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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Crude oils and liquid petroleum products are transported, handled and stored in their natural
liquid state. Hydrocarbon gases are transported handled and stored in both the gaseous and liquid
states and must be completely confined in pipelines, tanks, cylinders or other containers prior to
use. The most important characteristic of liquefied hydrocarbon gases (LHGs) is that they are
stored, handled and shipped as liquids, taking up a relatively small amount of space and then
expanding into a gas when used. For example, liquefied natural gas (LNG) is stored at 162C,
and when it is released the difference in storage and atmospheric temperatures causes the liquid
to expand and gasify. One gallon (3.8 l) of LNG converts to approximately 2.5 m3 of natural gas
at normal temperature and pressure. Because liquefied gas is much more concentrated than
compressed gas, more useable gas can be transported and provided in the same size
container.(Kraus, 2011)

Pipelines, marine vessels, tank trucks, rail tank cars and so forth are used to transport crude oils,
compressed and liquefied hydrocarbon gases, liquid petroleum products and other chemicals
from their point of origin to pipeline terminals, refineries, distributors and consumers.

The industry also had a problem with what to do with the oil after it came out of the well. Often
wooden barrels were the only containers available, and early operators used these for collecting,
storing, and shipping petroleum (Figure. 1). A barrel of crude, as it remains till date for
measuring petroleum, equals 42 gallons, or 0.1589 m3 (1m3 is 6.2897 bbls).

Later, earthen pits were used. Handling and separation were difficult in any scale and became
even more when considerable amounts of water and sand came mixed with the produced oil.
Tanks slowly replaced wooden barrels, first made of wood, rivet iron, and finally bolted or
welded steel.

After 1920s, large advances were made in the operation of lease facilities. Petroleum engineers
improved methods for oil, gas, and water separation, chemical and emulsion treatment, and water
handling.

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Figure 1 Wooden barrels for storing oil produced

The storage of well fluids are initially directed towards the surface, the natural flowing well head
pressure supplied by the reservoir naturally flowing well head pressure supplied by the reservoir
naturally decreases. This pressure reduction allows the volume of free gas present in the fluid to
increase and additionally promotes the breakout from solution of dissolved gases. Both of these
reactions restrict the volume of crude oil that can be delivered to the surface. This mixture is
defined as multiphase fluid. It is classified of two or more phases where one phase is a gas and
atleast the other a liquid. A fluid of this type provides assurance and flow management
challenges for upstream producers due to complex flow regimes that form as well as the

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undesirable contaminants (eg sand, salt sulfur, paraffins etc.) that are borne along by the
production well stream.

Prior to the 1990s, the traditional way of managing multiphase fluids was to separate the liquid
and gas streams at up streams batteries with the natural gas being either flare off, if the gas was
of poor quality or if there was no immediate use or market for its use or in some cases boosting
the gas back to a central processing facility via a second separate gas pipeline supported by a gas
compressor (a similar pipeline been provided for the liquids requiring a liquid pump). Both
methods were deemed harmful from an environmental impact stand point, which led to the
needful development of a new line of pumping technology termed multiphase pumps.
Multiphase pumps will be required to handle the raw production feed stream with no
pretreatment or conditioning of the fluid . The storage and handling of well fluids in the
petroleum industry can be explained thus:

1.1 Surface Handling of Well Fluids

As produced well fluids are initially directed towards the surface, the natural flowing well head
pressure supplied by the reservoir naturally decreases. This pressure reduction allows the volume
or free gas present in the fluid to increase and additionally promotes the breakout from solution
of dissolved gases. Both of these reactions restrict the volume of crude oil that be delivered to the
surface. This mixture is defined as multiphase fluid. It is comprised of two or more phases whose
one phase is a gas and at least one phase is a liquid. A fluid of this type creates flow assurance
and flow management challenges for upstream producers due to complex flow regimes that form
as well as the undesirable contaminants (e.g sand salt, sulphur, paraffin etc.) that are borne along
by the production well streams.

