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Tir Part

Physical study of shock wave/boundary layer interaction control


in transonic flow

R. Bur, R. Benay, B. Corbel, J. Dlery

38th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting & Exhibit


Reno (USA), January 10-13, 2000

TP 2000-242
Physical study of shock wave/boundary layer interaction control in transonic flow

Physique de l'interaction onde de choc/couche limite


et de son contrle en coulement transsonique

par

R. Bur, R. Benay, B. Corbel, J. Dlery

38th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting & Exhibit


Reno (USA), January 10-13, 2000

R s u m : Des dispositifs de contrle appliqus au phnomne de l'interaction de l'onde de


choc avec la couche limite turbulente ont t tests dans un coulement de canal bidimensionnel.
L'efficacit de dispositifs de contrle actif, qui consistent aspirer une partie de la couche limite
travers une fente, est compare celle de dispositifs de contrle hybride, qui sont des
combinaisons d'un contrle passif par une cavit place dans la rgion du pied de choc et d'une
fente (ou cavit) d'aspiration place en aval de la cavit passive. L'coulement a t qualifi
l'aide d'un vlocimtre laser fonctionnant en mode bidirectionnel, par des mesures de vitesse
moyenne et des composantes du tenseur de Reynolds. Les rsultats montrent que le contrle actif
entrane une augmentation de la trane d'onde, mais une rduction significative de la trane de
frottement. Les tendances sont inverses en prsence de contrle hybride. De plus, le contrle
actif travers une fente diminue de faon consquente le niveau turbulent en aval de la rgion
d'interaction. Des simulations numriques de l'coulement de canal ont t effectues l'aide
d'un code rsolvant les quations de Navier-Stokes moyennes au sens de Reynolds. La
turbulence est modlise par le modle algbrique de Baldwin-Lomax et le modle quation
de transport [k-] de Chien. Plusieurs lois analytiques ont t testes pour calculer la vitesse
normale la paroi dans la rgion de contrle. Mme si les simulations numriques reproduisent
un niveau correct de rpartition de pression dans la rgion du contrle passif, des amliorations
sont ncessaires notamment en terme de raffinement de maillage au voisinage de la fente
d'aspiration.

NB : Ce document comporte 11 pages

Ce Tir part fait rfrence au Document dAccompagnement de Publication DAFE0027


AIAA-2000-0933

PHYSICAL STUDY OF SHOCK-WAVE / BOUNDARY-LAYER INTERACTION CONTROL


IN TRANSONIC FLOW

Reynald Bur,* Richard Benay, Bernard Corbel, and Jean Dlery

Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Arospatiales (Onera)


Fundamental and Experimental Aerodynamics Department
8 Rue des Vertugadins, 92190 Meudon, France

