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Number and algebra

5
Indices
The speed of light is about 300 000 000 metres per second.
In one year, light travels approximately 9 460 000 000 000 km.
Light from the stars travels for many years before it is seen on
Earth. Even light from the Sun takes eight minutes to reach
the Earth. Powers or indices provide a way to work easily with
very large and very small numbers.
N E W C E N T U R Y M AT H S
for the A ustralian Curriculum 9

Shutterstock.com/Dr_Flash
n Chapter outline n Wordbank
Proficiency strands base A number that is raised to a power, meaning
5-01 Multiplying and it is multiplied by itself repeatedly, for example,
dividing terms with in 2 5, the base is 2.
the same base U F R C index laws Rules for simplifying algebraic expressions
5-02 Power of a power U F R C involving powers of the same base, for example,
5-03 Powers of products a m 4 a n a mn.
and quotients U F R C
5-04 The zero index U F R C index notation A way of writing repeated multiplication
5-05 Negative indices U F R C using indices (powers), for example 2 5.
5-06 Summary of the negative power A power that is a negative number, as in
index laws U F R C the term 3 2.
5-07 Significant figures U F R C
scientific notation A shorter way of writing very large or
5-08 Scientific notation U F R C
very small numbers using powers of 10. For example,
5-09 Scientific notation
9 460 000 000 000 in scientific notation is 9.46 3 10 12.
on a calculator U F PS R C
significant figures Meaningful digits in a numeral that tell
how many. For example, 28 000 000 has two significant
figures: 2 and 8.

9780170193047
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Indices

n In this chapter you will:


apply index laws to numerical expressions with integer indices
simplify algebraic products and quotients using index laws
express numbers in scientific notation
interpret and use zero and negative indices
(STAGE 5.2) apply index laws to algebraic expressions with integer indices
round numbers to significant figures
interpret, write and order numbers in scientific notation
interpret and use scientific notation on a calculator
solve problems involving scientific notation

SkillCheck
Worksheet 1 For each term:
StartUp assignment 5 i state the base
MAT09NAWK10052
ii state the index
iii write the expression in words.
Worksheet a 84 b 48 c h5 d 5h
Powers review 2 Evaluate each product.
MAT09NAWK10053 a 535 b 43434 c 10 3 10 3 10 3 10 d 23232323232
2 5
e 3 f 2 g 63 h 44
Skillsheet
3 Express each repeated multiplication in index notation.
Indices
a 232323232 b 3333333373737
MAT09NASS10016
c 535353535353838 d 10 3 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 3 x
e 636363k3k f x3y3x3y3x
g a3b3b3b3a h 53n353n3n
i q3p3q3p3q3q
4 Write each term in expanded form.
a 93 b 72 c d5 d k2
5 Evaluate each expression.
a 42 3 43 b 106 4 102 c 33 2 d 60
e 9 1 5
f 5 35 g 24 4 2 h 82
6 For each equation, find the missing power.
a 8 2h b 81 3 h c 216 6 h d 144 12 h
e 4096 4 h f 2401 7 h g 64 2 h h 625 5 h

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Investigation: Multiplying and dividing terms with powers
1 Write each expression in expanded form, then evaluate it.
a i 22 3 23 ii 25 b i 34 3 33 ii 37
3 3 6 5 3
c i 4 34 ii 4 d i 5 35 ii 58
2 What do you notice about each pair of answers in question 1?
3 Is it true that 24 3 26 210? Give a reason for your answer.
4 Determine whether each equation is true (T) or false (F). Justify your answer.
a 25 3 25 210 b 63 3 67 621
3 9 27
c 4 34 4 d 35 3 310 315
5 Write in words and as a formula the rule for multiplying am and an, two terms with the
same base.
6 Use the rule to copy and complete each equation.
a 54 3 52 5 b 45 3 43 4 c 105 3 107
d 93 3 92 e n3 3 n8 f p3 3 p7
7 Evaluate each expression.
a i 36 4 33 ii 33 b i 28 4 26 ii 22
c i 58 4 53 ii 55 d i 108 4 104 ii 104
8 What do you notice about each pair of answers in question 7?
9 Is it true that 48 4 46 42? Give a reason for your answer.
10 Determine whether each equation is true (T) or false (F). Justify your answer.
a 310 4 36 34 b 48 4 42 44
c 212 4 23 24 d 610 4 65 65
11 Write in words and as a formula the rule for dividing am and an, two terms with the
same base.
12 Use the rule to copy and complete each equation.
a 26 4 23 2 b 108 4 106 10 c 37 4 32
d 411 4 46 e x8 4 x5 f g 12 4 g 10

Video tutorial
Multiplying and dividing terms with
5-01 the same base Simplifying with the
index laws

MAT09NAVT00002

Consider 54 3 53 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5
5353535353535
57
) 54 3 53 543
57

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Indices

Summary
When multiplying terms with the same base, add the powers
a m 3 a n a m n

The rule above is called an index law. Index is another name for power. The plural of index is
indices (pronounced in-de-sees).
Proof:
am 3 an a|
3a3    3a} 3 a|
{z 3a3    3a}
{z
m factors n factors
a|
3a3    3a}
{z
m n factors
amn

Example 1
Simplify each expression, writing the answer in index notation.
a 84 3 85 b 10 3 10 3 c d3 3 d5
d 4m 2 3 3m 6 e 3r 2t 3 6r 4t 3

Solution
a 84 3 85 845 b 10 3 103 101 3 103 c d 3 3 d 5 d 35
89 1013 d8
104
     
d 4m 2 3 3m 6 4 3 3 3 m 2 3 m 6
e 3r 2 t 3 6r4 t 3 3 3 6 3 r 2 3 r 4 3 t 1 3 t 3
12m 26 18r 2 4 t 13
12m 8 18r 6 t 4

56
Consider 56 4 54
54
53535353535

5353535
535
52
) 56 4 54 564
52

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Summary
When dividing terms with the same base, subtract the powers:
am
am 4 an n amn
a

This is another index law.