Prior to the 1990s the traditional way of managing multiphase fluids was to separate the liquid
and gas streams at upstream batteries with the natural gas being either flared off if the gas was of
poor quality or if there was no immediate use of market for its use or in some cases bursting the
gas back to a central processing facility via a second separate gas pipeline supported by a gas
compressor ( a similar pipeline being provided for the liquids requiring a liquid pump ). Both
methods were deemed harmful from an environmental impact standpoint which led to the
needful development of a new line of pumping technology termed multiphase pumps, multiphase

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pumps would be required to handle the raw production fluid stream with no pre-treatment of
condition of the fluid, operating in a near continuous upset mode due to the widely varying
pressure, temperature and fluid composition from the wells(www.colfaxfluidhandling.com)

1.2 Measuring and Testing Oil and Gas

Todays technology, some very simple is capable of measuring hydrocarbons production quite
accurately. We will look at how crude oil and natural gases are measured. Produced crude oil and
natural gas (hydrocarbons) are measured prior to leading the well site as required by law. The
gross volume from which royalty share is calculated is based on the oil and gas measurement.

(a) Crude Oil Measurement

The modifier crude oil is used to denote oil that comes from the earth in its raw form which
generally means it contains some salt water and possibly a few other impurities-thus the term
crude oil. The unit for measurement for crude oil as reported on royalty statement in the BBL. A
BBL is 42 U.S gallons. The first step towards accurate crude oil measurement is to remove any
free water and sediments. This is done in one of the several type of surface equipment such as
free water knockout, a gun barrel separator, or a three phase separator. Following this step, the
oil is now isolated and can be measured. Crude oil is measured in one of two ways depending on
the aggregate volume available for measurement. For smaller volume in the range of 1-100
BOPD say the oil generally flows into an atmospheric tank and is held there until sufficient
quantity is accumulated to make a run. A run is simply the act of removing the oil from the lease
location and taking it off site for further treatment. When a run is ready to be made, the first step
is to do a shake-out test. A sample of the oil is taken and placed in a portable centrifuge which
forces entrained impurities to separate from the oil. The result will be use d to adjust the final
volume on which all owners are paid.

For large volume in the range of 100-1000 BOPD say the oil generally flows through an
automated lacy unit, which stands for lease Automatic Custody Transfer. This system provides
for the automated system sampling transfer oil from the least location into pipeline
(www.mineralweb.com).

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(b) Natural gas measurement

The unit of measurement for volume of natural gas is MCF or thousand cubic feet. A related unit
of natural gas measurement based on the heating or energy value of natural gas is called
MMBTU, or British Thermal Unit (www.mineralweb.com). The majority of producing wells
measures natural gas production with an orifice style meter. Orifice meter have no moving part
and are easily serviced in the field. Differential pressure and recorded as gas passes an orifice
plate, creating a pressure drop allowing for a calculation of the volume of gas passing through
pipe. Typically there will be two meters on the well one owned by the well operator and one
owned by the first purchaser. This serves as a check for each other, a benefit from the royalty
owner. Calculation of total gas flow is done on a monthly bases, usually by a third party gas
measurement contractors. These calculations are,passed along to the operators who enters the
natural gas measurement accounting system. The software through which royalty owners are
paid. (www.mineralweb.com).

1.3 WELL SERVICING AND WORK OVER

The term work over is used to refer to any kind of oil well intervention involving invasive
techniques such as wire line, coiled tubing or Snubbing. More specifically though it will refer to
the expensive process or pulling and replacing a completion work over rank among the most
complex, difficult and expensive types of well work. They are only performed if the completion
of a well is terminally unsuitable for the job at hand. The production tubing may have become
damaged due to operational factors like corrosion to the point where well integrity is threatened.
Down hole components such as tubing retrievable down hole safety valves, or electrical
submersible pumps may have malfunctioned, needing replacement.

