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dwelling. Therefore due to beds for every 1000 patients. K831. In this process and medical equipment can be provided.581billion for 2011-2012. Although the expenditure for the hospitals can be constructed during a resource such as doctors. 2 Finance and human resource effecting Myanmar’s healthcare sector HTOO THANT for them have to also be added in the budget. it is still and is expected to rise to US$22. yearly earns on the difficulties that their constituencies millions of foreign currency from are facing such as to extend rural medical overseas patients by providing them with centers. was allocated for the health approximately about 40 sub township However. . K840. Although the WHO As for Malaysia. technicians to that in countries that are low in development. a Nevertheless. Myint Htwe. which amounts to on the budget allocated. According to the approved statistics increase of growth rate. K484. health insurance system should be set up to drawn up for the years 2018. Translation by Khine Thazin Han. medicines and medical equipment Myanmar due to lack of human resources and to towns. there are five 200 bed region billion for 2014-2015. So when this kind of situation arises people have to bare about 80 percent of the total cost which is a burden for them. plans have been only be US$20. population of about 51 million. A lot of fatalities happen due to unaffordable treatment cost.” for a person is approximately US$60 but in tourism which support their health sectors. “If I have to be are also 1123 township and sub township K1077 billion has been allocated.” the Union Minister added. There and for the current 2017-2018 financial year says Dr. hospital fees etc. reply “ For instance. Similarly in Myanmar. Public-Private Partnership(PPP) to raise the not implemented. when a state or region request hospitals in Myanmar. Myint Htwe. For this year 2017. Although the situation is fundamental healthcare and prevention higher than Myanmar.” Dr. 10 central level 2015-2016. 820 in says Dr. occurrence in K86. Union Minister for of the states and regions. some ASEAN member medical treatment and even lose their lives countries receive assistance to provide said U Tun Tun Win. the nearest finance makes it is difficult even to cover the township to Nay Pyi Taw does not have a sub local healthcare sector. there are no specialists from the concerned ministry was that not to such as neurologists. also raises the same request. so patients have to travel either to due to constraints of financial and human Mandalay or Yangon for treatment but as resource. it is impossible to provide human According the 2015 statistics of the WHO. However. health sector of those countries are much financial year. to the Pyithu Hlauttaw session on June 5. there are Health and Sports is only just K1000 billion related tourists who visited Malaysia where such as border areas face difficulties for plans to nurture 642 specialists. sector. the healthcare “Construction of new hospitals. to appoint more midwives and nurses international standard treatments and its and also to provide sufficient amount of state-of-the-art medical facilities where as doctors.383 knowledge. private sector are working to together as quarters resource such as specialist. 2012. hospitals in experienced this kind of situation. travel expense. they always have to travel to other ASEAN counties health tourism sector. expenditure of the healthcare sector.. Union hospital immediately.882 the public. either Mandalay or Yangon for medical Although questions were raised at treatment which cost them a fortune. Hluttaw sessions regarding healthcare. for a 500 bed hospital another state or region indicates that it is necessary to have three expenditure in 2013 was US$13. T hailand which is Myanmar’s Hluttaw MPs usually raise questions based immediate neighbour. “Myanmar’s healthcare expenditure is only five percent of the total budget and is far more behind the expenditure of other low-income countries where their expenditure is nine percent. of medicines are factors that directly affect K661. lack of healthcare billion for 2012-2013. cardiologists. at present even to gastroenterologists and urologists in this cover healthcare for the citizens are unable hospital. S$76. relieve the burden of the public said Dr.052 billion for 2016-2017 to appoint sufficient amount of doctors many difficulties to fulfill the health services hospitals and 30 specialist hospitals. Therefore. mention medical tourism. Pyithu Hluttaw the country received millions of US dollars. meaning healthcare workers. when a 500 bed hospital is unclear that how many beds are there for in 2018. “Change in social-economic system.” says U Win Win. township hospital so people who dwell in According to the ASEAN healthcare rural areas face much difficulties in receiving communiqué. At present. another Pyithu Hlauttaw are even much cheaper.7 billion extending and renovating existing hospitals. Although previously MP of Yekyi Township in the Ayeyarwaddy In the Philippines.9 billion. since the fiscal year 2011. K381. Photos: Zarni Phyo hospitals to provide medical cover to the give up their lives” said a native who had rural populace are difficult. medicines patients in a country like Myanmar with a 11 percent of the GDP. together with the hospital. even expanding township level some even cannot afford to go and have to Emergency assistance provided to a patient in an ambulance. the government has increased the Shwe Win. so the cost of 2018 and 767 in 2019. some kind of a health insurance scheme should be set up.976 billion for towns and cities are also facing difficulties The Union Minister said that there are still and state level hospitals. Therefore. the government and the building living there were plans to increase the human Region. medical treatment. Hluttaw MP of Yamethin international standard healthcare compared township. Even in Yamethin.” he said. there were 600000 health Doctors who have to serve in far-flung areas specialists. Therefore the Ministry is nurturing more Myanmar the allocation for the Ministry of During 2015. a system which can effectively support the government’s healthcare system and provide necessary healthcare to the public. Hluttaw MP of Ingapu Township in the Ayayarwaddy Region who commented on the burden people face in their daily lives regarding health matters. there are healthcare Minister for Health and Sports explained obvious it is difficult to fulfill it.are so high Currently. Health and Sports. to some western nations so health services U Zone Teint. these MP from Chi Phwe township in Kachin countries yearly receive millions of dollars State said that although there is a 500 bed from overseas patients who come for hospital in Myitkyina for the whole state. San 2021. new 16-bed sub township hospitals all depend provided. this plan was So if calculated with the allocated budget. Kyaw Soe Htet and Zar Zar Soe The Yangon Children’s Hospital (YCH) is a major public hospital in Yangon. the health expenditure for a person would healthcare sector. there are no specialists to treat patients Thailand’s medical tourism earns US$ 2 so people feel very sad and in times of billion per year which is about 40 percent of emergency.254 new types of diseases. In the case of Singapore in 2015. straightforward. scarce in health funds and lack billion for 2013-2014. San Shwe Win.9 billion constructing service apartments and building the actual situation.


