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Six Sigma: Training/Certification Books and Resources

Samples from: MINITAB BOOK

Quality and Six Sigma Tools using MINITAB Statistical Software: A


complete Guide to Six Sigma DMAIC Tools using MINITAB
Prof. Amar Sahay, Ph.D.

One of the major objectives of this text is to teach quality, data analysis and
statistical tools used in the Six Sigma DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve,
and Control) process. The chapters in this book provide concepts, understanding,
and computer applications of Six Sigma DMAIC tools. The statistical tools used in
the DMAIC process are discussed with stepwise MINITAB computer applications.

The following are samples from the book randomly selected from different chapters:

CHAPTER 2 Visual Representations of Data: Charts and Graphs for Six Sigma

Chapter Highlights

This chapter will enable you to master the techniques of summarizing and describing
data using charts and graphs. In this chapter you will learn to:

1. Construct a frequency distribution from a set of data
2. Calculate relative frequency, cumulative frequency, and relative cumulative
frequency from a frequency table and interpret their meanings
3. Construct different types of graphs using quantitative data including
histograms, frequency polygons, ogives, stemandleaf plots, dot plots, box plots
and interpret these plots
4. Construct bar charts and pie charts using qualitative data and their
applications
5. Construct other types of charts and graphs including time series plots and
scatter plots
6. Construct matrix plots and three dimensional plots
7. Understand the applications of these visual techniques in Six Sigma

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This chapter contains numerous plots with stepwise MINITAB


instructions and data files. Some examples are given below.

You will learn how to construct and interpret the following widely used
charts and graphs used in six sigma and data analysis:


Histograms Matrix Plot
Graphical Summary of Data Marginal Plot
Stemandleaf Plots 3D Scatter Plot
Box Plot 3D Scatter Plot with Groups
Dot Plot 3D Scatter Plot with Projected Lines
Character Graphs 3D Surface Plot/Wireframe Plot
Bar Charts Sur Contour Plot
Pie Charts Summary of Plots and Their Application
Scatter Plots Handson Exercises
Interval Plots
Individual Value Plots
Time Series Plots
Graphing Empirical Cumulative Density
Function (CDF)
Probability Plots


Examples:
ConstructingaDefaultHistogram
To construct a default histogram, follow the instructions in Table 3.1 below.
Table 3.1
CONSTRUCTING A Open the worksheet Demand. MTW then select
DEFAULT HISTOGRAM Graph &..
Click on Simple then.
:
:
Click Labels
In the Title box, type: Histogram of Demand Data
Click on Data Labels and select Use Yvalue label
Click OK
Click on Data View and check Bars then click OK

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Histogramof Demand Histogramof Demand


Normal
25
23 25 Mean 44.72
StDev 8.772
N 100
20
20
16
15
15
Frequency

15

Frequency
11
10
10
10

6 6
5
5 4 5
2 2

0 0
24 32 40 48 56 64 24 32 40 48 56 64
Demand Demand

A Default Histogram A Histogram with Normal Curve


Table 3.6
HISTOGRAM WITH FIT Open the worksheet ShaftDia. MTW
AND GROUPS Select Graph & .
Click on With Fit and Groups then
In the dialog box that is displayed, select Shaft Dia 1 and Shaft Dia 2
for Graph Variables
Click Labels and type Comparing the Variability in the Title box
Click OK.

Comapring Variation
Variable
40
Shaft Dia 1
Shaft Dia 2

Mean StDev N
75.02 0.01000 125
30 75.00 0.02984 200
Frequency

20

10

0
74.91 74.94 74.97 75.00 75.03 75.06
Data


Table 3.8
GRAPHICAL SUMMARY Open the worksheet ShaftDia.MTW
OF DATA Select Stat &Basic Statistics &.
For Variables, type or select Shaft Dia 2
Click OK.

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Summary for Shaft Dia 2


A nderson-Darling N ormality Test
A -S quared 0.22
P -V alue 0.834

M ean 74.996
S tDev 0.030
V ariance 0.001
S kew ness -0.0524329
Kurtosis -0.0708460
N 200
M inimum 74.906
1st Q uartile 74.977
M edian 74.996
3rd Q uartile 75.017
74.93 74.96 74.99 75.02 75.05 75.08
M aximum 75.077
95% C onfidence Interv al for M ean
74.992 75.000
95% C onfidence Interv al for M edian
74.991 75.000
95% C onfidence Interv al for S tD ev
9 5 % C onfidence Inter vals
0.027 0.033
Mean

Median

74.992 74.994 74.996 74.998 75.000

Stemandleaf Plots
STEMANDLEAF PLOT Open worksheet MOISTURE.MTW
From the main menu, select Graph & StemandLeaf
For Graph variables, select
Click OK

Stem-and-Leaf Display: Moisture Content


Content N = 55
Leaf Unit = 0.10
1 8 0
2 8 8
3 9 4
4 9 7
9 10 02334
16 10 5667888
26 11 1223333444
(5) 11 56677
24 12 24444
19 12 5567
15 13 2333
11 13 578
8 14 01
6 14 6
5 15 23
3 15 56
1 16 1

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Table 3.14
BOX PLOT Open the worksheet DIAMETER3.MTW
MULTIPLE YS GROUPS From the main menu select, Graph &Box plot
Select With Groups under Multiple Ys
For Graph variables, Select Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample
4 Sample 5
For Categorical variables grouping (13, outermost first) select
:
:
Under Scale Level for Graph Variables,
Graph variables displayed innermost on scale
Click on Data View Box and type or select Machine in variables
for attribute assignment
Click OK in all dialog boxes.
The box plot shown below will be displayed.