In other circumstances, the reason for a work over may not be that the completion itself is in a
bad condition but that changing reservoir conditions make the farmer completion unsuitable. For
example, a high productivity well may have been completed with 51/2 tubing to allow high flow
rates (a narrower tubing would have unnecessarily choked the flow). The narrower bore makes
for a more stable flow.

Operation of a Work over

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The operation of any work over is based on first killing the well. Since workers are long planned
in advance, there would be much time to plan the well kill and so the reverse circulation would
be common. The intense nature of this operation after requires no less than the capabilities of a
drilling rig (en.wilkipedia.org).

The work over begins by removing the withheld and possibly the flow line then lifting the tubing
hanger from the casing head, thus beginning to pull the completion out of the well. The string
will almost always be fixed in place by at least one production packer if the packer is retrievable
it can be released easily enough and pulled out with the completion string.

(b) Servicing

Although some wells flow oil to the surface without mechanical assistance, most are in mature
production areas that require pumping or some other form of artificial lift. Pumping mature oil
well characteristically require more maintenance than flowing well because of the operation of
the mechanical pumping equipment installed on the well. (www.bormido.com)

1.4 TRANSPORTATION

Advances in exploration and production have helped to locate and recover a supply of oil and
natural gas from major reserves across the globe. At the same time, demand are rarely
concentrated in the same place. (www.api.org)

Transportation therefore is vital to ensuring the reliable and affordable flow of petroleum we all
count on to fuel our cars. Transportation of oil fluids and gas are made possible by pipelines/
ships at sea, trucks and railways.

(a) Pipelines

It is generally the case that all crude oils, natural gas, liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum
gas (LPG) and petroleum products flow through pipelines at some time in their migration from
the well to a refinery or gas plant, then to a terminal and eventually to the consumer.
Aboveground, underwater and underground pipelines, varying in size from several centimeters to
a meter or more in diameter, move vast amounts of crude oil, natural gas, LHGs and liquid

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petroleum products. Pipelines run throughout the world, from the frozen tundra of Alaska and
Siberia to the hot deserts of the Middle East, across rivers, lakes, seas, swamps and forests, over
and through mountains and under cities and towns. Although the initial construction of pipelines
is difficult and expensive, once they are built, properly maintained and operated, they provide
one of the safest and most economical means of transporting these products.

The first successful crude-oil pipeline, a 5-cm-diameter wrought iron pipe 9 km long with a
capacity of about 800 barrels a day, was opened in Pennsylvania (US) in 1865. Today, crude oil,
compressed natural gas and liquid petroleum products are moved long distances through
pipelines at speeds from 5.5 to 9 km per hour by large pumps or compressors located along the
route of the pipeline at intervals ranging from 90 km to over 270 km. The distance between
pumping or compressor stations is determined by the pump capacity, viscosity of the product,
size of the pipeline and the type of terrain crossed. Regardless of these factors, pipeline pumping
pressures and flow rates are controlled throughout the system to maintain a constant movement
of product within the pipeline.

Types of pipelines

The four basic types of pipelines in the oil and gas industry are flow lines, gathering lines, crude
trunk pipelines and petroleum product trunk pipelines.

Flow lines. Flow lines move crude oil or natural gas from producing wells to producing
field storage tanks and reservoirs. Flow lines may vary in size from 5 cm in diameter in
older, lower-pressure fields with only a few wells, to much larger lines in multi-well,
high-pressure fields. Offshore platforms use flow lines to move crude and gas from wells
to the platform storage and loading facility. A lease line is a type of flow line which
carries all of the oil produced on a single lease to a storage tank.

Gathering and feeder lines. Gathering lines collect oil and gas from several locations for
delivery to central accumulating points, such as from field crude oil tanks and gas plants
to marine docks. Feeder lines collect oil and gas from several locations for delivery direct
into trunk lines, such as moving crude oil from offshore platforms to onshore crude trunk
pipelines. Gathering lines and feeder lines are typically larger in diameter than flow lines.