if the a day. Khin Su Wai. Medical Superintendent of Yangon General Hospital MYINT KAY THI as basic medicine and emergency department drugs are provided Q: How many departments are free of charge. Tin Zaw Htway Winaung247@gmail. Yangon General A: Yangon General Hospital was Hospital’s yearly drug expenditure upgraded in 2016 to a hospital for the emergency department is that can provide 2000 beds. The country needs to build capacity by adding doctors and nurses to cope with the growing number of patients. With Anawrahta Road. numbering tasks. in the long also a teaching hospital. so there is some medical equipment at the Yangon patient is brought in time to inpatients is 2000 to 2500. the number of Ministry of Construction facing bed hospital. If it is approved. patients will be able to stay you can do it at Yangon General disease. many new free drugs. Htoo Thant. As a run. Myanmar Times reporter Myint Kay Thi interviewed the hospital’s Medical Superintendent Dr Aye Ko Ko about the working conditions of its doctors and nurses. such as Positron Those with blocked bold vessels A: There are plans to open a new doctors are more than 400. Naing Wynn Htoon. Of Under a project planned by the there are more than 700 nurses. Those are the number of patients are more than been relocated to North Okkalapa been installed. Myint Kay Thi. medical superintendent of Yangon General Hospital. cost-sharing. cancer center and other more cancer patients lately. 4 Myanmar’s health sector is still underdeveloped. Aung Htay Hlaing. In general. There have been a lot Dr. It’s K5.  Photo: Myint Kay Thi units. We comfortably at a spacious hospital. there department. The emergency Translation by Kyaw Soe Htet HEALTH SUPPLEMENT 2017 Deputy Editor-in-Chief: Staff writers: Photography: Cover design: For feedback and enquiries. need more nurses. Currently the Also. They General Hospital operating with? overcrowding. They are by the government to establish the tropical medicine department. For this year. The construction General Hospital. injury patients. assistant doctors. successful payment. and we will try to treatment daily at Yangon current plans. Other overcrowded due to large number necessary equipment and drugs of patients receiving treatment. That’s why. Besides the wards? Obstetrics and Gynecology. so patients can be install more new devices as they General Hospital is between be fulfilled by the end of 2017. The health services. and the time taken to will be opened. Zarni Phyo. Currently.com Hein Min Latt. the Neurology Department has equipment and devices have also The number of patients receiving affordable meals. but now age. particularly Yangon General Hospital. which I believe will the number of nurses. and what can the hand surgery department. and free. providing patients with clean. Are there any plans to expand there are 27 departments. and the cost of drugs and medical equipment. have also been provided. Drugs are Township. More than 60 new assistant wards for sick patients. the prevalence of the Central Hospitals. Aye Ko Ko. and canteens red-uniformed nurse. Editor: Pyae Thet Phyo. buildings are transferred to us. Before. There Q: Yangon General Hospital are Doctors and nurses are also seems to have become assigned to these wards. will be used as a patient treatment scanning device.please contact Myo Lwin Nay Aung. can you talk about the full of a five-storey wing intended for patients expect when they come Furthermore. number of patients receiving Q: Can you tell us about the that are accidently chopped off department sees 500 patients tube feeding and chemotherapy improvement of treatments and or cut can be reattached. Another new five-storey A: This hospital has all the department with a thoracis Hospital in the future? A: If you add specialists and building will be constructed by the modern equipment of a 2000. Yangon General Hospital has an A: The main reason is the cancer emergency department. fingers 300 to 400. the addition of assistant nurses. but it has been upgraded to four wards. But. But as we’ve completed all these to get PET-CT scans. with the aim of about 300. patient wards. After those emission tomography. and hand surgery Hluttaw. And. And the number of Q: How large a staff is Yangon has risen. aortic aneurysm or rupture. Cover Photos: Win Aung Win Aung. diagnosed there. As soon to go to Bangkok or Singapore rate depends on the patient’s pharmacies will be reopened at nurses have been appointed. become available. low income patients continue to rely on state owned hospitals. come from every region and state. a health insurance system. it tomography (PET-CT).3billion. That hormonal disease treatment topic is being discussed in the department. are currently idle. Hospital. Maung Zaw Nyan Zay Htet Shutterstock Sub-editor: Layout design: P Vijian Khin Zaw . patients have there in Yangon General Hospital to bare the cost of some medicine and what kinds of diseases are that have run out as there are treated there? a lot of patients at the hospital. Also. you had course the success of treatment Ministry of Health and Sports. To find out the latest situation at the city’s most popular hospital. Interview with Dr Aye Ko Ko. Other necessary reach the hospital. and cancer clot-bursting medicine. computed resulting in stroke will be given medical treatment department. not under the cost-sharing system. cancer patients is near completion in for check-up? treatments can be provided Q: What programmes are of-charge health services? and will probably be finished around to patients at the emergency planned by Yangon General November. The Pharmacology might be changes in the drug Department previously had three treatment system. There is also a plan departments were formed. we cannot continue giving out result of the upgrades.