Proof:
am
am 4 an n
a
a 3a 3a 3a3a3  3a m factors)

a 3a 3a 3  3a n factors)
a3a3 ... 3a m  n factors]
amn

Example 2
Simplify each expression, writing the answer in index notation.
8
a 85 4 83 b 10 c d 20 4 d 4
10
8x 3 y 7
d 20w 10 4 5w 2 e
24x 2 y
Solution
8
a 85 4 83 853 b 10 1081 c d 20 4 d 4 d 204
10
82 d 16
107
4
20 w 10 e 8x 3 y 7 1
8x 32 y 71
d 20w 10 4 5w 2 2 2 1

1 5w 24x y 3 24
102 6
4w xy

4w 8 3

Exercise 5-01 Multiplying and dividing terms with


the same base
1 Which expression is equal to 5 12 3 5 3? Select the correct answer A, B, C or D. See Example 1
A 59 B 5 15 C 25 15 D 25 36
2 Simplify each expression, writing the answer in index notation.
a 10 3 3 10 2 b 2 3 24 c 32 3 35
d 74 3 7 e 8 3 83 3 84 f 54 3 5 3 54
g 6 3 62 3 63 3 64 h 44 3 44 3 44 i 34 3 30 3 37
j x 3 x4 k g4 3 g4 l w7 3 w
m b 3 3 b 10 n p 10 3 p 10 o r3r
p y 3 y3 3 y2 q m3 3 m 3 m4 r n8 3 n2

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Indices

3 Which expression is equal to 10 4 3 10? Select the correct answer A, B, C or D.


A 100 5 B 100 4 C 10 4 D 10 5
4 Simplify each expression.
a 3p 2 3 2p 5 b 4y 10 3 3y 2 c 6m 3 3m 8
d h 3 3 5h 8 e 3q 3 8q 8 f 2a 2 3 5a 5
g 5n 8t 3 6n 8t 4 h 2ab 3 3 15ab i 3e 4g 3 3 e 6g 2
j 8p 4m 5 3 4p 3m 5 k 16qr 8 3 3q 7 l 9u 3v 3 6uv 2w 8
See Example 2 5 Which expression is equal to 512 4 53 ? Select the correct answer A, B, C or D.
A 54 B 59 C 14 D 19
6 Simplify each expression, writing the answer in index notation.
a 10 7 4 10 5 b 85 4 8 c 20 15 4 20 5
8 12 27
d 52 e 93 f 23
5 9 2
20
g 74 4 73 h 2 i 11 4 4 11 4
2
j p 15 4 p 10 k n7 4 n l w 24 4 w 6
20 y8 12
m h4 n2
o a4
h y a
25
w
p b 16 4 b 15 q r m 16 4 m 16
w
7 Which expression is equal to104 4 10? Select the correct answer A, B, C or D.
A 10 4 B 14 C 13 D 10 3
8 Simplify each expression.
a 10y 15 4 5y 3 b 20w 9 4 4w 3 c 24r 8 4 3r
4 10 4g 12
d 30x3 e 10m f
x 2m 8g 6
g 14d 4h 10 4 7hd 2 h 15x 6y 8 4 15xy 4 i 6e 25d 40 4 18e 5d 4
12q 5 t 4 10 8 36pq 3 r 5
j k 45a 5b l
16q 4 t 3 5a 24qr

Investigation: Powers of powers


1 Write each expression in expanded form, then evaluate it.
a i (23)2 ii 26 b i (34)3 ii 312
c i (52)3 ii 56 d i (25)4 ii 220
2 What do you notice about each pair of answers in question 1?
3 Is it true that: (27)3 221? Give a reason for your answer.
4 Determine whether each equation is true (T) or false (F). Justify your answer.
a (35)3 315 b (23)2 25 c (210)4 214
d (42)5 410 e (33)6 318 f (52)4 56

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5 Write in words and as a formula the rule for raising am to a power of n, that is, (am)n.
6 Use the rule to copy and complete each equation.
a (37)2 3 b (52)6 5 c (45)2 4
d (a 3)4 a e (83)7 f (k 4)6

Video tutorial
5-02 Power of a power Simplifying with the
index laws
 3 4
Consider 5 53 3 53 3 53 3 53 MAT09NAVT00002

5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 Puzzle sheet
53535353535353535353535 Indices puzzle
512 MAT09NAPS10054

) 53 4 53 3 4
512

Summary
When raising a term with a power to another power, multiply the powers:
am n am 3 n

Proof:
am n a|
m
3 am 3    3 am}
{z
n factors
a|
3a3    3a} 3 a|
{z 3a3    3a} 3 ::: |
{z 3    3a}
3 a 3 a{z
m factors m factors m factors
|{z}
n lots of m factors
am 3 n

Example 3
Simplify each expression, writing the answer in index notation.
a (8 5) 2 b (d 3) 5 c (2g) 4 d (5v 4) 3 e (n) 6 f (3t 4) 3

Solution
 5 2  5
a 8 85 3 2 b d3 d 335 c 2g4 24 3 g 4
810 d 15 16g 4
 3  3  3  3
d 5v 4 53 3 v 4 e n6 16 3 n 6 f 3t 4 33 3 t 4
433 6
125 3 v 13n 27 3 t 4 3 3
125v 12 n6 27t 12

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Indices

Exercise 5-02 Power of a power


See Example 3 1 Which expression is equal to (10 3) 3 ? Select the correct answer A, B, C or D.
A 30 3 B 10 0 C 10 9 D 10 6
2 Simplify each expression, writing the answer in index notation.
a (4 3) 2 b (5 2) 8 c (3 3) 4
d (2 7) 4 e (2 1) 2 f (9) 3
g (10 0) 2 h (6 4) 5 i (5 3) 5
j (e 2) 4 k (t 5) 5 l (y 3) 7
m (c 1) 5 n (m 7) 5 o (y 4) 4
p (h 0) 6 q (q 6) 3 r (w 4) 1
s (2x) 10 t (5n 3) 8 u (4d 3) 3
v (k 5) 9 w (d 3) 4 x (2a 8) 8
3 Which expression is equal to (3) 5? Select the correct answer A, B, C or D.
A 3 6 B 3 5 C 35 D 15
4 Simplify each expression.
a (2d 3) 4 b (5m 3) 2 c (4y 5) 2
d (3x 2) 4 e (5u 6) 5 f (2w 5) 3
g (10d 5) 4 h (3e) 3 i (2b 4) 1
j (6d 6) 2 k (3f 4) 5 l (2c 3) 10
m (2r) 4 n (5t) 3 o (3m 3) 2
p (y 3) 12 q (x) 3 r (m 3) 10
s (4w 5) 4 t (3f ) 5 u (3p 2) 3
v (3h 5) 4 w (10k) 2 x (8y 3) 1

Video tutorial

Simplifying with the 5-03 Powers of products and quotients


index laws

MAT09NAVT00002 Consider 2 3 53 2 3 5 3 2 3 5 3 2 3 5
Homework sheet 23232353535
Indices 1 23 3 53
MAT09NAHS10005 ) 2 3 53 23 3 53

Summary
When raising a product of terms to a power, raise each term to that power:
abn an bn

