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10/1/2016 Chapter12.

HeatExchangersFundamentalsofHeatandMassTransfer

Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer

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Chapter 11. Boiling and Condensation Chapter 13. Radiation

Chapter 12

Heat Exchangers
12.1 Introduction
Heatexchangerisoneofthemostcommonlyusedprocessequipmentsinindustryandresearch.Functionofaheatexchangeristo
transferenergythistransferofenergymayoccurtoasinglefluid(asinthecaseofaboilerwhereheatistransferredtowater)or
betweentwofluidsthatareatdifferenttemperatures(asinthecaseofanautomobileradiatorwhereheatistransferredfromhotwater
toair).Insomecases,therearemorethantwostreamsoffluidexchangingheatinaheatexchanger.Heatexchangersofseveraldesigns
inavarietyofsizesvaryingfromminiaturetohuge(withheattransferareasoftheorderof5000to10,000sq.metres)havebeen
developedovertheyears.

Sometypicalexamplesofheatexchangerapplicationsare:

1.Thermalpowerplants(boilers,superheaters,steamcondensers,etc.)
2.Refrigerationandairconditioning(evaporators,condensers,coolers)
3.Automobileindustry(radiators,allenginecoolingandfuelcoolingarrangements)
4.Chemicalprocessindustry(varietyofheatexchangersbetweendifferenttypesoffluids,incumbustorsandreactors)
5.Cryogenicindustry(condenserreboilersusedindistillationcolumns,evaporatorstoproducegasfromcryogenicliquids,etc.)
6.Research(regeneratorsusedinStirlingengines,specialceramicheatexchangersusedinultralowtemperaturedevices,
superconductingmagnetsystems,etc.).

12.2 Types of Heat Exchangers


Heatexchangersmaybeclassifiedinseveralways:

1.accordingtoheatexchangeprocess
2.accordingtorelativedirectionofflowofhotandcoldfluids
3.accordingtoconstructionalfeatures,compactness,etc.
4.accordingtothestateofthefluidintheheatexchanger.

(i)ClassificationaccordingtoheatexchangeprocessHeatexchangersmaybeofdirectcontacttypeorofindirectcontact
type.Indirectcontacttype,twoimmisciblefluidscomeindirectcontactwitheachotherandexchangeheat,e.g.airandwater
exchangingheatinacoolingtower.Indirectcontacttypecanbefurtherclassifiedasrecuperatorsandregenerators.Recuperators
aremostcommonlyusedhere,thehotandcoldfluidsareseparatedfromeachotherbyasolidwallandheatistransferredfromone
fluidtotheotheracrossthiswall.Inregenerators,alsocalledperiodicflowheatexchangers,hotandcoldstreamsalternatelyflow
throughasolidmatrix(madeofsolidparticlesorwiremeshscreens)duringthehotblow,thematrixstorestheheatgivenupbythe
hotstreamandduringcoldblow,thestoredheatisgivenupbythesolidmatrixtothecoldstream.Sometimes,thesolidmatrixis
madetorotateacrossfluidpassagesarrangedsidebyside,sothattheheatexchangeprocessiscontinuous.

(ii)ClassificationaccordingtorelativedirectionofhotandcoldfluidsIfthehotandcoldfluidsflowparalleltoeachother,
itisknownasparallelflowheatexchangerifthetwofluidsflowoppositetoeachother,itisofcounterflowtype.Ifthefluidsflow
perpendiculartoeachother,then,wehavecrossflowtypeofheatexchanger.Thesethreetypesofheatexchangersareshown
schematicallyinFig.12.1.

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FIGURE12.1(a)Parallelflowheatexchanger

FIGURE12.1(b)Counterflowflowheatexchanger

Further,whenafluidisconstrainedtoflowwithinachannel(suchasatube),thefluidissaidtobeunmixedotherwise,itismixed.
InFig.12.1(c),hotfluidisunmixedsinceitflowsconstrainedwithinthetubes,whereasthecoldfluidisperfectlymixedasitflows
throughtheheatexchanger.InFig.12.1(d),boththecoldandhotfluidsareconstrainedtoflowwithinthetubesandtherefore,both
thefluidsareunmixed.

(iii)ClassificationaccordingtoconstructionalfeaturesBasically,therearethreetypes:(a)concentrictubestype(b)shelland
tubetype,and(c)compactheatexchangers.

Inconcentrictubestypeofheatexchanger,onetubeislocatedinsideanotheronefluidflowsthroughtheinsidetubeandtheother
fluidflowsintheannularspacebetweenthetubes.FluidsmayflowparalleltoeachotherasshowninFig.12.1(a),ortheymayflowin
oppositedirections,asshowninFig.12.1(b).

Shellandtubetypeofheatexchangerisverypopularinindustrybecauseofitsreliabilityandhighheattransfereffectiveness.Here,
oneofthefluidsflowswithinabundleoftubesplacedwithinashell.And,theotherfluidflowsthroughtheshelloverthesurfacesof
thetubes.Suitablebafflesareprovidedwithintheshelltomaketheshellfluidchangedirectionsandprovidegoodturbulence,sothat
heattransfercoefficientisincreased.

Fig.12.2showsaschematicdiagramofatypicalshellandtubeheatexchanger.

Fig.12.2isanexampleoftwotubepassandoneshellpassheatexchanger,i.e.flowpassesthroughthetubestwiceinopposite
directions,andshellfluidpassesthroughtheshellonce.Otherflowarrangementsarealsoused,suchas:oneshellpass+two,fouror
sixtubepassestwoshellpassesandfour,eight,twelve,etc.tubepasses.

Compactheatexchangersarespecialpurposeheatexchangerswhichprovideveryhighsurfaceareapercubicmetreofvolume,known
2 3
asareadensity.Accordingtousuallyacceptednorms,acompactheatexchangerhasanareadensityof700m /m ormore.These
aregenerallyusedforgases,sinceusuallygassideheattransfercoefficientissmallandtherefore,itisneededtoprovidelargerareas.
Compactheatexchangersareofplatefintypeortubefintype.Atypicalexampleofaplatefintypeofcompactheatexchangeris
showninFig.12.3.

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FIGURE12.1(c)Crossflowheatexchanger,coldfluidmixed,hotfluidunmixed

FIGURE12.1(d)Crossflowheatexchanger,bothcoldandhotfluidsunmixed

FIGURE12.2Diagramofatypical(fixedtubesheet)shellandtubeheatexchanger

FIGURE12.3Sectionofaplatefinheatexchanger

(iv)ClassificationaccordingtostateofthefluidInallthetypesofheatexchangersdiscussedabove,boththefluidschanged
theirtemperaturealongthelengthofheatexchanger.But,thisneednotbethecasealways.Aheatexchangermaybeusedtocondense
afluidinwhichcasethecondensingfluidwillbeataconstanttemperaturethroughoutthelengthoftheheatexchanger,whilethe
other(cold)fluidwillincreaseintemperatureasitpassesthroughtheheatexchanger,absorbingthelatentheatofcondensation
releasedbythecondensingfluid.SuchaheatexchangeriscalledaCondenser.If,ontheotherhand,oneofthefluidsevaporatesina
heatexchanger,temperatureofthisfluidwillremainconstantthroughoutthelengthofheatexchanger,whereasthetemperatureof
theotherfluid,whichsuppliesthelatentheatofevaporationtotheevaporatingfluid,goesondecreasingalongthelengthoftheheat

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exchanger.SuchaheatexchangeriscalledanEvaporator.

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Itisinterestingtocomparethesurfaceareatovolumeratiosofdifferenttypesofheatexchangers.SeeTable12.1:

TABLE12.1Surfaceareatovolumeratiosofdifferentheatexchangers

TypeofHX Hydraulicdiameter(mm) Surfacearea/Volume,


2 3
(m /m )

Plaintube,shellandtube 40to6 60600

Plateheatexchangers 20to10 180350

Stripfinandlouvredfin

heatexchangers 10to0.5 3507100

Automotiveradiators 5to2.5 7101500

Cryogenicheatexchangers 3.7to1.7 10002500

Gasturbinerotaryregenerators 1.2to0.5 30007100

Matrixtypes,wirescreen,sphere 2.5to0.2 150018000

bed,corrugatedsheets

Humanlungs 0.2to0.15 1800025000

InTable12.1,hydraulicdiameteroftheflowpassageisalsogivennotethatsmallerthehydraulicdiameter,largeristheratioof
surfaceareatovolume.Notethatthehumanlungshavethelargestofallsurfaceareatovolumeratios.

12.3 Overall Heat Transfer Coeicient


Overallheattransfercoefficient,wasfirstintroducedinChapter4.So,thereadermaypleasereferbacktoChapter4torefresh
memory.

Inmostofthepracticalcasesofheatexchangers,temperatureofthehotfluid(Ta)andthatofthecoldfluid(Tb )areknownthenwe
wouldliketohavetheheattransfergivenbyasimplerelationoftheform

Q=UA(TaTb )=UAT(4.21)

where,Qistheheattransferrate(W),Aistheareaofheattransferperpendiculartothedirectionofheattransfer,and(TaTb )=T
istheoveralltemperaturedifferencebetweenthetemperatureofhotfluid(Ta)andthatofthecoldfluid(Tb ).

Inanormallyusedrecuperativetypeofheatexchanger,thehotandcoldfluidsareseparatedbyasolidwall.Thismaybeaflattypeof
wall(asinthecaseofplatefintypeofheatexchangers),or,moreoften,acylindricalwall(asinthecaseofatubeintubetypeofheat
exchangers).SeeFig.12.4.

RecallfromChapter4that,ingeneral,theoverallheattransfercoefficientisrelatedtothetotalthermalresistanceofthesystem,as
follows:

Therefore,thetaskoffindingtheoverallheattransfercoefficientreducestofindingoutthetotalthermalresistanceofthesystem.

Forplanewall:
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Rememberthatforaplanewall,thermalresistanceisL/(k.A),andconvectiveresistanceis1/(h.A),andsincetheresistancesarein
series,weget:

FIGURE12.4Heatexchangerwalls

Now,ifthethermalresistanceofthewallisnegligiblecomparedtootherresistances,weget:

Forcylindricalwall:

Rememberthatforacylindricalwall,thermalresistanceis:

and,convectiveresistanceis1/(h.A)andtheresistancesareinseries.However,theareatobeconsideredhastobespecifiedsincethe
innersurfaceareaandtheoutersurfaceareaofthecylinderaredifferent.Now,wehave,thegeneralrelationforU:

Wecanalsowrite:

Therefore,referredtooutersurfacearea,Ubecomes:

Now,foracylindricalsystem,wehave:

Ai=2riL

and,Ao=2roL
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Then,

i.e.

Similarly,referredtoinnersurfacearea,Ubecomes:

and,

i.e.

Again,ifthethermalresistanceofthewallisnegligiblecomparedtootherresistances,(i.e.highvalueofthermalconductivity,k),or,
wallthicknessofthetubeisverysmall(i.e.(ri/ro)1),weget:

NotethatEq.12.8isthesameasEq.12.2.Formanypracticalsituations,thissimpleequationgivesaquickestimateofoverallheat
transfercoefficient,U.ObservefromEq.12.2or12.8thatthevalueofUiscontrolledbythesmallerofthetwoheattransfer
coefficients,hiandho.Therefore,aimofthedesignershouldbetofocusonthesmallerofthetwoheattransfercoefficientsand
improveit,ifpossible.Forexample,inagastoliquidheatexchanger,heattransfercoefficientisgenerallysmalleronthegasside,
and,therefore,thegassideheattransfercoefficientcontrolsthefinalvalueofoverallheattransfercoefficient.So,onetriestoimprove
theheattransfercoefficientonthegassidebyprovidingfinsonthegassidesurface.Iffinsareprovidedonaparticularsurface,then
thetotalheattransferareaonthatsurfaceis:

Atotal=Afin+Aunfinned(12.9)

where,AfinisthesurfaceareaofthefinsandAunfinnedistheareaoftheunfinnedportionofthetube.

Forshortfinsofamaterialofhighthermalconductivity,sincethereispracticallynotemperaturedropalongthelengthwecanusethe
valueoftotalareaasgivenbyEq.12.9tocalculatetheconvectionresistanceonthefinnedsurface.However,forlongfinswherethere
isatemperaturedropalongthelengthoffin,weshouldusethetotaloreffectivearea,givenby:

Atotal=Aunfinned+finAfin(12.10)

where,finisthefinefficiency.Sometimes,anoverallsurfaceefficiencyoisused.0isdefinedas:

oAtotal=Aunfinned+finAfin
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i.e.otellsushowmuchofthetotalsurfaceareaisreallyeffectiveintransferringheat.

Then,sincetheeffectivesurfaceareaisalsoequaltotheunfinnedareaplustheeffectiveareaoffin,wecangetanexpressionfor
overallsurfaceefficiencyasfollows:

Then,whiledeterminingU,weshoulduseo.Atotalforthefinnedsurface,whetheritisinnersurfacearea,outersurfaceareaorboth.

