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ASSISTANT: JASMINA TEVI, jasmina.tevsic@gmail.com


Max. Min. points

points (51%)

Mid-term 20 11

End-term 20 11_

Final exam 60 31

Summary 100 53

A Introduction

The present continuous means that we are in the middle of an action.

B Form

The present continuous is the present tense of be + an ing-form.

/ am looking OR I'm looking
you/we/they are looking OR you/we/they're looking
he/she/it is looking OR he/she/it's looking

I'm not looking
you/we/they aren't looking
he/she/it isn't looking

am I looking?
are you/we/they looking?
is he/she/it looking?
I'm getting the lunch ready. The train is coming, look.
We're looking for a post office. Rachel isn't wearing her new dress.
What are you doing? Who is Vicky dancing with?

C Use

We use the present continuous to say that we are in the middle of an action.
I'm waiting for the train. (I'm at the station now.)
I'm getting the lunch ready. (I'm in the kitchen now.) I'm waiting means that I am in the
middle of a period of waiting. The wait is not yet over.

We can also use the present continuous when we are in the middle of something but not actually doing it at
the moment of speaking.
/ must get hack to the office. We're working on a new project.
I'm quite busy these days. I'm doing a course at college.

We can use the present continuous when things are changing over a long period.
The number of cars on the road is increasing. The earth is slowly getting warmer.
Future meaning: I'm playing badminton with Matthew tomorrow.

Ex. 1. Complete the following sentences, using the Present Continuous tense of the verb provided.

1. I _____________________________ to the news at the moment. (listen)

2. The students _________________________ to school now. (go)
3. Mr. Smith ____________________________ for the bus. (wait)
4. For the time being, Mary __________________________ as a secretary. (work)
5. Our friends __________________________ Disney World today. (visit)
6. The train ____________________________ at the station at this time. (arrive)
7. You ___________________________ the exercises well now. (do)
8. They __________________________ the weekend in Miami. (spend)
9. Look! The bus ___________________________ over there! (come)
10. Listen! Those children ____________________________ Spanish! (speak)
11. Theres a man in the garden. He _________________________ the grass. (cut)
12. There are several students in the gym. They __________________________ (work out)

Ex. 2. Change into a) negative and b) interrogative

1. The children are watching TV

2. Johns having breakfast now.
3. Bills answering the phone.
4. Im helping John with the work
5. The girls washing the dishes.
6. The cadets sleeping in class.
7. Its raining very hard now.
8. The students are writing a composition.

9. Youre doing the exercise correctly.
10. The dogs drinking milk.
11. The boys singing an English song.
12. Were making a lot of progress.

Ex. 3. Ask questions using questions word like What, Where, Why, etc.

1. Marys eating an apple now. ___________________________________________________

2. John and his friends are watching TV. ___________________________________________________
3. Theyre living in Bristol at present. ___________________________________________________
4. Im answering a letter. ___________________________________________________
5. The students are reading a story. ___________________________________________________
6. George is travelling by plane. ___________________________________________________
7. He isnt working because its Sunday. ___________________________________________________
8. Billys wearing the new sweater. ___________________________________________________
9. Im singing because Im happy. ___________________________________________________
10. The men are running now. ___________________________________________________
11. Im trying to open the window. ___________________________________________________
12. Theyre looking at the horses. ___________________________________________________

Ex. 4. Complete the dialogs using the verbs provided in the Present Continuous tense. Study them and practise
them with a friend:

1. Hans : Hello, Bob! Where ______ you ____________? ( go)

Bob : To the post offi ce.
Hans : I ___________ (go) there, too. Why ______nt you ____________ (drive) your car?
Bob : Its in the garage. They ____________ ( fi x) the brakes.
2. Jane : Wheres Billy?
Peter : Hes in his room.
Jane : What ______ he ___________?(do) I dont think he ____________(sleep).
Peter : No, he isnt. He ____________ (study) for a test.
Jane : He ______ always ____________ ! (study). Thats why he ___________ (do) so well at school this year
Peter : Well, he ____________ (plan) to study engineering, you know..
3. Robert : Where are the children?
Mary : Billy ____________ (watch) TV in the living-room. And Bettys in the kitchen. I think
she ____________ (cook) dinner. And Jims in his room. He ____________ (sleep), of course!
Robert : Well, lets go for a walk,then.
Mary : Great! Lets do that.

Ex.5. Complete the sentences: He buys a notebook. Look, he is buying a notebook.