although civil a woman who is providing healthcare whether that village track medical the patient. eighty five percent of and children fall sick we have to in the fields and then they have to the people live in rural areas.” As for event occurred due to difficulties in four ampoules in each village track to give this antivenin injection when a mind. the patient is taken to the nearest antivenin on a self-helped basis in medical treatments to survive. a health assistant for the villagers. even hour later.” said a health official. region have been expecting for skillful in Min Hla Township said. nobody has the answer barriers to healthcare that limit their societies are helping out and to the villagers.rural health centers. (SRHC) and they prefer traditional healthcare which is most important snake. help of the villagers it died about an twenty five townships and “Let alone health assistants. which is situated on give them injections. M agwe region located in the the situation gets worse they just go Although the child was born by the central part of Myanmar has to that woman to take an injection. villagers buy the transportation. where a midwife was medical centers. the traditional medicine for the first Villagers from those village tracks health assistants till to date they still ordinary sickness. health practioner) in the village. Translation by Zaw Nyunt . are still longing for the day when She learnt while a health assistant the mountain range from the nearest Pe township. which is village tracks in the region. them to the nearest clinic” said village week. we just get the Road connectivity is one of the aid treatment for snake bites. according to the 2014 census urban administrative authorities barely Many residents from these villages population constitutes only fifteen visit the villages which are on the are still facing a situation where percent of the total region. but if the bamboo baskets. Myanmar Medical Association said place where it is bitten and let him antivenin has been provided to all the Region. 5 Rural healthcare expectations NAY AUNG medicines advertised in the media unable to arrive on time to deliver from the nearest shops. township four hours. However a health official said that professional health workers will (HA) came to the village. to rely upon sub-rural health centers they still lack in providing basic snakebites. So it is questionable inquires who injects the antivenin to mountain ranges often experience In these areas. centre was able to handle snake bite and it is difficult to stop them or give ability to obtain the care they need. A nurse providing health assistance to villagers. any knowledge. a rope is tied just above the now they say that sufficient amount of worrisome in villages in Magwe assigned in Taungdwingyi township said. Then say that they have purchased have to depend on their traditional injection from the woman (illegal main difficulties for rural healthcare. “For an in the health sector of rural areas. An official from the snake. descending parts to some villages on in-charge of the youth network of Nge villagers. aches and pains.” said Mai Pan Yi. people in rural areas woman is a native of this village. snake bite occurs. nobody of their health so as for them to carry medical officials are unable to come Just about two months ago a sad township hospitals. When a health official to reach and rural residents on region. So providing assistance in projects Another danger which falls upon cases where there are so many snakes advice from using antivenin without most rural people are still reluctant such as anti-malaria campaign. access to sub. “When a person is bitten by a in every village track health centre but healthcare conditions are still and folk medicines. the villagers in central Myanmar is in the central regions of Myanmar. Photo: Nay Aung healthcare is still weak in those rural situation deteriotates we have to take “When elderly people are ill or feel areas according to local residence. Although natives of this Regarding healthcare. there are only has any training how to use or when out their daily livelihood in peace of to the villages frequently. which I learnt Taungtwingyi Township had to take any knowledge as side effects may mountains makes it more difficult the mountain range west of Magwe from a midwife about three years ago care of 13 village tracks which include be severe. I give them intravenous vitamin An anonymous person said that Antivenin injection cannot be The topography of the region administrator U Phone Naing from injections and for normal fever I also one village track medical centre in given to the patient without having which is a combination of plains and Htaw Zar village. That A walk through ascending and medical centre.” says 48 villages. a residence that transportation plays a vital role swallow cowhage seeds. However if the baby from a pregnant woman. the an attempt to save the lives of their Therefore. mountain ranges so when the elderly women give birth while working Therefore. Due to a traffic road will take at least three to “Although they say that there are although these villages have purchased arrive to their villages and take care variety of access barriers. especially a venomous Previously there was no antivenin Due to lack of health services. In spite carry them on our shoulders to the take home their newborn babies in of its high population ratio. sufficient amount of antivenin in antivenin in case of snake bites. of the village track where I live.

There are at least Ko Phyo Thu who shared his experience of said Dr. There are also “says Ko Phyo Thu who had the experience discount rate. Being a promotion representative office in Myanmar it would be for the patient to arrive comfortably to raising questions about the disease in detail. brain diseases and also for should they go for a checkup as staff so the expenses on medical treatment differ afford travel to countries such as Thailand. so Most of the patients who have experienced there are also interpreters provided for prescribed by the Ministry of Health. 6 Why go abroad for medical treatment? Most privileged class prefer foreign hospitals due to the treatment and services provided Air ambulance service has become part of the package for taking treatment abroad. an official from the nearest medical clinic or hospital to receives one or two cases every month. If the doctor finds Malaysia. As my age is over 50 the overseas to have medical treatment should first before hand so as the patient and his family patients. Then again there are patients who ”After being admitted to hospital. Some even after the operation had to see the doctor that period in Bangkok. of 30 to 40percent of patients to Malaysia. These kinds receiving treatment here. biscuits and cookies. country the hospital arranges everything for the patient and answers all the questions that the now there are about 11000. Malaysia Healthcare Travel Council (MHTC) medical treatment. the expenses for diagnosis of the medical treatment in foreign hospitals.” said again. Here in our can afford prefer to have their medical tion chronic illness but just even a family request for air ambulance service. if the patient is unable to stay for lifestyle so as to be strong and live a long and to Singapore. patient uses this services two assistants for the a disease he explains what kind of treatment (IVF) is about 65 to 68percent. we country Nasal endoscopy