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Crude trunk pipelines. Natural gas and crude oil are moved long distances from
producing areas or marine docks to refineries and from refineries to storage and
distribution facilities by 1- to 3-m- or larger-diameter trunk pipelines.

Petroleum product trunk pipelines. These pipelines move liquid petroleum products such
as gasoline and fuel oil from refineries to terminals, and from marine and pipeline
terminals to distribution terminals. Product pipelines may also distribute products from
terminals to bulk plants and consumer storage facilities, and occasionally from refineries
direct to consumers. Product pipelines are used to move LPG from refineries to
distributor storage facilities or large industrial users.

(b) Marine Tankers and Barges

The majority of the worlds crude oil is transported by tankers from producing areas such as the
Middle East and Africa to refineries in consumer areas such as Europe, Japan and the United
States. Oil products were originally transported in large barrels on cargo ships. The first tanker
ship, which was built in 1886, carried about 2,300 SDWT (2,240 pounds per ton) of oil. Todays
supertankers can be over 300 m long and carry almost 200 times as much oil (see figure 2).
Gathering and feeder pipelines often end at marine terminals or offshore platform loading
facilities, where the crude oil is loaded into tankers or barges for transport to crude trunk
pipelines or refineries. Petroleum products also are transported from refineries to distribution
terminals by tanker and barge. After delivering their cargoes, the vessels return in ballast to
loading facilities to repeat the sequence.(International chambers of shipping,1978)

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Figure 2. SS Paul L. Fahrney oil tanker. (Source: American petroleum institute)

Liquefied natural gas is shipped as a cryogenic gas in specialized marine vessels with heavily
insulated compartments or reservoirs (see figure 3). At the delivery port, the LNG is off-loaded
to storage facilities or regasification plants. Liquefied petroleum gas may be shipped both as a
liquid in uninsulated marine vessels and barges and as a cryogenic in insulated marine vessels.
Additionally, LPG in containers (bottled gas) may be shipped as cargo on marine vessels and
barges.

Figure 3. LNG Leo tanker loading at Arun, Sumatra, Indonesia. (source: American petoroleum
institute)

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(c ) Motor Vehicle and Railroad Transport of Petroleum Products

Crude oil and petroleum products were initially transported by horse-drawn tank wagons, then by
railroad tank cars and finally by motor vehicles. Following receipt at terminals from marine
vessels or pipelines, bulk liquid petroleum products are delivered by non-pressure tank trucks or
rail tank cars directly to service stations and consumers or to smaller terminals, called bulk
plants, for redistribution. LPG, gasoline anti-knock compounds, hydrofluoric acid and many
other products, chemicals and additives used in the oil and gas industry are transported in
pressure tank cars and tank trucks. Crude oil may also be transported by tank truck from small
producing wells to gathering tanks, and by tank truck and railroad tank car from storage tanks to
refineries or main pipelines. Packaged petroleum products in bulk bins or drums and pallets and
cases of smaller containers are carried by package truck or railroad box car.

Railroad tank cars

Railroad tank cars are constructed of carbon steel or aluminum and may be pressurized or
unpressurized. Modern tank cars can hold up to 171,000 l of compressed gas at pressures up to
600 psi (1.6 to 1.8 mPa). Non-pressure tank cars have evolved from small wooden tank cars of
the late 1800s to jumbo tank cars which transport as much as 1.31 million liters of product at
pressures up to 100 psi (0.6 mPa). Non-pressure tank cars may be individual units with one or
multiple compartments or a string of interconnected tank cars, called a tank train. Tank cars are
loaded individually, and entire tank trains can be loaded and unloaded from a single point. Both
pressure and non-pressure tank cars may be heated, cooled, insulated and thermally protected
against fire, depending on their service and the products transported.

