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Experiment 5: Determination of the Solubility Product Constant of Calcium Hydroxide

C. Grefaldia1, C. Hernia2
1 College of Home Economics, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101
2 National Institute of Geological Sciences, College of Science, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101

Performed 19 June 2017; Submitted 21 June 2016

Answers to Questions slightly soluble salt is decreased by the presence of a


second solute the furnishes a common ion [3]. As seen on
1. Write the net ionic reaction for the precipitation of
Ca(OH) 2 and give the K sp expression of the reaction.
table 1, the solubility of the salt reduces from 0.0164 to
The net ionic reaction for the precipitation of Ca(OH) can be 0.00859 when a common ion is added to the solution at
expressed as, equilibrium. On the other hand, the presence of counter
ions in the solution should increase the the solubility of the
Ca(OH)2 (s) Ca2+ + 2OH- sparingly soluble salt. This is called the diverse ionic effect.
[3] However, the data obtained did not have a definite
For this equation, the K sp expression of the reaction is, trend with respect to the effect of ionic strength. In fact, the
solubility of calcium hydroxide decreases from 0.0164 to
Ksp = [Ca2+] [OH-]2 [1]
0.0148 when 0.25 M of KCl was added (see table 1 and 2).
2. What is the working equation for the determination At first the data decreased at 0.010 M to 0.050 and then it
increases from 0.050 M to 0.25 M.
of the [Ca ] in the saturated solution of Ca(OH) 2?
Table 1. Calculated Solubility of Ca(OH)2
Solubility
The working equation for the determination of the [Ca2+] in
the saturated solution of Ca(OH)2 can be represented by, Without common ion 0.0164
With common ion 0.00859
[Ca2+] = [OH-] / 2 Table 2: Calculated Solubility of Ca(OH)2 in various conc. of
(in terms of stoichiometry, the ratio between Ca 2+ and OH- is KCl
1:2, respectively) Concentration Solubility
0.010 0.0131
or it can be written as, 0.050 0.00343
0.10 0.00400
[Ca2+] = ( [H+]x Vtitrant)/Vanalyte ) / 2 0.25 0.0148

3. Write the Ksp of Ca(OH)2 in terms of its (a) molar 5. What are the possible sources of errors and their
solubility s, (b) [OH-] and (c) [Ca2+]. effect on the calculated parameters? Rationalize.
The Ksp of Ca(OH)2 written in terms of its (a) molar solubility Possible sources of error could be errors in standardization
is which can cause a large error on all calculations
subsequently. Improper measurements of reagents can also
Ksp = 4s3 be possible source of error which could lead to a different
calculation of the solubility which in effect causes errors in
In terms of [OH-], the data result and the conclusion based on the data
obtained. Lastly, titration error can also be huge source of
4([OH-]/2)3 error. For example improper measurement of titrant,
spillage of the analyte, over titration and contaminated
in terms of [Ca2+], glassware are among the possible errors during titration
which could lead to inaccuracy in the data making the
4[Ca2+]3 [2] experiment and the data result useless and unreliable.

4. Discuss the effects of common ions and increasing References


ionic strength on the solubility of the Ca(OH)2
precipitate. Do they coincide with theoretical effects? [1] Zumdahl, Steven S., and Susan A. Zumdahl. C hemistry.
Explain. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning, 2014. Print.

Theoretically the presence of another common ion in the [2] Brown, Theodore L., H. Eugene LeMay, and Bruce
solution can reduces the solubility of a sparingly soluble Edward. Bursten. C hemistry: The Central Science. Upper
salt when a soluble compound with the same ions as the Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2000. Print.
salt is added to the solution, shifting the equilibrium of it
[3] UPD Chem 26.1 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory
back to the reactant side [3]. In general, the solubility of a
Manual, Institute of Chemistry, University of the
Philippines, 2017 edition. Print.