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Pre-Mechanical Mechanical Electro-Mechanical Electronic

Equipment / tools Inventor / equipment Inventor / Equipment Inventor / Equipment
Ishango bone - is a bone tool, dated to the Upper Salamis Tablet was an early counting device (also Torpedo Data Computer (TDC) was an early ENIAC was the world first successful electronic
Paleolithic era, around 18,000 to 20,000 BC. It is a known as a "counting board") dating from around electromechanical analog computer used for computer which was develops by the two scientists
dark brown length of bone, the fibula of a baboon. 300 B.C. that was discovered on the island of torpedo fire-control on American submarines namely J. P. Eckert and J. W. Mauchy. It was the
It has a series of tally marks carved in three Salamis in 1846. A precursor to the abacus, it is during World War II. beginning of first generation computer. The full
columns running the length of the tool. It was thought that it represents an Ancient Greek means Tabulating Machine, capable of processing form of ENIAC is Electronic Numeric
found in 1960 in Belgian Congo. of performing mathematical calculations common fifteen-digit numbers, printing out results and Integrated And Calculator ENIAC was a very
Lebombo Bone is a baboon's fibula with 29 in the ancient world. Pebbles (calculi) were placed rounding off to eight digits invented by Pehr and huge and big computer and its weight was 30 tones.
distinct notches, discovered within the Border Cave at various locations and could be moved as Advard Scheutz. It could store only limited or small amount of
in the Lebombo Mountains of Swaziland. calculations were performed. The marble tablet Comptometer is a type of mechanical (or electro- information. Initially in the first generation
Wolf bone is a prehistoric artefact discovered in itself has dimensions of approximately. mechanical) adding machine. The comptometer computer the concept of vacuum tubes was used. A
1937 in Czechoslovakia during excavations at Suan Pan is an abacus of Chinese origin first was the first adding device to be driven solely by vacuum tube was such an electronic component
Vestonice, Moravia, led by Karl Absolon. Dated to described in a 190 CE book of the Eastern Han the action of pressing keys, which are arranged in which had very less work efficiency and so it could
the Aurignacian, approximately 30,000 years ago, Dynasty an array of vertical and horizontal columns. not work properly and it required a large cooling
the bone is marked with 55 marks which some table-yupana (or archaeological yupana): a system Introduced by Dorr Felt. system.
believe to be tally marks. The head of an ivory of trays of different sizes and materials, carved at Punch card or punched card (or punchcard or Transister
Venus figurine was excavated close to the bone. the top of the device into geometric boxes, into Hollerith card or IBM card), is a piece of stiff paper As the development moved further, the second
Counting rods are small bars, typically 3 which seeds or pebbles were placed, presumably that contains digital information represented by the generation computers knocked the door. In this
14 cm long, that were used by for performing complex arithmetic calculations. presence or absence of holes in predefined generation, transistors were used as the electronic
The first of these tables was found in 1869 in the positions. Now, punched cards were widely used component instead of vaccum tubes .A transistors
mathematicians for calculation in ancient province of Cuenca (Ecuador) and marked the throughout the 19th century for controlling textile is much smaller in the size than that of a vaccum
China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. They beginning of systematic studies on these objects. looms and in the late 19th and early 20th century tube. As the size of electrons components
are placed either horizontally or vertically All archaeological finds are very different from for operating fairground organs and related decreased from vaccum tube of transistor, the size
to represent any integer or rational each other. instruments. It was used through the 20th century of computer also decreased and it became much
number. yupana of Poma de Ayala: a picture on page 360 in unit record machines for input, processing, and smaller than that of earlier computer.
of El primer nueva cornica y buen gobierno data storage. Early digital computers used punched Integrated circuit
The written forms based on them are written by the chronicler of the Indies Felipe cards as the primary medium for input of both The third generation computers were invented in
called rod numerals. They are a true Guaman Poma de Ayala, representing a 5x4 computer programs and data, with offline data the year 1964. In this generation of computer, IC
positional numeral system with digits for chessboard. The picture, although having some entrykey punch machines. Some voting machines (Integrated circuits) was used as the electronic
19 and a blank for 0, from the Warring similarities with the majority of table-yupana, use punched cards. component for computers. The development of IC
states period (circa 475 BCE) to the 16th presents several differences from these, first of all, Millionaire, the first efficeint four-function gave birth to a new field of microelectronics. The
the shape of the boxes (rectangles), when those of calculator invented by Otto shweiger, a Swiss main advantage of IC is not only its small size but
century. table-yupanas are polygons of varying shape. Engineer. its superior performance and reliability than the
quipu, or knot-record (also called khipu), was a previous circuits. It was first developed by T.S
method used by the Incas and other ancient Andean Kilby. This generation of computer has huge
cultures to keep records and communicate storage capacity and higher calculating speed.
information. Using a wide variety of colours, Personal Computer
strings, and sometimes several hundred knots all This is the generation where we are working today.
tied in various ways at various heights, quipu could The computers which we see around us belong to
record dates, statistics, accounts, and even the fourth generation computers. Micro processor
represent, in abstract form, key episodes from is the main concept behind this generation of
traditional folk stories and poetry. In recent years computer.
scholars have also challenged the traditional view A microprocessor is a single chip (L.S.I circuit),
that quipu were merely a memory aid device and which is used in a computer for any arithmetical or
go so far as to suggest that quipu may have been logical functions to be performed in any program.
progressing towards narrative records and so The honaur of developing microprocessor goes to
becoming a viable alternative to written language Ted Hoff of U.S.A. He developed first micro-
just when the Inca Empire collapsed. processor, the Intel 4004, as he was working for
Napiers Bones Intel Corporation, U.S.A with the use of
As the necessity demanded, scientist started microprocessor in the fourth generation computers,
inventing better calculating device. In thus process the size of computer become very fast and efficient.
John Napiers of Scotland invented a calculating It is evident that the next generation of computer
device, in the year 1617 called the Napier Bones. In i.e. fifth generation will be developed soon. In that
the device, Napiers used the bone rods of the generation, computer will possess artificial
counting purpose where some no. is printed on intelligence and it would be able to take self
these rods. These rods that one can do addition, decisions like a human being.
subtraction, multiplication and division easily.
Pascal's calculator
In the year 1642, Blaise Pascal a French scientist
invented an adding machine called Pascals
calculator, which represents the position of digit
with the help of gears in it.
Leibnz Calculator
In the year 1671, a German mathematics, Gottfried
Leibniz modified the Pascal calculator and he
developed a machine which could perform various
calculation based on multiplication and division as
Analytical Engine
In the year 1833, a scientist form England knows to
be Charles Babbage invented such a machine.
Which could keep our data safely? This device was
called Analytical engine and it deemed the first
mechanical computer. It included such feature
which is used in todays computer language. For
this great invention of the computer, Sir Charles
Babbage is also known as the father of the