All railroad tank cars have top- or bottom-liquid or vapour valves for loading and unloading and
hatch entries for cleaning. They are also equipped with devices intended to prevent the increase
of internal pressure when exposed to abnormal conditions. These devices include safety relief
valves held in place by a spring which can open to relieve pressure and then close; safety vents
with rupture discs that burst open to relieve pressure but cannot reclose; or a combination of the
two devices. A vacuum relief valve is provided for non-pressure tank cars to prevent vacuum
formation when unloading from the bottom. Both pressure and non-pressure tank cars have

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protective housings on top surrounding the loading connections, sample lines, thermometer wells
and gauging devices. Platforms for loaders may or may not be provided on top of cars. Older
non-pressure tank cars may have one or more expansion domes. Fittings are provided on the
bottom of tank cars for unloading or cleaning. Head shields are provided on the ends of tank cars
to prevent puncture of the shell by the coupler of another car during derailments.

Tank trucks

Petroleum products and crude oil tank trucks are typically constructed of carbon steel, aluminum
or a plasticized fiberglass material, and vary in size from 1,900-l tank wagons to jumbo 53,200-l
tankers. The capacity of tank trucks is governed by regulatory agencies, and usually is dependent
upon highway and bridge capacity limitations and the allowable weight per axle or total amount
of product allowed.

There are pressurized and non-pressurized tank trucks, which may be non-insulated or insulated
depending on their service and the products transported. Pressurized tank trucks are usually
single compartment, and non-pressurized tank trucks may have single or multiple compartments.
Regardless of the number of compartments on a tank truck, each compartment must be treated
individually, with its own loading, unloading and safety-relief devices. Compartments may be
separated by single or double walls. Regulations may require that incompatible products and
flammable and combustible liquids carried in different compartments on the same vehicle be
separated by double walls. When pressure testing compartments, the space between the walls
should also be tested for liquid or vapour.

Tank trucks have either hatches which open for top loading, valves for closed top- or bottom-
loading and unloading, or both. All compartments have hatch entries for cleaning and are
equipped with safety relief devices to mitigate internal pressure when exposed to abnormal
conditions. These devices include safety relief valves held in place by a spring which can open to
relieve pressure and then close, hatches on non-pressure tanks which pop open if the relief valves
fail and rupture discs on pressurized tank trucks. A vacuum relief valve is provided for each non-
pressurized tank truck compartment to prevent vacuum when unloading from the bottom. Non-
pressurized tank trucks have railings on top to protect the hatches, relief valves and vapour

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recovery system in case of a rollover. Tank trucks are usually equipped with breakaway, self-
closing devices installed on compartment bottom loading and unloading pipes and fittings to
prevent spills in case of damage in a rollover or collision.

1.5 STORAGE TANKS

There are a number of different types of vertical and horizontal aboveground atmospheric and
pressure storage tanks in tank farms, which contain crude oil, petroleum feedstocks, intermediate
stocks or finished petroleum products. Their size, shape, design, configuration, and operation
depend on the amount and type of products stored and company or regulatory requirements.
Aboveground vertical tanks may be provided with double bottoms to prevent leakage onto the
ground and cathodic protection to minimize corrosion. Horizontal tanks may be constructed with
double walls or placed in vaults to contain any leakage.

Atmospheric cone roof tanks

Cone roof tanks are aboveground, horizontal or vertical, covered, cylindrical atmospheric
vessels. Cone roof tanks have external stairways or ladders and platforms, and weak roof to shell
seams, vents, scuppers or overflow outlets; they may have appurtenances such as gauging tubes,
foam piping and chambers, overflow sensing and signaling systems, automatic gauging systems
and so on.

When volatile crude oil and flammable liquid petroleum products are stored in cone roof tanks
there is an opportunity for the vapour space to be within the flammable range. Although the
space between the top of the product and the tank roof is normally vapour rich, an atmosphere in
the flammable range can occur when product is first put into an empty tank or as air enters the
tank through vents or pressure/vacuum valves when product is withdrawn and as the tank
breathes during temperature changes. Cone roof tanks may be connected to vapour recovery
systems.

