April 13,1998 The Nat,inn.

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ARTICLES

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The Biotec,. I

Human l i f e s’ht

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n little more than a generation, our definition of life and the sensational headlines and captured the public imagination, many
meaning of existence is likely to be radically altered. Long-held forces are quietly converging to create this powerful new social
assumptions about nature, including our own human nature, current.At the epicenter is a technology revolution unmatched in
are likely to be rethought. Many age-old practices regarding all of history in its power to remake ourselves, our institutions
sexuality, reproduction, birth and parenthood could be partially and our world: Scientists are beginning to reorganize life at the
abandoned. Ideas about equality and democracy are also likely to genetic level. The new biotechnologies are already reshaping a
be redefined, as well as our vision of what is meant by terms such wide range of fields, including forestry, agriculture, animal hus-
as “free will” and “progress.” Our very sense of self and society bandry, mining, energy, bioremediation, packaging and construc-
will likely change during what I call the emerging Biotech tion materials, pharmaceuticals, medicine, and food and drink.
Century, as it did when the early Renaissance spirit swept over Before our eyes lies an uncharted new landscape whose con-
medieval Europe more than 600 years ago. tours are being shaped in thousandsof biotechnology laboratories
Although Dolly the sheep and talk of cloning have gathered around the world.

for use in the bioindustrial age.dium to manage the genetic information that SmitbKline Beecham. new forms of com- raw resource for future economic activity. development and marketing in biotech-based technologies rative efforts by saying. The new ideas about of technological and social nature provide the legitimiz- forces come together to create The economic and political forces that contyol ing framework for the Bio- a new “operating matrix. April 13. ing and surgery. mergers we are deciphering and trying to decide to change.” I tech Century by suggesting see seven strands composing * the planet’s genetic resources will exercise that the way we are reorgan- the operating matrix of the tremendous power over the world economx . researchers john. the Biotech Century brings with it a newcresource making the gene pool available. as well as the life patents. Computationaltechnologies and santo Corporation. of nature compatible with the operating assumptions of the new Great economic changes in history occur when a number technologies and the new global economy. manipulate the new green gold resides in scientific laboratories Q Sixth. Life-science fields ranging from agriculture to world economy. biotech the imminent prospect of genetic engineering of human eggs. companies to locate. plants. theories of evolution are beginning to remake the world. Q Third.12 The Nation. organs and organisms.1998 Global life-sciencecompanies like Novartis. including DNA chips. The Biotech tropical ecosystems of the South. to genetic technologies are fusinginto a powerful new technological sell off its entire chemical division in 1997 and anchor its re. just as the industrial age access to’and con- medicine are being consolidated under the umbrella of giant trol over fossil fuels and valuable metals helped determine “life” companies in the emerging biotech marketplace. Eli Lilly. not if. reality. in turn. Transnationalcompanies argue Century: Harnessing the Gene and Remaking the World (Tarcher/ that patent protection is essential if they are to risk financial re- Putnam). for the first time. izing our economy and so- Biotech Century. identify and recombine genes is In short. Multinational corporations are al- 0 Fourth. hoping to locate microbes. that make up the human genome and new breakthroughs in ge.new cosmological narrative. biotechnologies. C. most of the genetic re- sources that are essential to fuel the new revolution lie in the This article is adapted froin Jeremy Rijkin’s new book. a new communicationstool to or- for specific economic ends. ciety are amplifications of they create a framework for a new economic era: nature’s own principles a&. creating a new store of genetic capital commerce.” the twenty-first century-computer telecommunications. genes. as the primary base. are using computersto decipher. and bio- and products. While the technological expertise needed to acceptance of new biotechnologies. computers and revised mercial incentive to exploit the new resources. however. animals and humans with rare genetic traits that might have fu- netic screening. Together. Up. D. Du Pont. Rohm and Haas. companies are modifying them and then seeking patent protec- sperm and embryonic cells. After locating the desired traits. is giving the marketplace the com. It’s all a and acquisitions going on in the other great technology arenas of question of how. ganize and manage economic activity at the genetic level and a 0 Second. organizational me. Merck and Dow Chemical.catalogue and organ- ing to exert their influence and control over the new genetic ize genetic information. 