1. He goes to school. Look, he __________________________ to school!

2. He drinks a coffee. Look, he __________________________ a coffee!

3. I swim every day. Look, I __________________________ !

4. She washes her hair. Look, she __________________________ her hair!

5. The cat always drinks its milk. Look, it __________________________ its milk!

6. We dance in the living room. Look, we __________________________ in the living room!

7. They run to church. Look, they __________________________to church!

8. You write an email. Now, you __________________________ an email.

9. Mother cooks in the kitchen. Right now, mother __________________________ in the kitchen.

10. The monkey eats bananas. Look, the monkey __________________________ a banana!

11. In the afternoon we watch TV. We __________________________ at the moment.

12. They have breakfast. Look, They __________________________ their breakfast!

13. Father drives a big car. At the moment father __________________________ a little red car.

14. The penguin swims very well. Look, the two little penguins __________________________ !

15. The children have their breakfast. The children __________________________ their breakfast now.


A Use

We use the present simple for:

thoughts and feelings: / think so, I like it.
states, things staying the same, facts and
things that are true for a long time:
We live quite near.
repeated actions: We come here every week.
and also
in phrases like I promise, I agree, etc:
I promise I'll pay you back.
in a negative question with why to make a
suggestion: Why don't we go out?
the future meaning of the present simple: The new term starts next week.

B Positive forms

I/you/we/they get
he/she/it gets
In the present simple we use the verb without an ending.
I get the lunch ready at one o'clock, usually. We always do our shopping at Greenway.
Most children like ice-cream. You know the answer.
But in the third person singular (after he, she, it, your friend, etc), the verb ends in s or es. For spelling
rules see page 370.
It gets busy at weekends. My husband thinks so, too.
Sarah catches the early train. She faxes messages all over the world.

C Negatives and questions

I/you/we/they do not get OR don't get do I/we/you/they get?
he/she/it does not get OR doesn't get does he/she/it get?
We use a form of do in negatives and questions. We use do and don't except in the third person singular, where we use
does and doesn't.
We don't live far away. He doesn't want to go shopping.
Do you live here? ~ Yes, I do. What does he want? ~ Money.
We do not add s to the verb in negatives and questions.
NOT He-doesn't gets and NOT Does he gets?

Ex. 1. Complete the conjugation of the following verbs:

Affirmative Negative Interrogative

a. I work here every day I dont work here every day Do I work here every day?
You __________________________ You ________________________ ______ you _______________ ?
Bill ___________________________ Bill ________________________ _______ Bill _______________ ?
Ann __________________________ Ann _______________________ ______ Ann _______________ ?
We __________________________ We _________________________ _______ we _______________ ?
They _________________________ They _______________________ ______ they _______________ ?

b. I watch TV after dinner I dont watch TV after dinner Do I watch TV after dinner?
You __________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ?
Bill ___________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ?
Ann __________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ?
We __________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ?
They _________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ?

c. I go to the movies every night I dont ______________________ Do I ______________________ ?

You __________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ?
Bill ___________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ?
Ann __________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ?
We __________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ?
They _________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ?

d. I play tennis on Saturday ___________________________ __________________________ ?

You __________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ?
Bill ___________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ?
Ann __________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ?
We __________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ?
They _________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ?

e. I study English every day ___________________________ __________________________ ?

You __________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ?
Bill ___________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ?
Ann __________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ?
We __________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ?
They _________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ?

f. I have dinner at work. ___________________________ __________________________ ?

You __________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ?
Bill ___________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ?
Ann __________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ?
We __________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ?
They _________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ?

g. I do the exercises well ___________________________ __________________________ ?
You __________________________ ___________________________ __________________________?
Bill ___________________________ ___________________________ __________________________?
Ann __________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ?
We __________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ?
They _________________________ ___________________________ __________________________ ?

Ex. 2. Complete the following sentences using the Simple Present Tense of the verbs given in brackets.

1. The children _____________________ at this time every morning. (get up)

2. We seldom ________________________ to the North in the summer. (go)
3. I ____________________________breakfast at 7:15 every morning. (have)
4. John ____________________ the newspaper on the train every day. (read)
5. The students sometimes ______________________ rugby at school. (play)
6. Peter _________________ bridge with his friends every Friday night. (play)
7. The train ___________________ in London at 7:50 every morning. (arrive)
8. Myriam _______________________the fl oor once or twice a week. (wash)
9. I never __________________________________Spanish at school. (speak)
10. The manager generally _______________ the offi ce after 8:00 p.m. (leave)
11. My wife and I often __________________________ in that restaurant. (eat)
12. Mr Smith ______________________ TV after dinner every evening. (watch)

Ex. 3. Ask questions using wh-words like WHAT, WHERE, WHEN, HOW, etc.