Abstract M Mach number


p static pressure
Control devices applied to a turbulent shock-wave pst0 stagnation (reservoir) pressure
/ boundary-layer interaction have been investigated by Q suction mass flow rate
considering a two-dimensional channel flow. The Tst0 stagnation temperature
efficiency of active control devices, which consist in U0 reference velocity, 384m/s
sucking a part of the boundary-layer through a slot, is u, v X-wise and Y-wise instantaneous velocity
compared with those of hybrid control devices, which components
are combinations of a passive control cavity placed u , v mean values of u and v
underneath the shock foot region and a suction slot u', v' fluctuating parts of u and v
(or cavity) located downstream of it. Flow surveys
- u v turbulent shear stress
have been executed with a two-component laser
X streamwise coordinate along the channel lower
Doppler velocimetry system, including mean velocity
wall, origin at the half-nozzle throat
and Reynolds tensor components measurements. The
Y coordinate normal to the channel lower wall
obtained results show that active control produces an
boundary-layer physical thickness
increase of the wave drag, but a significant decrease
of the friction drag. The tendencies are inverted when * boundary-layer displacement thickness
hybrid control is applied. Moreover, active control by boundary-layer momentum thickness
a slot efficiently diminishes the turbulence level density
downstream of the interaction domain. Numerical
simulations of the channel flow have been carried out
by means of a code solving the Reynolds averaged Introduction
Navier-Stokes equations. Both the Baldwin-Lomax
algebraic model and the [k-] transport equation Shock-waves and their interaction with the
model of Chien have been considered. Several boundary-layer play a major role in determining the
analytical laws have been tested to compute the performance of transonic transport aircraft. One way
vertical velocity at the wall in the control region. to reduce the harmful effects of these strong shocks is
Even if computations have given a fair reproduction to use a control device in the interaction region.
of pressure distribution in the passive control region, Several control techniques have been used to achieve
further investigations are needed, especially for the this goal, namely: 1) active control devices which
mesh refinement in the suction slot region. consist in sucking a part of the boundary-layer
through a slot, and 2) hybrid control devices which
are combinations of a passive control cavity and a
Nomenclature suction slot (or cavity) located downstream of it. It is
recalled that the principle of passive control consists
C'Q suction mass flow rate coefficient in establishing a natural circulation between the
k turbulent kinetic energy downstream high pressure face of a shock and its
upstream low pressure face. This circulation is
achieved through a closed cavity, placed underneath
* Research Scientist the shock foot region, the face in contact with the
Research Scientist outer flow being made of a perforated plate.1 It has
Technical Engineer been shown that, in very limited circumstances,
Department Head, Senior Member AIAA passive control may produce a reduction of an airfoil
Copyright 2000 by the American Institute of drag, while postponing to higher incidences the limit
Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. All rights of buffet onset.2
reserved.
1
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
The objective of the present study was to in the vertical median plane of the test set-up) and
contribute to the understanding and modeling of the probings of instantaneous velocity with a multi-
physical phenomena involved in a shock-wave / component LDV system.
boundary-layer interaction under control conditions. For the present nominally two-dimensional flow,
This action is based on: 1) execution of basic the latter were obtained with a two-component LDV
experiments aiming at a detailed description of the system.3 The light source is a 5W - argon laser beam,
interacting flow field, and 2) improvement of the which is separated into two beams of wavelength
physical models implemented in methods used to 0.488m (blue) and 0.5145m (green) by a semi-
predict shock-wave / boundary-layer interactions transparent mirror. These beams are split by classical
under control conditions. beam splitters and traverse Bragg cells to enable the
The experiments were executed in a two- system to detect the velocity direction. The four
dimensional transonic channel flow and considered beams are focused by the emission lens to constitute
the interaction between the shock crossing the channel two fringe patterns inside the measuring volume,
and the boundary-layer developing on one of the whose diameter was equal to 0.2mm. The blue and
channel walls. The mean and turbulent properties of green fringe spacings are 13.30 and 13.82m,
the interaction domain were determined mainly by respectively. In order to obtain a correct signal-to-
means of laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) noise ratio, the LDV system was operated in the
