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Solution to Theoretical Question 2

A Piezoelectric Crystal Resonator under an Alternating Voltage


Part A
(a) Refer to Figure A1. The left face of the rod moves a distance vt while the pressure wave
travels a distance ut with u = Y / . The strain at the left face is
vt v
S= = = (A1a)
ut u
From Hookes law, the pressure at the left face is
v
p = YS = Y = uv (A1b)
u
ut

p
t=0

p p
Figure A1 t/2

p p t

vt

(b) The velocity v is related to the displacement as in a simple harmonic motion (or a
uniform circular motion, as shown in Figure A2) of angular frequency = ku . Therefore,
if ( x, t ) = 0 sin k ( x u t ) , then
v( x, t ) = ku 0 cos k ( x u t ) . (A2)
The strain and pressure are related to velocity as in Problem (a). Hence,
S ( x, t ) = v( x, t ) / u = k 0 cos k ( x u t ) (A3)

p ( x, t ) = uv( x, t ) = k u 2 0 cos k ( x u t )
(A4)
= YS ( x, t ) = kY 0 cos k ( x u t )

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Alternatively, the answers may be obtained by differentiations: x

v ( x, t ) = = ku 0 cos k ( x u t ) , 0
t
Figure A2
S ( x, t ) = = k 0 cos k ( x u t ) , kx t
x

p ( x, t ) = Y = kY 0 cos k ( x u t ) .
x v
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Part B
(c) Since the angular frequency and speed of propagation u are given, the wavelength is
given by = 2 / k with k = / u. The spatial variation of the displacement is therefore
described by
b b
g ( x ) = B1 sin k x + B2 cos k x (B1)
2 2
Since the centers of the electrodes are assumed to be stationary, g(b/2) = 0. This leads to
B 2 = 0. Given that the maximum of g(x) is 1, we have B 1 = 1 and
b
g ( x ) = sin x (B2)
u 2
Thus, the displacement is
b
( x, t ) = 2 0 sin x cos t (B3)
u 2

(d) Since the pressure p (or stress T ) must vanish at the end faces of the quartz slab (i.e., x = 0
and x = b), the answer to this problem can be obtained, by analogy, from the resonant
frequencies of sound waves in an open pipe of length b. However, given that the centers
of the electrodes are stationary, all even harmonics of the fundamental tone must be
excluded because they have antinodes, rather than nodes, of displacement at the bisection
plane of the slab.
Since the fundamental tone has a wavelength = 2b, the fundamental frequency is
given by f1 = u /(2b) . The speed of propagation u is given by
Y 7.87 1010
u= = = 5.45 10 3 m/s (B4)
2.65 10 3

and, given that b =1.0010-2 m, the two lowest standing wave frequencies are
u 3u
f1 = = 273 (kHz) , f 3 = 3 f1 = = 818 (kHz) (B5)
2b 2b
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[Alternative solution to Problems (c) and (d)]:
A longitudinal standing wave in the quartz slab has a displacement node at x = b/2. It
may be regarded as consisting of two waves traveling in opposite directions. Thus, its
displacement and velocity must have the following form
b b
( x, t ) = m sin k x ut + sin k x + ut
2 2
(B6)
b
= 2 m sin k x cos t
2
b b
v ( x, t ) = ku m cos k x ut cos k x + ut
2 2
(B7)
b
= 2 m sin k x sin t
2
where = k u and the first and second factors in the square brackets represent waves

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traveling along the +x and x directions, respectively. Note that Eq. (B6) is identical to Eq.
(B3) if we set m = 0 .
For a wave traveling along the x direction, the velocity v must be replaced by v in
Eqs. (A1a) and (A1b) so that we have
v
S= and p = uv (waves traveling along +x) (B8)
u
v
S= and p = uv (waves traveling along x) (B9)
u
As in Problem (b), the strain and pressure are therefore given by
b b
S ( x, t ) = k m cos k x ut cos k x + ut
2 2
(B10)
b
= 2k m cos k x cos t
2
b b
p( x, t ) = u m cos k x ut + cos k x + ut
2 2
(B11)
b
= 2 u m cos k x cos t
2
Note that v, S, and p may also be obtained by differentiating as in Problem (b).
The stress T or pressure p must be zero at both ends (x = 0 and x = b) of the slab at all
times because they are free. From Eq. (B11), this is possible only if cos(kb / 2) = 0 or
2f
kb = b = b = n , n = 1, 3, 5, (B12)
u f
In terms of wavelength , Eq. (B12) may be written as
2b
= , n = 1, 3, 5, . (B13)
n
The frequency is given by
u nu n Y
f = = = , n = 1, 3, 5, . (B14)
2b 2b
This is identical with the results given in Eqs. (B4) and (B5).
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(e) From Eqs. (5a) and (5b) in the Question, the piezoelectric effect leads to the equations
T = Y (S d p E ) (B15)
d p2

