Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 12

Material Balance

Thomas A. Blasingame, Ph.D., P.E.


Department of Petroleum Engineering Texas A&M University
College Station, TX 77843-3116 (USA)
+1.979.845.2292
t-blasingame@tamu.edu
Orientation Material Balance Slide 1
Material Balance
Preliminary Self-Evaluation
Self-Evaluation: Material Balance
zFamiliarity with reservoir pressure determination.
zUnderstanding of reservoir drive mechanisms.

Orientation Material Balance Slide 2


Material Balance
Subtasks
Tasks: Material Balance
zOil MBE (must know all data, also cf(p)).
zGas MBE (abnormal pressure, water drive).
Topics: Material Balance
z"Accounting" Concept of Material Balance:
Require all inflows/outflows/generations.
(Average) reservoir pressure profile is REQUIRED.
Require rock, fluid, and rock-fluid properties (at some scale).
zOil Material Balance:
Less common than gas material balance (pressure required).
zGas Material Balance:
Volumetric dry gas reservoir (p/z versus Gp (straight-line)).
Abnormally-pressured gas reservoirs (various techniques).
Waterdrive/water influx cases (always problematic)Material
Balance yields RESERVOIR VOLUME!

Orientation Material Balance Slide 3


Reservoir Engineering (Material Balance)
Concept Diagram Material Balance of a Petroleum Reservoir

z General Concept of Material Balance...

a. Initial reservoir conditions. b. Conditions after producing Np STB


of oil, and Gp SCF of gas, and Wp
z From: Petroleum Reservoir Engineering STB of water.
Amyx, Bass, and Whiting (1960).

z Material Balance: Key Issues


Must have accurate production measurements (oil, water, gas).
Estimates of average reservoir pressure (from pressure tests).
Suites of PVT data (oil, gas, water).
Reservoir properties: saturations, formation compressibility, etc.
Orientation Material Balance Slide 4
Reservoir Engineering (Material Balance)
Average Reservoir Pressure for Material Balance
z Average Reservoir Pressure

z From: Engineering Features of the Schuler Field


and Unit Operation Kaveler (SPE-AIME, 1944).

z Average Reservoir Pressure: Key Issues


Must "average" pressures over volume or area (approximation).
Pressure tests must be representative (pavg extrapolation valid).
Can average using cumulative production (surrogate for volume).
Orientation Material Balance Slide 5
Reservoir Engineering (Material Balance)
z From: Application of the Material Balance Oil Material Balance Case (1/2)
to a Partial Waterdrive Reservoir van
Everdingen (SPE, 1953).

z Black Oil Material Balance Case: (Example)


Note that all fluid functions are given: Np, Wp, and GOR (for Gp).
Average reservoir pressure is presumed correct.
Authors cite "partial waterdrive" remains a contentious issue.
Orientation Material Balance Slide 6
Reservoir Engineering (Material Balance)
Oil Material Balance Case (2/2)

z Oil Material Balance Relations:


"Black Oil" Material Balance: (p>pb )
1 Bo
p = pi Np
Nct Boi
"Solution Gas Drive" (Oil) Material Balance: (all p)
[ ]
Np Bo + ( R p Rs ) Bg + Wp Bw = (Withdrawal (RB))

[
N ( Bo Boi ) + ( Rsi Rs ) Bg ] (Oil Expansion (RB))

Bg
+ mNBoi 1 (Gas Cap Expansion (RB))
Bgi
(cw S wi + c f )
+ (1 + m) NBoi ( pi p ) (Water Exp./Pore Vol. Comp. (RB))
(1 S wi )
+ We Bw (Water Influx (RB))

Orientation Material Balance Slide 7


Reservoir Engineering (Material Balance)
Gas Material Balance Case (1/4)

z Gas Material Balance Relations:


General Gas Material Balance:
p
[1 ce ( p )( pi p )] =
z
pi pi 1

zi zi G
Gp Ginj + Wp Rsw + 5.615
1
[
(Wp Winj ) Bw We ]
Bg
"Dry Gas" Material Balance: (no reservoir liquids )
p pi
= 1 1 G
z zi G p
"Abnormal Pressure" Material Balance: (cf=f(p))
p pi 1 Gp
= 1
z zi [1 ce ( p)( pi p)] G

1 VpNNP VpAQ
ce ( p ) = S wi cw + c f + + (c w + c f )
(1 S wi ) VpR VpR
Orientation Material Balance Slide 8
Reservoir Engineering (Material Balance)
Gas Material Balance Case (2/4)

z "Dry Gas" Material Balance: Normally Pressured Reservoir Example


Volumetric reservoir no external energy (gas expansion only).
p/z versus Gp yields unique straight-line trend.
Linear extrapolation yield gas-in-place (G).
Orientation Material Balance Slide 9
Reservoir Engineering (Material Balance)
Gas Material Balance Case (3/4)

z "Dry Gas" Material Balance: Abnormally Pressured Reservoir Example


Volumetric reservoir no water influx or leakage.
p/z versus Gp yields unique quadratic trend (from approximated MBE).
Quadratic extrapolation yield gas-in-place (G).
Orientation Material Balance Slide 10
Reservoir Engineering (Material Balance)
Gas Material Balance Case (4/4)

a. Gas Material Balance Plot: p/z vs. Gp b. Gas Material Balance Plot: p/z vs. Gp
simulated performance. Note effect of simulated performance. Note effect of
aquifer permeability on field performance. displacement efficiency (Ep).

z Gas Material Balance: Water Drive Gas Reservoir


Pressure (hence p/z) is maintained during production via communication
with an unsteady-state aquifer (this study).
From: Unsteady-State Performance of Water Drive Gas Reservoirs,
Agarwal (Texas A&M Ph.D., 1967).
Orientation Material Balance Slide 11
Material Balance

End of Module

Thomas A. Blasingame, Ph.D., P.E.


Department of Petroleum Engineering Texas A&M University
College Station, TX 77843-3116 (USA)
+1.979.845.2292
t-blasingame@tamu.edu
Orientation Material Balance Slide 12