explorations. Numerical simulations of the channel forward scattering mode. The flow is seeded with
flow have been carried out by means of a code submicron-sized (0.5m-diameter) droplets of olive
solving the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes oil injected in the wind tunnel settling chamber.
equations. Analytical laws were tested as boundary The flow fields have been explored along lines
conditions to be prescribed at the wall in the control normal to the wall (Y direction), extending from the
region. Comparisons of experimental and numerical surface (Y = 0) to an altitude Y = 22mm and
results were made for the reference case (without contained in the test section median plane. This extent
control), a passive control case and a hybrid control was chosen to be sure to cover the entire dissipative
case. layer and a part of the outer inviscid flow. Their
streamwise locations X were in the range 115
X(mm) 260, including the control region. Reliable
Experimental Conditions measurements with the LDV system, in the two-
component version, were limited to a minimum
Test Set-up Arrangement distance from the wall of 0.3mm.
These experiments were executed in the S8 At each measurement point, a sample of couples
transonic-supersonic wind tunnel of the Onera Fluid of the instantaneous values of the velocity
Mechanics Laboratory at Chalais-Meudon. This components u and v is acquired for further
facility is a continuous wind tunnel supplied with processing. The size of the sample, equal to 5000,
desiccated atmospheric air. The stagnation conditions gives an acceptable statistical uncertainty for the first-
are: pst0 = 96,000 800 Pa and Tst0 = 300 4 K. A and second-order statistical moments. The
photograph of the test set-up is shown in Fig. 1. It is determination of the mean velocity components
constituted by a transonic channel having a test allows the local Mach number to be computed and the
section with a height of 100mm and a span of 120mm. boundary-layer integral thicknesses (*, ) to be
The lower wall is rectilinear and equipped to receive defined. The density and sound velocity are computed
the control devices, whereas the upper wall is a by assuming constant stagnation temperature
contoured profile designed to produce a uniform throughout the flow. The two-component version of
supersonic flow of nominal Mach number equal to the LDV system did not allow the determination of
1.4. A second throat, of adjustable cross section, is the spanwise velocity component w. Thus, the
placed in the test section outlet to produce by choking turbulent kinetic energy k has been estimated by the
effect a shock-wave whose position, and hence following formula:
intensity, can be adjusted in a continuous and precise
manner. It also isolates the flow field from pressure 1 2
u + v2 + u 2 + v2
1
perturbations emanating from downstream ducts, k=
2 2
reducing unwanted shock oscillations. The two side
walls are equipped with high quality glass windows to
allow visualizations and LDV measurements. The LDV components give the field quantities
with an accuracy depending on uncertainties affecting
Techniques of Investigation the LDV system calibration (uncertainties on the
The flows under study were qualified by schlieren fringe distance, on the Bragg frequency), the
visualizations and quantified by measurements of wall determination by the counters of the frequency of the
pressure distributions (pressure orifices being located light scattered by the particles, and the statistical
2
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
treatment of the sample. For these experiments, the q
field properties have been determined with a precision CQ =
* U * L
of: 1) 1% of the maximum velocity modulus for the
mean velocity components, 2) less than or equal to
where * U* are relative to the sonic state, the
8% concerning the normal stress components of the
reference length being such that L = 1m. This
Reynolds tensor, and 3) less than or equal to 10% for
definition is inspired by the following considerations.
the turbulent shear stress component.
The (U) product is not very sensitive to the Mach
number within the interesting range. In profile flows,
Tested Configurations
the freestream Mach number is around M = 0.8 and
The solid wall reference case has been tested in
the shock upstream Mach number in the channel
order to allow comparisons with all the control
experiments is around M = 1.3. The corresponding
configurations. The shock location was monitored by
considering the pressure distribution on the channel difference between the (U) values is small because
upper wall, its position being accurately defined by (U) passes through a maximum and is stationary at
adjustment of the second throat section. M = 1. In addition, the chosen unit length L is of the
The first type of control is active control, the order of magnitude of a profile chord length. Thus,
suction slot being located one incoming boundary- the values of CQ are comparable to CQ values, which
layer thickness downstream of the shock which was makes them more "speaking" for airfoil designers.
set at Xs = 165mm. The slot length was one and half
incoming boundary-layer thickness (5mm). Its