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Conservation tanks

These are a type of cone roof tank with an upper and lower section separated by a flexible
membrane designed to contain any vapour produced when the product warms up and expands
due to exposure to sunlight in the daytime and to return the vapour to the tank when it condenses
as the tank cools down at night. Conservation tanks are typically used to store aviation gasoline
and similar products.

Atmospheric floating roof tanks

Floating roof tanks are aboveground, vertical, open top or covered cylindrical atmospheric
vessels that are equipped with floating roofs. The primary purpose of the floating roof is to
minimize the vapour space between the top of the product and the bottom of the floating roof so
that it is always vapour rich, thus precluding the chance of a vapour-air mixture in the flammable
range. All floating roof tanks have external stairways or ladders and platforms, adjustable
stairways or ladders for access to the floating roof from the platform, and may have
appurtenances such as shunts which electrically bond the roof to the shell, gauging tubes, foam
piping and chambers, overflow sensing and signaling systems, automatic gauging systems and so
on. Seals or boots are provided around the perimeter of floating roofs to prevent product or
vapour from escaping and collecting on the roof or in the space above the roof.

Floating roofs are provided with legs which may be set in high or low positions depending on the
type of operation. Legs are normally maintained in the low position so that the greatest possible
amount of product can be withdrawn from the tank without creating a vapour space between the
top of the product and the bottom of the floating roof. As tanks are brought out of service prior to
entry for inspection, maintenance, repair or cleaning, there is a need to adjust the roof legs into
the high position to allow room to work under the roof once the tank is empty. When the tank is
returned to service, the legs are readjusted into the low position after it is filled with product.

Aboveground floating roof storage tanks are further classified as external floating roof tanks,
internal floating roof tanks or covered external floating roof tanks.

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External (open top) floating roof tanks are those with floating covers installed on open-top
storage tanks. External floating roofs are usually constructed of steel and provided with pontoons
or other means of flotation. They are equipped with roof drains to remove water, boots or seals to
prevent vapour releases and adjustable stairways to reach the roof from the top of the tank
regardless of its position. They may also have secondary seals to minimize release of vapour to
the atmosphere, weather shields to protect the seals and foam dams to contain foam in the seal
area in case of a fire or seal leak. Entry onto external floating roofs for gauging, maintenance or
other activities may be considered confined-space entry, depending on the level of the roof
below the top of the tank, the products contained in the tank and government regulations and
company policy.

Internal floating roof tanks usually are cone roof tanks which have been converted by
installing buoyant decks, rafts or internal floating covers inside the tank. Internal floating roofs
are typically constructed of various types of sheet metal, aluminum, plastic or metal-covered
plastic expanded foam, and their construction may be of the pontoon or pan type, solid buoyant
material, or a combination of these. Internal floating roofs are provided with perimeter seals to
prevent vapour from escaping into the portion of the tank between the top of the floating roof
and the exterior roof. Pressure/vacuum valves or vents are usually provided at the top of the tank
to control any hydrocarbon vapours which may accumulate in the space above the internal
floater. Internal floating roof tanks have ladders installed for access from the cone roof to the
floating roof. Entry onto internal floating roofs for any purpose should be considered confined-
space entry.

Covered (external) floating roof tanks are basically external floating roof tanks that have been
retrofitted with a geodesic dome, snow cap or similar semi-fixed cover or roof so that the
floating roof is no longer open to the atmosphere. Newly constructed covered external floating
roof tanks may incorporate typical floating roofs designed for internal floating roof tanks. Entry
onto covered external floating roofs for gauging, maintenance or other activities may be
considered confined-space entry, depending on the construction of the dome or cover, the level
of the roof below the top of the tank, the products contained in the tank and government
regulations and company policy.