1. She lives near Wimbledon. _______________________________________________ ?

2. They play golf twice a week. _______________________________________________ ?
3. They get up at 7:15 every morning. _______________________________________________ ?
4. The students need more practice. _______________________________________________ ?
5. John goes to Pucn in the summer. _______________________________________________ ?
6. Mary comes to work by bus. _______________________________________________ ?
7. We go to the club on Friday. _______________________________________________ ?
8. They go to the park on Sunday. _______________________________________________ ?
9. Mary goes shopping on Saturday. _______________________________________________ ?
10. They need twenty dollars. _______________________________________________ ?
11. They have two cars now. _______________________________________________ ?
12. He walks to work because he hasnt got a car. _______________________________________________ ?
13. They dont like the car because its too small. _______________________________________________ ?
14. She usually sleeps six hours every night. _______________________________________________ ?

Ex. 4. Complete the sentences using one of the following:
cause(s) open(s) close(s) speak(s) drink(s) live(s) take(s) place

1. Ann __________________________ German very well.

2. I never ___________________________ coffee.
3. The swimming pool _________________________at 9:00 a.m and ____________________ at 6:30 p.m. every day.
4. Bad driving __________________________ many accidents.
5. My grand parents ________________________ in a very small apartment.
6. The Olympic Games ___________________________every four years.

Ex. 5. Put the verb into the correct form.

1. Janet ______________________________ tea very often. (not / drink)

2. What time ________________________________in Britain? (banks / close)
3. A: Where __________________________________from? (Martin / come) B: Hes Scottish.
4. A: What __________________________________? (you / do) B: Im an electrical engineer.
5. It __________________________me an hour to get to work. (take) How long __________________ you? (it / take)
6. I ___________________________the piano (play) but I _____________________ it very well (not / play).
7. I dont understand this sentence. What _____________________________________(this word / mean)?

Ex. 6. Use one of the following verbs to complete these sentences. Sometimes you need the negative:
believe eat go flow make rise grow tell translate

1. The earth _____________________________________ round the sun.

2. Rice ___________________________________ in Britain.
3. The sun _____________________________________ in the east.
4. Bees __________________________________ honey.
5. Vegetarians _______________________________________ meat.
6. An atheist ____________________________________ in God.
7. An interpreter ______________________________________ from one language into another.
8. A liar is someone who ____________________________________ the truth.
9. The River Amazon ____________________________ into the Atlantic Ocean.



We use the present continuous for something We use the present simple for repeated actions. /
happening now. / am speaking to you live means often speak live to the camera means that she does
that Kitty is in the middle of a live broadcast. it again and again.
Here are some more examples. It always rains at the weekend.
It's raining at the moment. I watch television most weekends.
I'm watching this programme. He's a photographer. He takes lots of photos.
Look. That man is taking a photo of you.

B Thoughts, feelings and states

We normally use the present simple to talk about thoughts and feelings.
/ think it's a good programme. Kitty likes her job. We also use it
to talk about states and permanent facts.
Reporting means a lot to her. Paper burns easily. We also use
the present simple in I promise, I agree, I refuse, etc.
I promise I'll write to you. It's all right. I forgive you.

C Temporary or permanent?


We use the present continuous for a routine or We use the present simple for a routine or
situation that we see as temporary (for a short situation that we see as permanent.
period). / work at a sports shop. It's a permanent job.
I'm working at a sports shop for six weeks. They live in a very nice flat.
At the moment they're living in a very small flat.

D Always


We can use always with the present continuous to Always with the present simple means 'every
mean 'very often', usually with the added meaning time'.
of too often'. Tom always invites us to stay at Christmas.
Tom is always inviting friends here. (= He invites us every Christmas.) / always
(= He invites them very often.) make silly mistakes in exams. (= I make
I'm always making silly mistakes. mistakes in every exam.)
(= I make silly mistakes too often.

Ex. 1: Use the Present Continuous or the Simple Present, of the verb given in brackets:

1. My brother Jim __________________________ in Boston at present. (work)

2. The secretary generally _________________________the office at 7:30 every evening. (leave)
3. Mr. Scott ____________________________ the news on TV at the moment. (watch)
4. We seldom _______________________ to the coast in the winter. (go)
5. Look! John __________________________ over there. (come)
6. Mary _________________________ to visit us once or twice a month. (come)
7. For the time being, Tom _____________________________ as a mechanic. (work)
8. Where ________________ they _____________________at present? (live)
9. Where ________________ they usually _________________ in the summer? (go)
10. What _________________ the boy ___________________at the moment? (do)
11. Look! It __________________________ to rain! Lets go inside. (begin)
12. The bar _______________________ at 6:45 and _____________________at 10:30 every day. (open / close)
13. We ________not ___________________ anything special right now.
We ______ just ____________ TV. (do / watch)
14. Hello, Bob! What _____________you _______________ there now? (do)
15. You must always speak to him in English. He ______________ not ________________ Spanish. (understand)
16. Listen! Somebody _______________________ the piano upstairs. Who can it be? (play)
17. What ___________ you ______________________doing when you are at home? (like)
18. Why ____________ you ______________________English now? Are you planning to go to the USA? (study)
19. Why ____________ you always ____________________ home so late every night? (Get)
20. Look at that man. He ___________________________a green uniform. He must be a police offi cer. (wear)