is performed but as checkups with specialists. Theingi Win. Then within three to four days the better than cure. and also for diabetes and the In vitro fertilization (IVF). privileged class to travel overseas for medical service. the hospital provided three means. Malaysia. business development director hospital. However. the doctors can pay more attention total cost for the checkup was Baht19000 consult with the doctors from the hospital that will have a clearer picture for the trip. All these can be had to travel to Malaysia to have an operation explained the results. can return here and happy life. bone. Due to change of time and improvement patient.” said Dr. one should eat healthy “Most of the patients from Myanmar travel to K2000000 in local currency he said. take daily exercises and live a healthy Bangkok for medical treatment and some travel “I had to stay for a day in the hospital and However. there were only about 5600 in systems. in for sinusitis at the Sunway Hospital and the given about half an hour to consult with the As an old saying goes that prevention is that particular country. Malaysia and India for medical to travel by this service on the advice of the department. That’s the rate will be US$10000 to 15000. patients Each and every country has its own rules and treatment. When it differs according to the package of the those countries vary from one another as well devices are used when it comes to treatment. meals.” said Ma Cho Cho. liver. Most travel Improved health standards are included Mandalay and use this service to Bangkok and checkup and she had checkups for her heart. treatment. we got the checkup with a special very convenient for the patient and that office that hospital for treatment. noon and night and also provided convenient. so patients journey. the doctor cannot medical equipment and advance medical that person’s mind is anxiety. use this service for medical checkups for need not worry where or which department regulations concerning healthcare systems Nowadays a lot of Myanmar people who can heart. There at that department Malaysia due to the strict rules for hospitals. these offices provide all necessary assistance medical treatment in overseas hospitals say those who are unable to communicate in May Myat Zaw. Photo: Bangkok Hospital MYINT KAY THI of Global Assistant Travel Medical Services. which were transferred by this her mother to Singapore for medical checkup. provided by that hospital can be discussed advance medical equipment and devices “My husband and I went to Bangkok for Therefore. Both of us were each Dr. May Myat Zaw. travel to western countries for treatment. He is also very medical treatment but it has increased and have many choices for their healthcare. total expanse for this operation was about doctor. He half a day and soon after checkup the doctor whatever the patient would like to know.” said Ma Zarchi. patient and accompanying family members Healthcare Travel Council (MHTC) expects provide assistance for medical treatment “There were also cases from the children’s would like to know. treatment. full set of results of the checkup was issued. thigh surgery can be from US$12000 to 13000. Here the patient To have a medical checkup in Malaysia particular country for medical treatment. The Malaysia Then again as there are now services which patient to be admitted on time. discussed before travelling to the hospital. for a patient from Myanmar to travel to that the doctors pay special attention and discuss Thai or English language. so it was Most of the people in our country who members becomes ill. For Cardiac surgery approximately as expenses of package programmes differ so it is very satisfactory for the patient and is nobody to explain to the patient. Then when the patient arrives to that precautions should be taken. If the the service was satisfactory. as the patient to that hospital in a particular pay attention to each and every patient said treatment so they travel abroad for treatment soon as a person gets ill. for In vitro depending on the treatment.” said Dr. which has become popular among the hospital. Dr. Ovaltine. in Singapore.” said another couple who went to also said that patients have begun to use the air in between meals like hot drinks such as Bangkok for medical checkup. of patients are mostly from Yangon and “I took my mother to Singapore for medical representative here in Yangon. went with her husband to Bangkok for a can cost about US$17000 to 19000 and for disease. During that one day stay in the get the full results from the representative Translation by Win Thaw Tar. and all necessary services “There are so many different kinds of general checkup. who took that in the coming year there will be a rise abroad. However before the family members who accompany the why we decided to go overseas to have the fertilization (IVF) is from US$ 5000 to 6000. the first thing that comes into can provide this service which can transfer there are so many patients. in detail with the patient and if necessary. office of that hospital. Theingi Win.” said ups to major operations. the success of In vitro fertilization healthcare sector which can play a vital role. what kind “In 2011. patients don’t have to wait for its turn and charges cannot exceed than the limits offices of those hospitals in Myanmar. She morning. not to men. nervous system. The checkup took only about will explain the treatment and expense and package programmes from just general check. which is very Kyaw Soe Htet and Zaw Nyunt . state-of-the-art minor illness. of taking medical treatment in Malaysia. There are also representative doctor” said Dr. May Myat Zaw. kidney. Therefore. if somebody is planning to travel thoroughly with the representative office and as there are only about ten to fifteen general checkup. Theingi Win. and India. and if the patient or about five meals within a day. has to find the right department for the the lowest average rate can be US$100 and The expense for treatment in hospitals of advanced medical equipment and special checkup and also have to bribe them. he or she goes to a country within six hours. liver diseases and for good healthcare system not only the The lowest rate of the air ambulance service total cost was about K700000 to K1000000 but Gastro intestinal illnesses. These to explain about the disease to the patient and my husband who is over 40 the cost the patient has chosen. period. It is said that in government is responsible but also the private can be aproximately about US$14500. to Malaysia for treatment in heart disease. a patient inquires about something there checkup. Milo. travelling to a particular country for medical patient says some people who have take medical checkup. “In cases of emergency. a medical team including a doctor and will be the best for the disease. W hen a person or if one of his family ambulance service. If that hospital has a representative offices can arrange everything and the patient also has an advantage of was just over Baht15000. However some patients have personally take the patient to the concerned from one country to another. as most important sectors of a country and sometimes to Singapore. who Surgery for Spinal cord and nervous systems treatment. many high grade hospitals have a nurse will also accompany the patient for the of drugs should be given and what kind of Myanmar citizens who went to Malaysia for opened up throughout the country.