location was between X = 168mm and X = 173mm, Presentation of the Experimental Results
so slightly downstream of the shock location (in the
outer part of the flow). Three different suction mass Flow Visualizations
flow rates were considered, their values being The schlieren photographs in Fig. 2 reveal the
measured thanks to sonic throats. flow structure for the reference case (solid wall) and
The second type of control is hybrid control. For for two active and hybrid control devices (with almost
this device (see Fig. 1), a 70mm-long passive control the same value of the CQ suction coefficient). The
cavity1 is used, the shock being centered on it, at Xs = schlieren photograph in Fig. 2a reveals the flow
165mm. The cavity is covered by a perforated plate, structure for the reference case. It corresponds to a
whose nominal characteristics are: 5.67%-porosity classical transonic shock-wave / boundary-layer
and 0.3mm-diameter holes, inclined at 45deg. with interaction of moderate strength.1,4 One notes the
respect to the surface (in the downstream direction) in thickening of the boundary-layer in the shock foot
the upstream half part of the plate and normal to it in region and the associated compression wave pattern
its downstream half part. The active control system, forming in the outer inviscid flow. This front zone is
located 8mm downstream of the passive control followed by a small triangular region of still
cavity, is a 15mm-long open cavity (a slot). Several supersonic flow terminated by a nearly normal shock,
(slot) suction mass flow rates were tested for this sometimes called the trailing shock. The compression
hybrid control device. waves and the trailing shock meet in a region from
In order to present the following results, a suction which the single shock crossing the channel starts.
mass flow rate coefficient is defined. In airfoil The present -shape flow pattern corresponds to a
applications, the control mass flow rate q (per unit situation nearly coincident with incipient shock-
span) is characterized by the dimensionless induced separation, which occurs for an upstream
coefficient CQ defined by dividing q by the product Mach number of 1.3. However, LDV measurements
( U L), the reference quantities , U being have not detected negative values for the streamwise
relative to the upstream uniform flow and the velocity component. Thus, if it exists, the separation
reference length L being most often the profile chord bubble must be excessively small.
length. This coefficient, very useful for applications, For the active control by a suction slot (see Fig.
has no real physical significance since the used scales 2b), the lambda shape structure of shocks (the -foot)
, U and L have nearly nothing to do with the has disappeared. The oblique line visible upstream of
interaction process. On the other hand, in channel the shock is a weak perturbation wave caused by the
experiments, it is not possible to compute a CQ junction between two parts of the lower wall. The
coefficient, since an upstream uniform flow does not single shock, crossing the entire channel, is
exist (the Mach number varies continuously in the strengthened and impinges the wall slightly
channel) and there is no appropriate chord length. So, downstream compared to the reference case ; i.e., in
it is proposed to adopt, in parallel of the "application" the vicinity of the slot location. This strengthening of
coefficient CQ, a coefficient CQ defined by the the shock leads to an increase of the wave drag.
relation: However, the thickening of the boundary-layer
downstream of the slot is strongly reduced.
3
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
For the hybrid control case (see Fig. 2c), the destabilization of the boundary-layer ; i.e., the
structure of the shock takes a well defined lambda velocity profiles are less full. This effect is not
shape, whereas the boundary-layer starts to thicken compensated by the downstream suction, even for a
suddenly at the passive cavity origin. The clear region strong suction mass flow rate (CQ = 8.2 10-4).
visible close to the wall, downstream of the Figure 4 shows the evolution of the momentum
interaction origin, is not due to the existence of a thickness . In the case without control, this quantity
large separated region, but to the special character of steadily rises from an initial value 0 close to 0.21mm
the density distribution across a turbulent boundary- to a final value f equal to 1.5mm, which gives an
layer having undergone a strong destabilization. amplitude f/0 6.8. When active control is applied
Hybrid control produces a decrease of the wave drag, (see Fig. 4a), the rise of is much slower: for
a unique strong shock being replaced by two weaker example, in the case of the moderate suction mass
shocks over a great part of the channel flow (the flow rate (CQ = 6.1 10-4), f is equal to 0.53mm,
altitude of the triple point being very high -in the which leads to an amplitude f/0 2.5. The evolution
middle of the channel- compared to its reference case of the momentum thickness is of special interest
location). The total entropy production by the shock- because it is a measure of momentum loss undergone