Ex. 2: Use the Present Continuous or the Simple Present, of the verb given in brackets:

1. Shhh!! The little boy (sleep) _____________________ . He (sleep) __________________ for ten hours every night.
2. Right now Im in class and I (sit) _______________________ at my desk. I usually (sit)
the same desk in class every day.
3. Mustafa comes from Saudi Arabia .He (speak) _________________________ Arabic. Arabic is his native language,
but right now he (speak) _____________________English.
4. Our teacher (stand, not) _____________________up right now. He (sit) ______________on the corner of his desk.
5. Its 7 oclock now. Mrs. Blacks at home. She (eat) _________________________________ dinner. She always (eat)
______________________ dinner with her family around six oclock.
6. It (rain, not) __________________right now. The sun (shine) ________________ and the sky (be) ___________blue.
7. (Rain, it), _________________much in the South in the winter?
8. Look out of the window. (Rain, it) ______________________ now? Should I take my umbrella?
9. Its 7:30 a.m. now and the Wilsons are in their kitchen. Mrs. Wilson (sit) ______________________ at the breakfast
table. She (read) ________________________ the morning paper. She (read) ___________________________ the
newspaper every morning. Mr Wilson (pour) ____________________________________ a cup of coffee. He (drink)
_________________________ two cups of coffee every morning before he (go) to work.
Theres a cartoon on TV now, but the children (watch, not) __________________________________ it. They (play)
____________________________ with their toys instead. They usually (watch) _____________________ cartoons
in the morning, but this morning they (pay, not) ____________________________ any attention to the TV. Mr and
Mrs Wilson (watch, not) __________________________ TV either. They (like, not ) __________________________
to watch cartoons.
10. Alice (take, not) ____________________________ the bus to work every day. She usually (walk)
_______________________________instead. (Take, you) _______________________ the bus to get to work every
day, or (walk, you) __________________________________ sometimes?


A Introduction

B Positive forms

A regular past form ends in ed.

It happened very quickly. The van crashed
into the cat I posted the letter yesterday.
We once owned a caravan

Some verbs have an irregular past form.

The car came out of a side road. Vicky rang earlier.
I won the game.
I had breakfast at six. The train left on time. We took some photos.

The past simple is the same in all persons except in the past tense of be.
I/he/she/it was I was ill last week,
you/we/they were Those cakes were nice.

C Negatives and questions

We use did in negatives and questions

I/you/he/she/it/we/they did not stop did I/you/he/she/it/we/they stop?
OR didn't stop
The car did not stop. The driver didn't look to his right.
What did you tell the police? ~ Nothing. Did you ring home? ~ Yes, I did.
We do not use a past form such as stopped or rang in negatives and questions.
NOT The- car didn't stopped and NOT Did you rang?
We also use was and were in negatives and questions.

I/he/she/it was not OR wasn't was I/he/she/it?
you/we/they were OR weren't were you/we/they?
I wasn't very well last week. The gates weren't open.
Where was your friend last night? Was your steak nice?

D Use

We use the past simple for something in the past which is finished.

Emma passed her exam last year.

We went to the theatre on Friday.
Elvis Presley died in 1977.
I knew what the problem was.
When did you buy this car? ~ About three years ago.

Irregular Verbs in English

Ovo je popis najeih nepravilnih glagola u engleskom jeziku. Prva tri su pomoni glagoli (koji dakako mogu biti i
glavni), zatim slijedi 50 opih glagola poredanih po frekvenciji. Ova 53 nepravilna glagola pokrivaju vie od 90%
svih pojava nepravilnih glagola u engleskom jeziku. Prvih 14 pokriva vie od 50% pojava nepravilnih glagola.
Iza broja 50 slijede jo neki esti nepravilni glagoli.