0 Seventh. a spate of new scientific studies on the genetic basis zations and countries in the Southern Hemisphere. justifiable. enter. therefore. All over the world. meeting with strong resistance from nongovernmental organi- 0 Fifth. human gene screen- processes used to alter them.the new cultural currents. somatic gene therapy and ture market potential. long a world leader in chemical products. argue . The consolidation of the life-science industry by logical information is probably the most interesting information global commercial enterprises rivals the consolidations. ark quickly maneuver. which are of human behavior and the new sociobiology that favors nature beginning to demand an equitable sharing of the fruits of the over nurture are providing a cultural context for the widespread biotech revolution.A global life-science industry is already beginning nomic and political forces that control the genetic resources to wield unprecedented power over the vast biological resources of the planet will exercise tremendous power over the future of the planet. an artificially produced bioindustrial nature designed to replace nature’s own evolution. Southern countries. the ability to isolate. manipulate and exploit genetic resources a new supporting sociology.” alteration of the human species and the birth of a commercially Corporate effortsto enclose and commodifythe gene pool are driven eugenics civilization. Rijlcin is president of the Foundation on Economic Treads sources and years of research and development bringing new and in Washington. the awarding of patents on genes. Recombinant DNA mercial protection. cell lines. are paving the way for the wholesale tion for their new “inventions. the global life-science industry. 0 First.000 genes ready scouting the continents. ically engineered tissue. a global trading market to reseed the earth techniques and other biotechnologies allow scientistsand biotech with an artificial Second Genesis. useful products to market. enes are the “green gold” of the Biotech Century. download. Glmo Wellcome. the computer is providing the communications and and corporate boardrooms in the North. Together. genet. the mapping of the approximately 100. control over world markets. the globalization of commerce and trade make pos- sible the wholesale reseeding of the Earth’s biosphere with a Human Life as Intellectual Property laboratory-conceived Second Genesis. “This is the information age. Microsoft chainnan Bill Gates sums up the new collabo- search. an emerging eugenics science. Typical of the trend is the bold decision by the Mon. a new cosmological narrative about evolution is tainment and informationservices-although much less attention beginning to challenge the neo-Darwinian citadel with a view has been focused on it in the media and public policy. The eco- ary scheme. a new set of transformingtechnologies. makes up the biotech economy.

as well from their biological inheritance in the global marketplace: as some countries. When the effort headed by Dr.I. a group of SouthPacific island Sforza defends the research. price-that it should remain an open commons and continue and our place in it. that might confer the genetic advantage in hopes of finding a new ganization. ideal setthg for gene prospecting. The GUaymi formal agreements between collaboratingparties. may have that might prove important and useful in the future.S. For example. April 13. It’s arguing that the gene pool ought not to be for sale at any fundamentally immoral. either as a result States quietly dropped the patent claim in 1996. president of the congress.000 linguistically distinct populations in order to assess their sion for considerations relating to the sources of the cells that genetic makeup and search for any unique genetic traits they may be the subject of a patent application.H. villagers and peasant farniers who isolate. cell-lines. a large group of people appear to be immune The concerns of critics came alive in 1993.L. profes- event that there is some gene that becomes commercially valuable. U. is consideredto be an from the Human Genome Diversity Project may make such no. sor of molecular biophysics at the Indian Institute of Science in the people who donated it-not the individual. as well as those of many other countries.Luca Cavalli-Sforza.Angry at the U. government filedtwo biotech companies biopros.S. of the extinction of these populations or through their melding T into the general population. “Name any genetic disorder tions . C. .S.H. are beginning to take a third position. could