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for the A ustralian Curriculum 9
Proof:
abn ab 3 ab 3    3 ab
|{z}
n factors
a|
3a3    3a} 3 b|
{z 3b3    3b}
{z
n factors n factors
an bn

Example 4
Simplify each expression.
a (2gh 2) 5 b (p 3q 4) 2

Solution
 5  5  2  2  2
a 2gh2 25 3 g 5 3 h 2 b p 3q 4 p3 3 q4
32 3 g 5 3 h 2 3 5 p332 3 q432
32g 5 h 10 p 6q 8

 6
5 5 5 5 5 5 5
Consider 3 3 3 3 3
8 8 8 8 8 8 8
53535353535

83838383838
56
6
8
 6
5 56
) 6
8 8

Summary
When raising a quotient of terms to a power, raise each term to that power:
an an
n
b b

Proof:
an a a a
3 3  3
b b|{z}
b b
n factors
a 3 a 3    3 a n factors

b 3 b 3    3 b n factors
an
n
b

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Indices

Example 5
Simplify each expression.  
 2 2 3
a 7c b 4k
d 5

Solution
 2  3
7c 7c2 4k 2 4k 2 3
a 2 b
d d 5 53
2 2
7 c
2 43 k 2 3
d
125
49c 2 64k 6
2
d 125

Exercise 5-03 Powers of products and quotients


See Example 4 1 Which expression is equal to 4 3 52 ? Select the correct answer A, B, C or D.
A 16 3 25 B 16 3 25 C 8 3 10 D 8 3 10
2 Simplify each expression.
a (ab) 3 b (x 2y) 5 c (l 3m 5) 6
d (6dp 2) 4 e (8k 4y 5) 2 f (3m 2n) 5
g (ek 3) 3 h (w 3x 4) 7 i (8d 3y 5) 2
j (4b 2c 3) 4 k (3a 3d) 3 l (2p 2q 3) 4
 3
See Example 5 3 Which expression is equal to  3 ? Select the correct answer A, B, C or D.
4
A  9 B 9 C 27 D  27
12 12 64 64
4 Simplify each expression.
 2  3  4
a 6 b m c 5
7 8 2 5 x 4
5 2
2n w m2
d e 3
f
 4
p

t
  4n 2
2 5h 3 7k 4
g  h  i
3  64 10
 2  
3r a 2b 2 5
j 2
k 5
l  2
t d 3c
Worked solutions 5 Simplify each expression.
Powers of products a (2x 10y 15) 3 3 5x 2y 3 b (2x 10y 15 3 5x 2y 3) 3 c 18q 5r 8 4 (3qr 2) 2
and quotients  3
3a 5 x 6 3a 5 x 6
MAT09NAWS10023 d (18q 5r 8 4 3qr 2) 2 e f
ax ax4
g (4p 3h 10) 2 3 2p 2h 9 h (4p 3h 10) 2 4 2p 2h 9 i (4p 3h 10 3 2p 2h 9) 2

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Investigation: The power of zero
What is the value of a number raised to a power of 0, for example, 20?
1 Copy and complete each table of decreasing powers. Notice the pattern in your answers.
a b
Power of 2 Number Power of 3 Number
25 32 35 243
24 16 34
23 33
22 32
21 31
20 30

2 Simplify each expression in index notation.


a 34 3 30 b 52 3 50 c 20 3 27
d 70 3 73 e 45 3 40 f 50 3 57
g 25 4 20 h 35 4 30 i 42 4 40
j 93 4 90 k 56 4 50 l 84 4 80
3 Any number will remain unchanged when multiplied by what?
4 Any number will remain unchanged when divided by what?
5 What is the answer when any number is raised to the power of 0, that is, a 0? Justify your
answer.

5-04 The zero index


53
Consider 53 4 53
53
1 Any number divided by itself equals 1.

But also 53 4 53 533


50
) 50 1:

Summary
Any number raised to the power of zero is equal to 1.
a0 1

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Indices

Proof:
am 4 am 1 Any number divided by itself equals 1.
But also a 4 am amm
m

a0
) a 0 1:

Example 6
Simplify each expression.
a 11 0 b (8) 0 c g0
d (3r) 0 e 3r 0 f 8 0

Solution
a 11 0 1 b (8) 0 1 c g0 1
d (3r) 0 1 e 3r 0 3 3 r 0 f 80 1 3 80
331 1 3 1
3 1

Exercise 5-04 The zero index


See Example 6 1 Simplify each expression.
a 20 b (2) 0 c 2 0 d (m) 0
 0
2
e m 0 f 4a0 g h 7x 0
3
 0
p
i 1000 0 j p 30 k l 2b 0
3
m (9k) 0 n (x 2y) 0 o (xyw) 0 p (ab) 0
q (6r) 0 r (6r) 0 s 6r 0 t 6(r) 0
u (cd) 0 v (7x 2) 0 w 3(a 2b 3) 0 x (5v 5w 4) 0

Worked solutions 2 Simplify each expression.


The zero index a 70 20 b 70  20 c 2m 0 (2m) 0 d 2m 0  (2m) 0
MAT09NAWS10024
e (6a) 0 6a 0 f (6a) 0  6x 0 g (5y) 0  4 h (5y) 0  4 0
 0  0  0
1 1 1 1
i 30 3 50 j 32 3 50 k y0 l y
2 2 2 2
m 2w 0 3 3p 0 n 12u 0 4 3 o (5d 0) 3 p 8b 0  (3b 0) 2
12p 0 12q 5
q r 6n 3 4 2n 3 s t 3x 3 3 4 x 9
2p0 36q 5

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Mental skills 5 Maths without calculators

Adding or multiplying in any order


Numbers can be added or multiplied in any order. We can use this property to make our
calculations simpler.
1 Study each example.
a 19 5 5 1 19 1 5 5
20 10
30
b 13 8 20 27 80 13 27 20 80 8
40 100 8
148
c 2 3 36 3 5 2 3 5 3 36 d 25 3 11 3 4 3 7 25 3 4 3 11 3 7
10 3 36 100 3 77
360 7700
2 Now evaluate each sum.
a 45 16 45 4 7 b 38 600 50 12 40
c 18 91 9 20 d 75 33 7 25
e 24 16 80 44 10 f 56 5 20 15 4
g 100 36 200 10 90 h 54 27 9 16 3
i 70 50 30 25 25 j 32 120 40 80 40
3 Now evaluate each product.
a 83435 b 50 3 7 3 2 c 33536
d 5 3 11 3 40 e 12 3 2 3 3 f 2 3 4 3 25 3 8
g 3 3 20 3 7 3 5 h 6383532 i 2 3 3 3 2 3 11