Rank Base Form Past Tense Form Past Participle + hrvatski

be was/were been - biti

do did done - raditi, initi

have had had - imati

1 say said said - rei

2 make made made - (na)praviti

3 go went gone - ii, otii

4 take took taken - uzeti

5 come came come - doi

6 see saw seen - vidjeti

7 know knew known - znati

8 get got got/gotten (US) - dobiti

9 give gave given - dati

10 find found found - (pro)nai

11 think thought thought - misliti

12 tell told told - rei

13 become became become - postati

14 show showed shown - pokazati

15 leave left left - otii, napustiti

16 feel felt felt - osjeati

17 put put put - staviti

18 bring brought brought - donijeti

19 begin began begun - (za)poeti

20 keep kept kept - drati

21 hold held held - drati

22 write wrote written - pisati

23 stand stood stood - stajati

24 hear heard heard - uti

25 let let let - (do)pustiti

26 mean meant meant - znaiti; misliti

27 set set set - (po)staviti

28 meet met met - sresti; upoznati

29 run ran run - trati; rukovoditi

30 pay paid paid - platiti

31 sit sat sat - sjediti

32 speak spoke spoken - govoriti

33 lie lay lain - leati

34 lead led led - voditi

35 read read read - itati

36 grow grew grown - rasti

37 lose lost lost - izgubiti

38 fall fell fallen - pasti

39 send sent sent - (po)slati

40 build built built - graditi

41 understand understood understood - razumjeti

42 draw drew drawn - vui; crtati

43 break broke broken - (s)lomiti

44 spend spent spent - (po)troiti

45 cut cut cut - rezati

46 rise rose risen - podignuti se

47 drive drove driven - voziti; pokrenuti

48 buy bought bought - kupiti

49 wear wore worn - nositi (odjeu)

50 choose chose chosen - birati, izabrati

beat beat beaten - pobijediti

catch caught caught - uhvatiti

cost cost cost - kotati

eat ate eaten - (po)jesti

fight fought fought - boriti se

fly flew flown - letjeti

forget forgot forgotten - zaboraviti

hide hid hidden - sakriti

hit hit hit - udariti

lay laid laid - polei; namjestiti

lend lent lent - posuditi

ride rode ridden - jahati, voziti (se)

sell sold sold - prodati

shine shone shone - sjati, blistati

shoot shot shot - pucati; fotografirati

shut shut shut - zatvoriti

sing sang sung - pjevati

sink sank sunk - (po)tonuti

sleep slept slept - spavati

split split split - razdvojiti, odvojiti

steal stole stolen - ukrasti

strike struck struck - udariti, pogoditi

swim swam swum - plivati

teach taught taught - poduavati

throw threw thrown - baciti

wake woke woken - bdjeti, biti budan

win won won - pobijediti; osvojiti

Ex. 1: Put the verb in brackets in the correct past simple form.

My grandfather had a very exciting life. When he was young, he _________________(live) on a farm in the country.
His parents_________________ (raise) cattle, and he_________________ (look) after the cows. When he was
eighteen, he went to university, where he_________________ (study) Philosophy. He also_________________
(play) the trumpet in a jazz band. When the war started, he_________________ (try) to join the Air Force, but
he_________________ (end) up in the Navy. In the Atlantic, a German torpedo_________________ (rip) a hole in
the side of his ship, and the ship sank. Only five men_________________ (escape). They_________________ (sail)
in a lifeboat back to England. Then he met my grandmother, and they_________________ (marry) after only three
weeks. He says now that he_________________ (want) to marry her very quickly in case he_________________
(die) in the war.

Ex. 2: Rewrite the sentences into negative form:

1. He had a computer _______________________________________________

2. They saw an old house in the mountains. __________________________________
3. Andy washed his father's car. ____________________________________________
4. The children ran in the garden. ___________________________________________
5. Fiona studied French at school. ___________________________________________
6. David cooked lunch at home. _____________________________________________
7. They were at the cinema. ________________________________________________

Ex. 3: Change the following sentences into the Simple Past Tense. Remember that you have to use the word
LAST instead of EVERY in the expressions of time:

1. Peter comes here every week. ______________________________________________________last week.

2. I buy the newspaper every Sunday. ___________________________________________________
3. They go to Europe every year. _______________________________________________________
4. Mary visits her parents every month. __________________________________________________
5. I write to Mary every week-end. ______________________________________________________
6. They eat fish every Friday. __________________________________________________________
7. Bob washes the car every Saturday. ____________________________________________________
8. We watch TV every night. ___________________________________________________________
9. The postman brings a letter every Monday. ______________________________________________
10. We have a test every week. __________________________________________________________
11. The boy reads a book every month. ___________________________________________________
12. I give the boy a present every year. ___________________________________________________
13. Peter drives to Baltimore every Sunday. ________________________________________________
14. We enjoy our vacation every summer. _________________________________________________
15. It rains a lot here every winter. _______________________________________________________
16. They receive a letter every week. _____________________________________________________
17. I sleep well every night. _____________________________________________________________
18. Father tells the boy a story every night. _________________________________________________

19. Mother makes an apple pie every Saturday. ______________________________________________
20. They sell lots of books every year. ____________________________________________________

Ex. 4: Complete the newspaper story about a fire. Put in the past simple forms of the verbs.