Boxplot of Sample 1, Sample 2, Sample 3, Sample 4, Sample 5 Boxplot of Sample 1, Sample 2, Sample 3, Sample 4,...vs. Operator
75.05 Machine 75.05 O perator
1 A
2 B
75.04 3
75.04
C
4

75.03 75.03
Data

Data

75.02 75.02

75.01 75.01

75.00 75.00

74.99 74.99
1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e
pl pl pl pl pl pl pl pl pl pl pl pl pl pl pl
e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e
pl pl pl p l p l p l p l pl pl pl pl pl pl pl pl pl pl p l p l pl
m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m a m am am am am m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m
Sa Sa S a S a Sa S a Sa Sa Sa Sa Sa Sa Sa Sa S a S S S S S S a Sa Sa S a S a S a Sa S a S a Sa Sa S a S a Sa S a
Machine 1 2 3 4 Operator A B C

Bar Charts

Monthly Sales Bar Chart of Causes of Failure


300 Month
40 C auses o f F ailure
273 36
January F atigue F ailures
250
250 February Incorrect Dimensio n
225 March Internal F law s
210
220 30
April Machining Erro rs
200 185 180 May Measurement Errors
Sales ($)

Count

170 June
150 July 20 17
150 August
September
100 10 9 9
8

50
0
rs n es s rs
0 ro sio ilu
r aw rro
Er en Fl
Fa tE
ri l
l
ar
y ry ch ay ne ly st be
r ng im na en
ua ar Ap M Ju Ju gu ini tD ig u
e
te
r
nu br M Au em ch ec t In r em
Ja Fe pt M
a
co
rr Fa su
Se In ea
M

Month Causes of Failure

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Cluster Bar Chart of Quartely Sales vs. Y ear


200 Year
200
1
180 2
175
170 170 170
3
160 160
4
150 150 150 150
150 140
135
130

Sales
105
100

50

0
Quarter 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
Year 1 2 3 4

Pie Charts

Table 3.30
PIE CHART Open the worksheet PIE.MTW
From the main menu, select Graph &Pie Chart
In the Pie Chart dialog box, click on the circle next to
In the Categorical variable box, type or select Failures
In the Summary variables box, .
Click on Pie Options tab
:
:
Click on Slice Labels and check Frequency and Percentage
Click OK in all the boxes

Pie Chart of Causes of Failures


C ateg o ry
Inco rrect Dimensio ns
15, 4.1% Damag ed P arts
22, 6.1%
M achining Erro rs
84, 23.2% Draw ing Erro rs
25, 6.9%
Internal F law s
M easu rement Erro rs
M echanical Erro rs
C M M Erro rs
30, 8.3% F atigue F ailures

33, 9.1%

65, 18.0%

40, 11.0%

48, 13.3%

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h Regressiion Line
Scatterr Plot with

ER PLOT WIITH Open the worksheet SCAT
SCATTE TTER1.MTW W
REGRESSSION LINE Frrom the main n menu, sele ct Graph &SScatterplot
Cllick on With Regression n then click

:
Fo or Y Variable
es, type or seelect .
Fo or X variable
es, type or seelect Summeer Temperatture
Cllick OK

The plot iis shown in F


Figure 3.36.

Figure 3.35
5: A Simple Scatter Plot Figgure 3.36: Scatter Plot wiith Regressio
on Line

Iff you want to


o know the eq
quation of th
he fitted line aand assess th
he quality of
f line, follow tthe
stteps in Tablee 3.34.

Intervaal Plots
INTERVA
AL PLOT Open the worksheeet INTERVAL L2.MTW
From the
t main meenu select, GGraph & oor Stat &AN
NOVA &Inte erval
Plot
Under One Y, click on
For Graph Variablles, type or sselect Conten nt (oz)
egorical varriables for grouping (14, outermost first), typ
In Cate pe or
select
.
Click on Labels boxx then click DData labels ttab
From tthe drop dow wn menu in L Labels box, select
:
Click on Data View w
Under Categoricall variables ffor attribute e assignmen nt, type or select

OK in all the b
Click O boxes.

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Interva
al Plot of Content (oz..) vs Production Line
e
95% CI for the Mean
16.30 Production Line
16.2721
1
2
16.25
3
16.2045 4
16
6.1949
16.20 5
Content (oz.)

16.15 16.1391
16.1201
16.1195
16.10
16.0879
16.0809
16.05 16.0559

16.00

15.95 15
5.9611
1 2 3 4 5
Production Line

Figure 3..42: Interval Plot with Grroups Figure 3.43: Interval Plott of Piston Riings vs.
Sample


TIME SERIES PLOT Open th he worksheeet TIMESERIE ES2.MTW
WITH TIIME/SCALE From tthe main men nu select Gra
aph &Time SSeries Plot
STAMP In the T
Time Series dialog box, cclick on Simp
ple then click
k OK
For Serries, type or select
Click on the Time/ /Scale
Click on the circle n
next to Stam
mp under Tim me Scale
on Stamp columns (13,, innermost first) then sselect Week,
Click o
T and QQuarter
Click O
OK in all dialo
og box.
A time seeries plot sho
own in Figuree 3.49 will bee displayed.
Time Serries Plot of Demand Tim
me Series Plot of Sales
S
10
00
400

9
90
350
8
80

300
7
70
Demand

Sales

250 6
60

5
50
200
4
40
150
3
30
1 6 12 18 24
4 30 36 42 48 54 60 Week,TT 1 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60
Index Quarte
er 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5

A Simple Timee Series Plot of


Fiigure 3.48: A Figu
ure 3.49: A Siimple Time SSeries Plot off Sales
Dem
mand Data Data

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