Forexample,iftheoutersurfaceofthetubeisfinned(whichisusuallythecase),withafinefficiencyoffin,wewrite,neglectingthe
thermalresistanceoftubematerial:

Instead,ifthetotal(i.e.unfinned+finned)surfaceareaandtheoverallsurfaceefficiency(o)isgivenfortheoutersurface,Eq.12.12
canbewrittenas:

TypicalvaluesofoverallheattransfercoefficientsaregiveninTable12.2:

TABLE12.2Typicalvaluesofoverallheattransfercoefficients

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2
TypeofHX U(W/(m C)

Watertowater 8501700

Watertooil 100350

Watertogasolineorkerosene 3001000

Feedwaterheaters 10008500

Steamtolightfueloil 200400

Steamtoheavyfueloil 50200

Steamcondenser 10006000

Freoncondenser(watercooled) 3001000

Ammoniacondenser(watercooled) 8001400

Alcoholcondenser(watercooled) 250700

Gastogas 1040

Watertoairinfinnedtubes 3060(basedon

(waterintubes) watersidesurfacearea)

Steamtoairinfinnedtubes 4004000(basedon

(steamintubes) steamsidesurfacearea)

FoulingfactorsNotethataboveanalysiswasforcleanheattransfersurfaces.However,withpassageoftime,thesurfacesbecome
dirtybecauseofscaling,deposits,corrosion,etc.Thisresultsinareductioninheattransfercoefficientsincethescaleoffersathermal
resistancetoheattransfer.Foulingmaybecategorizedasfollows:

1.duetoscalingorprecipitation
2.duetodepositsoffinelydividedparticulates
3.duetochemicalreaction
4.duetocorrosion
5.duetoattachmentsofalgaeorotherbiologicalmaterials
6.duetocrystallizationonthesurfacebysubcooling.

Effectoffoulingisaccountedforbyatermcalled,Foulingfactor,(or,dirtfactor),definedas:

Rfiszeroforanewheatexchanger.Rfforafouledheatexchangercannotbecalculatedtheoretically,buthastobedetermined
experimentallybyfindingouttheheattransfercoefficientsforacleanheatexchangerandadirtyheatexchangerofidenticaldesign,
operatingunderidenticalconditions.

Whiletakingintoaccounttheeffectoffouling,thefoulingresistance(=Rf/area)shouldbeaddedtotheotherthermalresistances.
Forexample,foratube,wecanwrite:
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10/1/2016 Chapter12.HeatExchangersFundamentalsofHeatandMassTransfer

where,RfiandRfoarethefoulingfactorsfortheinsideandoutsidesurfaces,respectively,andListhelengthoftube.FromEq.12.15,
UiorUocaneasilybecalculated.

Foulingfactordependsonflowvelocityandoperatingtemperaturefoulingincreaseswithdecreasingvelocityandincreasing
temperature.

Basedonexperience,TubularExchangerManufacturersAssociation(TEMA)havegivensuggestedvaluesoffoulingfactors.Someof
thesevaluesaregiveninTable12.3:

TABLE12.3Foulingfactorsforindustrialfluids(TEMA,1988)

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2
Fluid R (m C/W)
f

LIQUIDS:

Fueloil 0.00088

Quenchoil 0.0007

Transformeroil 0.00018

Hydraulicfluid 0.000238

Moltensalts 0.000119

Industrialorganicheattransfermedia 0.000119

Refrigerantliquids 0.00018

Causticsolutions 0.000476

Vegetableoils 0.000715

Gasoline,naptha,lightdistillates,kerosene 0.000238

Lightgasoil 0.000476

Heavygasoil 0.000715

GASES&VAPOURS:

Solventvapours 0.000238

Acidgases 0.000238

Naturalgas 0.000238

Air 0.0001190.000238

Fluegases 0.0002380.000715

Steam(sat.,oilfree) 0.0001190.000357

WATER:

Riverwater,seawater,distilledwater,boilerfeedwater:

Below50deg.C 0.0001

Above50deg.C 0.0002
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Example12.1.WateratameantemperatureofTm=90Candameanvelocityofum=0.10m/sflowsinsidea2.5cmID,thin
walledcoppertube.OutersurfaceofthetubedissipatesheattoatmosphericairatTa=20C,byfreeconvection.Calculatethetube
walltemperature,overallheattransfercoefficientandheatlosspermetrelengthoftube.Usefollowingsimplifiedexpressionforairto
determineheattransfercoefficientbyfreeconvection:

Solution.

Data

Tm:=90Cum:=0.1m/sD:=0.025mTa:=20C

Propertiesofwateratmeantemperatureof90C:
3 3
:=965.3kg/m k:=0.675W/(mC):=0.31510 kg/(ms)Pr:=2.22

Weneedtocalculatetheheattransfercoefficientsfortheinnerandoutersurfaces:

Forthewaterside(i.e.innersurface):

3
i.e.Re=7.6610 >4000(therefore,turbulent)

UsingDitusBoelterequationtodetermineheattransfercoefficientforinsidesurface:
0.8 0.3
Nu:=0.023Re Pr

i.e.Nu=37.417(Nusseltsnumber)

Therefore,

3 2
i.e.hi=1.0110 W/(m C)(insidesurfaceheattransfercoefficient)

Fortheairside(i.e.outersurface):

Approximate,valueoffilmtemperatureforair:

Propertiesofairatfilmtemperatureof55C:
3 5
:=1.076kg/m k:=0.0283W/(mC):=1.9910 kg/(ms)Pr:=0.708

Then,freeconvectionheattransfercoefficientforoutersurfaceisgivenby:

0.25
i.e.ho=3.32(Ts20) (a)

However,Tsisnotknown,

Applyingoverallenergybalance,withAi=Aoforthinwalledtube:

hi(TiTs)=ho(TsTa)

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0.25

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0.25
1010(90Ts)=[3.32(Ts20) ](Ts20)
1.25
i.e.1010(90Ts)=[3.32(Ts20) ]

ThisequationmaynowbesolvedforTsbytrialanderror.

But,withMathcad,itiseasilysolvedusingsolveblock.StartwithaguessvalueofTs,then,aftertypingGivenwritedownthe
constraint,andthen,typingFind(Ts)givesthevalueofTsimmediately:

Ts:=40C(guessvalue)

Given

Then,hoiscalculatedfromEq.a:


0.25
ho:=3.32(Ts20) (a)
2
i.e.ho=9.58W/(m C)(outsidesurfaceheattransfercoefficient)

and,overallheatheattransfercoefficient,U:

Notethatoverallheattransfercoefficientisnearlyequaltoho.Ascommentedearlier,sincehi>>ho,overallheattransfercoefficientis
conrolledbyho.

Heatlosspermetrelengthoftube:

Q:=U(D1)(TsTa)W/m

i.e.Q=51.686W/m.

Example12.2.InExaple12.1,ifwedesiretoincreasethevalueofoverallheattransfercoefficientU,theobviouschoiceistofocus
ontheairside,sincetheairsideheattransfercoefficientistheloweroftheinsideandoutsideheattransfercoefficients.Letus
increasetheareaontheairsidebyproviding8numbersofradialfinsofrectangularcrosssection,2mmthickand20mmheight.
Materialoffinsisthesameasthatofthetube,i.e.copper(k=380W/(mK)).

Then,determinetheoverallheattransfercoefficientandtherateofheattransfer.

Solution.

Data:

OverallheattransfercoefficientUireferredtotheinsidesurface:

Neglectingthethermalresistanceoftubewall,wewrite:

FirstterminthedenominatorinRHSisthethermalresistanceduetofilmcoefficientontheinside,andthesecondtermisthe
thermalresistanceofthefilmcoefficientontheoutside.

Unfinnedsurface(orthebasesurface)ontheoutsideisatthewalltemperatureandisfullyeffectiveforheattransferwhereasthe
finnedsurfaceisnotfullyeffectivebecauseoftemperaturedropalongthelengthoffinstherefore,effectiveareaoffinsisobtainedby
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multiplyingthetotalareaoffinsbythefineffectiveness,fin.

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Therefore,weneedtofindoutthefinefficiency.

Finefficiency:

Forarectangularfinwithadiabatictip,thefinefficiencyisgivenby:

where, (finparameter)

Then,fromEq.b,weget:

Areas:

Therefore,overallheattransfercoefficientUreferredtotheinsidesurface:

Wehave:

2
Note:comparethistotheearlierUvalueof9.49W/(m C)thereisgreatimprovementinvalueofUbyprovidingfins.Heatlossper
metrelengthoftube:

Q:=Ui(Dl)(TsTa)W/m

i.e.Q=221.34W/m.

Note:ComparethistotheearlierQvalueof51.686W/mthissubstantialimprovementinvalueofQistheresultofprovidingfins.

Also,notethatintheaboveanalysis,weassumedthattheoutsideheattransfercoefficienthoisthesamefortheunfinnedsurfaceas
wellasforthefinnedsurfaces.

Example12.3.Ashellandtubecounterflowheatexchangerusescoppertubes(k=380W/(mC)),20mmIDand23mmOD.
Insideandoutsidefilmcoefficientsare5000and1500W/(mC),respectively.Foulingfactorsontheinsideandoutsidemaybetaken
2
as0.0004and0.001m C/Wrespectively.Calculatetheoverallheattransfercoefficientbasedon:(i)outsidesurface,and(ii)inside
surface.

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Solution.

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Data:

Heatlosspermetrelengthoftube:

Overallheattransfercoefficient:

Wehave:

InthedenominatorofRHSofEq.12.15above,wehavethevariousthermalresistances,asfollows:
3
firsttermconvectivefilmresistanceontheinsidesurface=3.183110 C/W
3
secondtermfoulingresistanceontheinsidesurface=6.366210 C/W
5
thirdtermconductiveresistanceofthetubewall=5.85410 C/W
3
fourthtermconvectivefilmresistanceontheoutsidesurface=9.226410 C/W

fifthtermfoulingresistanceontheoutsidesurface=0.01384C/W.

Notetherelativemagnitudeoffoulingresistances,ascomparedtootherresistances.Asexpected,conductiveresistanceofthetube
wall(ofcopper,whichisagoodconductor)isthesmallestofall.

CalculatingtheRHS,weget:

Comments:

Foulingaffectsthevalueofoverallheattransfercoefficientandtherefore,thesize(orarea)oftheheatexchangeradversely.

Ifthefoulingresistanceswerenotincluded,weshouldhaveobtainedthefollowingvaluesfortheoverallheattransfercoefficient:

RHSofEq.12.15,deletingthefoulingresistances,willbecome:

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i.e.UoandUiwithnofoulingareabout2.62timesthecorrespondingvalueswhenfoulingresistancesareincluded.Therefore,itis
advisabletoincludetheeffectoffouling,ifpracticable,atthedesignstage.

12.4 The LMTD Method for Heat Exchanger Analysis


Basically,acompletedesignofaheatexchangerisahugetopicwhichinvolvesananalysisof:

1.Thermalaspects(i.e.temperaturesoffluidsatinlet/exit,rateofheattransfer,etc.,offdesignperformance,etc.)
2.Hydrodynamicaspects(i.e.pressuredropsintheflowchannels)
3.Structuralaspects(mechanicaldesignandstructuraldesign).

However,hereweshallconsideronlythethermalanalysisaspects.

12.4.1 Parallel Flow Heat Exchanger


Consideradoublepipe,parallelflowheatexchanger,inwhichahotfluidandacoldfluidflowparalleltoeachother,separatedbya
solidwall.HotfluidentersatatemperatureofTh1andleavestheheatexchangeratatemperatureofTh2 coldfluidenterstheheat
exchangeratatemperatureofTc1andleavesatatemperatureofTc2 .ThissituationisshowninFig.12.5.

FIGURE12.5Parallelflowheatexchanger

Wedesiretogetanexpressionfortherateofheattransferinthisheatexchangerinthefollowingform:

Q=UATm(12.16)

where,U=overallheattransfercoefficient

A=areaforheattransfer(shouldbethesameareaonwhichUisbased),and

Tm=ameantemperaturedifferencebetweenthefluids.

Now,wemakethefollowingassumptions:

1.Uisconsideredasaconstantthroughoutthelength(orarea)oftheheatexchanger
2.Propertiesoffluids(suchasspecificheat)arealsoconsideredtobeconstantwithtemperature
3.Heatexchangetakesplaceonlybetweenthetwofluidsandthereisnolossofheattothesurroundings,i.e.perfectinsulationof
heatexchangerisassumed
4.Changesinpotentialandkineticenergyarenegligible
5.Temperaturesofboththefluidsremainconstant(equaltotheirbulktemperatures)overagivencrosssectionoftheheat
exchanger.

AreaAisconstantforagivenheatexchanger.However,weseefromFig.12.5thatthetemperatureofthetwofluidsvaryalongthe
length(orarea)oftheheatexchanger,i.e.thetemperaturedifferencebetweenthehotandcoldfluidsisnotaconstantalongthelength
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oftheheatexchanger,butvariesalongthelength.Ouraimistofindouttheappropriatemeantemperaturedifference(Tm)between
thehotandcoldfluids,sothatEq.12.16canbeapplied.Weproceedasfollows:

ConsideranelementalareadAoftheheatexchanger.Then,byapplyingtheFirstlaw,wecanwrite:

Heatgivenupbythehotfluid=heatreceivedbythecoldfluid.

i.e.

dQ=mhCphdTh=mc Cpc dTc (12.17)

Here,thetemperatureofhotfluiddecreasesasthelengthincreases.So,anegativesignisputinfrontofmh.Cph.dTh,sothattheheat
transferredisapositivequantity.

Now,dQfortheelementalareadA,canalsobeexpressedas:

dQ=U(ThTc )dA(12.18)

Now,fromEq.12.17,wehave:

and,

where,mhandmc arethemassflowrates,andCphandCpc arethespecificheatsofhotandcoldfluids,respectively.

Therefore,

SubstitutingfordQfromEq.12.18,weget:

IntegratingEq.12.20betweentheinletandexitoftheheatexchanger(i.e.betweenconditions1and2):

Now,consideringthetotalheattransferratefortheentireheatexchanger,wehave:

and,

SubstitutinginEq.12.21:

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Now,comparingEq.12.22andEq.12.16,weobservethat:

Sincethismeantemperaturedifferencevariesinalogarithmicmanner,itiscalledLogarithmicMeanTemperatureDifferenceor,
simplyLMTD.