waves will be less, compared to the reference case or by the flow due to dissipative effects. Thus, its rise
the active control case where the crossing shock gives an indication on the friction drag exerted on the
occupies nearly the entire channel. To prevent the surface over the extent of the interaction domain. The
thickening of the boundary-layer, suction is applied behavior of when active suction slot control is
downstream of the interaction region but suction mass applied should lead to a significant reduction of the
flow rates must be high to have a valuable effect on friction drag. For the hybrid control case (see Fig.
the boundary-layer behavior.
4b), a very slight decrease of the final value f
(compared to the reference case value) is obtained
LDV Measurements
only when a strong suction is applied. At this step, it
can be concluded that the friction drag cannot be
Mean Flow Field Properties. The streamwise
decreased when such hybrid control devices are used.
evolution of the boundary-layer displacement and
momentum thicknesses are plotted in Figs. 3 and 4,
Turbulent Field Properties. The streamwise
respectively, for the reference case and both active
variations of the local maxima of the normalized
and hybrid control devices, showing the effect of the
suction mass flow rate. One should be aware that the turbulent shear stress - u v and turbulent (pseudo)
definition of the boundary-layer physical thickness , kinetic energy k are plotted in Figs. 5 and 6,
used to compute the integral thicknesses, is somewhat respectively, for the reference case and both active
arbitrary and delicate in an interacting flow whose and hybrid control devices. For the reference case, the
properties may vary significantly in a direction maxima in - u v is reached at X = 190mm, whereas it
normal to the wall, rendering the localization of the occurs more upstream, at X = 165mm, for the
boundary-layer edge difficult. turbulent kinetic energy. This lag of the shear stress is
Figure 3 shows the evolution of the displacement a feature commonly observed in shock-wave /
thickness * which keeps a nearly constant value boundary-layer interactions.5 The out-phasing
*0 0.49mm upstream of the interaction region. In between - u v and k is notably reduced when slot
the case without control, at X = 155mm, * starts to suction control is applied (see Figs. 5a and 6a).
increase rapidly reaching a maximum close to Moreover, the turbulence level downstream of the
interaction is strongly reduced by slot suction, this
*max 3.1 mm at X = 195mm, to which corresponds
level being lower than the upstream level when the
a ratio *max / *0 6.3 ; then * decreases slowly. The highest suction mass flow rate is applied (CQ = 8.5
rapid rise of * taking place in the first part of the 10-4). For the hybrid control case (see Figs. 5b and
interaction is felt by the outer, still supersonic flow, as 6b), it clearly appears that the downstream level of
a ramp effect of angle tan-1(d*/dX) equal to 4.1deg. these maximums are higher than those of the
When slot suction control is applied (see Fig. 3a), this reference case. Downstream of the interaction,
ramp effect almost disappears, even for the moderate passive control produces a higher rise in turbulence
suction mass flow rate (CQ = 6.1 10-4). In this suction levels, which is mainly due to the larger distortion of
control case, the maximum value of * is equal to the velocity profiles. This behavior, already observed
1.09mm, with the corresponding ratio *max / *0 when passive control is applied alone,1 is not
equal to 2.2. For the hybrid control case (see Fig. 3b), modified by slot suction action, especially for the
turbulent shear stress, even for a strong suction mass
the maximum of * has increased compared to the
flow rate (CQ = 8.2 10-4). For such hybrid control
reference value. This increase of *max is due to
devices, the suction by the slot is applied too much
passive control which provokes a greater
4
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
downstream of the interaction region, and then can results too important viscous effects in the channel
loss its efficiency. provoking a "viscous" choking and an unstart of the
supersonic flow (the effective second throat becomes
smaller than the nozzle throat). This phenomenon
Numerical Simulations points out the difficulties for two-equation [k-]
models to reproduce correctly viscous flows in long
Flow Modeling channel with nearly constant section. Thus, the
The numerical simulations were performed with forthcoming results have been obtained by means of
the NASCA code6 which solves the classical Reynolds the Baldwin-Lomax model.
Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The Calculations of the interaction region with passive
code, using a finite volume technique, is totally control are examinated. Both wall vertical velocity
implicit, including its modules treating the turbulence laws were implemented in the code and their
transport equations. The numerical scheme is an respective results compared to the passive control
extension of the Osher and Chakravarthy scheme7 to experimental ones deduced from LDV