Investigation: Negative powers


What is the value of a number raised to a negative power, for example, 21 or 22?
1 Copy and complete each table showing decreasing powers. Notice the pattern in your
answers.
a b
Power of 2 Number Power of 10 Number
23 8 103 1000
22 4 102
21 101
20 100
21 101
22 102
23 103

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Indices

2 Copy and complete this table showing decreasing powers in expanded form. Notice the
pattern in your answers.
a b
Power of 5 Expanded form Power of 5 Expanded form
33 33333 53 53535
32 333 52
31 3 51
30 1 50
1 51
31 3 52
1 1
32 53
3 3 3 32
1 1 54
33 55
3 3 3 3 3 33
34
35

3 If 32 12 and 53 13 , then write each negative power in a similar way.
3 5
1 4
a 4 b 7 c 26
4 Simplify each expression in index notation.
a 104 4 107 b 23 4 28 c 34 4 35
d 52 4 58 e a4 4 a6 f a 4 a4
104 10 3 10 3 10 3 10
5 Consider
107 10 3 10 3 10 3 10 3 10 3 10 3 10
1

10 3 10 3 10
1
3
10

104
But also 1047
107
103
1
) 103 3
10

Use the method above to show that:


3 4
a 28 25 15 b 35 31 1
2 2 3 3
2 4
c 58 52 16 d a6 a2 12
5 5 a a
6 Write in words and as a formula the rule for raising a to a negative power n, that is, a n.

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Technology Negative powers


In this activity we will discover the pattern for negative powers. We will consider base values from
2 to 10 shown in column A and indices (powers) 1, 2 and 3 shown in row 1. On a
spreadsheet, the symbol for power is ^ (called a carat, press SHIFT 6). For example, 3 1 is
entered as 3^1.
1 Create a spreadsheet as shown below.

2 We will first examine the power of 1. In cell B4, enter A4^$B$1 to calculate 2 1. $B$1
is an absolute cell reference, which ensures that the cell does not change when a formula is
copied. This means that in column B, the power will always refer to cell B1 (1) only. Fill
Down from cell B4 to B12.
3 Use Format cells to set column B decimals to Fraction and Up to three digits.

4 Compare your answers in column B with the original values in column A. Can you describe
the pattern when a base is raised to a power of 1?
5 Now consider powers of 2. Adapt steps from 1 to 3 for column C. Use Fill Down from
cell C4 to C12.

6 Compare your answers in column C with the original values in column A. Can you describe
the pattern when a base is raised to a power of 2?

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Indices

7 Now consider powers of 3. Adapt steps for column D. In cell D4, enter the formula
A4^$D$1.
Note: D12s fraction is missing as it has 4 digits in the denominator, which the spreadsheet
doesnt allow for. Can you figure out what the fraction should be?
8 Compare your answers in column D with the original values in column A. Can you describe
the pattern when a base is raised to a power of 3?
9 Write a rule for negative powers, given the answers you have found in this activity. Discuss
with other students in your class.

Worksheet

Power calculations 5-05 Negative indices


MAT09NAWK10057
20
Consider 20 4 23
23
1
3
2
But also 20 4 23 203
23
1
) 23 3
2

Summary
A number raised to a negative power gives a fraction (with a numerator of 1):
1
an
an

Proof:
a0
a 0 4 an
an
1
n
a
But also a 0 4 an a 0n
an
1
) an n
a

Example 7

Video tutorial Simplify each expression using a positive index (power).


Negative indices a 2 1 b 5 3 c g 5
MAT09NAVT10010
Solution
1 1 1 1
a 21 b 53 c g 5
21 2 53 g5
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Example 8 Stage 5.2

Video tutorial
Simplify each expression using a positive index.
Negative indices
a 3n2 b 3n2 c p 2q 3 d ab6 MAT09NAVT10010

Solution
1
a 3n2 3 3 n2 b 3n2
3n2
3 1
3 2 1
1 n 2
3 9n
2
n
1 1
c p2 q 3 2 3 q 3 d ab6 a 3
p b6
a
q3
2 b6
p

The reciprocal as a power


1
Consider 91
9
1 is the reciprocal of 9.
9
 1
2 1
Consider  
3 2
3
2
14
3
3
13
2
3

2
1
1
2

Summary
A number raised to a power of 1 gives its reciprocal.
1
a1
a
a1 b

b a

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Indices

Stage 5.2 Example 9


Simplify each expression.
 1  1
4 y
a b
3 5

Solution
 1  1
4 y
a 3 b 5
3 4 5 y

Exercise 5-05 Negative indices


See Example 7 1 Simplify each expression using a positive index.
a 6 2 b 5 7 c 3 1 d 10 2
e g 5 f z 1 g n 3 h t 2
i a 4 j 5 3 k y d l r m
2 Evaluate each expression, giving your answers in fraction form.
a 3 2 b 5 4 c 6 1 d 7 2
1 7
e 25 f 2 g 4 3 h 10 6
i 2 10 j 3 3 k 6 2 l 9 4
3 Write each expression using a negative index.
a 12 b 1 c 1 d 1
n n 83 8
e 1 f 24 g 1 h 1
105 a 3 b

Stage 5.2 i 6 j 42 k  25 l 53
a t w d
See Example 8 4 Simplify each expression using positive indices.
Worked solutions a 5h 1 b 2b 5 c 3e 3 d 4n 2
Negative indices e pb 2 f r 2s 4 g w 2y h d 3y 3
MAT09NAWS10025 i (2m) 1 j (xy) 1 k (4h) 2 l (5k) 3
m 3m 3p 2 n 15k 1w 4 o 12x 2y 3 p 12x 2y 3
q (3h) 2 r (4k) 3 s (2c) 4 t (8y) 1
u 4pq 3 v 4p 1q 3 w vm 2 x v 1m 2
See Example 9 5 Simplify each expression.
 1  1    1
a 2 b 8 c 9 1 d 3
7 5 10 2
 1  1  1  1
e  3 f 5 g x h 5
4 2 3 a
 1  1  1  1
i  m j 5r k 2 l 1
2 4 3z v

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Worksheet
5-06 Summary of the index laws Index laws review

MAT09NAWK10055

Summary Puzzle sheet

Indices squaresaw
a m 3 a n a m n a0 1 MAT09NAPS10056
m
am 4 an a n amn a1 1 Homework sheet
a a
m n
a am 3 n an 1n Indices 2
a MAT09NAHS10006
 1
n
ab a b n n a b
b a
 n
a an
n
b b