So,wewrite:

Now,notethat(Th2 Tc2 )isthetemperaturedifferenceattheexitand(Th1Tc1)isthetemperaturedifferenceattheinletoftheheat


exchanger.IfwedenotethetemperaturedifferencesattheinletandexitoftheheatexchangerbyT1andT2 ,respectively,wecan
write:

WecanstateEq.12.25inwordsasfollows:LMTDisequaltotheratioofthedifferencebetweenthegreaterandlowerofthe
temperaturedifferencesatthetwoendstothenaturallogarithmoftheratiobetweenthosetemperaturedifferences.

EquationforLMTDiseasilyrememberedasfollows:

where,

GTD=greater(ofthetwo)temperaturedifference,and

LTD=lowertemperaturedifference.

12.4.2 Counter-flow Heat Exchanger


Again,consideradoublepipe,counterflowheatexchanger,inwhichahotfluidandacoldfluidflowindirectionsoppositetoeach
other,separatedbyasolidwall.HotfluidentersatatemperatureofTh2 andleavestheheatexchangeratatemperatureofTh2 cold
fluidenterstheheatexchangeratatemperatureofTc1andleavesatatemperatureofTc2 .ThissituationisshowninFig.12.6.

Wedesiretogetanexpressionfortherateofheattransferinthisheatexchangerinthefollowingform:

Q=UATm(12.16)

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U=overallheattransfercoefficient

A=areaforheattransfer(shouldbethesameareaonwhichUisbased),and

Tm=ameantemperaturedifferencebetweenthefluids.

WeseefromFig.12.6thatthetemperaturesofthetwofluidsvaryalongthelength(orarea)oftheheatexchanger,i.e.thetemperature
differencebetweenthehotandcoldfluidsisnotaconstantalongthelengthoftheheatexchanger,butvariesalongthelength.Ouraim
istofindouttheappropriatemeantemperaturedifference(Tm)betweenthehotandcoldfluids,sothatEq.12.16canbeapplied.
Weproceedasfollows,withthesameassumptionsasmadefortheanalysisofparallelflowheatexchanger:

ConsideranelementalareadAoftheheatexchanger.Then,byapplyingtheFirstlaw,wecanwrite:

Heatgivenupbythehotfluid=heatreceivedbythecoldfluid.

FIGURE12.6Counterflowheatexchanger

i.e.

dQ=mhCphdTh=mc Cpc dTc (12.27)

Here,thetemperaturesofbothhotandcoldfluidsdecreaseasthelengthincreases.So,negativesignisputinfrontofmh.Cph.dThand
mc .Cpc .dTc sothattheheattransferredisapositivequantity.

Now,dQfortheelementalareadA,canalsobeexpressedas:

dQ=U(ThTc )dA(12.28)

Now,fromEq.12.27,wehave:

and,

where,mhandmc arethemassflowrates,andCphandCpc arethespecificheatsofhotandcoldfluids,respectively.

Therefore,

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SubstitutingfordQfromEq.12.28,weget:

IntegratingEq.12.30betweentheinletandexitoftheheatexchanger(i.e.betweenconditions1and2):

Now,consideringthetotalheattransferratefortheentireheatexchanger,wehave:

and,

SubstitutinginEq.12.31:

Now,comparingEq.12.32andEq.12.16,weobservethat:

Notethatthismeantemperaturedifferencevariesinalogarithmicmannerso,itiscalledLogarithmicMeanTemperature
Differenceor,simplyLMTD.

So,wewrite:

Now,notethat(Th2 Tc2 )isthetemperaturedifferenceattheexitand(Th1Tc2 )isthetemperaturedifferenceattheinletoftheheat


exchanger.IfwedenotethetemperaturedifferencesattheinletandexitoftheheatexchangerbyT1andT2 ,respectively,wecan
write:

NotethattheLMTDexpressionsfortheparallelflowandthecounterflowheatexchangers(i.e.Eqs.12.25and12.35)arethesame.
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Again,equationforLMTDiseasilyrememberedasfollows:

where,

GTD=greater(ofthetwo)temperaturedifference,and

LTD=lowertemperaturedifference

Comments:

(i)WhenT1=T2 :Thisisaspecialcase,whichcanoccursometimesinthecaseofacounterflowheatexchanger.Then,Eq.12.35
reducestoaform0/0,whichisindeterminate.However,fromphysicalconsiderations,T1=T2 meansthatthetemperature
differencebetweenthehotandcoldfluidsisequalthroughouttheheatexchanger.Therefore,obviously,themeantemperature
differencebetweenthetwofluidsisT1=T2 .(Thiscanbeprovedmathematicallyalso,byapplyingLHospitalsrule).

(ii)LMTDforacounterflowheatexchangerisalwaysgreaterthanthatforaparallelflowheatexchanger.Thismeansthattotransfer
thesameamountofheat,counterflowunitwillrequireasmallerheattransfersurfaceascomparedtoaparallelflowunit.Thisisthe
reasonwhyacounterflowheatexchangerisusuallypreferred.

(iii)LMTDcaneasilybecalculatedwhenalltheendtemperaturesofthefluidsareknown.Then,immediately,theheattransferrateis
determinedfromtheEq.12.16,i.e.Q=U.A.(LMTD).Therefore,calculationofLMTDisanimportantstepinthedesignofaheat
exchanger.TofacilitatequickcalculationofLMTD,whenboththeendtemperaturesareknown,followinggraph(Fig.12.7)is
provided.Here,(LMTD/GTD)isplottedagainsttheratio(LTD/GTD),whereGTD=greaterofthetwoendtemperaturedifferences,
andLTD=lowerofthetwoendtemperaturedifferences.First,calculatetheratio(LTD/GTD),andthen,read(eitherfromthegraph
orTable12.4)thevalueofLMTD/GTD.Next,multiplythisvaluebyGTDtogetLMTD.

FIGURE12.7LMTDandAMTDforparallelandcounterflowHX

Inthesamegraph,thevalueof(AMTD/GTD)isalsoplotted,forcomparison.Here,AMTDisthearithmeticmeantemperature
differenceAMTD=(T1+T2 )/2.ItmaybenotedthatforvaluesbeyondaboutT2 /T1=0.7,AMTDandLMTDarealmostthe
same,i.e.whenT2 /T1>0.7,itwouldsufficetouseAMTD(whichiseasiertocalculate)insteadofLMTD.However,forlower
valuesofT2 /T1,LMTDhastobeused.

GraphforLMTDshownaboveisalsorepresentedintabularform(forbetteraccuracy)inTable12.4,

(iv)OnetermoccurringinthederivationofLMTDshownabove,istheproductofmassflowrateandthespecificheatofafluid,i.e.C
=m.Cp.Here,Cisknownasheatcapacityrateor,simplycapacityrateofthatparticularfluid.Thus,thecapacityratesforhotand
coldfluidsare:

Ch=mhCphW/C((12.36)capacityrateforhotfluid)
Cc =mc Cpc W/C((12.37)capacityrateforcoldfluid)

Then,theheattransferrateisgivenby:

Q=Ch(Th1Th )W((12.38)forhotfluid)
2
Q=Cc (Tc Tc )W((12.38)forcoldfluid)
2 1

i.e.totransferagivenamountofheat,highertheheatcapacityrateofafluid,lowerwillbethetemperaturerise(orfall)ofthat
particularfluid.

Iftheheatcapacityratesofboththehotandcoldfluidsareequal,then,thetotaltemperaturedropofthehotfluidwillbeequaltothe
totaltemperatureriseofthecoldfluid.SeeFig.12.8(a).

(v)Whenafluidiscondensingorboiling,itstemperatureisessentiallyconstant,i.e.Th1=Th2 foracondensingfluidandTc1=Tc2 for


aboilingliquid.Inotherwords,Tforthecondensingorboilingfluidiszero.But,sinceafiniteamountofheatistransferred,(=
m.hfg),wesaythatcapacityrateofacondensingorboilingfluidtendstoinfinity.Temperatureprofilesforfluidsinaheatexchanger
whenoneofthefluidsiscondensingorboilingareshowninFig.12.8(b)and(c),respectively.LMTDforboththesecasesis
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determinedbythesameprocedureasfortheparallelorcounterflowheatexchangers,i.e.

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Example12.4.Furnaceoil,flowingatarateof4000kg/h,isheatedfrom10to20Cbyhotwaterflowingat75C,withavelocityof
0.8m/s,throughacopperpipe2.15cmOD,1.88cmID.Oilflowsthroughannulusbetweencopperandsteelpipeof3.35cmODand3
cmID.Findthelengthofcounterflowheatexchanger.Fluidpropertiesaregiven.

UseDittusBoelterequationNu=0.023.Re0.8.Pr0.4.

Solution.

TABLE12.4LMTD/GTDforparallelflowandcounterflowHXLMTD=LogmeantemperaturedifferenceGTD=Greateroftwo
endtemperaturedifferencesLTD=Loweroftwoendtemperaturedifferences

FIGURE12.8(a)Bothfluidshavesamecapacityrates

FIGURE12.8(b)Oneofthefluidscondensing(Ch)

Figure12.8(c)Oneofthefluidsboiling(Ch)

FIGUREExample12.4Counterflowheatexchanger

Fluidproperties:

Property Water Oil

4.187 1.884
Cp(kJ/kgK)

0.657 0.138
k(W/mK)

7
2 4.18710 7.43
v(m /s) 6
10

3 982 854
(kg/m )

2
Dhi:=1.8810 m(insidediameteroftubeforhotfluidflow)
2
Dho:=2.1510 m(outsidediameteroftubeforhotfluidflow)
2
Dci:=310 m(insidediameteroftubeforcoldfluidflow)
2
Dco:=3.3510 m(outsidediameteroftubeforcoldfluidflow)

Totalheattransferred:

Q:=mc cpc (Tc2 Tc1)W


4
i.e.Q=2.09310 W

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Therefore,

Wehave:

3 2
i.e.hh=5.21210 W/(m C)(heattransfercoefficientforhot(inside)fluid)

Outsideheattransfercoefficient:

Equivalentdiameterofannulus:Deq =4(areaofcrosssection/wettedperimeter)

Therefore,

Also,

FromDittusBoeltersequation

Therfore,

OverallheattransfercoefficientU:

Wehave:UA=1/(Totalthermalresistance)

Therefore,

Now,calculateLMTD:

Exittemperatureofhotfluid:

Therefore,

Alternatively:

WecancalculateLMTDquicklybyusinggraphofFig.12.7orfromTable12.4:Wehave:T2 /T1=42.074/55=0.765.Fromthe
table,wereadagainstT2 /T1=0.765,avalueofLMTD/T1=0.8775.Then,LMTD=0.877555=48.262C.

LengthofHXrequired:

Heatexchangearearequired:

Therefore,

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FIGUREExample12.5Heatexchangerwithoneofthefluidscondensing(Ch)

Example12.5.Inashellandtubeheatexchanger,tubesare4mlong,3.1cmOD,2.7cmID.Waterisheatedfrom22Cto45Cby
condensingsteamat100Contheoutsideoftubes.Waterflowratethroughthetubesis10kg/s.Heattransfercoefficientonsteam
2 2
sideis5500W/(m K)andonwaterside,850W/(m K).Neglectingallotherresistances,findthenumberoftubes.

Solution.

Data:

Alternatively:

WecancalculateLMTDquicklybyusinggraphofFig.12.7orfromTable12.4.Wehave:T2 /T1=55/78=0.705.Fromthetable,
wereadagainstT2 /T1=0.705,valueofLMTD/T1=0.844.Then,LMTD=0.84478=65.832C.samevalueasobtainedabove
bycalculation.

Heattransfer:

Numberoftubesrequired:

Therefore,

i.e.Numberoftubesrequiredis,say,58.

Example12.6.Inadoublepipecounterflowheatexchanger,10,000kg/hofoil(Cp=2.095kJ/kgK)iscooledfrom80Cto50C
2
by8000kg/hofwaterenteringat25C.DeterminetheareaofheatexchangerforanoverallU=300W/(m K).TakeCpforwateras
4.18kJ/kgK.

(M.U.1997)

Solution.

Data:

FIGUREExample12.6Counterflowheatexchanger

TocalculateLMTD:

Wehave:

Alternatively:

WecancalculateLMTDquicklybyusinggraphofFig.12.7orfromTable12.4.Wehave:T2 /T1=55/78=0.705.Fromthetable,
wereadagainstT2 /T1=0.705,valueofLMTD/T1=0.844.Then,LMTD=0.84478=65.832C.samevalueasobtainedabove
bycalculation.

Arearequired:

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12.5 Correction Factors for Multi-pass and Cross-flow Heat Exchangers


LMTDrelationsderivedaboveareapplicabletoparallelflowandcounterflowheatexchangersonly.But,inpractice,crossflowheat
exchangers(e.g.automobileradiators)andshellandtubeheatexchangers,withmorethanonepassinshellsideand/ortubeside,are
alsoused.Insuchcases,theflowsituationiscomplexandtheanalyticrelationsformeantemperaturedifferenceareverycomplicated.
Then,first,LMTDiscalculatedasifforacounterflowheatexchangerwiththeinletandexittemperaturesforthetwofluidsasperthe
actualdata,andnext,acorrectionfactor(F)isappliedtothecalculatedLMTDtogetthemeantemperaturedifferencebetweenthe
fluids.Now,heattransferrateiscalculatedas:

Q=UA(FLMTD)W(12.39)

where,Aistheareaofheattransfer,Uistheoverallheattransfercoefficientreferredtothatarea,andFisthecorrectionfactor.Note
againthatLMTDiscalculatedasifforacounterflowheatexchanger,takingtheinletandexittemperaturesofthe
twofluidsthesameasfortheactualheatexchanger.