some form of compensation for their contribution to the biotech so wantonly violate the genetic privacy of his tribe and that the revolution.H. in West Bengal. and international patents on a virus derived from the cell In January 1996the Indian Society of Human Genetics issued line of a 26-year-old Guaymi Indian woman from Panama. government had sought both form of treatment for the disease. The public protest forced the U. I never imagined people would patent plants and animals.” The action came in the wake . discovered that the U. without advising the Guaymi of its intentions. That being the case. skeletal and fossil material” pending sample fkom the woman and developed the cell line. a population government of the Solomon Islands issued a protest.” ever-present threat.S. enhance and preserve Isidro Acosta. cell line was of particular interest to N. DNA.G. Scientists are now searching for the gene or genes Advancement Foundation International.A.He suggests.S. The 1. saying it is important to seek out whatever remaining ge. action. government. Cavalli-Sforza says that while his he Indian government has also expressed its deep misgivings personal view is that there should be no patents on DNA.. patent application. where cholera is an should somehow share in the advantages. The controversy over patenting genes from in- gency of late with increasing reports of scientific institutions as digenous peoples flared again. To patent human material . An Alaska businessmanfound that his own additional patent claims inthe pecting the human genome United States and Europe for itself in remote regions of the body parts had been patented by U.impractical. both at present and in the future. making it surprisesyy that could be a boon to humankind in its search for the first human cell line from an indigenous population to be new ways to improve the genetic makeup of the race. by the Guaymi General Congress in Panama waged a public protest. a nongovernmental or. . researchers because hade it clear that any such agreement should specify “the ob- members of this remote Indian community carry a unique virus jectives of the project and the anticipated scientific material that stimulates the production of antibodies that scientists ’ believe imd economic benefits and the manner that they are to be shared might be useful in A I D S and leukemia research.” The United netic variety exists before it’s irretrievably lost. several months later when well as pharmaceutical and the U. a set of guidelines calling for a ban on the transport of %hole searcher from the National Institutes of Health had taken a blood blood. then- geneticist and professor emeritus at Stanford University.that violates the integrity of life precedent in the recent historic decision by the nations of the itself-and our deepest sense of morality. Luigi . com- mons free of commercial exploitation.14 The Nation. contrary to the G u a m view of nature.S.1998 that the real research and development effort takes place years Upon learning about the patent application. could then seek to patent a genetic trait of the Guaymi and profit A growing number of nongovernmental organizations.” says Samir Brahmachari. with its that the commercial value of the genetic information emerging diverse cultures and inbred populations. dubbed the “vampireproject” by its nations prepared a joint proposal and communiqu6 that would critics. representativesof before the scientists ever seteyes on the organism and gene. government to withdraw its The debate over life patents has taken on even greater ur.. a scientific Papua New Guinea. and cell lines taken from citizens world. world to maintain ihe continent of Antarctica as a global. therefore. when the Rural to the disease. said at the time that he valuable herbs and plant crops. that “in the unlikely and we have the mutations. he felt about research efforts to secure blood sambles. but the group. Cavalli. make their sovereign space a “patent-free zone. patented.. U.S. has Secretary of Commerce Ron Brown responded curtly: been the subject of increasing controversy since it became public Under our laws. Project sponsors hope that by sampling the genomes of the In March’1995. however. they will find some “genetic to the Department of Health and Human Services.to take human to be used freely by present and future generations. India. they claim was shocked that an august scientific body like the N. They cite ’ DNA and patent its products. subject that the group planned to take blood samples from the world‘s matter relating to human cells is patentable and there is no provi- 5. the U..S. Bangalore. The Hum& Genome a court ruled that he had no pyoperty n‘ghts! of the Solomon Islands and Diversity Project. Patent Office issued a patent for few groups of indigenous peoples that have remained isolated the Papua New Guinea Human T-lymphotrophic virus (HTLV-I) from the rest of the outside world. A re.I.

