d
Data Means
followed by axial depth of cut (B) in that order.
N Ae
0.025
B. ANOVA Analysis
0.020
TABLE 3
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE (ANOVA) FOR DIMENSIONAL ACCURACY. 0.015

0.010
F
Sou Sum of D Mean Prob > 0.005
value
Mean

rce squares f square F 8000 14000 20000 0.025 0.125 0.200

Regressi Vf
0.025
0.0002101 0.0000300 414.671 0.0377946
on 7
0.020

N 0.0000229 316.406 0.0357520 0.015


1 0.0000229
0.010
Ae 0.0000329 0.0000329 454.332 0.0298452
1
0.005
f 0.0000367 0.0000367 507.010 0.0282544 100 250 400
1
N*Ae 0.0000191 263.250 0.0391874 FIGURE 4 MAIN EFFECTS PLOT FOR DIMENSIONAL
0.0000191 1 ACCURACY
N*Vf 0.0000100 0.0000100 138.178 0.0540277
1 A main effects plot graphs the response mean for each
Ae*Vf 0.0000112 0.0000112 154.319 0.0511370 factor level connected by a line. When the line is
1
horizontal, then there is no main effect present. Each level
N*Ae* of the factor affects the response in the same way, and the
0.0000101 0.0000101 139.852 0.0537050
Vf 1 response mean is the same across all factor levels. When
Error 0.0000001 0.0000001 the line is not horizontal, then there is a main effect present.
1 Different levels of the factor affect the response differently.
560
International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 6, June 2013)
The steeper the slope of the line, the greater the Contour plots are useful for establishing operating
magnitude of the main effect. conditions that produce desirable response values. A
From fig4 it can observe that feed rate (Vf) has the contour plot provides a two-dimensional view where all
highest effect on dimensional accuracy followed by axial points that have the same response are connected to
depth of cut (Ae) and spindle speed (N). produce contour lines of constant responses.
Figure 6 & Figure 7 indicate that the a precise
D. Interaction Effect
dimensional accuracy can be maintained in microelectrodes
Interactions Plot creates a single interaction plot for two at low feed rate where your spindle speed and axial depth
factors, or a matrix of interaction plots for three to nine of cut is set to low level.
factors. An interactions plot is a plot of means for each
level of a factor with the level of a second factor held
constant. Interactions plots are useful for judging the
presence of interaction. Interaction is present when the
response at a factor level depends upon the level(s) of other
factors. Parallel lines in an interactions plot indicate no
interaction. The greater the departure of the lines from the
parallel state, the higher the degree of interaction.
To use interactions plot, data must be available from all
combinations of levels.
The interaction effects of (Ae, NVf, AeVf) are exist
because they are very closure to p-value (.05).
Fig. 4 shows how the interaction of spindle speed (N),
axial depth of cut (Ae) and feed rate (Vf) effect on
dimensional accuracy.

Interaction Plot for d


Data Means FIGURE6 CONTOUR PLOT OF DIMENSIONAL ACCURACY VS AXIAL DEPTH
OF CUT AND SPINDLE SPEED
0.025 0.125 0.200 100 250 400

0.020 N
8000
N 0.015 14000
20000
0.010
N
8000
Ae
0.020
14000
0.025
0.015 20000
0.125
Ae
0.200
0.010

Vf

FIGURE5 INTERACTION EFFECTS PLOT FOR DIMENSIONAL ACCURACY FIGURE7 CONTOUR PLOT OF DIMENSIONAL ACCURACY VS FEED RATE
AND SPINDLE SPEED
E. Contour Plot
Contour plots show how response variables relate to two VI. CONCLUSION
continuous design variables (factorial and response surface The purpose of the study to develop a milling strategy
designs) or three components (mixture designs) while for fabrication microelectrodes with CAD/CAM
holding the rest of the variables in a model at certain consideration. The factorial design is used to find out the
settings. In a contour plot, the fitted response model is best cutting condition which directs to give maximum
viewed as a two-dimensional surface where all points that dimensional accuracy using the cutting parameter spindle
have the same fitted value are connected to produce speed, axial depth of cut and feed rate.
contour lines of constants.
561
International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 6, June 2013)
The half a normal plot and ANOVA analysis show that [2] Eckart Uhlmann, Sascha Piltz, Kai Schauer Micro milling of
sintered tungstencopper composite materials, Journal of Materials
the feed rate (Vf) most significant followed by depth of cut
Processing Technology 167 (2005)
(Ae) and spindle speed (N). The regression model
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empirical model and optimize the dimensional accuracy of affecting the performance of micro square end mills in milling of
hardened tool steels,4Mconference, 2008.
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[5] S Dimov, D T Pham, A Ivanov, K Popov, K Fansen, Micromilling
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