Valuesofcorrectionfactor(F)forafewselectedheatexchangersaregiveningraphicalrepresentationinFig.12.9.Fvariesfrom0to
1.Inthesegraphs,correctionfactorFisplottedasfunctionoftwoparameters,i.e.PandR,definedas:

FIGURE12.9(a)Oneshellpassand2,4,6,etc.(anymultipleof2),tubepasses

FIGURE12.9(b)Twoshellpassesand4,8,12,etc.(anymultipleof4),tubepasses

FIGURE12.9(c)Singlepasscrossflowwithbothfluidsunmixed

FIGURE12.9(d)Singlepasscrossflowwithonefluidmixedandtheotherunmixed

where,Cisthecapacityrate=m.Cp.

Also,forashellandtubeheatexchanger,Tandtrepresentthetemperaturesoffluidsflowingthroughtheshellandtubesides,
respectively.And,subscripts1and2refertotheinletandexit,respectively.Itmakesnodifferencewhetherhotorcoldfluidflows
throughtheshellorthetube.ValuesofPvaryfrom0to1anditisequaltotheratioofthetemperaturechangeofthetubesidefluidto
themaximumtemperaturedifferencebetweenthetwofluidsthus,Prepresentsthethermaleffectivenessofthetubesidefluidvalues
ofRvaryfrom0toWhenR=0,itmeansthatthefluidontheshellsideisundergoingaphasechange(i.e.boilingorcondensation,
whichoccursatapracticallyconstanttemperature,Tsat),andwhenR=,thetubesidefluidisundergoingaphasechange.Observe
fromthegraphsthat,whenR=0or,thecorrectionfactorFisequalto1.Therefore,foracondenserorboiler,F=1,irrespectiveof
theconfigurationoftheheatexchanger.

Note:ToapplythecorrectionfactorFfromthesegraphs,itisnecessarythattheendtemperaturesofboththefluidsmustbeknown.

Example12.7.Aoneshellpass,twotubepassheatexchanger,withflowarrangementsimilartothatshowninFig.12.9(a),has
waterflowingthroughthetubesandengineoilflowingontheshellside.Waterflowrateis1.2kg/sanditstemperaturesatinletand
2
exitare25Cand75C,respectively.Engineoilentersat110Candleavesat75C.OverallU=300W/(m K).TakeCpforwateras
4.18kJ/(kgK)andcalculatetheheattransferarearequired.

FIGUREExample12.7Counterflowheatexchanger

Solution.

Data:

mc :=1.2kg/sCpc :=4180J/kgK
2
U:=300W/(m K)T1:=110C(hotfluid,inlet)

T2 :=75C(hotfluid,exit)

t1:=25C(coldfluid,inlet)
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t2 :=75C(coldfluid,exit)

Therefore,totalheatload:

Q:=mc Cpc (t2 t1)W


5
i.e.Q=2.50810 W

SincethisisamultipassHX,LMTDmustbecalculatedasforacounterflowHX,and,thenacorrectionfactorappliedfromFig.12.9
(a):

TocalculateLMTD:

T1:=T1t2

i.e.T1=35C

and,

T2 :=T2 t1

i.e.T2 =50C

Therefore,

Correctionfactor,F:

Wehave:

Then,fromFig.12.9(a):

F=0.8(correctionfactor)

And,thecorrectedtemperaturedifferencebecomes:

T:=0.8LMTD

i.e.T=33.644C(actualmeantemperature)

Therefore,heattransferarea:

Example12.8.InashellandtubeHX,50kg/minoffurnaceoilisheatedfrom10to90C.Steamat120Cflowsthroughtheshell
andoilflowsinsidethetube.Tubesize:1.65cmIDand1.9cmOD.Heattransfercoefficientonoilandsteamsidesare:85and7420
2
W/(m K),respectively.Findthenumberofpassesandnumberoftubesineachpassifthelengthofeachtubeislimitedto2.85m.
Velocityofoilislimitedto5cm/s.Densityandspecificheatofoilare1970J/(kg.K),respectively.(M.U.1994)

Solution.

Data:

Totalheattransferred:

Numberoftubesrequired:

Totalcrosssectionalareaforflow:

Crosssectionalareaofeachtube:

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FIGUREExample12.8Heatexchangerwithoneofthefluidscondensing(Ch)

OverallU,basedonoutersurfacearea:

Totalthermalresistance:

Then,

Therefore,heattransferarearequired:

But,lengthislimitedto2.85m.So,use2tubepasses.

Then,itbecomesashellandtubeHXwithtwotubepasses.So,itappearsatfirstsightthatcorrectionfactor(F)hastobeobtained
fromFig.12.9but,observethatoneofthefluidsiscondensing.So,F=1,irrespectiveofHXconfiguration.

i.e.F=1

Therefore,Ahtremainssame.Then,

12.6 The Eectiveness-NTU Method for Heat Exchanger Analysis


LMTDcanreadilybedeterminedwhenallthefourendtemperaturesareeithergiven,orcaneasilybecalculated.Then,thearea
required,A(i.e.thesizeoftheHX)iseasilyfoundoutbyapplyingtheequation:Q=U.A.(LMTD).Inotherwords,LMTDmethodis
veryconvenienttouseforsizingproblems,whenalltheendtemperaturesareknown.However,therearecertainproblemswhereonly
theinlettemperaturesofboththefluidsarespecified,alongwiththeflowratesandtheoverallheattransfercoefficients,andtheheat
transferrateandtheexittemperaturesofthefluidsaretobecalculated.SolutionofsuchratingproblemsbytheLMTDmethodwould
requiretediousiterations.However,theEffectivenessNTUmethod,developedbyKaysandLondonin1955,overcomesthisproblem
andmakesthesolutionstraightforward.EffectivenessNTUmethodisalsousefulinsolvingheatexchangerproblems,whereoff
designconditionsexisti.e.forexample,theheatexchangermighthavebeendesignedforsomeparticularflowratesoffluidsnow,to
findoutwhathappenstotheperformanceifflowrateofoneofthefluidsisreducedto,say,75%ofthedesignflowrate,andsoon.

TheeffectivenessNTUmethodisnotanaltogethernewmethodfundamentalequationsarethesameasusedintheLMTDmethod,
butthedifferentvariablesarearrangedratherdifferently.

BeforewedeveloptheEffectivenessNTUrelationsfordifferenttypesofheatexchangers,letusdefineafewquantities:

Effectivenessofaheatexchanger():

where,

Q=actualheattransferredintheheatexhanger

Qmax=maximumpossibleheattransferintheheatexchanger

Now,actualheattransferrateinaheatexchangerisgivenby:

Q=mhCph(Th1Th2 )=Ch(Th1Th2 )

and,
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Q=mc Cpc (Tc2 Tc1)=Cc (Tc2 Tc1)

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where,Ch=capacityrateofthehotfluid,and

Cc =capacityrateofthecoldfluid

Now,ChmaybeequaltoCc orlessthanCc orgreaterthanCc .

IfCh<Cc ,wedesignateChasCmin

Instead,ifCh>Cc ,wedesignateCc asCmin.

And,ineachcase,capacityrateoftheotherfluidisdesignatedasCmax.

CapacityRatio(C):

Capacityratioisdefinedas:

NumberofTransferUnits(NTU):

NumberofTransferUnits(whichisadimensionlessnumber),isdefinedas:

where,UistheoverallheattransfercoefficientandAisthecorrespondingheattransferarea.ForgivenvalueofAandflowconditions,
NTUisameasureofthearea(i.e.size)oftheheatexchanger.LargertheNTU,largerthesizeoftheheatexchanger.

Maximumpossibleheattransferinaheatexchanger(Qmax):

Now,consideraheatexchangerwherethehotfluidiscooledfromatemperatureofTh1toTh2 andthecoldfluidheatedfromTc1to
Tc2 .So,themaximumtemperaturedifferentialintheheatexchangeris(Th1Tc1).Now,iftheheatexchangerhadaninfinitearea,the
hotfluidwillbecooledfromTh1toTc1orthecoldfluidmaybeheatedfromTc1toTc1.However,whichfluidwillexperiencethe
maximumtemperaturedifferential(Th1Tc1)willdependuponwhichfluidhastheminimumcapacityrate.

Ifhotfluidhastheminimumcapacityrate,wecanwrite:

Qmax=Ch(Th1Tc1)(ifChisminimumcapacityrate,Cmin)

Instead,ifcoldfluidhastheminimumcapacityrate,wewrite:

Qmax=Cc (Th Tc1)(ifCc isminimumcapacityrate,Cmin.)


1
Or,moregenerally,wewrite:

Qmax=Cmin(Th1Tc )(12.45)
1
ThesesituationsarerepresentedgraphicallyinFig.12.9:

FIGURE12.9(a)Coldfluidhasminimumcapacityrate

FIGURE12.9(b)Hotfluidhasminimumcapacityrate

Therefore,wecanwriteforeffectiveness:

Now,ifhotfluidistheminimumfluid(i.e.Ch<Cc ),wegetfromEq.12.46:

And,ifcoldfluidistheminimumfluid(i.e.Cc <Ch),wegetfromEq.12.46:

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i.e.bysuitablychoosingthefluid,theeffectivenessofaheatexchangercanbeexpressedasaratiooftemperatures(or,asa
temperatureeffectiveness).

IfChCc ,obviously,boththefluidswillexperiencethemaximumpossibletemperaturedifferential,iftheheatexchangerhadan
infinitearea.

Now,foranyheatexchanger,effectivenesscanbeexpressedasafunctionoftheNTUandcapacityratio,Cmin/Cmin,i.e.

WeshallderivebeloweNTUrelationforaparallelflowHX.

12.6.1 Eectiveness-NTU Relation for a Parallel-flow Heat Exchanger


ConsidertheparallelflowheatexchangershowninFig.12.5.AssumptionsforthisderivationremainthesameasfortheLMTD
method.

ContinuingfromEq.12.21:

Now,outofthetwofluids,oneistheminimumfluidandtheotheristhemaximumfluid.Whichevermaybetheminimumfluid,we
canwriteEq.12.21as:

Now,substitutingforTh2 andTc2 fromEq.12.46,weget:

Now,assumingCh>Cc ,i.e.coldfluidastheminimumfluid,wehave:Cmin=Cc andCmax=Ch.

Therefore,

Eq.12.50isthedesiredexpressionforeffectivenessofaparallelflowheatexchanger.

Notethatthesameresultwouldbeobtained,ifweassumethehotfluidastheminimumfluid.

Eq.12.50isconciselyexpressedas:

where,N=NTUand,

Specialcases:

(i)Foracondenserorboileri.e.oneofthefluidsundergoesaphasechange.Therefore,Cmaxi.e.Capacityratio,C=0.Then
effectivenessrelation(forallheatexchangers)reducesto:

=1exp(NTU)(12.52)

(ii)WhenC=1,i.e.Cmin=CmaxThisisthecaseofatypical,gasturbineregenerator.Inthiscase,

12.6.2 Eectiveness-NTU Relation for a Counter-flow Heat Exchanger


Again,considerthecounterflowheatexchangershowninFig.12.6.AssumptionsforthisderivationremainthesameasfortheLMTD
method.

ContinuingfromEq.12.31:

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Thiscanbewrittenas:

Assuminghotfluidastheminimumfluid,

Cmin=Chand,Cmax=Cc

wehave:

Now,substitutingforTh2 andTc2 fromEq.12.46,weget:

Now,putCmin=Ch,C=Cmin/Cmax,andN=NTU,inEq.12.55:

Insteadofassumingthatthehotfluidistheminimumfluid,ifweassumethatthecoldfluidistheminimumfluid,thenalsothesame
relation(namely,Eq.12.56),willresult.

Eq.12.56isthedesiredexpressionfortheeffectivenessofthecounterflowheatexchanger.

Specialcases:

1.Foracondenserorboileri.e.oneofthefluidsundergoesaphasechange.Therefore,Cmaxi.e.Capacityratio,C=0.
Theneffectivenessrelation(forallheatexchangers)reducesto:

=1exp(NTU)(12.57)

2.WhenC=1,i.e.Cmin=CmaxThisisthecaseofatypical,gasturbineregenerator.Inthiscase,relationforreducestothe
indeterminateform,0/0.Then,applytheLHospitalsruletoevaluatee.i.e.differentiatethenumeratoranddenominatorw.r.t.
CandtakingthelimitC1,weget:

EffectivenessNTUrelationsandthecorrespondinggraphicalrepresentationsforseveraltypesofheatexchangersaregivenbyKays
andLondon.

