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CME 310 Chapter Two

Pressure Forces on Surface

When a surface with a finite area is in contact with a


fluid, a force is exerted on the surface because of the fluid
pressure.
To completely specify the resultant force we must
determine
1) magnitude
2) line of action
3) point of application
dFn
P
dA
dFn = PdA
To integrate 1) change the parameter to integration for
2) in the curved area

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CME 310 Chapter Two

1) Force on Plane Surface P0

assume its uniform A & P L

F = PdA = PA = L hA + Patm A h F
P
P P P P P

The force would be the same


for both tanks although the P0

amount of liquid contained in


r
h g
the tank is less.
L

Consider now the force due to pressure on a vertical


surface
water
P0
dF = PdA = Pl dy (1) x
dy
L
P( h) = Patm + L h (2) dF y

(2) in (1)
dF = ( Patm + L h)l dy l

Usually the outside of the tank experiences


atmospheric pressure(Patm), so
dF = ( Patm + L y )l dy Patm l dy
= L y l dy

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CME 310 Chapter Two

h lh2 h
Fnet = 0 L l y dy =L
2
= lh
2
h
Fnet = A
2

Center of Pressure

P0
x
dy
Uniform Pressure F Patm dA y

F = P0 A

We determine the point of application of the resultant


force by equaling the moment of the resultant force to the
moment of the distributed force. Taking the moment about
the x-axis.
h h
FYCP = 0 YPdA = 0 YPl dy
where YCP is the y-location of the center of pressure.

h h2 d
FYCP = P0l 0 ydy =P0l = P0 (l d )
2 2

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CME 310 Chapter Two

since F = P0 A = P0 l d

1 d
P0 l d = P0 (l d )
CP 2
1 d
=
CP 2
If the pressure is subject to a uniform pressure, the
center of pressure is the centroid.

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CME 310 Chapter Two

Lecture #5
2.5 Hydrostatic forces on inclined surfaces
Pa
O

h(x,y)
hCG Y'
F

side view

y d
CG
C

x
1
dF = PdA h = Y sin center of gravity =
YCG
A
Y dA
CG coincides w/ origin. dF = PdA
F = PdA = ( Pa + g h)dA
= Pa dA + g h dA
= Pa dA + g h dA

F = Pa A + g Y sin dA
= Pa A + g sin Y dA
1
= Pa A + g sin A
A
Y dA Y'CG

A
= Pa A + g sin YCG
)A
F = ( Pa + g sin YCG

F = ( Pa + ghCG ) A = PCG A (1)

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CME 310 Chapter Two

Center of Pressure (Point of application) of inclined surface


Taking the moments about x-axis and y-axis through
PT O)
FYCP = yPdA = y ( Pa + gY sin )dA
0
= yPa dA + g sin Y dA
vanishes by definition of centroidal axes
Let Y = YCG
y
0 0
{
y dA y 2 dA
FYCP = yPa dA + g sin YCG }
= g sin y 2 dA
Ixx moment of Inertia about the x-axis?

FYCP = g sin I xx
PCG AYCP = g sin I xx
I xx sin
YCP = g (2)
PCG A

FX CP = xPdA = x[ Pa + g (YCG
y ) sin ]dA
0 0

= xPa dA + gYCG
sin xdA g sin xy dA
FX CP = g sin I xy

I xy
X CP = g sin (3)
PCG A

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CME 310 Chapter Two

Gage pressure formula

Pa = 0
(1) F = Pa A + ghCG A = PCG A
F = ghCG A (1)'
I sin gI xx sin
(2) YCP = g xx =
PCG A g hCG A
I sin
YCP = xx (2)'
hCG A