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Furthermore. So. every child should approximately 80 to 90 percent of the of people miss the process. to ensure that the immunization programme improvement regarding the children’s health from far-flung areas of the nation or places Every child should be fully entitled to every covers all children and to easily get vaccines. when a sufficiently large percentage new types of vaccines for diseases such as Professor U Saw Win. both the government operation. get to the nearest vaccination station to be people can also get vaccinated at government on a normal schedule and by this way disease Although the vaccinated percentage of the vaccinated. 10 It’s the birthright of a child to receive full vaccination The Ministry of Health and Sports conducts monthly immunization programmes for people to be vaccinated MYINT KAY THI In Myanmar the government provides every are children from suburban areas that move they should get full coverage of immunization individual child with ten types of vaccines around with their vagabond groups. Nurse preparing a vaccine. and respective officials from the concerned total of 100-beds each. encountering conflicts and the second group vaccination provided by the government and The government’s immunization program Vaccination process taking place at a school. the Ministry of to officials from the Ministry of Health and immunization can fully provide protection keep an eye on the public’s health. and mortality rate of children in a nation. condition. according every time they are vaccinated. Therefore. I strongly advice these kind of clinics and hospitals. immunization programme covers all children says health experts. population can be seen as satisfactory. this scheme or losing the opportunity to be every child. Children who were The children who do not receive regular ministry are trying their best to fulfill this Ministry of Health and Sports have opened vaccinated by this vaccine were protected vaccination can be categorized into two task. Therefore. whether an adult or a child Japanese encephalitis. which are under the disease was eradicated. has been vaccinated. so that the V accination is an effective method to free of charge. . Vaccines are safe because they are up immunization centers around the country. are still about10 to 20 percent of children will not miss this opportunity”. a pediatrician The National Vaccination Program which of a population. maternal nurses to vaccinate the children of monthly perform the operations of the from infectious diseases that occur regularly In regard to the whole country. there parents to try their best so that their children Furthermore in an attempt that the der the age of 5 can be significantly reduced. if these kinds immunization programme which is conducted or occasionally. Health and Sports is striving to include three Sports. said Professor U Saw Win. against diseases. it is their duty to by staffs from the health department and complete the routine vaccination of childhood population is covered by vaccination. who do not receive the full yearly vaccination “Being vaccinated is the birthright of and for those who have missed this routine As polio vaccine was discovered. un. from polio and it was a further step of groups: The first group consists of children produced only after international tests. parents who wander around. ninety eight hospitals with a crippling and potentially deadly infectious vaccinated. diarrhea and cervix commented that “It is impossible for the is under the Ministry of Health and Sports. they become protected cancer within a period of three years.

.. Zar Zar Soe and for universal healthcare coverage and are the most effective way for the healthcare Htar Lin. said Dr Htar Htar Linn. If they are not completely are ten types of vaccines being vaccinated to vaccines.” said Dr Htar Translation by Kyaw Soe Htet. should not miss this great opportunity which if the vaccines are over limits.. 11 Township health official collecting data for vaccination in a school. Htet..” said Professor developing countries. Photos: Naing Wynn Htoon which is free of charge covers 10 types of Myanmar’s initial healthcare project... I take my children there measles and rubella for children from infants “Vaccines will be effective only if they vaccines. So parents disease with only one dose... tetanus.” programme for parents regarding these ward dispensary.. we decided to open clinics where cost for the expenses. The assistance for these vaccines. they suffer “The government provides 10 types of vaccinated.... infants to stay healthy throughout their lives... such as BCG. CALL: 392676 .. Vaccines can illnesses but also fulfill the needs of children.... we have to such as GAVI and UNICEF are providing During the launching ceremony of hospital. Myanmar is also now vaccinating about 10 vaccinate them when they reach here.” said Professor U Saw Win. Union Minister also added that vaccines are Centers have been opened where these Department of Public Health... These vaccines not only cure deadly and on the parents side not only have to spend vaccines free of charge with the assistance perfectly. Therefore... The of the public..... Union Minister for Health and South East Asian countries. If the children are sick. Myint Htwe in his speech said that change the lives of people. vaccines children could be vaccinated. there are about 17 types are brought to hospital but have not taken cost about US$50.. any vaccination yet. immunization process is a basic foundation diseases and also for polio........ the diseases cannot be prevented children.. In the fiscal year based immunization programme which was types of vaccines than other more than some services of hospitals are not only to cure 2016-2017 the cost for each child for these held in May.. pertussis (whooping cough). Deputy Director of Expanded Khine Thazin Han Advertise in monthly special supplement? .7 and donors provided the Sports Dr... They can cure the Therefore... Some vaccines cannot prevent the diseases but also make children grow healthy a lot but also have to worry.... pneumonia. 5-in-1(diphtheria... Therefore... It is not dangerous and intelligent. hepatitis the first healthcare service for newly born vaccines can be taken and also educational “I regularly vaccinate my children at the B and encephalitis)... are fully dosed. We explain to the parents that there because doctors there vaccinate the required to 18 months. who is a mother of three children. of vaccines which are vaccinated to a child... In some “In some cases there are children who To vaccinate ten types of vaccines to a child is provided for their children..” said Daw Soe Soe of international organizations.. vaccines was US$6.. Programme on Immunization (EPI) under the vaccines.. International organizations Saw Win. polio...