Table12.5givestheEffectivenessrelationsforafewtypesofheatexchangersandTable12.6givestheNTUrelations:

TABLE12.5Effectivenessrelationsforheatexchangers[N=NTU=U.A/Cmin,C=Cmin/Cmax]

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Flowgeometry Relation

Doublepipe:parallelflow

Doublepipe:counterflow

Counterflow,C=1

Crossflow:(singlepass)bothfluidsun
mixed

Crossflow:(singlepass)bothfluids
mixed

Crossflow:(singlepass)Cmaxmixed,
Cminunmixed

Crossflow:(singlepass)Cmaxunmixed,
Cminmixed

Shellandtube:

Oneshellpass,2,4,6tubepasses

Multipleshellpasses,2n,4n,6ntube
passes(p=effectivenessofeachshell
pass,n=number.ofshellpasses)

SpecialcaseforC=1

N
Allexchangers,withC=0(Condensers =1e
andEvaporators)

TABLE12.6NTUrelationsforheatexchangers[N=NTU=U.A/Cmin,C=Cmin/Cmax,=effectiveness]

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Flowgeometry Relation

Doublepipe:parallelflow

Doublepipe:counterflow,forC=1

Counterflow,C=1

Crossflow:Cmaxmixed,Cminunmixed

Crossflow:Cmaxunmixed,Cminmixed

Shellandtube:

Oneshellpass,2,4,6tubepasses

Allexchangers,withC=0(Condensersand N=ln(1)
Evaporators)

NTUEffectivenessgraphs:

NTUEffectivenessrelationsarealsorepresentedingraphicalformandthesearequiteinstructive.However,itisabitdifficulttoread
thesegraphsaccuratelyso,analyticalrelationsmaybeusedwhereverpossible.

NTUEffectivenessrelationsforparallelflowandcounterflowheatexchangersareshowngraphicallyinFig.12.10and12.11,
respectively.Inthesefigures,effectivenessvaluesareplottedagainstNTUfordifferentvaluesofcapacityratio,C.

Forconvenienceandaccuracyinreading,effectivenessvaluesfortheparallelflowandcounterflowheatexchangersaregivenin
Tabularform,inTable12.7and12.8:

FIGURE12.10NTUVs.effectivenessforparallelflowheatexchangers

FIGURE12.11NTUVs.effectivenessforcounterflowheatexchangers

NTUeffectivenessgraphsforsomeothertypesofheatexchangers,aregivenbyKaysandLondon,andarereproducedbelow:

FIGURE12.12Crossflowheatexchangerwithbothfluidsunmixed

FIGURE12.13Crossflowheatexchangerwithonefluidmixedandtheotherunmixed
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Note:InFig.12.13,thedashedlinesareforthecaseofCminunmixedandCmaxmixed.And,thesolidlinesareforthecaseofCmin
mixedandCmax,unmixed.

FromtheNTUEffectivenessgraphs,followingimportantpointsmaybeobserved:

(i)Foragivenvalueofcapacityratio,C,theeffectivenessincreaseswithNTU.Valueofeffectivenessvariesfrom0to1.

(ii)Initially,effectivenessincreasesratherrapidlyasNTUincreases(uptoavalueofNTU=about1.5)andthen,slowlyforlarger
valuesofNTU.RememberthatNTUisameasureofthesize(i.e.heatexchangearea,A)oftheheatexchangerso,wecanconclude
thatincreasingthesizeoftheheatexchangerbeyondaboutNTU=3,cannotbeeconomicallyjustified,sincetherewillnotbeany
correspondingincreaseineffectiveness.

TABLE12.7NTUVs.effectivenessforparallelflowHX

TABLE12.8NTUVs.effectivenessforcounterflowHX

FIGURE12.14Shellandtubeheatexchanger,withoneshellpassand2,4,6tubepasses

FIGURE12.15Shellandtubeheatexchanger,withtwoshellpassesand4,8,12tubepasses

(iii)AtagivenvalueofNTU,effectivenessismaximumforC=0,(i.e.foracondenserorevaporator),anddecreasesasCincreases.

(iv)ForNTUlessthanabout0.3,effectivenessisindependentofcapacityratio,C.

(v)ForgivenNTUandC,acounterflowheatexchangerhashighesteffectivenessandaparallel,flowheatexchangerhasthelowest
effectiveness.

(vi)WhenC=1(i.e.capacityratesofboththefluidsareequal,asinthecaseofatypicalregenerator),maximumeffectivenessofa
parallelflowheatexchangeris50%only,whereasthereisnosuchlimitationforacounterflowHX.Therefore,forsuchapplications,
obviously,thecounterflowarrangementispreferred.

Example12.9.Consideraheatexchangerforcoolingoilwhichentersat180C,andcoolingwaterentersat25C.Massflowratesof
2
oilandwaterare:2.5and1.2kg/s,respectively.Areaforheattransfer=16m .SpecificheatdataforoilandwaterandoverallUare
2
given:Cpoil=1900J/kgKCpwater=4184J/kgKU=285W/m K.Calculateoutlettemperaturesofoilandwaterforparalleland
counterflowHX.(M.U.1995)

Solution.Here,theoutlettemperaturesofboththefluidsarenotknown.UseofLMTDmethodwouldrequireaniterativesolution.
i.e.tostartwith,assumeoutlettemperatureof,say,hotfluid,Th2 andcalculatetheexittemperatureofcoldfluid,Tc2 andthen,the
LMTDthen,calculatetheheattransferrateQ.FromQandcapacityrates,recalculateTh2 ,andcomparethisvaluewiththeinitially
assumedvalueiftheydonotmatch,say,within0.5deg.C,repeattheiterative

But,aswillbeshownbelow,EffectivenessNTUmethod,offersadirect,straightforwardsolution:

Data:

Capacityrates:

i.e.C=0.946(capacityratio)

NumberofTransferUnits:

Case(i):ParallelflowHX:

ForparallelflowHX,wehavetheeffectivenessrelation:

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Then,sincehotfluidistheminimumfluid,wehave:

and,Tc2 isobtainedfromheatbalance:

Case(ii):CounterflowHX:

ForcounterflowHX,wehave:

Then,again,sincehotfluidistheminimumfluid,wehave:

And,Tc2 isobtainedfrom:

Note:Inthisproblem,itisdifficulttoreadaccuratelythevaluesfromthegraphs,forthegivenvaluesofNTUandC.Itissuggested
thattheanalyticalrelationsmaybeusedtogetaccurateresults.

(b)IntheaboveExample,supposethattheflowrateofwaterisincreasedto2kg/s.

CalculatethenewoutlettemperaturesofoilandwaterforparallelandcounterflowHX.Restofthedataremain
thesame.

Now,theheatexchangerisoperatedatanoffdesigncondition,i.e.thewaterflowischangedfrom1.2kg/sto2kg/s.Then,eNTU
methodisconvenienttousetofindouttheexittemperaturesofboththefluids.

mc :=2kg/s(massflowrateofcoldfluid(water))

Notethatstill,hotfluidistheminimumfluidandNTUremainsthesame,butCchanges:

Capacityrates:

Ch:=mh=Cph

Therefore,Capacityratio:

Case(i):ParallelflowHX:

Wehavetheeffectivenessrelation:

Comparethiswith=0.435obtainedearlier.

Then,sincehotfluidistheminimumfluid,wehave:

And,Tc2 isobtainedfromheatbalance:

Case(ii):CounterflowHX:

ForCounterflowHX,wehave:
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Comparethiswith=0.496obtainedearlier.

Now,again,sincehotfluidistheminimumfluid,wehave:

And,Tc2 isobtainedfrom:

Notethatasaresultofincreasingthecoldfluid(water)flowrate,thenewexittemperatureofboththehotandcoldfluidsarelower,
forboththeparallelandcounterflowcases.

Example12.10.Asteamcondenser,condensingat70Chastohaveacapacityof100kW.Waterat20Cisusedandtheoutlet
2
watertemperatureislimitedto45C.Iftheoverallheattransfercoefficientis3100W/m K,determinethearearequired.

(b)Iftheinletwatertemperatureisincreasedto30C,determinetheincreasedflowrateofwatertomaintainthesameoutlet
temperature.(M.U.1998)

Solution.ThisproblemcanbesolvedbyLMTDmethod,too.But,inpart(b),sincetheheatexchangerisoperatedatanoffdesign
condition,weshalladopttheNTUmethod.

Data:

Therefore,effectiveness:

Sincesteamiscondensing,itisthemaximumfluid.So,wecanwrite:

Now,foracondenser,wehave,fromTable12.6:

Case(b):IfTc1isincreasedto30C,andTc2 maintainedat45C,whatistheincreasedflowrate?

ComparethisvaluewithCmin=4000obtainedearlier.

Therefore,increasedflowrate:

Example12.11.Hotoilatatemperatureof180CentersashellandtubeHXandiscooledbywaterenteringat25C.Thereisone
2
shellpassand6tubepassesintheHXandtheoverallheattransfercoefficientis350W/(m K).Tubeisthinwalled,15mmIDand
lengthperpassis5m.Waterflowrateis0.3kg/sandoilflowrateis0.4kg/s.Determinetheoutlettemperaturesofoilandwaterand
alsotheheattransferrateintheHX.Given:specificheatofoil=1900J/(kgK)andspecificheatofwater=4184J/(kgK)

Solution.Sincetheexittemperaturesofboththefluidsarenotknown,weshalluseNTUmethod.

Data:

FIGUREExample12.11Shellandtubeheatexchangerwithoneshellpassand6tubepasses

Therefore,oilistheminimumfluid.

Therefore,capacityratio:

NumberofTransferUnits:
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Effectiveness:

ThisisashellandtubeHXwithoneshellpassand6tubepasses.So,0.605andNTU=0.651,fromFig.12.14.

Sinceitisdifficulttoreadfromthegraphaccurately,letuscalculatefromanalyticalrelationgiveninTable12.5:

N:=NTU(notationinfollowingequation)

Outlettemperaturesofhotandcoldfluids:

Example12.12.Afeedwaterheaterheatswaterenteringatatemperatureof25C,atarateof3kg/s.Heatingisduetosteam
condensingat117C.Whenthefeedwaterheaterwasnew(i.e.cleancondition),theexittemperatureofwaterwas85C.After
prolongedoperation,forthesameflowratesandinletconditions,itwasobservedthattheoutlettemperaturewas75C.Determinethe
2
valueoffoulingfactor.Given:areaofheatexchange=5.5m .

Solution.Foulingresistance,Rfiscalculatedfromtherelation:

Also,sincethesteamiscondensing,itisthemaximumfluid,andthewateristheminimumfluid.

Data:

Sincethisisacondenser,wateristheminimumfluid,andcapacityrateofcondensingsteamis

i.e.Cmin:=Cc

Therefore,capacityratio:

Effectiveness:

Rememberingthatwateristheminimumfluid,effectivenessisgivenby:

and,fromTable12.6,NTUofthecondenserisgivenby:

But,bydefinitionofNTU:

Afterprolongedoperation:

Tc2 :=75C(exittemperatureofwaterfordirtyHX.)

Therefore,effectivenessofdirtyHX:

Therefore,NTUofcondenser:

Therefore,Foulingfactor:

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Example12.13.Oilat100C(Cp=3.6kJ/kgK)flowsatarateof30,000kg/handentersintoaparallelflowHX.Coolingwater
2 2
(Cp=4.2kJ/kg.K)enterstheHXat10Cattherateof50,000kg/h.Theheattransferareais10m andU=1000W/(m K).
Calculatethefollowing:(i)outlettemperatureofoilandwater(ii)maximumpossibleoutlettemperatureofwater.

Solution.Exittemperatureofboththefluidsarenotknowntherefore,NTUmethodistobeused:

Data

Capacityrates:

Therefore,oilistheminimumfluid.

Therefore,Capacityratio:

Effectiveness:

ForparallelflowHX,wehave:

FIGURE12.9Example12.13Parallelflowheatexchanger

i.e.=0.262(effectivenessofparallelflowHXwithNTU=0.333andC=0.514.)

Note:WecanusethegraphofFig.12.10orTable12.7,butusingtheanalyticalrelationismoreaccurate.

Outlettemperatureofhotandcoldfluids:

And,fromheatbalance:

(b)Maximumpossibleoutlettemperatureofwater:

ForaverylongparallelflowHX,theoutlettemperaturesofhotandcoldfluidswouldbethesame:

i.e.Th2 =Tc2

Therefore,writingtheheatbalance:

12.7 The Operating-line/Equilibrium-line Method


NTUmethodcanberepresentedgraphicallyinanotherway.

RefertoFig.l2.l6.Here,thexaxisrepresentsthecoldfluidtemperatureandtheyaxis,thehotfluidtemperature.Now,ifweplotthe
entranceandexittemperaturesofaheatexchangerontheseaxes,weseethattheoperatingrangeoftheHXisrepresentedbyasingle
linethislineiscalledtheoperatingline.Onthesamegraph,alinedrawnat45deg.iscalledtheequilibriumline.Forequilibrium
line,Th=Tc .Thermodynamically,itisimpossiblefortheoperatinglineofaheatexchangertodropbelowtheequilibriumline,since,
ifitdoes,itwouldmeanaviolationofthesecondlaw.SlopeoftheoperatinglineforthecounterflowHXis:(Cc /Cc )=
(Th1Th2 )/(Tc2 Tc1).And,theslopeoftheoperatinglinefortheparallelflowHXis:(Cc /Ch),i.e.negativeslope.Foracondenser,
operatinglineishorizontalwithTh=constantand(Cc /Ch)=0,andforanevaporator,theoperatinglineisaverticallinewithTc =
constant,and(Cc /Ch)

Advantageofthismethodofrepresentationisthattheeffectivenessoftheheatexchangercannowbeshowngeometricallyasaratioof
twolengths.Forexample,forthecounterflowHXshowninFig.l2.l6(a),wehave:Cc >Chandtheeffectivenessisequalto/.

Forconstantspecificheatsoffluids,theoperatinglineisastraightline.Variationinspecificheatsoffluidsisalsoshowneasilyin
thesegraphs:AsshowninFig.l2.l6(d),iftheoperatinglinecurvesupwards,i.e.theslopeincreasesasthetemperatureincreases,it
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meansthatCpofcoldfluidincreaseswithtemperature(or,theCpofhotfluiddecreaseswithtemperature).Similarly,iftheoperating
linecurvesdownwards,itmeansthatCpofcoldfluiddecreaseswithtemperature(or,theCpofhotfluidincreaseswithtemperature).