Exercise 5-06 Summary of the index laws


1 Simplify each expression, writing the answer
in index notation.
a 34 3 37 b 2 10 4 2 7 c (4 4) 2
8 3 4
d 9 49 e (8 ) f 58 3 5
g 65 3 64 3 63 h 38 4 35 3 3 i (2 3) 5 3 2 4
5
420 103
j k (8 2) 3 4 8 l
45 2 102 7
2 Simplify each expression.
a a4 3 a3 b t8 3 t c n8 4 n2
d p3 4 p e (w 2) 4 f (g 3) 6
12
g 2b 2 3 3b 5 h 4d 7 3 5d 6 i 30c 8
5c
j (5b 4) 4 k 24m 6 4 8m 4 l (3a) 2
3 Evaluate each expression.
a 40 b (4) 0 c 7 3 20 d (7 3 2) 0
e (2) 3 f (3) 2 g (5 2) 2 h 24 3 23
i (7 2) 0 j 45 4 42 k 42 4 4 5 l 10 3 4 10 3
0
m 52 4 50 n 10 2 4 10 2 o 1 p 10 2 3 10 2
2
4 Evaluate each expression, giving your answers in fraction form.
a 5 2 b 2 5 c 20 1 d 10 3

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Indices

Stage 5.2 5 Simplify each expression.


20p 3 q 8
a (3mn 3) 2 b 8a 2w 2 3 5a 3w 7 c (4a 2b 5) 4 d
5p 2 q 6
 3 5 4  2
e 4 f 6c 2d 0 g 48u v h 3x
5 16uv 105 2
 4 2 6
2 7x y p
i (4n 2t) 3 j  k l
3 35x 5 y 3 9y
 3 a 2 b4 3 a 3
m (2p 3q 2) 5 n 1 o 2n 0 p
7n b5
6 Simplify each expression using a positive index.
a 8 7 b 3 5 c y 1 d x 3
e (5b) 2 f 5b 2 g (ab) 1 h ab 1
i 4t 8 j (11t) 3 k p 3q 5 i mw 3
1
m 8u 3v 4 n 2r 6y 5 o 10e 1f 3 p k 4 n 7
2
7 Simplify each expression.
 1  1  1  1
a 7 b 5 c 2 d 1
4 2 1 3 1 7
 1  1
r 1 6y 2
e f g h
8 10p z 5a
8 Write each expression using a negative index.
a 13 b 1 c 14 d 12
4 2 10 9
e 1 f 94 g 1 h 53
k k x7 p
9 Simplify each expression.
a q 5 3 q 2 b d 3 3 d 7 c m 6 4 m 5 d t 4 t 1
64p1
e 5g 3 3 6g 1 f 8a 2 3 3a 3 g 7x 2 3 4x h
16p 2
i 48q 4 3q 2 j 5t 3 k 2(b 1) 4 l (3h) 2
10t 1

NSW 5-07 Significant figures


Worksheet
A way of rounding a number is to give the most relevant or important digits of the number. For
Significant figures
example, a crowd of 47 321 people can be written as 47 000, which is rounded to the nearest
MAT09NAWK10059
thousand, or to two significant figures.

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The first significant figure in a number is the first non-zero digit. For example, the significant
figures are shown in bold in this table:

Number First significant digit Number of significant digits


47 321 4 5
47 000 4 2
0.000 159 2 1 4
0.000 2 2 1

When rounding to significant figures, start counting from the first digit that is not 0.
If it is a large number, you may need to insert 0s at the end as placeholders.
Zeros at the end of a whole number or at the beginning of a decimal are not significant: they
are necessary placeholders.
Zeros between significant figures or at the end of a decimal are significant. For example, the
significant figures are shown in bold in this table.

Number First significant digit Number of significant digits


809 000 8 3
0.020 70 2 4

Example 10
State the number of significant figures in each number.
a 63.70 b 0.003 05 c 7600

Solution
a The zero after 7 is significant.
[ 63.70 has four significant figures.
b The first significant figure is 3, and the zero between 3 and 5 is significant.
[ 0.003 05 has three significant figures.
c The zeros after 6 are not significant.
[ 7600 has two significant figures.

Example 11
Round each number to three significant figures.
The zeros here are not
a 56.357 b 9.249 c 548 307
significant, but they are
placeholders that are
Solution necessary for showing the
a 56.357  56.4 b 9.249  9.25 c 548 307  548 000 place values of the 5, 4 and 8.

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Indices

Example 12
Write each number correct to one significant figure.
a 0.007 39 b 0.025 c 0.963
The zeros at the beginning of
Solution a decimal are not significant:
a 0.007 39  0.007 b 0.025  0.03 c 0.963  1 they are placeholders.

Exercise 5-07 Significant figures


See Example 10 1 State the number of significant figures in each number.
a 457 b 0.23 c 15 000
d 4.0004 e 0.0005 f 5000
g 0.002 07 h 89 072 i 0.040
j 76 000 000 k 0.000 328 l 169.320
See Example 11 2 Round each number to three significant figures.
a 37.609 b 9435 c 168.39
d 2.813 e 15.99 f 60 522
g 1 769 000 h 385 764 i 10.2717
See Example 12 3 Write each number correct to two significant figures.
a 0.0637 b 0.903 c 0.084 55
d 0.000 158 e 0.007 625 f 0.038 71
g 0.2795 h 0.018 944 i 0.3145
4 What is 45 067 853 rounded to 3 significant figures? Select the correct answer A, B, C or D.
A 45 167 853 B 45 100 000 C 45 067 900 D 45 070 000
5 What is 0.005 605 0 rounded to 2 significant figures? Select the correct answer A, B, C or D.
A 0.01 B 0.010 000 0 C 0.0056 D 0.005 600 0
6 Round each number to one significant figure.
a 9.478 b 57.12 c 0.0367
d 0.007 66 e 0.5067 f 10 675
g 1856.78 h 0.000 28 i 56 239 400
7 A company makes a profit of $35 754 125.
a Round the profit to the nearest million and state the number of significant figures in the
answer.
b Round the profit to the nearest ten million and state the number of significant figures in
the answer.
8 Australias population in 2010 was 21 387 000. To how many significant figures has this
number been written?
9 A total of 21 558 people attended a local football match. Express this number to three
significant figures.

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10 Evaluate each expression, correct to the number of significant figures shown in the brackets.
a 45.6 3 8.7  2.75 3 78.32 (2) b 15.5  9.87 4 0.24 8.43 3 2.4 (1)

c (63.73  27.89) 4 5.82 (3) d 63:25 76:03 (4)


55:89  89:24
e 9:732 2:765 (1) f 78.91 4 (23.6 94.7) (2)
12:27 3 15:8
1 253 p
g (3) h 84:3 3 0:0715 (4)
0:941 0:0076

Just for the record Big numbers


The table below lists the names of some big numbers and their meanings.