the case of a mesh which can be locally non uniform. measurements.1 The Mach number contour lines
Turbulence modeling is carried out by means of the plotted in Fig. 7 show a good prediction of the large
Baldwin-Lomax algebraic model8 or the [k-] spreading of the shock system, which begins at the
transport equation model of Chien.9 origin of the cavity. The difference in the location of
The calculation domain is a part of the the crossing (quasi normal) shock is weak. The great
experimental channel extending from a well chosen extent of the viscous zone due to the control device is
section of the divergent expanding zone, where well reproduced by the calculation.
experimental (obtained by LDV probings) velocity Figure 8 shows the Mach number contour lines
profiles and turbulent shear stress are imposed, to the when hybrid control is applied with a strong slot
end of the channel, where the experimental pressure is suction mass flow rate (C'Q = 8.2 10-4). The predicted
imposed. The upstream section where the profiles are leading shock originating at the beginning of the
imposed has been chosen at X = 60mm to give well passive control cavity is too weak. Another oblique
defined supersonic inflow conditions. At the shock emanating approximately from the middle of
downstream boundary, coinciding with the end of the the cavity is predicted. Then, the calculated lambda
channel situated at X = 380mm, a numerical shock pattern has a smaller size compared to the
procedure is developed for fixing the experimental experimental one visible in the schlieren photograph
pressure, which is an adaptation of the characteristic (see Fig. 2c). The calculation gives an important
extrapolation method due to Yee.10 overprediction of the viscous zone in the interaction
Passive control is simulated by prescribing the domain. These deficiencies in the prediction of the
unit mass flow v at the wall, the conditions on the interaction region lead to suspect important defects in
other variables remaining unchanged. The v value at the modeling of the hybrid control.
the wall is obtained by relations expressing a direct The normalized wall pressure distributions for the
dependence of the wall vertical velocity to the reference case, the passive control and hybrid control
pressure difference between the cavity and the cases are plotted in Fig. 9. For the reference case, the
external flow. The cavity pressure is taken as the calculated wall pressures are in a good agreement
experimental one. The relations used for the with the measured ones. The interesting fact is that
computations are the calibration law of Poll11 and the the strong pressure gradient due to the interaction
Bohning-Doerffers law.2 takes place at the right location, with no need to
In the case of the hybrid control calculation, the modify the downstream pressure imposed as boundary
slot has been approximated by imposing a negative condition. For the passive control case, there is a
value of v as boundary condition at the mesh points rather good agreement between the calculated and
situated in the slot area. The v value at these points measured wall pressure distributions. The steep rise in
has been set equal to the measured suction mass flow the calculated pressures at X = 130mm corresponds to
rate divided by the number of points. This very rough the beginning of the cavity. This first rise is followed
approximation shows how the phenomena could be by a drop in the computed pressure distributions
simulated without changing the calculation domain. which does not exist in reality. This drop is due to an
insufficient mesh refinement in the streamwise
Comparisons with Experiment direction. These results lead to the conclusion that
Calculations of the reference case flow have been both Polls and Bohning-Doerffers laws have a
done with the [k-] transport equation model of similar behavior on the passive control modeling.
Chien. These calculations led to an overprediction of When hybrid control is applied, the prediction of the
the thickening of the boundary-layer during the wall pressure distribution is less satisfactory than for
interaction process and downstream of it. There passive control. For this kind of control, the mesh size
has a fundamental importance. Indeed, accidents
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American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
occur in the calculated pressure corresponding to the the boundary-layer development in such a channel
beginning of the cavity (as in the passive control case) flow, even for the reference case.
and to the beginning of the (suction) slot. Moreover, In the passive control case, the results were
the mesh used for the computations has a lack of point generally satisfactory, the scatter being explained by
in the slot area. In further calculations, the slot should discrepancies in the prediction of the shape of the
be represented by a more refined mesh to improve the viscous zones in the interaction region. In the case
results. with hybrid control, future computations should
represent the suction slot by a more refined mesh, or
include the entire slot in the computation domain to
Conclusions correctly reproduce its effect.