diagnosed as having a rare cancer and underwent treatment at lion research agreement with Gene Medicine.-based genomic propertyright over his own tissue. are purchasing equity holdings in and establishingresearch Others aren’t so sure. The top ten a scientific expedition led by Dr. Moore had been on atherosclerosis. Corange Internationalmade a $100 mil. from the N. a company doing genomic research to the Sandoz Pharmaceutical Corporation. Several of the largest life-sciencecompanies are strategi- forty square miles in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean often re- ferred to as the world’s loneliest island. GIaxo Wellcome has a five-year agreement with Se. National Institutes of Health was il- 1 Bio-takeovers legally securing DNA and blood samples from patients at private eye hospitals in India without obtaining the appropriate author- ization required to take samples out of the countryeKesearchers lobal conglomeratesare rapidly buying up biotech start- up companies. as well as entered into spleen tissue and obtained a patent on its “inventiony’in 1984. California.000 businessman named John Moore found his own body parts had genes. holding that he had no property right over his own body tissues. to the tiny volcanic island of Tristan da Cunha. who spoke Bayer. pharmaceutical. Meanwhile.H. been patented. However. as Indian law forbids the export of world Global pharmaceutical companies spent more than biological material without permission from the I. Be.” said one ge- agreements with many of the human genomic companies. The Indian businesses. quana and other genomics firmsmaintain that market incentives Du Pont and AgrEvo. Sandoz purchased Genetic Therapy company has refused to share its findings with other researchers for $295 million.A. Human body parts.S. The acquisition guaranteedNovartis a acknowledge that they’re in business to exploitthe human genome foothold in the fledgling science of human gene therapy. a U. second-largest land’s 300 residents and later reported that it had located two seed company and second-largest pharmacebtical firm. Pharmacia and genomes are being patented by commercial companies in the Upjohn have invested in Incyte.7 million cancer agents. a U. relationships with Myriad. creating life. Scientists enterprises-the pharmaceutical company Sandoz and the hope to find the gene or genes responsible and patent them. thus far the fore the merger.S. peutics of La Jolla. SmithKline Beecham has made a $125 million research Moore subsequentlysued the University of California. $3. Novartis is ’ Company scientists took blood samples from 270 of the is- the world’s largest agrochemical company. a US. Novartis. Its few hundred residents cally positioned to control much of the global bioindustrial are the descendants of British sailors who arrived in 1817. a giant new global makes this small inbred local population interesting to Zamel firm resulting from the $27 billion merger of two Swiss and his team is that half of them suffer from asthma. ~ world’s top ten pharmaceutical firms control 47 percent of The “genomics” firms are on the commercial frontier of the the $197 billion pharmaceutical market. For their part. by way of a South African Navy ship. “candidate genes” responsible for asthma. Genetic Therapy held license on a broad in the field. medical ahd health that cause retinitis pigmentosa. What market in the coming century.C. Ten firms control emerging biotech revolution.S. seed companies. including the Monsanto Corporation.S. In April 1997 the LosAngeles Times reported on The concentration of power is impressive. “The issue is a nightmare.5 National Eye Institute were searching for genes chemical concerns. the court argued. In 1990 the California Supreme firm. covered that Moore’s spleen tissue produced a blood protein that quana Therapeutics to advance gene work on obesity and facilitates the growth of white blood cells that are valuable anti- diabetes.6 billion the t seems there is no place on earth too remote for the gene same year on licensing arrangementswith them. The cell line is estimated to be worth more than $3 billion. Toppingthe life-science list are ten transnatio@ food and drink companies.H. giving rise to charges that it is putting commercial patent covering the technique for removing cells fiom a pa. considerations above collaborative efforts to find a cure for tient. f i i whose database is United States.L. pharmaceutical giants are the best and most efficient way to