Name Numeral
6
million 10 1 000 000
billion 10 9 1 000 000 000
trillion 10 12
quadrillion 10 15
quintillion 10 18
sextillion 10 21
septillion 10 24
octillion 10 27
nonillion 10 30
decillion 10 33

According to the Guinness Book of Records, the largest number for which there is an
accepted name is the centillion, first recorded in 1852. It is equal to 10 303. Worksheet
What special name for the number 10 100? Scientific notation 1

MAT09NAWK00012

Worksheet

Scientific notation 2
5-08 Scientific notation MAT09NAWK00019

Worksheet
Scientific notation is a short way of writing very large or very small numbers using powers of 10. It
Scientific notation
was invented in the early twentieth century when scientists needed to describe very large values,
puzzle
such as astronomical distances and very small values such as the masses of atoms.
MAT09NAWK10060

Technology worksheet

Excel worksheet:
Scientific notation
Shutterstock.com/valdis torms

MAT09NACT00019

Technology worksheet

Excel spreadsheet:
Scientific notation

MAT09NACT00004

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Indices

Summary
Numbers written in scientific notation are expressed in the form
m 3 10n

where m is a number between 1 and 10 and n is an integer.

Example 13
Video tutorial
Express each number in scientific notation.
Scientific notation

MAT09NAVT10011 a 764 000 000 000 b 6000 c 0.0008 d 0.000 000 472

Solution
a Use the significant figures in the number to write a value between 1 and 10: 7.64
Count how many places the decimal point moves to the right to make 764 000 000 000.
11 places
or count the number of
places after the first significant
figure, 7
764 000 000 000

[ 764 000 000 000 7.64 3 10 11


b Use the significant figures in the number to write a value between 1 and 10: 6
Count how many places the decimal point moves to the right to make 6000.
3 places
or count the number of
place after the first significant
figure, 6
6000

[ 6000 6 3 10 3
c Use the significant figures in the number to write a value between 1 and 10: 8
Count how many places the decimal point moves to the left to make 0.0008.
4 places
or count the number of
decimal places to the first
significant figure, 8
0.0008

[ 0.0008 8 3 10 4
Note that small numbers are written with negative powers of 10.
d Use the significant figures in the number to write a value between 1 and 10: 4.72
Count the number of places the decimal point moves to the left to make 0.000 000 472.
7 places
or count the number of
decimal places to the first
significant figure, 4
0.000 000 472

0.000 000 472 4.72 3 10 7

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Example 14
Express each number in decimal form.
a 2.7 3 10 4 b 3.56 3 10 2

Solution
a 2.7 10 4 = 2.7000 Move the decimal point 4 places to the right.
= 27000

b 3.56 10 2 = 0.0356 Move the decimal point 2 places to the left.


= 0.0356

Example 15
a Which number is the larger: 3.65 3 10 12 or 8.1 3 10 12?
b Write these numbers in ascending order: 4.3 3 10 6, 2.8 3 10 7, 1.9 3 10 7

Solution
To compare numbers in scientific notation, first compare the powers of ten.
If the powers of ten are the same, then compare the decimal parts.
a The powers of ten are the same. Compare the decimal parts: 8.1 > 3.65.
[ The larger number is 8.1 3 10 12
b Compare the powers of ten: 10 6 < 10 7.
Then compare the two numbers with 10 7: 1.9 < 2.8.
[ The numbers in ascending order are 4.3 3 10 6, 1.9 3 10 7, 2.8 3 10 7.

Exercise 5-08 Scientific notation


1 Express each number in scientific notation. See Example 13
a 2400 b 786 000 c 55 000 000 d 95
e 7.8 f 348 000 000 g 59 670 h 15
i 3 000 000 000 j 80 k 763 l 10
m 0.035 n 0.000 076 o 0.8 p 0.0713
q 0.000 003 r 0.913 s 0.000 007 146 t 0.009
u 0.000 000 1 v 0.000 89 w 0.000 000 078 x 0.1
2 Express each measurement in scientific notation.
a The worlds largest mammal is the blue whale,
which can weigh up to 130 000 kg.
b The diameter of an oxygen molecule is
0.000 000 29 cm.
Corbis/ Denis Scott

c The thickness of a human hair is 0.000 08 m.


d Light travels at a speed of 300 000 000 m/s.

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Indices

e The nearest star to Earth, excluding the Sun, is Alpha Centauri, which is
40 000 000 000 000 km away.
f The thickness of a typical piece of paper is 0.000 12 m.
g The small intestine of an adult is approximately 610 cm long.
h The diameter of a hydrogen atom is 0.000 000 0001 m.
i The diameter of our galaxy, the Milky Way, is 770 000 000 000 000 000 000 m.
j A microsecond means 0.000 001 s.
k The Andromeda Galaxy is the most remote body visible to the naked eye, at a distance
of 2 200 000 light years away.

Science photo Library/Robert Gendler


See Example 14 3 Express each number in decimal form.
a 6 3 10 5 b 7.1 3 10 3 c 3.02 3 10 8
d 3.14 3 10 0 e 6 3 10 5 f 7.1 3 10 3
g 3.02 3 10 8
h 5.9 3 10 10 i 1.1 3 10 12
j 4 3 10 4
k 5 3 10 3 l 4.76 3 10 4
m 8.03 3 10 1
n 6.32 3 10 4 o 1.6 3 10 2
p 2.2 3 10 7 q 9.0 3 10 6 r 1.11 3 10 1
See Example 15 4 For each pair of numbers, write the larger one.
a 3 3 10 5 or 4 3 10 5 b 8.4 3 10 5 or 2.7 3 10 6
c 8.4 3 10 0 or 1.3 3 10 7 d 3.6 3 10 7 or 6.3 3 10 7
e 9.3 3 10 9 or 7.6 3 10 9 f 3.5 3 10 6 or 9.3 3 10 2
g 3.04 3 10 0 or 3.04 3 10 4 h 4.5 3 10 5 or 3.7 3 10 7
i 2 3 10 15 or 2 3 10 17 j 6.23 3 10 5 or 9.7 3 10 5
5 Write each set of numbers in ascending order.
a 3.8 3 10 9, 7.3 3 10 9, 5.5 3 10 9
b 2.2 3 10 4, 5.8 3 10 6, 7 3 10 4
c 3.5 3 10 0, 5.3 3 10 2, 4.9 3 10 2
6 Write each set of numbers in descending order.
a 6 3 10 5, 2.9 3 10 2, 1 3 10 2
b 1.2 3 10 9, 6.3 3 10 2, 8.1 3 10 4
c 4.1 3 10 1, 9.5 3 10 1, 6.4 3 10 3