Effectivenessofaparallelflowheatexchanger:

Operatingline/Equilibriumlinemethodcanbeusedtodeterminetheeffectivenessofaheatexchanger.Letusillustratethisbriefly
withreferencetoaparallelflowHX:

RefertoFig.l2.l7.Line12istheoperatinglinefortheparallelflowHX.WeseefromthefigurethatCc <Ch,sincetheslopeofthe
operatingline=Cc /Ch.

And,Capacityratio,C=Cc /Cc .

FromtheFigl2.17:

Th1Tc1=
Tc2 Tc1=a1

FIGURE12.16Operatinglineandequilibriumlinesforheatexchangers

Therefore,

ForparallelflowHX,wehave:

Now,fromtheFig.12.17wehave:

Th2 Tc2 =b1

Th Tc1=
1

WealsoseefromtheFig.12.17:

FIGURE12.17Parallelflowheatexchanger

b1=b2 (Th1Th2 )

But,b2 =a1(fromtheFig.12.17,sinceequilibriumlineisat45deg.tohorizontal.)

Therefore,b1=(a1)(Th1Th2 )

SubstitutinginEq.A:

UsingEq.B:

Eq.CisthedesiredequationfortheeffectivenessoftheparallelflowHX.

ThisisthesameastheequationderivedearlierforparallelflowHX,i.e.Eq.12.51.WhilederivingEq.C,itwasassumedthatthecold
fluidwastheminimumfluidifweassumethatthehotfluidistheminimumfluid,thenalso,thesameresultwouldbeobtained.

12.8 Compact Heat Exchangers


2 3
Heatexchangerswithanareadensitygreaterthanabout700m /m areclassifiedascompactheatexchangers.Generally,theyare
usedforgases.

Compactheatexchangersare,typically,ofthreetypes:

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2.arrayofplatefinmatrix,and
3.arrayoffinnedflattubematrix.

Heattransferandpressuredropsforthesecompactheatexchangersaredeterminedexperimentallyandaresuppliedbymanufacturers
astheirproprietarydata.

Asanexample,aplatefintypeofheatexchangermatrix,manufacturedbyMarstonExcelsiorLtd.,isshowninFig.12.18.Asshownin
theFig.12.18,asingleelementconsistsoftwoplatesinbetweenwhichissandwichedacorrugatedsheet.Thetwoedgesaresealed.Dip
brazingtechniqueisusedtobuildacompleteheatexchangerblockfromindividualelements.Multiflowconfigurationsarepossible,
andthegenerallyusedcorrugationstypesare:plain(P),plainperforated(R),serrated(S)andherringbone(H).

Table12.9givesthegeometricaldataforsometypicalcorrugations.

FIGURE12.18Platefinheatexchangersforcryogenicservice(MarstonExcelsiorLtd.

TABLE12.9Geometricaldatafortypicalcorrugations(MarstonExcelsiorLtd.)

Intheabovetable,

a=freeflowareapermetrewidthofcorrugation

A1=(primarysurfaceareapermetrewidth)x(metrelengthofcorrugation)

A2 =(secondarysurfaceareapermetrewidth)x(metrelengthofcorrugation)

Dh=hydraulicmeandiameter

i.e.

KaysandLondonhavestudiedalargenumberofcompactheatexchangermatricesandpresentedtheirexperimentalresultsinthe
2/3
formofgeneralisedgraphs.HeattransferdataisplottedasSt.Pr againstRe,where,St=Stantonnumber=h/(G.Cp),Pr=Prandtl
2
number=.Cp/k,andRe=G.Dh/,G=massvelocity(=massflowrate/Areaofcrosssection),kg/(sm .)

Inthesamegraphs,frictionfactor,f,isalsoplottedagainstRe.

Asanexample,heattransferandfrictionfactorcharacteristicsforaparticulartubefinmatrixareshowninFig.12.19.

Pressuredropinplatefinheatexchangers:

Totalpressuredropforthefluidflowingacrosstheheatexchangerisgivenby:

FIGURE12.19Heattransferandfrictionfactorforplatefinnedcirculartubematrix(TraneCompany)

where

Kc andKe=flowcontractionandexpansioncoefficients,respectively

iando=densityatinletandexit,respectively

InEq.12.59,ontheRHS,thefirstterminsidethesquarebracketsrepresentstheentrancecontractioneffect,secondtermtheflow
acceleration,thethirdtermcorefrictionandthefourthtermtheexitexpansioneffect.Corefrictiondropisgenerally90%ofthe
totalpressuredrop.Forliquids,entranceandexitlossesarenegligible.ValuesofKc andKearegiveninKaysandLondon.

Pressuredropforfinnedtubeexchangers:Entranceandexiteffectsareincludedinthefrictionfactortherefore,Kc =Ke=0.
Then,totalpressuredropacrossthetubebankis:

Here,firsttermontheRHSistheflowaccelerationeffect,andthesecondtermisthecorefriction.
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Fig.12.20showsaplatefinexchangerforanethyleneplantandFig.12.21showsanotherplatefinexchangerforanairliquefier.

Regenerators:

Regeneratorsareextensivelyusedinblastfurnacestoves,openhearthfurnaces,cokemanufacture,glassproduction,forairpre
heatinginpowerplants,ingasturbinesystemsandincryogenicplants,inStirlingcycleair(orhelium)liquefiers,incryogenicmini
coolersusedforcoolinginfrareddetectors,etc.Inaregenerator,hotandcoldfluidsflowalternatelythroughtheregeneratormatrix.
Thematrixmaybesandlimebricks,metalpackings,wirescreenmesh,leadballs,etc.,dependinguponapplication.Duringthehot
blowhotfluidflowsthroughthematrixandthematrixabsorbstheheatfromthefluidduringthecoldblow,coldfluidflows
throughthematrixandthematrixgivesuptheabsorbedheattothecoldfluid,thusheatingthefluid.Thus,suitablevalvingis
necessarytoalternatelyswitchthehotandcoldfluidsthroughtheregenerator.Inavalvedtypeofexchanger,generally,twoidentical
matricesareprovidedsuchthatwhenonematrixisbeingheated,theotherisbeingcooled.Alternately,regeneratormaybeofrotary
type,whereaporousmatrixisrotatedarounditsaxiscuttingthehotandcoldfluidlines,thustransferringheatfromthehottothe
coldfluid.

FIGURE12.20Aheatexchangerassemblywithassociatedpipeworkforanethyleneplant(MarstonExcelsiorLtd.)

AnalysisofaperiodicflowHXiscomplicatedsincethematrixandgastemperaturesvarywithbothpositionandtime.Aroughoutline
oftheanalysisisgivenbelow:

RefertoFig.12.22,whichshowsaregeneratordiagrammatically.Hotfluidflowsthroughthematrixduringthehotblowandheatsthe
matrix.Then,theflowisswitchedtoeffectthecoldblowandthecoldfluidflowsthroughthematrixandgetsheatedup.Thus,in
effect,heatistransferredfromthehotfluidtothecoldfluid.

Weareinterestedinthegasandmatrixtemperaturesatanylocationandatanytime.Theseareobtainedbywritinganenergybalance
foranelementofwidthdx,shownintheFig.12.22.Followingnotationsareused:

FIGURE12.21Airliquefierfora400Ton/dayOxygenplantusingtwo,763mm763mmblocksinparallel(MarstonExcelsior
Ltd.)

FIGURE12.22Periodicflowheatexchanger(Regenerator)

Ms =Massofsolid(matrixfilling)perunitlength,kg/m

M =Massflowrateofgas,kg/s

Cps =specificheatofsolid,J/(kgK)

Cpg =specificheatofgas,J/(kgK)

V =freevolumeperunitlength

A =heattransferareaperunitlength

3
=densityofgas,kg/m

L =lengthofmatrixcolumn

h =convectiveheattransfercoefficientbetweenthegasandthe
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t =solidtemperatureatagivenlocationx

tg =gastemperatureatloc

Writingtheheatbalance:

Heattransferredbyconvectionbetweenthegasandthesolid=Heatstoredinthesolid

i.e.

Now,theheattransferredbyconvectionisalsoequaltotheheatstoredinthegascontainedinlengthdxplustheincreaseinthe
enthalpyofthegasasitpassesthroughtheelementdx.

i.e.

Aboveequationsaresimplifiedas:

Inmostofthepracticalsituations,theterm(.V/M)isverysmallandisneglected.Then,makingfollowingsubstitutions

theresultingequationsaresolvedwiththefollowingboundaryconditions:

TheresultsarepresentedusuallyingraphicalformandthenatureofgraphsisshowninFig.12.23(a)and(b).

FIGURE12.23Gasandsolidtemperaturechartsforaregenerator

Inthesegraphs,tgoistheinitialtemperatureofthegas,andtoistheinitialtemperatureofthesolid.

Fig.12.23(a)presentsthedimensionlessgastemperatureatanylocationasafunctionofandandFig.12.23(b)showsthe
dimensionlesssolidtemperatureasafunctionofand.

EffectivenessNTUrelationsforregenerator:

Effectivenessofaregeneratorispresentedasafunctionofthreedimensionlessparameters,asfollows:

where,NTUmod=modifiedNTU,givenby:

and,matrixcapacityrateisequaltomatrixmassratetimesthespecificheatofthesolid.

Fortherotarytypeofregenerator,

Forthevalvedtypeofregenerator,totalmassofboththeidenticalmatricesisused,multipliedbyvalvecycles/s,whereperiodisthe
intervalbetweenvalveontoofftoon.

KaysandLondonhavepresentedNTUmodgraphsfordifferentCr /Cminratios(rangingfrom1toinfinity),forgivenCmin/Cmaxratios
(rangingfrom0.5to1).Table12.10isasampletableshowingvaluesforCmin/Cmax=1.Fig.12.24presentsthistableingraphical
form.
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TABLE12.10EffectivenessofperiodicflowHX(Cmin/Cmax=1)

FIGURE12.24EffectivenessofaperiodicflowHX(regenerator)for(Cmin/Cmax=1)

HigherNTUmodranges(oftheorderof100ormore)aregenerallyapplicabletoregeneratorsusedincryogenicapplicationsinsuch
cases,sincetheeffectivenessapproachesunityasymptotically,forbetterclarity,graphsareplottedwith(1)vs.NTUmod.(See
Appendixattheendofchapter).

TocalculateNTUmodweneedtheheattransfercoefficientsonthecoldandhotfluidsides.Wealsoneedtheheattransferarea.Heat
transfercharacteristicsintermsofColburnjfactorvs.Reynoldsnumber,andfrictionfactorvs.Reynoldsnumberarepresentedfor
manytypesofmatricesbyKaysandLondon.Theyalsoprovidephysicaldatasuchashydraulicdiameter,heattransferarea,porosity,
etc.,forthosematrices.Asanexample,heattransfercharacteristicsandfrictionfactordataforarandomlystacked,wirescreenmatrix
(usedtypically,ingasturbineregenerators)areshowninFig.12.25andFig.12.26,respectively.

Advantagesofregenerators:
2 3
1.Highsurfacedensity,oftheorderof3000m /m (fora24meshscreenmatrix,typicallyusedingasturbineregenerators),can
bepackedintoagivenvolume
2.Tendstobeselfcleaningbecauseofperiodicflowreversals
3.Cheaperonperunitheattransferareabasis.

Disadvantages:

1.Somemixingofhotandcoldfluidsisunavoidable
2.Sealingbetweenthefluidspresentssomeproblemifthepressuredifferentialislarge.

FIGURE12.25Colburnjfactorvs.Reynoldsnumberforarandomlysackedwirescreenmatrix

FIGURE12.26Frictionfactorvs.Reynoldsnumberforarandomlystackedwirescreenmatrix

12.9 Hydro-mechanical Design of Heat Exchangers


Sofar,westudiedthermaldesignaspectsforaheatexchanger.But,fromapracticalpointofview,thepressuredropthatoccurswhen
thefluidpassesthroughtheheatexchangersandthepumpingpowerrequiredtoeffectthisflow,arealsoimportant.Weshallonly
brieflymentionaboutthisaspect.

Obviously,flowoffluidthroughheatexchangerpassagesinvolvespressuredrop.And,highertheviscosityofthefluid,higherthe
pressuredrop.Totalpressuredropinaheatexchangersectioniscalculatedbysummingupthefollowingindividualpressuredrops:

1.Pressuredropsinstraightpassagesandpipebends,Pf
2.Pressuredropsduetoendeffects,i.e.duetoflowcontractionandexpansionattheends,Pe
3.Pressuredropsduetoflowacceleration(incasesofgasesinnonisothermalflow),Pa,and
4.Pressuredropduetoselfdraught(duetobuoyantforces)asaresultofchangeinelevationofflowchannels,Ps

(a)PressuredropsinstraightpassagesandbendsThesearedeterminedbyDarcyformula,asexplainedinthechapteron
convection.

3
InEq.12.68,isdensityoffluid(kg/m )andVismeanvelocityofflow(m/s).Thefrictionfactor,fDisdetermineddependingonthe
Reynoldsnumber,asexplainedinthechapteronForcedconvection.

Effectofbendsandvalvesintheflowlinesisgenerallyaccountedforbyaddinganequivalentlengthforeachbendorvalve,tothe
straightlength.EquivalentlengthsofafewfittingsareshowninTable12.11:

(b)PressuredropsduetocontractionsandexpansionsPeisafunctionofarearatioA1/A2 ,whereA1isthesmallerarea.

where,Vreferstovelocityatsmallercrosssection.