Two people () died (die) in a fire in Ellis Street, Oldport yesterday morning. They
(1)......................(be) Herbert and Molly Paynter, a couple in their seventies. The fire
(2).. (start) at 3.20 am. A neighbour, Mr Aziz, (3) (see)
the flames and (4) (call) the fire brigade. He also (5)......... (try) to
get into the house and rescue his neighbours, but the heat (6).. (be) too great. The fire
brigade (7) (arrive) in five minutes. Twenty fire-fighters (8) .. (fight) the fire and finally
(9). (bring) it under control. Two fire-fighters (10) (enter) the
burning building but (11) (find) the couple dead.
Ex. 5: Complete the conversation. Put in the past simple negatives and questions.

Claire: () Did you have (you / have) a nice weekend in Paris?

Mark: Yes, thanks. It was good. We looked around and then we saw a show.
(1) ..................................... (we / not / try) to do too much.
Claire: What sights (2) ........................................... (you / see)?
Mark: We had a look round the Louvre. (3). (I / not / know) there was so much
in there.
Claire: And what show (4)............................................... (you / go) to?
Mark: Oh, a musical. I forget the name. (5) ..................... (I / not / like) it.
Claire: Oh, dear. And (6).............................................. (Sarah / enjoy) it?
Mark: No, not really. But we enjoyed the weekend. Sarah did some shopping, too, but (7) ........................... (I / not /
want) to go shopping.


A Introduction

The past continuous means that at a time in the past we were in the middle of an action.

B Form

The past continuous is the past tense of be + an ing-form.

I/he/she/it was playing

you/we/they were playing

I/he/she/it wasn't playing was I/he/she/it playing?
you/we/they weren't playing were you/we/they playing?

Soft music was playing. People were walking in the park. I wasn't dreaming. I really was in New York City. Why did
you give our secret away? What were you thinking of? Was Matthew already waiting for you when you got there?

C Use

Read this conversation.

Melanie: / rang at about three yesterday afternoon, but you weren't in. I didn't know where you were.

David: Oh, I was helping Mike. We were repairing his car. It took ages. We were working on it all

Melanie: It was raining. 1 hope you weren't doing it outside.

David: No, we were in the garage. So I didn't get wet. But I'm afraid I got oil all over my new trousers.

Melanie: Why were you wearing your new trousers to repair a car? David: / don't know. I forgot I had
them on.

It was raining at three o'clock means that at three o'clock we were in the middle of a period of rain. The rain began
before three and stopped some time after three. We were working all afternoon means that the action went on for the
whole period. David is stressing the length of time that the work went on.

We use the continuous with actions. We do not normally use it with state verbs. For states we use the past simple.
1 didn't know where you were, NOT I wasn't knowing...

Ex. 1. Complete the following sentences using the verbs given in brackets in the Past Continuous Tense:

1. The sun _________________________ when Peter got up this morning. (shine)

2. Bill _________________________the report when Mr. Jenkins entered the room. (read)
3. The students ___________________________ rugby when it began to rain. (play)
4. We ________________________the road when the accident happened. (cross)
5. At that time, everyone _________________________to go to work. (get ready)
6. I ________________________to the coast when the car broke down. (drive)
7. We ________________________near the river that evening. (camp)
8. Ann ________________________in Germany when the war broke out. (live)
9. When we got to the station, the train ________________________ . (leave)
10. We ________________________when the lights went out last night. (have dinner)
11. Mrs. Brown ____________________________ the shopping when she had the accident. (do)
12. Mary and John _______________________________in the park when we saw them yesterday. (walk)

Ex. 2. Change the following sentences into a) negative form and, b) interrogative form :

1. She was having a bath.


2. We were running down the road.


3. The soldiers were doing exercise.


4. Alice was making the beds.


5. The children were watching TV.


6. The men were going to work.


7. The boys were studying for a test.


A Introduction
A reporter is interviewing Mike and Harriet.

Reporter: Mike and Harriet, tell me what you saw.

Harriet: Well, when we were driving home last night, we saw a strange object in the sky.

Mike: As we were coming down the hill into town, it just suddenly appeared in front of us.
We stopped the car and got out.