A detailed experimental investigation of transonic


shock-wave / boundary-layer interaction under control Acknowledgements
conditions has been performed in a channel type flow.
The solid wall reference case (without control), active The present research was accomplished with the
and hybrid control devices (with several suction mass financial support of the European Union through the
flow rates) have been studied by mainly using a two- framework of the EUROSHOCK II project. The
component LDV system to determine the mean and authors are greatly indebted to the Laser
turbulent flow field properties. Measurement Group of the Fundamental and
Active control induces a strengthening of the Experimental Aerodynamics Department of Onera
shock since the spreading caused by the interaction is who performed the LDV measurements.
reduced. The entropy production through the shock is
more important and the wave drag higher. On the
other hand, since the downstream boundary-layer References
profile is more filled, the momentum loss in the
1
boundary-layer is reduced, which leads to a reduction Bur, R., Corbel, B., and Dlery, J., "Study of
of the friction drag. Active control has a significant Passive Control in a Transonic Shock-Wave /
effect on the turbulence level downstream of the Boundary-Layer Interaction," AIAA Journal, Vol. 36,
interaction region, this level being reduced even for a No. 3, 1998, pp. 394-400.
2
moderate suction mass flow rate. "Euroshock - Drag Reduction by Passive Shock
The above tendencies in term of drag are inverted Control," Stanewsky, E., Dlery, J., Fulker, J., and
when hybrid control is applied. However, the Geissler, W. (Eds.), Notes on Numerical Fluid
reduction of the wave drag due to the smearing of the Mechanics, Vol. 56, Vieweg, 1997.
3
compression is impaired by the high friction drag Boutier, A., d'Humires, C., and Soulevant, D.,
along the perforated plate. The role of the suction slot "Three Dimensional Laser Velocimetry: a Review,"
(or cavity) placed downstream of the passive control 2nd International Symposium on Applications of
cavity is to reduce friction losses. For the tested Laser Anemometry to Fluid Mechanics (Lisbon,
hybrid control devices, and for suction mass flow Portugal), Jul. 1984.
4
rates similar to those used for active control, the Dlery, J., and Marvin, J. G., "Turbulent Shock-
friction drag is always increased compared to the Wave / Boundary-Layer Interaction," AGARDograph
reference case. A possible way to improve the No. 280, Reshotko, E. (Ed.), 1985.
5
efficiency of such devices could be to reduce the Dlery, J., "Experimental Investigation of
distance between the interaction region and the Turbulence Properties in Transonic Shock /
suction slot placed downstream of it. Boundary-Layer Interactions," AIAA Journal, Vol.
Numerical simulations of interactions under 21, No. 2, 1983, pp. 180-185.
6
control conditions have been performed by using a Benay, R., and Servel, P., "Applications of a
RANS solver. Modifications of boundary conditions Navier-Stokes Code to the Calculation of Missile or
were introduced to take into account: 1) an imposed Aircraft Afterbody Flows," Aerospace Research, No.
downstream pressure, and 2) injection/suction 6, 1995, pp. 405-426.
7
velocities at the wall in the control region, modeled Osher, S., and Chakravarthy, S., "Very High
by the Polls and Bohning-Doerffers laws. In the Order Accurate TVD Schemes," ICASE Rept. No.
present calculations, both laws gave close results and 84-44, 1984.
8
a satisfactory prediction of the transpiration Baldwin, B. S., and Lomax, H., "Thin Layer
velocities. Approximations and Algebraic Model for Separated
The computations were carried out with the Turbulent Flows," AIAA Paper 78-0257, 1978.
9
Baldwin-Lomax model, the [k-] model of Chien Chien, K. Y., "Prediction of Channel and
having shown severe deficiencies in the prediction of Boundary-Layer Flows with a Low-Reynolds-Number

6
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
11
Turbulence Model," AIAA Journal, Vol. 20, No. 1, Poll, D. I. A., Danks, M., and Humphreys, B. E.,
1982, pp. 33-38. "The Aerodynamic Performance of Laser Drilled
10
Yee, H. C., Beam, R. M., and Warming, R. F., Sheets," Proceedings of the First European Forum on
"Boundary Approximations for Implicit Schemes for Laminar Flow Technology (Hamburg, Germany),
One-Dimensional Inviscid Equations of Gaz 1992, pp. 274-277.
Dynamics," AIAA Journal, Vol. 20, No. 9, 1982, pp.
1203-1211.