ValuesoffcontandfexpnaregiveninTable12.12theseareshowngraphicallyinFig.12.27.

(c)PressuredropsduetoflowaccelerationThispressuredrop,inachannelofconstantcrosssection,isequaltotwicethe
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differenceinvelocityheads,i.e.

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TABLE12.11Equivalentlengthsoffittings

Fitting L /D(forturbulentflowonly)
e

15
45Elbow

31
90Elbow(standardradius)

26
90Elbow(mediumradius)

20
90Elbow(longsweep)

65
90Squareelbow

75
180Closereturnbend

77
Swingcheckvalve,open

65
Tee(aseL,enteringrun)

90
Tee(aseL,enteringbranch)

Negligible
Couplings,unions

7
Gatevalve,open

40
Gatevalve,1/4closed

190
Gatevalve,1/2closed

840
Gatevalve,3/4closed

340
Globevalve,open

170
Anglevalve,open

TABLE12.12Suddencontractionandexpansioncoefficientsforatube

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A /A f f
1 2 cont expn

0 1 0.5

0.1 0.8 0.45

0.2 0.65 0.42

0.3 0.5 0.38

0.4 0.37 0.34

0.5 0.22 0.28

0.6 0.14 0.23

0.7 0.1 0.2

0.8 0.03 0.12

0.9 0.01 0.07

1 0 0

FIGURE12.27Suddenconractionandexpansioncoefficientsforatube

where,subscripts1and2refertoinletandoutlet,respectively.

(d)PressuredropduetoselfdraughtIftheheightoftheverticalchannel(flue)ish,0=densityofcoldfluid(say,air)andp=
densityofhotfluid(say,fluegas),thenpressuredropduetoselfdraughtisgivenby:

where,gistheaccelerationduetogravity.Psispositiveforthedescendingfluidandnegative,ifthefluidisascendingthroughthe
channel.Psiszeroiftheheatexchangerisnotexposedtoambientair,butisconnectedinaclosedsystem.Then,thetotalpressure
dropisgivenbythesummationofallthesepressuredrops:

Powerrequiredtooriginatefluidflow:

Oncethetotalpressuredropinthesystemisdetermined,thepowerrequiredtocirculatethefluidthroughthesystemiseasily
calculated:

3
where, Flow=volumetricflowrate,m /s,

M=massflowrateoffluid,kg/s

Pt=totalpressuredrop,N/m2,and

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3
=densityofliquidorgas,kg/m

=efficiencyofpumporfan.

12.10 Summary
Heatexchangerisoneoftheimportantpiecesofprocessequipment,usedextensivelyinresearchaswellasindustrialapplications.
Heatexchangersmaybeofrecuperative,regenerativeordirectcontacttype.

Inthischapter,wefocussedonthethermaldesignaspectsofheatexchangers.First,themethodofcalculatingtheoverallheattransfer
coefficientwasexplained.Inclusionoffoulingresistanceisanimportantaspectofdesignandthiswasdiscussednext.

Calculationoflogarithmicmeantemperaturedifference,LMTD,betweenthetwofluidstreamsexchangingheat,isanimportantstep
inthedesign.ProcedureofcalculatingtheLMTDforparallelandcounterflowheatexchangerswasexplainedformorecomplicated
typeofexchangers,suchascrossflowormultipassshellandtubeheatexchangers,meantemperaturedifferenceiscalculatedby
multiplyingtheLMTDofacounterflowHXbyacorrectionfactor.Correctionfactorgraphshavebeengivenforafewtypesofheat
exchangers.

Problemsinheatexchangeraremainlyoftwotypes:(i)designproblemswhereonehastocalculatetheareaoftheHX,and(ii)
performanceproblemswhereonehastocalculatetheoutlettemperaturesofboththefluids,giventheinlettemperatures.LMTD
approachissuitableforthefirsttypeofproblems,whereasforthesecondtypeofproblems,eNTUapproachisrecommended,since
inthiscaseLMTDapproachwouldrequirealaboriousiterativeprocedure.NTUrelationsandgraphsforafewimportantcaseshave
beengiven.Further,operatingline/equilibriumlinemethodwasalsobrieflyexplained.

Compactheatexchangersandregeneratorsarealsousedinavarietyofapplications.Briefmentionhasbeenmadeaboutthese
however,theirdesignisrathermoreinvolvedanduseofproprietarytechnicalinformationfromthesupplierscatalogueswillbe
required.Finally,calculationofpressuredropsandthenecessarypumpingpowerinaheatexchanger,hasbeenexplained.

Selectionofheatexchangersforaparticularapplicationisaserioustaskfortheengineerandthefollowingaspectsmustbeborne
inmindwhileselectingaheatexchanger:

1.requiredheattransferrate
2.necessarypumpingpower
3.typeofheatexchangermostsuitable,dependingupontheprocess
4.materialsofconstructionandfabricationandtestingprocedures,withdueconsiderationtooperatingtemperaturesand
pressures
5.sizeandweight,dependinguponapplication
6.easeofmaintenanceandservicing
7.safetyandreliabilityaspects,and
8.cost.

Questions

1.Howareheatexchangersclassified?Discussbrieflydifferenttypesofheatexchangers.WhyiscounterflowHXbetterthan
parallelflowHX?

[M.U.]

2.Drawtemperaturevs.lengthprofilesfor:(i)Condenser(ii)Evaporator(iii)CounterflowHXwithCh=Cc

[M.U.]

3.Whatisoverallheattransfercoefficient?Whatisitsimportance?Deriveanexpressionforoverallheattransfercoefficientfora
tubularHXbasedoninnersurfacearea.

[M.U.]

4.Explaintheterms:Foulingfactor,Effectiveness,NTUandLMTD.

[M.U.]

5.Writeshortnotesoncorrectionfactorchartsforcrossflowheatexchangers.
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[M.U.]

6.Startingfromfundamentals,deriveanexpressionforthemeantemperaturedifferenceforcounterflowHXintermsofinlet
andoutlettemperaturesofhotandcoldfluids.

[M.U.]

7.DeriveanexpressionfortheLMTDofaparallelflowHX.Stateclearlytheassumptions.

[M.U.]

8.DeriveanexpressionfortheeffectivenessofacounterflowHXwhencapacityrateofhotfluidismorethanthatofcoldfluid.
Henceshowthateffectivenessofacondenserisgivenby:
=1exp(NTU)

[M.U.]

9.Startingfrombasics,deriveanequationfortheeffectivenessofaparallelflowHXintermsofNTUandcapacityratio.Also,
showthatwhencapacityratiois1,effectivenessisgivenby:
=().{1exp(2.NTU)}

[M.U.]

10.ProvethatforacounterflowHX,whenCmin/Cmax=1,
=NTU/(1+NTU).

[M.U.]

11.CompareLMTDandNTUmethodsofsolvingheatexchangerproblems.
12.Usingtheoperatingline/equilibriumlinemethod,deriveanexpressionfortheeffectivenessofacounterflowHX.AssumeCc
>Ch.
13.Writeashortnoteoncompactheatexchangersandregenerators.

Problems

1.Acopperpipe(k=350W/mK)of17.5mmIDand20mmODconveyswaterandtheoilflowsthroughtheannularpassage
2
betweenthispipeandasteelpipe.Onthewaterside,thefilmcoefficientisfoulingfactoris0.00034m K/W.The
2
correspondingvaluesfortheoilsidearem K/W.Calculatetheoverallheattransfercoefficientbetweenthewaterandoil,
basedonoutsidesurfaceareaofinnerpipe.
2.InashellandtubecounterflowHX,waterflowsthroughacoppertube(20mmID,23mmOD),whileoilflowsthroughthe
shell.Waterentersat20Candcomesoutat30Cwhileoilentersat75Candcomesoutat60C.Thewaterandoilsidefilm
2
coefficients.are:4500and1250W/(m K),respectively.Thermalconductivityoftubewallis355W/(mK).Foulingfactorson
2
waterandoilsidesare:0.0004and0.001m K/W,respectively.Ifthelengthoftubeis2.4m,calculatetheoverallheattransfer
coefficientandrateofheattransfer.

[M.U.]

3.Saturatedseamat120CiscondensingontheoutersurfaceofasinglepassHX.Theoverallheattransfercoefficientis1600
2
W/(m K).DeterminethesurfaceareaoftheHXrequiredtoheat2000kg/hofwaterfrom20Cto90C.Also,determinethe
rateofcondensationofsteaminkg/h.Assumelatentheatofsteamtobe2195kJ/kg.

[M.U.]

4.AHXisrequiredtocool55,000kg/hofalcoholfrom66Cto40Cusing40000kg/hofwaterenteringat5C.Calculate(i)
theexittemperatureofwater(ii)heattransfer(iii)surfacearearequiredfor:(a)parallelflowtype(b)counterflowtypeofHX.
2
TakeoverallheattransfercoefficientU=580W/(m K).Cp(alcohol)=3760J/(kgK)andCp(water)=4180J/(kgK).
5.InacounterflowdoublepipeHX,waterflowrateis1300kg/h.anditentersat15C.Itisheatedbyoil,Cp=2kJ/kgKoilflow
2 2
rateis550kg/h.Oilinlettemperatureis95C.OverallU=800W/m K.SurfaceareaofHX:1.34m .TableofNTUeisgiven
asfollows:
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Capacityratio,R NTU Effectiveness

0.202 3 0.93

0.202 4 0.96

Findout,NTUandoutlettemperatures.

[M.U.]

6.Inagasturbineinstallation,acounterflowHX,hashotexhaustgasoutletat330C,andairoutletat460C.Foreachelement
ofHX,(dQ/(dT.dX)isuniformandisequaltoCandC.L=52.3kW/K.Capacityrateforhotfluid=21.76kW/Kandforcold
fluid=19.04kW/K.Temperaturevariationalongthelengthislinearforbothfluids.Calculatetemperaturesatentry.

[M.U.]

7.Aoneshell,2tubepasssteamcondenser,has2000tubesof20mmdiameter,withcoolingwaterentryat20C,flowrate3000
2 8
kg/sU=6890W/m K.Totalheattobetransferred,Q=2.33110 W.Steamcondensesat50C.Determinetubelengthper
passusingNTUmethod.Giventhatat0.6and0.64effectiveness,NTUis0.78and0.82.

[M.U.]

8.AwaterpreheaterofID:3.2cm,OD:3.52cm,isheatedbysteamat180C.Waterflowsthroughpipeatavelocityof1.2m/s.h
2
onsteamside:11,000W/m Kwaterisheatedfrom25Cto95C.kofpipematerial:59W/mK.Propertiesofwaterat60Care
4
given.Calculatethelengthrequired.Useappropriateempiricalrelation.Data:=4.6210 kg/msk=0.653W/mKCp=
4200J/kgK.

[M.U.]

9.ConsideraHXforcoolingoilenteringat180C,bywaterenteringat25Cmassflowratesofoilandwaterare:2.5and1.2
2
kg/s,respectively.Area:16m .SpecificheatdataforoilandwaterandoverallUaregiven:Data:Cpofoil=1900J/kgKCpof
2
water=4184J/kgKU=285W/m K.

CalculateoutlettemperatureofoilandwaterforparallelandcounterflowHX.

[M.U.]

10.InashellandtubeHX,50kg/minoffurnaceoilisheatedfrom10Cto90C.Steamat120CflowsthroughtheShellandoil
flowsinsidethetube.Tubesize:1.65cmIDand1.9cmOD.Filmcoefficientsonoilandsteamsidesare:85and7420
2
W/(m K).Findthenumberofpassesandnumberoftubesineachpassifthelengthofeachtubeislimitedto2.85m.Velocity
ofoilislimitedto5cm/s.Densityandspecificheatofoilare1970J/(kgK),respectively.

[M.U.]

11.Wateratarateof4080kg/hisheatedfrom35Cto75CbyanoilofCp=1.9kJ/(kgK).TheHXisofcounterflow,doublepipe
design.Theoilentersat110Candleavesat75C.Determine:(i)massflowrateofoil(ii)areaofHXnecessarytohandlethis
2
load,ifoverallheattransfercoefficient,U=320W/(m K).

[M.U.]

12.Asteamcondenser,condensingat70Chastohaveacapacityof100kW.Waterat20Cisusedandtheoutletwater
2
temperatureislimitedto45C.Iftheoverallheattransfercoefficientis3100W/(m K),determinethearearequired.Ifthe
inletwatertemperatureisincreasedto30C,determinetheincreasedflowrateofwatertomaintainthesameoutlet
temperature.

[M.U.]

13.Waterentersacounterflow,doublepipeHXat38Cflowingatarateof0.76kg/s.Itisheatedbyoil(Cp=1.88kJ/kgK)
2
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flowingatarateof0.152kg/sfromaninlettemperatureof116C.Foranareaof1.3m

2

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2
of340W/(m K),determinethetotalheattransferrate.TakeCpforwater=4.170kJ/kgK.

Given:expressionforeffectivenessofdoublepipe,countercurrentHX:

14.Arefrigeratorisdesignedtocool250kg/hofhotliquid(Cp=3350J/kgK)at120Cusingaparallelflowarrangement.1000
2 2
kg/hofcoolingwaterisavailableatatemperatureof10C.IfoverallU=1160W/(m K)andthesurfaceareaofHXis0.25m ,
calculatetheoutlettemperaturesofthefluidsandalsotheeffectivenessoftheHX.

[M.U.]

15.Asteamcondenser,condensingat100Chasacapacityof150kW.Waterat25Cisusedandtheoutletwatertemperatureis
2
35C.Iftheoverallheattransfercoefficientis3000W/(m K),determinethearearequiredfortheHX.