Harriet: It was a very clear night. The stars were twinkling. Mike: It was a spaceship. It
seemed quite big. It had some strange writing on the side.
And a light was flashing on the top.

Harriet: As we were watching it, it suddenly flew away and disappeared.

B It happened as I was driving

C The sun was shining

Ex.1 Past continuous or simple? (A-B)

David is always having accidents. His girlfriend Melanie is talking about some of the accidents. Write her
sentences from these notes. Each sentence has one verb in the past continuous and one in the past simple.

? when / he / carry / a suitcase / he / drop / it / on his foot

When he was carrying a suitcase, he dropped it on his foot.

? he / break / his leg / when / he / ski

He broke his leg when he was skiing.

1 he / sit down / on a chair / while / I / paint / it

2 as / he / run / for a bus / he / collide / with a lamppost

3 his hair / catch / fire / when / he / cook / chips

4 when / he / hold / a beautiful vase / he / suddenly / drop / it

5 he / sit / in the garden / when / a wasp / sting / him / on the nose

Ex.2. Past Continuous Tense + Simple Past Tense

I used my time well while I _________________________(wait) for my plane - I wrote some emails.
I________________________ (not/work) when my boss walked in my office.
When I _________________________(wait) for the taxi, I saw two car crashes.
Tom _________________________(have) long hair and a beard when he was at university.
It started snowing while I _________________________( (drive) to work.
What _________________________( (you/do) this time last year?
I _________________________(not/call) you at 9 o'clock as arranged because I was having a meeting.
I _________________________(still/sleep) when my wife left for work this morning
Why did you bring your umbrella? _________________________(it/rain) when you left home?

Ex. 3. Complete the sentences. Put in the correct form of each verb. Use the past continuous or past simple.
When Martin arrived (arrive) home, Anna was talking (talk) to someone on the phone. Martin started (start)
to get the tea.
1. I. (lie) in the bath when the phone. (ring).
It (stop) after a few rings.
2. It (be) cold when we ......................... . . . (leave) the house that day, and alight
snow.. ..........................(fall).
3. Your friend who.. ......................... (come) here the other day .......... (seem)
very nice. I.. ............... (enjoy) meeting her.
4. When I (see) the man, he ................................... (stand) outside the bank.
He (have) a black baseball cap on.
5. When I. . . . (open) the cupboard door, a pile of books (fall) out.
6. I (walk) along the street when I suddenly.. (feel)
something hit me in the back. I (not / know) what it was.
We. (go) to London yesterday, but on the way
We.. (hear) about a bomb scare in Oxford Street. So
We (drive) back home straightaway.
7. Something very strange ... (happen) to me on my way home from work yesterday
afternoon. I .. (drive) along the bypass at the time. Suddenly
I. (see) my mother in the seat beside me. But she died three years ago.


Modal verbs are also sometimes called modals.

They are used before ordinary verbs and are used to express meanings such as permission, possibility, certainty and
necessity. Need and dare can be used like modal verbs.

1. can

Use Examples
ability (sposobnost) to do sth. in the present (substitute form: to be able to) I can speak English.
permission (dozvola) to do sth. in the present (substitute form: to be allowed
Can I go to the cinema?
Request (zahtjev) Can you wait a moment, please?
Offer (ponuda) I can lend you my car till tomorrow.
Can we visit Grandma at the
Suggestion (prijedlog)
Possibility (mogunost) It can get very hot in Arizona.

2. could

Use Examples
ability to do sth. in the past (substitute form: to be able to) I could speak English.
permission to do sth. in the past (substitute form: to be allowed to) I could go to the cinema.
polite question * (pristojno, utivo) Could I go to the cinema, please?
polite request * Could you wait a moment, please?
polite offer * I could lend you my car till tomorrow.
polite suggestion * Could we visit Grandma at the weekend?
possibility * It could get very hot in Montana.

3. may

Use Examples
Possibility (mogunost) It may rain today.
permission (dozvola) to do sth. in the present (substitute form: to be allowed to) May I go to the cinema?
polite suggestion (ljubazan prijedlog/ponuda) May I help you?

4. might

Use Examples
Possibility (mogunost) (less possible than may manje mogua nego s may) * It might rain today.
hesitant offer * (neodluna ponuda) Might I help you?

5. must

Use Examples
force, necessity (nunost) I must go to the supermarket today.
Possibility (mogunost) You must be tired.
advice, recommendation (savjet, preporuka) You must see the new film with Brad Pitt.

6. must not/may not

Use Examples
You mustn't work on dad's computer.
Prohibition (zabrana) (must is a little stronger)
You may not work on dad's computer.