I xy sin
(3) X CP =
hCG A

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CME 310 Chapter Two

moment of Inertia

X CG = b / 2
L/2 YCG = L / 2
L
A = bL
CG
I xx = y 2 dA
b/2 L/2
b/2 = b / 2 dx L / 2 y 2 dy
L
b
b/2 y3 2 bL3
b/2 L/2
= b / 2 dx =
I xy = b / 2 xdx L / 2 ydy L
3 12
2
L
b/2 y2 2
= b / 2 xdx
2 L
2

b/2 1 l2 l2
= b / 2 xdx ( )=0
2 4 4

S
bL
A=
2L/3 2
bL3
I xx =
CG 36
L/3
b(b 2s ) L3
b/2 b/2
I xy =
72

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CME 310 Chapter Two

A = R 2
R 4
I xx = y 2 dA
y
I xx =
x 4
I xy = 0 I xy = xydA
R

y = r cos

x = r sin dxdy = rdrd


y
A= R2
2
x
4R
3 I xx = 0.10976 R 4
R R

I xy = 0

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CME 310 Chapter Two

Example to be given in class


d = (1m)(sin )


WATE d
1
hC CG
O 2
10m
F
CG
C
R 1m
2
R x y
R
CG
C
YC

a) F ? b) YCP ? XCP ? c) RH, RV ? d) R


a) h = hCG = 9m + (1m)(sin 30o ) = 9 + .5 = 9.5m
A = Area = 2 1 = 2m 2
F = g hCG A = (9806)(9.5)(2) = 1.86314 105 N
I sin I sin
b) YCP = xx ; X CP = xy
hA hA
bl 3 1 23 2
I xx = = = m I xy = 0
12 12 3
0.667(sin 30o )
YCP = = 0.0175m X CP = 0
(9.5)(2)
c) FH = 0 = RH + FH RH = FH sin = FH / F
RH = F sin = 0.9315 105 sin 30o = 0.46575 105 N
FV = 0 = RV + FV RV = FV
RV = F cos = 16135 N

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CME 310 Chapter Two

Example to be given in class

neglect Pa
Ben Zenc

150c
at 20oC

A A S

45c
y
F x
CG CP
B,C B C
30c

a) What is F? b) What are XCP,YCP?


bL (.3)(.45)
Area = = = .0675m 2
2 2
o
sin = sin 90 = 1
a) F = ( g )
Benz h A
N
= (8640) 3 (.45)(m)(.0675)(m 2 ) = 262 Newton
m

bl 3 .3 (.45)3
I xx = = = 7.6 10 4
36 36
b(b 2 s ) L2 .3(.3 ( 2)(.3) )(.45) 2
I xy = = = 2.9 10 3
72 72
I sin 1
YCP = xx = = 0.025m
hA (.45)(.0675)
I xy sin 1
X CP = = = + 0.00833m
hA (.45)(.0675)

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CME 310 Chapter Two

2-32
d)
2
R = RH + RV2 = (16135) 2 + (93157) 2
= 9.454 10 4 N

different approach
Moment about M + = 0 = F(1 + 0.0175) R(2)

(1.863 105 )(1.0175)


R=
2
R = 9.4 10 4 N

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CME 310 Chapter Two

2) Hydrostatic forces on curved surfaces


Since pressure always acts normal z

to area, the forces on each in finitesimal x


P
area have different directions. y

P dFV= dFy
The force on each element of area

may be broken into horizontal and dFH= dFx
dAcos

vertical components. dA

We consider first the horizontal (x) component

dFx = dF cos = PdA cos

But dA cos is dAx (the horizontal projection of dA)

Fx = PdAx
Datum
We can calculate the horizontal
component force on a curved area by hC,P A

calculating the force on the horizontal


projection of the area.

Patm

Ax

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CME 310 Chapter Two

Fx = hCGx Ax
= Pressure force exerted on the projection area of the
curved surface on a plane to x-axis.

The line of action of the horizontal force passes


through the center of pressure of the projected area.

Consider the vertical component


dFV = PdA cos

For a surface submerged in a liquid with free surface,


P =h
FV = dFV = h cos dA
Datum
Now h cos dA is

where V is the volume between the



curved surface and the free surface.
So the vertical force is equal to the
weight of fluid above the surface. Patm

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CME 310 Chapter Two

FV =
The line of action of the vertical component of the
force is through the centroid of the volume .

If the liquid is under the surface


Extension of
free surface

The only different that


The force will act upward
rather downward.

Note: You should always remember that pressure force acts


from the liquid toward the surface.

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