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Worksheet
5-09 Scientific notation on a calculator Scientific notation
problems

To enter a number in scientific notation on a calculator, use the or key. MAT09NAWK10061

Homework sheet
Example 16 Indices 3

MAT09NAHS10007
Evaluate each expression using scientific notation.
Homework sheet
a (4.25 3 10 7) 3 (8.2 3 10 6) Note that with scientific
b (1.08 3 10 15) 4 (3 3 10 11) notation on a calculator, there Indices revision

c (4.9 3 10 7) 2 is no need to enter brackets MAT09NAHS10008


( ) around the
Puzzle sheet
Solution numbers.
Scientific notation:
a Enter 4.25 7 8.2 6 = (4.25 3 10 7) 3 (8.2 3 10 6) 3.485 3 10 14 accomplishing great
things
b Enter 1.08 15 3 11 = (1.08 3 10 15) 4 (3 3 10 11) 3.6 3 10 27 MAT09NAPS00005

c Enter 4.9 7 = (4.9 3 10 7) 2 2.401 3 10 15

Example 17
Estimate the value of each expression in scientific notation, then evaluate it correct to three
significant figures.
9
a 9:2 3 105 b 8:5 3 104 3 6:3 3 107 c 6:08 3 103 2
2:7 3 10

Solution
Estimate Calculated answer
9:2 3 109 9 3 109 9:2 3 109
a  34 074:074 07
2:7 3 105 3 3 105 2:7 3 105
9 109  34 000
3 5
3 10 3:4 3 104
3 3 104

b 8:5 3 104 3 6:3 3 107  9 3 104 3 6 3 107 8:5 3 104 3 6:3 3 107
9 3 6 3 104 3 107 5:355 3 1012
54 3 1011  5:36 3 1012
5:4 3 10 3 1011
5:4 3 1012

c 6:08 3 105 3  6 3 105 3 6:08 3 105 3 2:24755 . . . 3 1017


63 3 105 3  2:25 3 1017
216 3 1015
2:16 3 102 3 1015
2:16 3 1017

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Indices

Exercise 5-09 Scientific notation on a calculator


See Example 16 1 Evaluate each expression using scientific notation.
a (2 3 10 3) 3 (3 3 10 5) b (8 3 10 7) 4 (4 3 10 2) c (2 3 10 5) 3
p
d 9 3 1012 e (4 3 10 7) 3 (6 3 10 8) f (1 3 10 8) 4 (2 3 10 3)
p
g (4 3 10 3) 5 h 24.08 4 (8 3 10 6) i 3:969 3 1019
p
9
j (2 3 10 5) 2 k 3 8 3 109 l 7:62 3 10 4
2 3 10
See Example 17 2 Estimate the value of each expression in scientific notation, then evaluate correct to three
significant figures.
a (5.7 3 10 3) 3 (2.3 3 10 5) b (8 3 10 5) 3 (3.7 3 10 7)
c (9.1 3 10 20) 4 (3.2 3 10 5) d (1.2 3 10 8) 2
10 8
e (7.13 3 10 ) 3 (9.8 3 10 ) f (1.9 3 10 11) 4 (2.1 3 10 7)
4 3
g (5.85 3 10 ) h (6 3 10 12) 4 (2.8 3 10 3)
Worked solutions 3 The human body consists of approximately 6 3 10 9 cells, and each cell consists of 6.3 3 10 9
Scientific notation on a
atoms. Roughly how many atoms are there in a human body?
calculator

MAT09NAWS10028

Science Photo Library/PR. J. Bernard/CNRI

4 A telephone book 4.5 cm thick has 2000 pages. Find the thickness of one page, in millimetres
in scientific notation.
5 Evaluate each expression in scientific notation, correct to two significant figures.
p
a (7.4 3 10 30)  (3.59 3 10 29) b (1.076 3 10 17) (2.3 3 10 16) c 6:6 3 1027
p
d (7.5 3 10 23) 4 (3.3 3 10 13) e (8.17 3 10 16) 3 f 2:69 3 1045
4 5
5:6 3 10 3 3:9 3 10
g (7.05 3 10 3) 4 (3.9 3 10 7) h i 1595 3 1959
2:3 3 107
j 5 20 k 801 1 l 3 10
m 99 n (0.7) 5
Express the answers for questions 6 to 10 in scientific notation correct to two significant figures if
necessary.
6 The Earth is 1.50 3 10 8 km from the Sun and the speed of light is 3 3 10 5 km/s. How long
does it take for light to travel from the Sun to Earth? Express your answer in:
a seconds b minutes.
7 The Sun burns 6 million tonnes of hydrogen a second. Calculate how many tonnes of
hydrogen it burns in a year (that is, 365.25 days).

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8 Sound travels at approximately 330 metres per second. If Mach 1 is the speed of sound, how
fast is Mach 5? Convert your answer to kilometres per second.
9 The distance light travels in one year is called a light year. If the speed of light is approximately
3 3 10 5 km per second, how far does light travel in a leap year?
10 A thunderstorm is occurring 30 km from where you are standing. Use the speed of light
(3 3 10 5 km per second) and the speed of sound (330 metres per second) to calculate in
seconds:

iStockphoto/clintspencer
a how long the light from the lightning takes to reach you
b how long the sound from the thunder takes to reach you.
11 a What is the largest number that can be displayed on your calculator?
b What is the smallest number that can be displayed?

Investigation: A lifetime of heartbeats


How many times does your heart beat in an average lifetime of 80 years?
1 Work in pairs and copy this table.
Name Trial 1 Trial 2 Average beats per minute

2 Use two fingers to measure your pulse. Have your partner time you for a minute. Do this
twice, record your results in the table and find the average.
3 Repeat Step 2 for your partner.
4 Calculate how many times your heart (and your partners heart) beats in the following
periods. Write your answers in scientific notation correct to two significant figures.
a an hour b a day c a week
d a year (use 365.25 days) e an average lifetime of 80 years

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Indices

Just for the record Hairy numbers

Shutterstock.com/Jason Stitt
Shutterstock.com/StockLite
Shutterstock.com/withGod

Straight hair Wavy hair Curly hair


round follicle oval follicle flat follicle
There are about 110 000 hairs on your head. Each hair grows at the rate of about 1.3 3 10 3 cm
per hour. A single hair lasts about six years. Every day you lose between 30 and 60 hairs.
Each hair grows from a small depression in the skin called a follicle (a gland). After the
hair falls out, the follicle rests for about three to four months before the next hair starts
growing. Hair follicles are either oval, flat or round in shape. How straight, wavy or curly
your hair is depends on the shape of your hair follicles.
How many hairs are on all the heads in China if its population is approximately 1.435 3 10 9?
Answer in both scientific notation and decimal notation.