E
= Yd p S + T 1 Y (B16)

T
Because x = b/2 must be a node of displacement for any longitudinal standing wave in the
slab, the displacement and strain S must have the form given in Eqs. (B6) and (B10), i.e.,
with = ku ,
b
( x, t ) = m sin k x cos( t + ) (B17)
2

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b
S ( x, t ) = k m cos k x cos( t + ) (B18)
2
where a phase constant is now included in the time-dependent factors.
By assumption, the electric field E between the electrodes is uniform and depends only
on time:
V (t ) Vm cos t
E ( x, t ) = = (B19)
h h
Substituting Eqs. (B18) and (B19) into Eq. (B15), we have
b dp
T = Y k m cos k x cos( t + ) Vm cos t (B20)
2 h
The stress T must be zero at both ends (x = 0 and x = b) of the slab at all times because they
are free. This is possible only if = 0 and
kb V
k m cos = dp m (B21)
2 h
Since = 0, Eqs. (B16), (B18), and (B19) imply that the surface charge density must have
the same dependence on time t and may be expressed as
( x, t ) = ( x) cos t (B22)
with the dependence on x given by
b d p2 Vm

( x ) = Yd p k m cos k x + T 1 Y
2
T h

(B23)
d p2 b d p2 Vm
= Y cos k x + T 1 Y
kb 2
cos T h
2

(f) At time t, the total surface charge Q(t) on the lower electrode is obtained by integrating
( x, t ) in Eq. (B22) over the surface of the electrode. The result is
Q (t ) 1 b 1 b
V (t ) V (t ) 0 Vm 0
= ( x , t ) wdx = ( x ) w dx

w b d p2 b d p2
= [Y cos k ( x ) + T (1 Y )] dx
h 0 cos
kb 2 T
2 (B24)
bw d p 2 kb d p2
2

= T Y tan + 1 Y
h T kb 2 T
2 kb
= C0 2 tan + (1 2 )
kb 2
where
bw d p2 (2.25) 2 102
C0 = T , =Y
2
= = 9.82 10 3 (B25)
h T 1.27 4.06
(The constant is called the electromechanical coupling coefficient.)
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Note: The result C 0 = T bw / h can readily be seen by considering the static limit k = 0
of Eq. (5) in the Question. Since tan x x when x << 1, we have
lim Q(t ) / V (t ) C 0 [ 2 + (1 2 )] = C 0 (B26)
k 0

Evidently, the constant C 0 is the capacitance of the parallel-plate capacitor formed by the
electrodes (of area bw) with the quartz slab (of thickness h and permittivity T ) serving as
the dielectric medium. It is therefore given by T bw / h.

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Marking Scheme

Theoretical Question 2
A Piezoelectric Crystal Resonator under an Alternating Voltage
Total Sub
Marking Scheme for Answers to the Problem
Scores Scores
Part A (a) The strain S and pressure p on the left face.
0.4 for || = vt and = ut.
4.0 pts. 1.6 0.4 for S = -v/u. (0.1 for sign)
0.4 for relating p to S as p = YS. (0.1 for sign)
0.4 for p = u v . (0.1 for sign)
(b) The velocity v(x, t), strain S(x, t), and pressure p(x, t).
0.33 sinusoidal variation with correct phase constant. (0.2 for phase
2.4 constant.)
0.33 for amplitude.
0.23 for dependence on x and t as (kx- ku t).
Part B (c) The function g(x) for a standing wave of angular frequency .
0.4 for g(b/2) = 0.
6.0 pts 1.2 0.3+0.1 for B1=1 (0.1 for both signs)
0.4 for B2 = 0
(d) The two lowest standing wave frequencies.
0.2 for wavelength of fundamental tone = 2b.
1.2 0.2 for excluding even harmonics.
(0.3+0.1) for f1 = u/2b = 273 kHz. (0.1 for value)
(0.3+0.1) for f3 = 3u/2b = 818 kHz. (0.1 for value)
(e) The surface charge density as a function of x and t.
0.12 for and S, each a separable function of x and t.
2.2 0.12 for and S, each depends on time as cos t with = 0.
0.3 for spatial part ( x) = m sin k ( x b / 2) .
0.3 for spatial part S ( x) = k m cos k ( x b / 2) .
0.3 for T ( x) = [k m cos k ( x b / 2) d pVm / h]Y .
0.3 for k m cos(kb / 2) = d pVm / h .
0.6 for D1 (0.3) and D2 (0.3) in (x) .
(f) The constants C0 and 2 .
0.2 for relation between and Q as
1.4
Q(t) = ( 0 ( x) w dx ) cos t.
b

0.3 for noting Q(t)/V(t) C0 as k 0.


0.4 for C0 = T bw / h.
0.4+0.1 for 2 = Yd p2 / T = 9.82 103 . (0.1 for value)

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