[M.U.]

16.AparallelflowHXhashotandcoldwaterstreamsrunningthroughitandhasfollowingdata:mh=10kg/min,mc =25
kg/min,Cph=Cpc =4.18kJ/(kgK),Th1=70C,Th2 =50C,Tc1=25C.Individualheattransfercoefficientsonbothsidesare
areaofHX(ii)exittemperaturesofhotandcoldfluids,ifhotwaterflowrateisdoubled.

[M.U.]

17.Steamatatmosphericpressureenterstheshellofasurfacecondenserinwhichwaterflowsthroughabundleoftubesof
diameter=25mmatarateof0.05kg/s.Theinletandoutlettemperaturesofwaterare15Cand70C,respectively.
2
Condensationofsteamtakesplaceontheoutsidesurfaceofthetube.IfU=230W/(m K),usingNTUmethod,find:(i)
effectivenessoftheHX(ii)lengthoftuberequired,and(iii)rateofsteamcondensation.

[M.U.]

18.Aneconomiserinaboilerhaswaterflowinginsidethepipesandhotgasesontheoutside,flowingacrossthepipes.Theflow
rateofthegasesis2000tonne/handtheyarecooledfrom390Cto200Candtheirspecificheatis1005J/(kgC).Wateris
2
heatedunderhighpressurefrom100Cto220C.Assuminganoverallheattransfercoefficientof35W/(m C),determinethe
arearequired.Thecorrectionfactor,F=0.8.

[M.U.]

19.Hotoilisbeingcooledfrom200Cto130CinaparallelflowHXbywaterenteringa25Candexitingat60C.Determinethe
outlettemperaturesofboththestreamsiftheHXismadecounterflow.

[M.U.]

20.AshellandtubeHXwithtwoshellpassesand8tubepasseshasethylalcohol(Cp=2670J/kgC)flowinginsidethetubes,and
water(Cp=4190J/kgC)flowsthroughtheshell.Ethylalcoholentersat25Candleavesat75Cwithaflowrateof2kg/s
2
whereaswaterentersat95Candleavesat45C.OverallheattransfercoefficientU=850W/(m K).Determinethesurfacearea
requiredfortheHX.

Appendix

InthisAppendixtoChapter12,somemoreinformationoncompactheatexchangersandregeneratorsisgiven.

ExampleA12.1.Airat2atmand400Kflowsatarateof5kg/s,acrossafinnedcirculartubematrixshowninFig.12.19.Dimensions
oftheheatexchangermatrixare:1m(W)0.6m(Deep)0.5m(H),asshowninFig.A12.1.Find:(a)theheattransfercoefficient
(b)thefrictionfactor,and(c)ratioofcorefrictionpressuredroptotheinletpressure.

Solution.

Data:

Physicalpropertiesofairat2atmand400K:

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FIGUREA12.1ConfigurationofcompactheatexchangerforExampleA12.1

FromFig.12.19,wehave:

(a)And,heattransfercoefficient:

(b)Frictionfactor:

FromFig.12.19,forRe=2972,weget:

f=0.024(frictionfactor)

(c)Pressuredrop:

i.e.frictionalpressuredropis0.78%oftheinletpressure.

Fig.A12.2,A12.3,andA12.4showdataforthreemorecompactheatexchangermatrices,fromKaysandLondon.

Fig.A12.5showsdataforcrossedrodmatrices,randomstacking(d=0.375in.)usedinregenerators(KaysandLondon):

Fig.A12.6givesdataforaninfinite,randomlystackedspherematrix,withporosityvaryingfrom0.37to0.39.(KaysandLondon)

DataofFig.A12.6isgivenintabularforminTableA12.1.

AnalysisofregeneratorsbyNTUmethod:

Asexplainedearlier,inaregenerator,thesamespaceisalternatelyoccupiedbythehotandcoldfluidsregeneratormatrixstoresthe
heatduringtheflowofhotfluid(i.e.duringhotblow)andrejectsthisheattothecoldfluidduringtheflowofcoldfluidthroughthe
regeneratormatrix(i.e.duringcoldblow).Temperaturesofthegasaswellasofthematrixsolidarefunctionsofbothpositionand
time.Aftersufficientlylongtime,somesortofsteadystateisreached,andthesametemperaturedistributionisrepeatedineachcycle
ofoperation.

AnNTUanalysis,similartotheonedoneforheatexchangers,proceedsasfollows,withtheassumptionthatthesamemassflowrateof
gasismaintainedduringboththehotandcoldblows.(Ref:CryogenicSystemsbyR.F.Barron).

FIGUREA12.2Heattransfercoefficientandfrictionfactordataforfinnedcirculartubematrix(surfaceCF8.75/8J)

FIGUREA12.3Heattransfercoefficientandfrictionfactordataforfinnedcirculartubematrix(surfaceCF7.05/8J)

Followingnotationsareused:

ms =massofsolid(matrixfilling)inregenerator,kg

m =massflowrateofgasthroughregenerator,kg/s

cs =specificheatofsolid,J/(kgK)

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L =lengthofregenerator,m

Ah =totalheattransferareaofsolidmaterialinregenerator,
m2

3
=densityofgas,kg/m

T =temperatureofgasatlocationxandtime

Ts =temperatureofsolidmaterialatlocationxandtime

FIGUREA12.4Heattransfercoefficientandfrictionfactordataforfinnedflattubematrix(surface9.0.7375)

FIGUREA12.5Crossedrodmatrix,randomstacking(roddiameterd=0.375in.)

2
hc =heattransfercoefficientbetweenthesolidmaterialandgas,W/(m /C).

Now,applyingtheFirstlawtoadifferentialelementofgas:heattransferredtoorfromthegas=changeinenthalpyofgasinalength
dx,asitflowsthroughtheregeneratori.e.

Here,changeinenergystoredinthegaswithinthedifferentialelementisneglected.(Thisistrueforcryogenicregenerators.)

Again,applyingtheFirstlawtoadifferentialelementofsolidmaterial,wehave:heattransferredtoorfromthesolidmaterial=
changeinenergystoredwithinthesolidmaterial

FIGUREA12.6Dataforaninfinite,randomlystackedspherematrixwithporosityvaryingfrom0.37to0.39

TABLEA12.1Heattransferandfrictiondataforspherebedmatrices(KaysandLondon)(Randompacking,p=0.37to0.39)

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2/3
Reynoldsnumber,N N .N f
R st pr

50000 0.0089 0.30

20000 0.0118 0.34

10000 0.0144 0.37

5000 0.0178 0.41

2000 0.023 0.47

10000 0.029 0.52

500 0.0355 0.59

200 0.046 0.80

100 0.056 1.10

50 0.069 1.65

20 0.091 3.0

10 0.112 5.2

SolvingEqs.1and 2 ,wegetthepartialdifferentialequationforthetemperatureofgasflowingthroughtheregenerator:

FromEq.(3),weobservethattwoimportantdimensionlessquantitiesareinvolvedintheanalysisofaregenerator,i.e.

Ntu =hc Ah/(mcp)=Numberofheattransferunits,and

Fn =hc Ah/(mscsf)=Frequencynumber,wheref=1/P=frequencyofswitchingthehotandcoldstream,P=
heatingorcoolingperiod.

f. =dimensionlesstime.

FIGUREA12.7NTUanalysisofaregenerator

FIGUREA12.8Gastemperaturedistributioninacounterflowregenerator
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Eq.3hasbeensolvednumericallyfortemperaturedistributionofgas,byHausenforsteadystatecyclicoperationofaregenerator.
ResultsforaparticularcaseofNtu=10areshowninFig.A12.8,asanexample.

Oncethetemperaturedistributionisknown,actualenergytransferrediscalculatedas:

MaximumpossibleheattransferintheregeneratoroccurswhenthegasisheatedfromTco(i.e.temperatureofcoldgasenteringatx=
0)tothetemperatureThL(i.e.temperatureofhotgasenteringtheregeneratoratx=L).

Weget:

Then,regeneratoreffectivenesse,isgivenby:

Hausensnumericalsolutionfortheeffectivenessofaregeneratorasafunctionoffrequencynumberandnumberoftransferunits,is
showninFig.A12.9.

ItisclearfromFig.A12.9thatforalargeeffectiveness,weneedasmallfrequencynumber(F n)andalargenumberoftransferunits
(Nu),i.e.foralargeeffectivenessofaregenerator,therequirementsare:

1.largeheattransfercoefficient,hc
2.smallgasmassflowrate,m,orsmallgascapacityratem.cp
3.largeproductofregeneratormatrixmassanditsspecificheat,ms.cs
4.largefrequency,f.
2
ExampleA12.2.Followingdataaregivenforaregenerator:heattransfercoefficient=640W/(m K),heattransferareaperunit
2
length=100m /m,massofmatrixsolidperunitlength=8kg/m,specificheatofmatrixmaterial=800J/(kgK),frequencyof
operation=60cpm(=1cycle/s),massflowrateofgasthroughregenerator=0.013kg/sandspecificheatofgas=5200J/(kgK).
Desiredeffectivenessofthisregenerator,operatinginacounterflowmode,is0.95.Determinethelengthoftheregeneratorrequired.

Solution.

Data:

FIGUREA12.9Effectivenessofacounterflowregenerator

Numberofheattransferunits:

ForaF n=10and=0.95,getthevalueofNtufromFig.A12.9:

Therefore,heattransferarearequired:

Therefore,regeneratorlengthrequired:

Regeneratorineffectiveness(1)vs.NTUgraphsforcryogenicregenerators:

Asstatedinthetext,cryogenicregenerators,generally,havelargevaluesofmodifiedNTU(i.e.NTUmod),oftheorderof100ormore.
ItmaybeobservedthatintheusualNTUgraphs,thevalueofapproachesunityasymptoticallyso,forcryogenicheatexchangers,it
ismoreinstructiveandconvenienttodrawregeneratorineffectiveness(1)againstNTUmodinloglogcoordinates.Twosample
graphs,oneforCmin/Cmax=1,andtheotherforCmin/Cmax=0.95,areshowninFig.A12.10andFig.A12.11,respectively.(Ref:
CompactHeatExchangersbyKaysandLondon).

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FIGUREA12.10RegeneratorineffectivenessasafunctionofNtu0andmatrixcapacityrateratio(Cmin/Cmax=1)

FIGUREA12.11RegeneratorineffectivenessasafunctionofNtu0andmatrixcapacityrateratio(Cmin/Cmax=0.95)

Example 12.9.
Example12.9.CalculatethesurfacearearequiredforaHXtocool55,000kg/hofalcoholfrom66Cto40Cusing40,000kg/h
ofwaterenteringat5C,forthefollowingarrangements:(i)counterflow,tube&shell(ii)Parallelflow,tube&shell(iii)Reversed
currentHXwith2shellpassesand12tubepasseswithalcoholflowintheshell.AssumeLMTDcorrectionfactoras0.96(iv)cross
flowwithonetubepass,withshellsidefluidassumedtobemixed,withLMTDcorrectionfactoras0.91.AssumeUbasedonoutside
2
areaoftubesas570W/(m K).Cpofalcoholis3.8kJ/(kgK)andforwater4.187kJ/(kgK).

Solution.

****

FigureExample12.9Counterflowheatexchanger

Data:

Mh=****

i.e.mh=15.278kg/smassflowrateofhotfluid(Alcohol)

mc=****

i.e.mc=11.111kg/smassflowrateofcoldfluid(Water)

Th1=66Cinlettemperatureofhotfluid

Th2=40Cexittemperatureofhotfluid

U=570W/(m2K)overallheattransfercoefficient

Tc1=5Cinlettemperatureofcoldfluid

Cph=3.8kJ/(kgK)specificheatofhotfluid

Cpc=4.187kJ/(kgK)specificheatofcoldfluid

F1=0.96Correctionfactorforcase(iii)

F2=0.91Correctionfactorforcase(iv)

Case(i):CounterflowHX

Totalheattransferred:

Q=mhCph(Th1Th2)

i.e.Q=1.509103kW

Exittemperatureofcoldfluid:

Tc2=Tc1+****

i.e.Tc2=37.446C

TocalculateLMTDforcounterflowHX:

Now,d*T1=Th1Tc2

i.e.d*T1=28.554Ctemperaturedifferenceatinlet

and,d*T2=Th2Tc1

i.e.d*T2=35Ctemperaturedifferenceatexit

and,LMTD1=****

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i.e.LMTD1=31.668CLogMeanTemperatureDifference

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Therefore,arearequired:

A1=****

i.e.A1=83.622m2arearequiredforacounterflowHX.

Case(ii):ParallelflowHx:

Totalheattransferred:

Q=mhCph(Th1Th2)

i.e.Q=1.509*103kW

Exittemperatureofcoldfluid:

Tc2=Tc1+****

Tc2=37.446C

TocalculateLMTD:

Now,d*T1=Th1Tc1

i.e.d*T1=61Ctemperaturedifferenceatinlet

and,d*T2=Th2Tc2

i.e.d*T2=2.554Ctemperaturedifferenceatexit

and,LMTD2=****

i.e.LMTD2=18.419CLogMeanTemperatureDifference

Therefore,arearequired:

A2=****

i.e.A2=143.771m2arearequiredforaparallelflowHX

Case(iii):ReversedcurrentHX:

A3=****includingthecorrectionfactorF1

A3=87.107m2arearequiredforareversedcurrentHX.

Case(iv):CrossflowHX:

A4=****includingthecorrectionfactorF2

i.e.A4=91.893m2arearequiredforacrossflowHX.

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