Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 15

# CME 310 Chapter Two

## When a surface with a finite area is in contact with a

fluid, a force is exerted on the surface because of the fluid
pressure.
To completely specify the resultant force we must
determine
1) magnitude
2) line of action
3) point of application
dFn
P
dA
dFn = PdA
To integrate 1) change the parameter to integration for
2) in the curved area

## 1 Created by H. Sheibani 2015

CME 310 Chapter Two

## assume its uniform A & P L

F = PdA = PA = L hA + Patm A h F
P
P P P P P

## The force would be the same

for both tanks although the P0

## amount of liquid contained in

r
h g
the tank is less.
L

## Consider now the force due to pressure on a vertical

surface
water
P0
dF = PdA = Pl dy (1) x
dy
L
P( h) = Patm + L h (2) dF y

(2) in (1)
dF = ( Patm + L h)l dy l

## Usually the outside of the tank experiences

atmospheric pressure(Patm), so
dF = ( Patm + L y )l dy Patm l dy
= L y l dy

## 2 Created by H. Sheibani 2015

CME 310 Chapter Two

h lh2 h
Fnet = 0 L l y dy =L
2
= lh
2
h
Fnet = A
2

Center of Pressure

P0
x
dy
Uniform Pressure F Patm dA y

F = P0 A

## We determine the point of application of the resultant

force by equaling the moment of the resultant force to the
moment of the distributed force. Taking the moment about
the x-axis.
h h
FYCP = 0 YPdA = 0 YPl dy
where YCP is the y-location of the center of pressure.

h h2 d
FYCP = P0l 0 ydy =P0l = P0 (l d )
2 2

## 3 Created by H. Sheibani 2015

CME 310 Chapter Two

since F = P0 A = P0 l d

1 d
P0 l d = P0 (l d )
CP 2
1 d
=
CP 2
If the pressure is subject to a uniform pressure, the
center of pressure is the centroid.

## 4 Created by H. Sheibani 2015

CME 310 Chapter Two

Lecture #5
2.5 Hydrostatic forces on inclined surfaces
Pa
O

h(x,y)
hCG Y'
F

side view

y d
CG
C

x
1
dF = PdA h = Y sin center of gravity =
YCG
A
Y dA
CG coincides w/ origin. dF = PdA
F = PdA = ( Pa + g h)dA
= Pa dA + g h dA
= Pa dA + g h dA

F = Pa A + g Y sin dA
= Pa A + g sin Y dA
1
= Pa A + g sin A
A
Y dA Y'CG

A
= Pa A + g sin YCG
)A
F = ( Pa + g sin YCG

## 5 Created by H. Sheibani 2015

CME 310 Chapter Two

## Center of Pressure (Point of application) of inclined surface

Taking the moments about x-axis and y-axis through
PT O)
FYCP = yPdA = y ( Pa + gY sin )dA
0
= yPa dA + g sin Y dA
vanishes by definition of centroidal axes
Let Y = YCG
y
0 0
{
y dA y 2 dA
FYCP = yPa dA + g sin YCG }
= g sin y 2 dA
Ixx moment of Inertia about the x-axis?

FYCP = g sin I xx
PCG AYCP = g sin I xx
I xx sin
YCP = g (2)
PCG A

FX CP = xPdA = x[ Pa + g (YCG
y ) sin ]dA
0 0

= xPa dA + gYCG
sin xdA g sin xy dA
FX CP = g sin I xy

I xy
X CP = g sin (3)
PCG A

## 6 Created by H. Sheibani 2015

CME 310 Chapter Two

## Gage pressure formula

Pa = 0
(1) F = Pa A + ghCG A = PCG A
F = ghCG A (1)'
I sin gI xx sin
(2) YCP = g xx =
PCG A g hCG A
I sin
YCP = xx (2)'
hCG A