advance the research. in 1995. Council of Medical Research said it should have been notified science complexes from which to fashion a bioindustrial of the research in advance. April 13.I. whose sales exceeded $211billion in 1995. neticist working for a large pharmaceutical company. The new biotech start-up companies dedicated to gene prospecting.G. Ten life-science companies con. commercially and could not hope to turn a profit if they couldn’t Other global life-science firms are close on the heels of keep their research proprietary-at least until it’s patented. Court ruled against Moore. and financed by Sequana Thera- global agrochemical market. I 43 percent of the $15 billion veterinary pharmaceuticalsmar. and licensed nium pharmaceuticals.L. a University of agrochemical companies control 81 percent ofthe $29 billion Toronto medical geneticist. Novartis and Eli Lilly have developed commercial off the record to Nature magazine’s editor. genomic U. genomics companies like Sequana to the patient’s body. claiming a agreement with Human Genomics. and food and drink companies. by U. hunters to go. Eli Lilly has entered into an agreement with Millen. Sequana is one of a handful of trol 37 percent of the $15 billion global seed market. modifying their genetic makeup and returning them the disease. Noe Zamel. Synthelabo of France has bought a $9.16 The Nation. and in addition I to outright acquisition spent approximately$1. Pfizer. J.-based genomic company Foreign nationals aren’t the only ones whose cell lines and that discovered a breast cancer gene.R. . a $69 million research agreement with the genomic firm. an Alaska supposed to contain the partial sequences for nearly 100. Se- Novartis. agribusiness and agro.C. The university created a cell line from Moore’s equity investment in Genset of France. without his knowledge.5 billion in 1995buying up biotech firms. or night blindness. a strip of ’ 1 ket. In a precedent-setting case in California. a U.1998 of revelations that the US.A. An attending physician and university researcher dis- firm. agrochemical company Ciba-Geigy-is typical. Dow Elanco. The Sequana team traveled.

were stunned by the Patent Office’s decision.L. The patent gives the firm the way our children are raised and educated.C. The company made no change in the blood itself. The last great debate of this kind occurred in the nineteenth A similarlybroad patent was awarded to a U. that reason alone. to retain and exploit the of global pharmaceutical. California. the majority’s holding simply bars lunacy. with abolitionists argu- of Palo Alto. 1998 could not be bartered as a commodity in the marketplace. Dr.A.for more than $70 million. from obtaining the benefit of ly 100. while not the property of Moore. Craig Venter. Abril13. As soon as a gene is tagged. Venter and his colleagues filed applications claimed as the property of U. of our beliefs about the very nature of life and whether it is Still. over the issue of human slavery. making them the exclusive property cells from plaintiff by improper means. cord to any individual or institution unwilling to pay the patent fee. and then wins a Pulitzer Prize. Leukemia Society ofAmerica. could justifiably be At the same time. to a U. It should be emphasizedthat this patent was awarded simply he debate over life patents is one of the most important issues because Biocyte was able to isolate the blood cells and deep. that make up the human genome. part of the human body. Far from elevating these biological ma- the Human GenomeProject. does he around the world are coalescinginto a new and powerfid counter- give the family a percentage of his winnings?’ vailing force to the growing genetic commerce that trades in the The entrepreneurial scramble to patent the genome of the blueprints of life. farmers. but permits defendants. the ownership of all human blood cells that have come from the um. consumer Sinai Hospital ofToronto asks rhetorically. and legally sanctioned slavery was abolishedin every cal establishment. Blood cells firom the umbilical cord are particularly important The Backlash for marrow transplants. health advocates and socialjustice organizations an article on a family. quipped. even in the medi. it’s likely that within less than ten years. ever to fzce the human family.” Still. Patent Office. Systemix. agribusiness and biotech full economic value of their ill-gotten gains free of. past several years. arguing that life is imbued On the other hand. prevailed.S. company