Carbon dioxide is eradicate pests quickly. take a taxi to go about during chemicals used in growing fruit and vegetables that can be talked about the adverse effects of chemical pesticides. headache. Photo: Shutterstock Organic food that play a HEIN MIN LATT them. Some even worry about being snatched when they go Among the pesticides are the chemical pesticide. water However there is one thing that people should really damage the consumers’ health and they have educated shortage or even the rise in cost of living then there are some worry and fear.  Experts found that chemical pesticides can seriously These people always fear about power outbreaks.chemical pesticides fear. They also who although have the own car. could claim the lives of the consumer. Only plant-pesticide and bio- I n our country. it There are some who worry they might fall in to the drain plant growth and these artificial fertilizers have been used will cause dizziness. sparkle and preservation of However these chemical pesticides can be absorbed in the apartment just to reserve a parking spot for their vehicle.  the perceived threat seems to be. stomach ache and nausea. which have become a part abundantly as they see these chemical pesticides can Some even fear they might not get a space to park their car of the younger generation’s everyday life. Later on chemical pesticides were invented. at According to scientists. a loaded Germany in 1920s adds nitrogen which can support plants some cases. there are some people who live in constant Yes.  soil’s beneficial organism population and interfere with the If large amount of chemical pesticide is consumed.  Still. each and every human being has the right to be worried pesticide should be used.  being worried or being afraid. the power lines. and always look down while walking. They worry about everything. These are pesticides and other poisonous farmers and cultivators not to overuse pesticides. no matter how unreal or be afraid about any matter. So don’t these worries seem ridiculous?  pesticide and bio-pesticide. to the human body once these contaminated fruits or while walking in the street so they constantly look above. but is a harmful substance which can cause fruits or vegetables that they grow and can cause danger Some people fear a damaged power cable might fall on them severe cell damage in our body. 12 Organic Organic fruits. so they place a stool or an object in front of their house or responsible for the tangy taste. in who imagine that while they are walking on the road. Ammonia which was invented in Furthermore red rashes could occur on the skin and. pesticide consumed in small amount may not show . Chemical logging truck may spill the load of logs and crush on to to grow. there are others since early 18th century.  There are also the soft drinks. Then again.   the soft drink. chemical fertilizers reduce the vegetables are consumed. plant- out at night times. There is nothing wrong about can also be dangerous. raining season in fear that their car might break down on a in putting people at risk of developing cancer in their later life.   Some farmers and cultivators use chemical pesticides flooded road.

slurry. shrimp paste but in producing dry prawns and pickled tea generations and its products are most safe for those who Just one last good advice to all who are health-conscious: leaves to make their colour more attractive. but they can give the real taste of a natural spreading within the public that food producers are foods. Organic fertilizers have been used in agriculture for using natural fertilizer and natural insecticides.  There is also news of foods and they are paying more attention on organic be large in size. Organic fertilizers are derived organic fruits are sold on separate counters. placing plastic water bottles in hot boiling residues. pesticides and fertilizers in growing vegetables and fruits. attractive. manure. associations are also taking these reports seriously  and insecticides are used. peat. more expensive than other fruits. make sure to consume organic fruits and vegetables which can As so much news have emerged the concerned In organic planting. natural fertilizer and natural make you healthier and free from fear. 13 which will overcome fear vital role in our daily lives symptoms but as the time goes by it can damage the nerve as checking food processing plants and factories in an disasters and bad weathers. They do not have chemical smell and they are safe for using chemicals to make the colour of the fruits more are facing in their daily lives.  Naturally occurring organic fertilizers include animal So people who live in compounds and have spare land can potatoes are fried in this oil to make them more crispy. All kinds of foods produced by organic fertilizers do not In foreign countries shopping centers and super markets. human Myanmar in super markets like Market Place. animal excreta (manure).  attempt to prevent these kinds of harmful foods from More importantly.  wastes from meat processing.  cooking oil and when the plastic is absorb in the oil. Also here in on apples to restore the fruit’s natural wax and gives a from animal matter. people preserving bean curd by soaking excreta. pesticides and fertilizers are being excessively used Consumers are becoming more aware of these kinds Organic fruits may not have beautiful colours and may not in growing vegetables and fruits. and vegetable matter. which remove the dangers or at least the fear they fruit. organic planting does not use chemical In recent years there have been rumours that chemical circulating in the markets. organic fruits shiny coating. and plant their own organic fruits and grow organic vegetables There were even reports that dyes are used not only in guano. and respiratory system. such as compost and crop are displayed on separate counters and their prices are usually in Formalin. consume it. consumers. Growing vegetables planting fruits are Translation by Win Thaw Tar and Khine Thazin Han have begun to examine all the fresh produce as well carried out in a natural way so they are able to stand natural . There are reports about food producers using Shellac pose dangers to consumers.

taking up exercise lessons. using drugs. try to take a daily walk Wealth cannot buy health despite Many believe. When a person is for at least half an hour which is having the ability to acquire the best implies looking good and feeling good. doing exercise matter that comes across in daily life. Nowadays. regularly. city important and prefer between a healthy life. People. health is the most important possessions to be healthy. Early morning exercise for elderly persons. cell phones etc… which most of all human beings are not the same. drinking excessively. However not that in searching for happiness everybody are in the same situation. drugs which are That is why one should not stress for want to be more active. Therefore. and later on it affects the health. especially to special clinics for If we look at our own lives regular checkups. another option is trying and only then comes health. most of the teenagers Priority should be given to obligations of chronic illnesses. A person. can we gain this greatest gift of life? younger generation are consuming becomes stressed which can hinder constraint. Photos: The Myanmar Times diseases and illnesses. giving too So let’s practice this healthy much time on the computer and lifestyle by staying away from other modern gadgets. When a person is unable to fulfill Even then if that situation is more important than wealth and why so important to us and how At the same time today’s these obligations. doing sports and one another. when weight. that comes across his or her daily life. avoiding to avoid in stressing for every little unhealthy food. life is to exercise regularly. we spend most of our time and One may even argue that taking energy. young or old younger generation have become themselves or obligations in work dwellers living in apartments where health and wealth. Yes. unhealthy food. Therefore a activities. health So what is this healthy lifestyle even shortening their resting hours. the plays an important part in a healthy sports or exercise and will never be right for those who are wealthy which is extremely important in and can afford to go to hospitals. There is also the preaching by technology has become so advanced tion which is happiness free from Lord Buddha regarding health where that there are TV games. Without self- following the mentioned steps confidence. Though we may succed in practitioners but here the financial acquiring these external conditions. Not rest of their lives. our external conditions medical checkup need to go to such as increasing our wealth hospitals. 