I xy sin
(3) X CP =
hCG A

## 7 Created by H. Sheibani 2015

CME 310 Chapter Two

moment of Inertia

X CG = b / 2
L/2 YCG = L / 2
L
A = bL
CG
I xx = y 2 dA
b/2 L/2
b/2 = b / 2 dx L / 2 y 2 dy
L
b
b/2 y3 2 bL3
b/2 L/2
= b / 2 dx =
I xy = b / 2 xdx L / 2 ydy L
3 12
2
L
b/2 y2 2
= b / 2 xdx
2 L
2

b/2 1 l2 l2
= b / 2 xdx ( )=0
2 4 4

S
bL
A=
2L/3 2
bL3
I xx =
CG 36
L/3
b(b 2s ) L3
b/2 b/2
I xy =
72

## 8 Created by H. Sheibani 2015

CME 310 Chapter Two

A = R 2
R 4
I xx = y 2 dA
y
I xx =
x 4
I xy = 0 I xy = xydA
R

y = r cos

## x = r sin dxdy = rdrd

y
A= R2
2
x
4R
3 I xx = 0.10976 R 4
R R

I xy = 0

## 9 Created by H. Sheibani 2015

CME 310 Chapter Two

d = (1m)(sin )

WATE d
1
hC CG
O 2
10m
F
CG
C
R 1m
2
R x y
R
CG
C
YC

## a) F ? b) YCP ? XCP ? c) RH, RV ? d) R

a) h = hCG = 9m + (1m)(sin 30o ) = 9 + .5 = 9.5m
A = Area = 2 1 = 2m 2
F = g hCG A = (9806)(9.5)(2) = 1.86314 105 N
I sin I sin
b) YCP = xx ; X CP = xy
hA hA
bl 3 1 23 2
I xx = = = m I xy = 0
12 12 3
0.667(sin 30o )
YCP = = 0.0175m X CP = 0
(9.5)(2)
c) FH = 0 = RH + FH RH = FH sin = FH / F
RH = F sin = 0.9315 105 sin 30o = 0.46575 105 N
FV = 0 = RV + FV RV = FV
RV = F cos = 16135 N

## 10 Created by H. Sheibani 2015

CME 310 Chapter Two

neglect Pa
Ben Zenc

150c
at 20oC

A A S

45c
y
F x
CG CP
B,C B C
30c

## a) What is F? b) What are XCP,YCP?

bL (.3)(.45)
Area = = = .0675m 2
2 2
o
sin = sin 90 = 1
a) F = ( g )
Benz h A
N
= (8640) 3 (.45)(m)(.0675)(m 2 ) = 262 Newton
m

bl 3 .3 (.45)3
I xx = = = 7.6 10 4
36 36
b(b 2 s ) L2 .3(.3 ( 2)(.3) )(.45) 2
I xy = = = 2.9 10 3
72 72
I sin 1
YCP = xx = = 0.025m
hA (.45)(.0675)
I xy sin 1
X CP = = = + 0.00833m
hA (.45)(.0675)

## 11 Created by H. Sheibani 2015

CME 310 Chapter Two

2-32
d)
2
R = RH + RV2 = (16135) 2 + (93157) 2
= 9.454 10 4 N

different approach
Moment about M + = 0 = F(1 + 0.0175) R(2)

R=
2
R = 9.4 10 4 N

## 12 Created by H. Sheibani 2015

CME 310 Chapter Two

## 2) Hydrostatic forces on curved surfaces

Since pressure always acts normal z

## to area, the forces on each in finitesimal x

P
area have different directions. y

P dFV= dFy
The force on each element of area

may be broken into horizontal and dFH= dFx
dAcos

vertical components. dA

## But dA cos is dAx (the horizontal projection of dA)

Fx = PdAx
Datum
We can calculate the horizontal
component force on a curved area by hC,P A

## calculating the force on the horizontal

projection of the area.

Patm

Ax

## 13 Created by H. Sheibani 2015

CME 310 Chapter Two

Fx = hCGx Ax
= Pressure force exerted on the projection area of the
curved surface on a plane to x-axis.

## The line of action of the horizontal force passes

through the center of pressure of the projected area.

dFV = PdA cos

## For a surface submerged in a liquid with free surface,

P =h
FV = dFV = h cos dA
Datum
Now h cos dA is

## where V is the volume between the

curved surface and the free surface.
So the vertical force is equal to the
weight of fluid above the surface. Patm

## 14 Created by H. Sheibani 2015

CME 310 Chapter Two

FV =
The line of action of the vertical component of the
force is through the centroid of the volume .

Extension of
free surface

## The only different that

The force will act upward
rather downward.

## Note: You should always remember that pressure force acts

from the liquid toward the surface.