named Biocyte. The increasing consolidation of corporate control over the T he extraordinary implications of privatizing the human genetic blueprints of life as well as the technologies to exploit body-parceling it out in the form of intellectual property to them is alarming.S: taxpayers. the near- pluirztzfi the source of the cells. had breached their fiduciary responsibilityand then head of the N.S. covering all ing that every human being has intrinsic value and “God-given human bone-marrow stem cells. the signed his government post to head up a genomics company court upheld the primary claim of the university that the cell funded by a venture capital fund. re- might be liable for some kind of monetary damage. the way we have our babies. line itself. firm. especially when we stop to consider that the commercial institutions-are illustrated quite poignantly in biotech revolution will affect every aspect of our lives.S. “Where do you draw the a new generation of genetic activists is beginning to challenge line? Can you patent a hand?. charging Venter with attempting to profit from re- search initially paid for by U. Feminists. for knowing the function or role of the gene. human family has picked up substantial momentum over the In May 1995 a‘coalition of more than 200 religious leaders.. A number of scien- the majority’s rejection of plaintiff‘s conversion cause of action tists were upset because Venter sought patents on genes before does not mean that body parts may not be bought and sold for research or commercial purpose or that no private individual or even knowing their function. the court did say that the “inventors” had a responsibilityto its “discoverer” is likely to apply for a patent. life-science conglomerates and traded as mere utilities in the Arnold Slutsky of the Samuel Lunenfield Institute of the Mount marketplace. in large part because of the quickened pace including the titular heads of virtually every major Protestant de- of mapping and sequencing the approximately 100. the way we express our faith.the way we work. entity may benefit economically from the fortuitous value of co-discoverer of the DNA double helix and the former head of plaintiff’s diseased cells. How.liability. the very concept of patenting life. The irony of the decision seeking patents on more than 2. In 1991J. often before even inform Moore of the commercial potential of his tissue and. century. chemical. by the U. Many was captured by Judge Allen Broussard in his dissentingopinion. calledtheventer patent claims “sheer terials above the marketplace. “If a journalist writes organizations. more than a hundred Catholic bishops and Jewish. value. Life patents strike at the core freeze them. . The way the case of a patent awarded by the European Patent Office we eat.000 genes nomination. The abolitionists’ argument ultimately whatsoever to alter or engineer the cells.000 human brain genes. duced to commercial intellectual property controlled by global ing and are laying claims to vast regions of the human genome. Some.I. way we engage in politics. country in the world where it was still being practiced. Peter Quesenberry. animal rights groups. many in the molecular biology field see with intrinsic value and therefore can never be legitimately re- no apparent ethical problem or moral dilemma in gene prospect. .000 or so genes that constitute the genetic legacy of our the cell’s value. companies. ever. who allegedly obtained the species will be patented. the way bilical cord of a newborn child and are being used for any thera. Still. or mere utility. Genome Mapping Research Team. James Watson. researchers working on the Human GenomeProject were shocked He wrote that and angry.H. the medical affairs vice chairman of the Like the anti-slavery abolitionists of the nineteenth century. we perceive the world around us and our place in it-all our in- peutic purposes. The patent is so broad that it allows this one dividual and shared realities will be deeply touched by the new company to refuse the use of any blood cells from the umbilical technologies of the Biotech Century. the way we date and marry. the company now possesses commercial control over this to be conceived of as having intrinsic. Nobel laureate Dr. making it a very valuable commercial T asset. This patent on a human body rights” and cannot be made the personal commercial property part was awarded despite the fact that Systemix had done nothing of another human being.18 The Nation.