14 How to live a healthy lifestyle Although it may not be easy to commit. Therefore it hours a day on the Internet. dangerous for health. in human life. avoid using drugs. it might lifestyle is to have self-confidence in good health enjoying life. and trying unhealthy habits. which are most damaging our health. tension rises and does not permit due to financial which is the same concept as mine. For instance. plays a vital part in having a healthy TV games. the prompt unnecessarily die every day due to so addicted that they spend many places and for matters relating to they are unable to do these kinds of reply of the majority will be wealth lack of health knowledge. However. almost every aspect of our lives. it is important to health. One may Most people say that they want to be To make the matter even worse. as it says health is the greatest gift. and last but not make a person healthy. can make If one may inquire which is most everybody to be knowledgeable to live world in each and every country. they lose interest to take up have a healthy life. we will never enjoy the lasting So what should we do to become happiness that we desire if we don’t healthy persons? That is why by have self confidence. we will see for a few privileged. for their health in the long run. But these steps are not sufficient to reducing stress. special medical clinics and possessions. stressed he or she becomes fatigued the best ideal for people of all ages medication in the world. it is most important for only in our country but around the Every human being has so many even gardening at home. having enough sleep. regular brisk the wealth possessed and all this a healthy person. maybe for a person healthy. When a child or adult Most people think that regular and even some kind of cancers. Internet. the things to do in their lives. schooling age are addicted too. According how can he or she be able to enjoy gain a healthy lifestyle? To become the most dangerous for a person’s each and every small matter or things to medical reports. to exercising drugs which can shorten their stress can be reduced. we will never be able such as avoid smoking. playing family and friends. of life like others. such as heart their lives. only by following or her mind is to be like those who these rules it would not be enough I n a lifetime of human beings. and giving too much of their time commit to. enhancing our and consulting and receiving reputation and finding better medical treatment from medical partners. eating unhealthy affect our lives that will end up in food. a healthy lifestyle unhealthy food which is dangerous a person’s health. physical and mental condi. high blood pressure. the younger generation especially become a healthy person for the instance people. are healthy or even give up all their to gain a healthy lifestyle. diabetes. drinking to avoid the evil doings which may excessively. and fitness levels for those who be wealthy but if health is affected healthy but do they really imply to there are alcohol. osteoporosis will not be able to enjoy the pleasures regularly and having a balance life span. obviously. However. healthy lifestyle is most important for human’s life WIN AUNG immediate desire that comes to his lifestyle. and avoid eating to adults consume alcohol and and solved each at a time where disease. whose health is affected. But that is only and those around us. walking has shown to reduce risk wealth will be no more significant to avoid smoking. matter comes in. In today’s fast changing world. However. stroke. who live in homes the temperament also differs from faithfulness the best relationship. least having self confidence which The best way to have a healthy will make us healthy and happy Girls participate in health exercise on the banks of Kandawgyi lake. with compounds. . chatting on cell phones healthy lifestyle may not be easy to going to the nearest gymnasium and Right. contentment the greatest wealth. becomes addicted to one of these medical checkups are essential to One last advice to live a healthy an unhealthy person sees people Then again a healthy diet also habits. although wealth is essential life. For throughout our lives. asthma.

brewer’s yeast. Many prevent calcification of arteries which is one of the among the highest per-serving vitamin C content. from the fat-soluble category can be obtained lettuce. natural way. kale. limes. tuna and the key to vitamin and mineral success is by comsuming a obtained from fish. citrus fruits (lemons. cereal). skin and organs strong as well as and zinc. carrots. iron. swiss chard. one may reducing the risk of osteoporosis. from the fresh foods that we consume daily. green broccoli. Fat. and oral cancers. and K) and nine water-soluble (eight B vitamins and vegetables. repair and regenerate tissues. and various kinds of milks. grains. it is Vitamins are classified as either water-soluble or fat-soluble. oranges). balanced diet. Other sources for B vitamins include pulses or beans. peppers. which can be are particularly concentrated in meat such as turkey.peppers (especially red bell peppers. it is possible to conclude that vitamins are really in mind that sometimes high doses of vitamins can cause colon. 15 Food and A layout of healthy and delicious home-made dishes. In some cases. nutritional Vitamins are organic compounds necessary for the healthy fruit yogurt. vitamins. almonds and seeds like sunflower seeds. if one consumes healthy and well-balanced food. Cereals. phosphate. Photo: The Myanmar Times vitamins Consuming well-balanced healthy food provides most vitamins a human body needs WIN AUNG vegetables. muscle weakness to name a few. liver. in general. with lacking elements but by consuming a balance diet we will Vitamin A. The best way to receive Vitamin E can prevent cancer. broccoli. squash. leafy sprouts and some fruits such as avocado. magnesium. chili. serious problems to our bodies. Water-soluble vitamins dissolve easily in water and Papayas are also among the best sources of vitamin E. Apples. Deficiencies in vitamins can become obesity. leading causes of heart attacks. metabolism. Vitamin C is enough vitamins for a normal growth and development comes and prevent or slow the decline of mental function such as important in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Vitamin C helps to to protect from infections. potatoes. there are thirteen vitamins: four fat-soluble hazelnuts. watermelon). fortified foods (breads. and molasses. A variety of foods such as vegetable oils As many fruits and vegetables contain vitamin C. and brussels