Fig. 1 Photograph of the test set-up in the S8Ch wind tunnel

a Solid wall (Reference case)

b Active control case C'Q = 8.5 10-4 c Hybrid control case C'Q = 8.2 10-4

Fig. 2 Schlieren photographs of the flow field

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American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Reference case
-4 Reference case
4 Active control - CQ = 3.2 10 4
Hybrid control - CQ = 8.2 10 -4
Active control - CQ = 6.1 10 -4
Active control - CQ = 8.5 10 -4
3 3
(mm)

(mm)
2 2
*

*
1 1

150 200 250 150 200 250


0 0

X (mm) X (mm)

a Active control cases b Hybrid control case

Fig. 3 Evolutions of the boundary-layer displacement thickness

Reference case
Reference case
2 Active control - CQ = 3.2 10 -4 2
-4 Hybrid control - CQ = 8.2 10 -4
Active control - CQ = 6.1 10
Active control - CQ = 8.5 10 -4
1.5 1.5
(mm)

(mm)

1 1

0.5 0.5

150 200 250 150 200 250


0 0

X (mm) X (mm)

a Active control cases b Hybrid control case

Fig. 4 Evolutions of the boundary-layer momentum thickness

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American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
0.01 0.01

Reference case Reference case


-4 -4
Active control - CQ = 3.2 10 Hybrid control - CQ = 8.2 10
0.008 0.008
Active control - CQ = 6.1 10 -4
Active control - CQ = 8.5 10 -4
0.006 0.006
2
-uvmax / U 0

2
-uvmax / U 0
0.004 0.004

0.002 0.002

0 0

150 200 250 150 200 250


X (mm) X (mm)

a Active control cases b Hybrid control case

Fig. 5 Streamwise variations of the turbulent shear stress maxima

0.06 0.06

Reference case Reference case


-4 -4
Active control - CQ = 3.2 10 Hybrid control - CQ = 8.2 10
Active control - CQ = 6.1 10 -4
0.04 Active control - CQ = 8.5 10 -4 0.04
2
kmax / U 0

2
kmax / U 0

0.02 0.02

0 0

150 200 250 150 200 250


X (mm) X (mm)

a Active control cases b Hybrid control case

Fig. 6 Streamwise variations of the turbulent kinetic energy maxima

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American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
25

Y(mm)
20

15

10

120 140 160 CAVITY 180 200 220 240 260


X(mm)
a - LDV measurements

Mach: 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3

25
Y(mm)

20

15

10

120 140 160 CAVITY 180 200 220 240 260


X(mm)
b - Navier-Stokes calculation - Baldwin-Lomax model - Poll law

Fig. 7 Mach number contour lines Passive control case

25
Y(mm)

20

15

10

120 140 160 CAVITY 180 200 SLOT220 240 260


X(mm)
a - LDV measurements

Mach: 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3

25
Y(mm)

20

15

10

120 140 160 CAVITY 180 200 SLOT220 240 260


X(mm)
b - Navier-Stokes calculation - Baldwin-Lomax model - Poll law

Fig. 8 - Mach number contour lines Hybrid control case (C'Q = 8.2 10-4)

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0.65

P/Pst0
Exp. w/o control
Exp. with passive control (p.c.)
0.6 Exp. with hybrid control
NS BL w/o control
NS BL with p.c.(Poll law)
NS BL with p.c.(Bohning-Doerffer law)
0.55 NS BL with hybrid control

0.5

0.45

0.4

0.35

0.3
50 100 150 200 250 300
CAVITY SLOT X(mm)

Fig. 9 Comparison of measured and calculated wall pressure distributions

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