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1.6 FUEL OIL STORAGE AND HANDLING PROBLEM

Water is a predominant factor in a number of problems faced when using heavy oils. Water not
only comes from condensation, ground seepage and leaky heating coils in storage, but also from
the Load On Top procedure used by todays marine tankers in transporting fuel oils. The LOT
procedure means loading the oil cargo on top of the salt water ballast. Inevitably, a portion of the
ballast water is dispersed in the oil, and is delivered along with the oil.
Salt water is one of the sources of fireside slagging. Salt itself often forms a slag, especially on
super-heater tubes. The sodium in the salt encourages sodium vanadate and sodium sulfate
formation, both of which may deposit slag.
Tank bottom corrosion is caused by water, salt, acidic constituents of the oil (largely sulfur
compounds) and bacterial growth in the tank. The bacterial growths produce acid and accelerate
metal corrosion.
Bacterial slime masses and viscous oil/water emulsions can be drawn into the fuel distribution
system with resultant clogging of lines, strainers, preheaters and burners. Such conditions
interfere with proper flow and heating of the oil so that good atomization is not obtained.
Combustion efficiency is reduced with the formation of sticky coke residue (made up of carbon,
heavy hydrocarbons, and ash) which adheres to tube and refractory surfaces. While the carbon
may burn out in the combustion zone, the deposits remain and act as adsorbents for other oil-ash
constituents and a reaction site where sulfur and vanadium gases can form condensable
compounds that may build up into corrosive slags in the cooler parts of the boiler.
Typical sludge is made up of viscous water-oil emulsions and slime, heavy hydrocarbons, and
oxidation residues from unsaturated hydrocarbons in the oil. Heavy hydrocarbons in residual
fuels have increased substantially in recent years because of the high demand for gasoline and jet
fuel. Intensive refining processes have reduced the percentage of residual obtained from a barrel
of crude to approximately 5% from its previous level of about 20%. This has led not only to the
formation of extremely heavy long-chain hydrocarbons but also to a greater
tendency toward instability in the residual oil.

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Manual cleaning of tanks, strainers, preheaters and burners is expensive, but the increased
fuel consumption caused by sludge accumulations is even more costly. Sludge on burners
prevents proper atomization and destroys the flame pattern; this encourages buildup of fireside
deposits, may cause serious flame impingement and tube overheating, generally reduces boiler
efficiency, and adds to maintenance and fuel costs. Sludge in oil heaters leads to difficulty in m a
i n t a i n i n g p r o p e r p r e h e a t f o r atomization; excessive steam or electricity may be
needed to maintain preheat or, in extreme cases, it may not be possible to maintain the preheat
temperature at all. The fuel cannot be atomized adequately by the burner and the larger fuel
particles that are formed are thermally cracked before complete gasification occurs. Heavy
hydrocarbons that are formed by cracking often form coke rather than burning completely. An
even flow of homogeneous fuel to the burners helps to assure proper preheat and good
atomization with a minimum of coke formation.

Figure 4 Burner wall

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Figure 5 Preheater

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American National Standards Institute (ANSI). 1967. Illumination. ANSI A11.1-1967. New
York: ANSI.

Anton, DJ. 1988. Crash dynamics and restraint systems. In Aviation Medicine, 2nd edition,
edited by J Ernsting and PF King. London: Butterworth.

International Chamber of Shipping. 1978. International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and
Terminals. London: Witherby.

International Labour Organization (ILO). 1992. Recent Developments in Inland Transportation.


Report I, Sectoral Activities Programme, Twelfth Session. Geneva: ILO.. 1996. Accident
Prevention on Board Ship at Sea and in Port. An ILO Code of Practice. 2nd edition. Geneva:
ILO.

Kraus Richard 2011 storage and transportation of crude oil naturalgas, liquid petroleum products
and other chemicals

www.api.org-home oil and Natural gas overview/ june 13th 2014

www.bormido. com/services workshop june 12th 2014

www.enwikipedia.org/wiki/workover, june 12th 2014

www.mineralweb.com/measurement/june 13th 2014

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