be able to get sufficient amount of vitamins and minerals the by consuming liver. cabbage. but also other important non-nutrients that are lack in diet with a variety of healthy foods. Sardine. fish roe. ripe yellow fruits. intestinal absorption of calcium. plentiful in green vegetables such as spinach. kiwifruit and grapes. kiwi. like safflower oils and soybean oils. In human beings. heart diseases. types of water-soluble vitamins are produced by bacteria. orange. which is also a fat-soluble vitamin helps to spinach). Vitamin K is found good. dark leafy greens (kale. fish. are readily excreted from the body. spinach. milk products such as butter and cheese. not only In the category of water-soluble vitamins there are Vitamin C hoosing foods each day that are rich in vitamins and prevents night blindness but also lower the mortality rate of B and Vitamin C. It also increases the supplies not only provide the vitamins which are needed The best way to get enough vitamins is to eat a balanced amount of protein required to maintain bone calcium. which have vitamin consumption can be indicated by urine output. Tilapia. We need vitamins to help us grow. which are spinach and broccoli. hard plaques within the arteries. and. . which is Vitamin C is found to make out bones. Vitamin K. E. cabbage. berries. B vitamins needs to be healthy. such as peanuts. oily liver. (A. functioning of our bodies. Alzheimer’s disease. fish. stomach. soluble vitamins are absorbed through the intestinal tract with calcium out of the arteries and not allowing it to form vitamins would not be necessary. bananas. However it should bear Vitamin K is also effective in reducing the risk of prostate. eye disorder decrease bad cholesterol and common cold. cod liver oil. Therefore. soya milk. Therefore. melon (cantaloupe. mushrooms. vitamin C). pumpkin. It works by carrying However. nasal. Nuts. Another water-soluble vitamin. fruits like mangoes cauliflower. which are also high in vitamin K. D. There are eight types of vitamin Bs. diabetes. Vitamin D can prevent heart disease. Vitamin D increases yeast. cauliflower. easy to obtain through foods. protect against heart disease. eggs. Vitamin A. Tofu. muscles. A well-constructed diet the help of fats. low fat whole grains. need to take vitamin as supplements. but Another fat-soluble vitamin is Vitamin D. honeydew. because they help us keep our body in shape providing it health problems. and. Supplements can be beneficial. daily. asparagus. Tuna . in food and used as a dietary supplement. Vitamin B play important roles in cell minerals is the best way your body is receiving what cancer.

I just take some mixed medicines sold in my of disease temporarily without addressing Sagaing District. to avoid all these. Most of these kinds of people not only medicines for common ailments. but they still Therefore. know if these medicines are expired or whether are cured as the symptoms disappear. The good thing is I can buy “The combined medicines are very dangerous. the people of Myanmar to take some unknown fast to relieve the symptoms. The main point is that we have to educate the public and also control the people selling compounded medicines. the situation still prevails. “Due to the compounded medicines. Photos: Aung Htay Hlaing that these medicines can provide them with all the health they need. “Most of the people who come to me are farmers. These are the duties of the authority. unknown mixed medicines are still a common source of healthcare among the grassroots my advice. they use compounded medicines for their stiff muscles and for arthritis of limbs and swelling joints. announcements were made about the dangers of these medicines and to avoid them. 5 out of 10 patients he treated were “When they have to see a doctor. The Health Department had issued notice of not to take compounded medicines. due to lack of knowledge. Most who are lack of knowledge about medicines think that they look good when KHIN SU WAI cold and cough. the most Success can only come when the population I am allergic to it. the cost symptoms as they are cheap. for temporary or long-term. Then again persuasion plays a vital It has been more than a decade-long habit of them because they are cheap. At the second regular meeting of the first Pyithu Hluttaw. Some are found to contain oral steroids Tagaung Township hospital branch told the appetite.” he said. For example. too much time in clinics.” he said. cold. are usually taken to alleviate headache and flu used as most ill-informed people are reluctant rural areas. He is high and also have to listen to the doctor’s ily available from local drugstores. Although they are bad. It is most common at my clinic. It is also difficult to they are chubby and rely on these medicines to Some combined medicines are branded as see a doctor as doctors are usually busy with gain apatite so as to gain weight. The combined medicines are Myanmar Times. people are still taking stiffness in the nape and their faces become medicines. Some people oblige to and Khine Thazin Han . As they cannot afford to have healthy food. circulation and need time to be eradicated. easily bought. effective and eas. they rather depend ill. I don’t even combined medicines because they think they that it would cure his knee pain. 16 Unknown mixed medicines still on demand Although dangerous. They take these D aw A Nge Lay said her elderly mother Myanmar traditional medicines and sold on the hospital duties.” resident Dr Soe Naing Win from medicines to cure swollen joints and from losing has to take some unknown mixed market. “They are not to treat serious illness. The bad thing is I don’t know what types the underlying causes.” said Dr Soe Naing Win. added that he had treated a 56 year old patient advice of the danger of these medicines. mixed medicines prescribed by small shop and that combined medicines are bad. in 2016. which are all compounded medicines. and puffy but they think they are getting fat due to a role to reduce the dangers of mixed medicines. the Minister for Health answered about the danger of compound medicines and that they are prohibited. they take these medicines. store or distribute medicines or raw materials without licenses but due to the weakness of regular checks. As they have worked in the fields all day long. They presume An elderly lady preparing unknown mixed medicine for her ill family member. However. I make them stop taking Translation by Swe Zin Moe stores in the neighbourhood to treat common don’t want to see the doctors because of sparing compounded medicines. nobody is allowed to sell. She in powder form. take these medicines by themselves but also advice added that these unidentified mixed medicines cost effective. common side effects are that the people suffer fully accepts the danger of these mixed them easily.” she said. some deadly disease. who went blind by taking some on compounded medicines. According to the National Law section 16. If I feel The combined medicines alleviate symptoms from Lat Lote village in Depeyin Township of Therefore. They also use it in an attempt to prevent from catching cough. and headache. most people in rural areas still depend on compound medicines. to go to the clinics or hospitals unless they have taking or had taken the mixed medicines. ward. Most people used the combined medicines for over a year believing “The compounded medicines are still in of medicines are mixed together. easily available and are widely He remarked that during his residency in others to take them. People are aware good rest. They come to us with a pack of medicines. We have to say is that it is dangerous to take these medicines. he said.