“Lots of students here had never heard of Burma.L. was instigatedby the Free Bunna Coalition. like the Vietnam C. R/IECHA/ALAS. organs. religious leaders . is going to become one of the as such should not be patented as inventions.”While not all the critical struggles of the Biotech Age. Hunt .” tive college and an unusually diverse one. corporations to divest from Burma. they are unanimous in their much of the political agenda of the Biotech Century.” Huber claims coordinated by the student-run Center for Volunteerism and there are as many students involved in social activism today as Community Service. statement criticizing the oil giant’s support for the military which recruits students to support union organizing campaigns. century. “but it’s spread around a lot of have a politicizing impact on students. Buddhist and Hindu leaders. 1 activism. John Slaughter. not charity. including environmentalistswho pro- mote recycling and research siting of hazard- ous waste facilities in Los Angelis County. who was a key organizer of the protest. How can life a world where they come to think of all life as mere invention- be defined as an invention to be profited from by scientists and where the boundaries between the sacred and the profane. which I head. Jaydee Hanson. close to half the student body is involved in com- i “That’s typical. The effort was organizedby the Foundation shifting authorship from God to scientists and transnational on Economic Trends. dictatorship in Burma. These “direct service” activities often at any time since the late sixties. “We believe cal? The battle to keep the earth’s gene pool an open commons. a freshman prograiti at Occideiital ColIege in Los Angeles. is religious leaders oppose “processs7patents for the techniques likely to emerge as the seminal issue of the coming era. organizations like Amnesty persuaded the collegepresident. devoid of any unique or essen- but it can’t be both. tempt by “man7’to stake his own claim as the prime mover and to come together on an issue of mutual interest in the twentieth sovereign architect of life on earth. reducing theologians? Either life is God’s creation or a human invention. and the Student Labor Action Coalition (SLAC). defining used to create transgenic life forms. that humans and animals are creations of God. . a Women’s Center and a gay/lesbian paign at OccidentalCollege.’s director. selves. Then they lege. from Plano. of nt- I PETERDBETEB.A. have all but disappeared. said that the patenting of life marked the most serious What might it mean for subsequent generations to grow up in challenge to the notion of God’s creation in history. had failed to report on a successfulprotest cam. In addition.C. explains Melissa Mazin. tion pushing U. tial quality that might differentiate it from the strictly mechani- an executive with the United Methodist Church. but it and volunteering for the AIDS Service Center-much of it hardly ever gets covered in the mainstreammedia. located about three 8 group that bring speakersto campus and sponsor miles from the Times building. to issue a public darity efforts. and free of commercial exploitation. connection had never been politically active before.” gible and immediate.. Texas. including tutoring at local elementary Organizing. in which students $ discussiongroups.S.VC. 1 he front-page headline in the January Los The campus has a crazy-quilt of student 1’ Angeles Times didn’t mince words: Tresh- men Get High Marks-in Apathy.” in turn. Speaking for the coalition. The effort Nevertheless. Abril13. II LIKE.the largest assemblageof U. Occidental is a selec. 19 Muslim.S. companies and are determined to hold the line against any at- The coalition.” said Sonya Huber ofthe Center for Campus munity service projects. But a few weeks earlier.”The story summarized a U. 1998 The Nation. announcedtheir opposition opposition to the patenting of the life forms and the parts them- to the granting of patents on animal and human genes. MAN. and be- corporations when it is freely given as a gift of God. life itself to an objectified status. ask the tween h t r i ~ ~and ~ i utility c value. “There’s a great deal of campus activism.’ explained Sara Hunt. 9 Intemational working on human rights and soli- who sits on the Atlantic Richfield (Arco) board.S. said. when they see that it may not be changing anything. much less its govern- Peter Dreier is a profssor ofpolitics and director of the public policy ment’s human rights abuses. “but some students get fixstrated Huber’s analysis certainly reflects the reality at Occidental Col. clearinghouse. a Latino group that is fighting d growing careerism and declining interest California’s anti-aff irmative action policy and in politics. They are keenly aware of the profound consequences of tissues and organisms. Massachusetts-based training program and schools. its students and faculty are economicallyand politi. News & World Many of the students involved in protest over Arc03 Bunna Report ranked it number one in commitmentto diversity in 1997. There’s no single focal point. a national organiza- cally comparableto counterparts at other four-year colleges. “Students like doing something that is tan- War or civil rights. a 1. different issues. so it’s harder to see. working with homeless shelters and abused women. US. Mexico.a Boston. try to find ways to make systemic change. the paper educating the campus about events in Chiapas. “Genetic rights.’” she says. not humans.600-student liberal arts institution. IT AIN’T THE SIXTIES-BUT T H E E ’ S PLENTY O F ACTIVISM QN CAMPUS.-sponsorednational survey of first-year college students that .