Power plus
Worksheet
1 If u 2, v 4 and w 5, evaluate each expression.
b u 3 Power plus
Binary number system
3
a 5w 2 c vu d (wu) 3
MAT09NAWK10058  1  2
e 2v f w g u 0(vw) 2 h (uvw) 2
w2 u
2 Simplify each expression.
a 5a 3 5a b 4x 4 4x c 2 y1 3 2 y 1 d 10b3 4 10b
e (3 p) 3 f (3 3) p g 8 n 3 (8 n) 2 h 6t 3 4 6t
q3q
i p3pp3p j n3nn3nn3n k
qq
3 Write each number in scientific notation.
a 438.2 3 10 9 b 0.52 3 10 7 c 0.0004 3 10 12
d 2013 3 10 3 e 57.8 thousand f 57.8 thousandths
g 6.7 millionths h 3.2 billion i 3.2 billionths
4 For how many values of a and b does a b b a?
5 The terms in the pattern 3, 5, 17, 257, 65 537, can all be generated by a simple
method, using only the numbers 1 and 2.
a What is this method?
b What is the next number in the sequence?

202 9780170193047
Chapter 5 review

n Language of maths Puzzle sheet

Indices crossword
ascending base descending estimate MAT09NAPS10062
expanded form exponent index index laws
Quiz
index notation indices negative power placeholder
Numbers and indices
product power quotient reciprocal
MAT09NAQZ00002
significant figures scientific notation term zero power
1 What does a power of zero mean?
2 Which two words from the list mean power?
3 What is the or key on a calculator used for?
4 What is the index law for dividing terms with the same base?
5 Which digits in 0.006 701 are significant figures?
6 What power is associated with the reciprocal of a term or number?
7 What type of numbers when written in scientific notation have negative powers of 10?

n Topic overview
What was this topic about? What was the main theme?
What content was new and what was revision?
What are the index laws?
Write 10 questions (with solutions) that could be used in a test for this chapter.
Include some questions that you have found difficult to answer.
List the sections of work in this chapter that you did not understand. Follow up this work with
a friend or your teacher.
Copy and complete this mind map of the topic, adding detail to its branches and using pictures,
symbols and colour where needed. Ask your teacher to check your work. Worksheet

Multiplying and Mind map: Indices


Power of
dividing terms MAT09NAWK10063
a power
with the same base

Powers of
Scientific Index or products
INDICES
notation power and quotients
Base

Zero and
Significant
negative
figures
indices

9780170193047 203
Chapter 5 revision

See Exercise 5-01 1 Simplify each expression, writing the answer in index notation.
a 10 3 3 10 7 b 4 20 4 4 4 c a 12 4 a 2 d h8 3 h2
e 3n 3 3 4n f 10d 15 4 5d 3 g 20m 9 4 4m h 3v 4w 2 3 2v 3w 5
8 8 p 6 q 10 2 4
i 5x 5y 2 3 3xy j 24t4 h2 k 2 2
l 100a 2b
3t h p q 5ab
See Exercise 5-02 2 Simplify each expression, writing the answer in index notation.
a (2 2) 3 b (k 5) 5 c (x) 4
d (2y 3) 10 e (5t 2) 2 f (10g) 3
g 25 h 2k 5 i 5m 3 2
See Exercise 5-03 3 Simplify each expression.
a (ab 2) 4 b (5x 3y 2) 2 c (4t 2) 3 d (4h 2g) 3
 4  5
e a f (2pqr) 5 g 3m h (3np 2) 4
7 2
   8 6 3
7 4 b y
i 2a j (4t 4u 5) 3 3 8t 2u k l 45c 6d 8 4 (3cd 2) 2
b 8b 2 y
See Exercise 5-04 4 Simplify each expression.
a 70 b (7) 0 c e0
d (e) 0 e e 0 f g 0h
 0
2p 2p0
g (gh) 0 h i
3 3
See Exercise 5-05 5 Simplify each expression using a positive index.

Stage 5.2
a 8 3 b 19 2 c x 1 d p 5
See Exercise 5-05 6 Simplify each expression using a positive index.
a (4m) 1 b (4m) 2 c (5b) 1 d 5b 1
 1  1
e 2x4 f 3 g c 4d 2 h 100
5a 9
See Exercise 5-05 7 Write each expression using a negative index.
a 13 b 15 c 1 d 3
10 r r b
See Exercise 5-06 8 Simplify each expression.
a 96u 5 t 8 4 24ut 4 b (5ab) 2 c 4hd 3 3 5h 3d 6
d e 5 3 e 3 (e 2) 3 e (r 3) 4 4 r 2 f (pn 2) 3 4 (pn 3) 2

g a 8b 3c h 60n 8m
4 3 4 3
i 144t 9u 4v
4
a b c3 2 12n m 16u v
See Exercise 5-07 9 Round each value correct to the number of significant figures shown in the brackets.
a 8.5678 (2) b 15 712 (3) c 476 (1)
d 0.007 126 6 (4) e 0.9041 (3) f 301 378 (2)
g 4805.28 (3) h 0.000 87 (1) i 67 000 000 (1)

204 9780170193047
Chapter 5 revision

10 Express each number in scientific notation. See Exercise 5-08

a 37 000 b 0.61 c 250 000


d 0.000 49 e 13 f 0.000 000 000 08
11 Express each number in decimal form. See Exercise 5-08

a 8.1 3 10 3 b 6 3 10 7 c 3.075 3 10 0
d 8.1 3 10 3 e 6 3 10 7 f 3.075 3 10 2
12 Write these numbers in ascending order: 3 3 10 3, 9.1 3 10 8, 2.4 3 10 3. See Exercise 5-08

13 Evaluate each expression using scientific notation. See Exercise 5-09


22 8 10 4
a (3.65 3 10 ) 3 (7.4 3 10 ) b (1.44 3 10 ) 4 (3.6 3 10 )
p
c (5 3 10 5) 3 d 6:25 3 108
14 Estimate the value of each expression in scientific notation, then evaluate correct to two See Exercise 5-09
significant figures.
a (8.9 3 10 9) 3 (1.1 3 10 7) b (9.3 3 10 15) 3 (4 3 10 2) c (3.1 3 10 4) 2

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