7. need not

Use Examples
sth. is not necessary (neto nije potrebno) I needn't go to the supermarket, we're going to the restaurant tonight.

8. ought to

simliar to should ought to sounds a little less subjective

Use Examples
Advice (savjet) You ought to drive carefully in bad weather.
obligation (obaveza) You ought to switch off the light when you leave the room.

9. shall

used instead of will in the 1st person (koristi se umjesto will u prvom licu)

Use Examples
Suggestion (prijedlog) Shall I carry your bag?

10. should

Use Examples
Advice (savjet) You should drive carefully in bad weather.
Obligation (obaveza) You should switch off the light when you leave the room.

11. will

Use Examples
wish, request, demand, order (less polite than would)
Will you please shut the door?
(elja, zahtjev, potranja, ..)
prediction, assumption (pretpostavka) I think it will rain on Friday.
Promise (obeanje) I will stop smoking.
spontaneous decision (spontana odluka) Can somebody drive me to the station? - I will.
Habits (navike) She's strange, she'll sit for hours without talking.

12. would

Use Examples

Use Examples
wish, request (more polite than will) Would you shut the door, please?
habits in the past Sometimes he would bring me some flowers.

* These are no past forms, they refer to the future.


There are three modal verbs used to show ability:

Be Able To



I can play the guitar.

She can speak German.
* Can is always followed by a base verb.


I could sing very well when I was young.

She could read when she was 2 years old.


I will be able to drive a car in 2 years.

He will be able to buy a house next year.

"Able to" is used with many other verb tenses. Take a look at
these examples:

I have been able to visit many countries in my life.

I used to be able to dance the Tango.
I will have been able to finish by tomorrow.


Negatives are formed by using "not".

I can not play piano.
She can't play piano.

She could not finish her homework last night.

They couldn't finish their homework last night.

I will not be able to go to the party tonight.

Susan won't be able to go to the party tonight.


Questions are formed by changing the order of the words.

Can you drive a car?

Could he swim?
Will Doug be able to bring his boots?

Notice that "will be able to" is separated when used in a


Will he be able to finish on time?

Exercise 1: Choose the correct modal verb for these

statements of ability. 5. __________ go to the party tomorrow?
a) Can you
1. 8 years ago, I __________ play the piano. b) Could you
a) can c) Will you be able to
b) could
6. She __________ finish the homework last night.
c) will be able to
a) could no
2. In 3 years I __________ drive. b) couldn't
a) can c) not could
b) could
7. The singer __________ dance very well.
c) will be able to
a) can
3. __________ you hear the music right now? b) can no
a) Can c) could no
b) Could
8. The teacher __________ see the books right now.
c) Could not
a) can't
4. I __________ swim. b) couldn't
a) cant c) can no
b) can't d) could no
c) cant'
9. I __________ vote in the election next year. ___________ finish my homework.
a) could a) can
b) wasn't able to b) can't
c) will be able to c) could
d) couldn't
10. I __________ hear you. Could you please speak
6. She has to work tomorrow, so she ___________
a) can't come to the party.
b) can a) can
c) could no b) couldn't
c) wasn't able to
Exercise 2: Choose the correct modal verb for these
statements of ability. d) won't be able to

7. ___________ you hear the music? It is very quiet.

1. The music teacher ___________ play the piano a) Can
very well. She plays every class.
b) Could
a) can
c) Will be able to
b) could
c) Couldn't
c) will be able to
8. He ___________ come to class yesterday because
he had a doctor's appointment.
2. When I was a child, I ___________ run faster
than I can run now. a) can
a) can b) can't
b) could c) could
c) can't d) couldn't

3. After my classes, I ___________ speak English 9. My boss ___________ meet with us tomorrow.
very well. He will be away all day.
a) can a) could
b) could b) wasn't able to
c) will be able to c) won't be able to
d) will be able to
4. My brother ___________ drive a car. He does not
have his license. 10. This book is very small. I ___________ read the
a) can words on the page.
b) could a) can't
c) can't b) couldn't
d) couldn't c) wasn't able to
c) could
5. I didn't have much time last night, so I


Modal Verbs are used to show obligation.

There are two modal verbs used for obligation: Must and Have to.

Must is for simple present. It usually shows general obligations, like in these examples:

Travelers must show their passport before boarding a

You must use a pencil on the test.

It is formal and normally used in writing. Notice how this example is formal:
*All employees must wear proper safety equipment.

Have to
Have to is not an actual modal verb, but it is used like a modal.
You must conjugate the verb "have" depending on the time and subject.
*I have to work tomorrow. *She has to work tomorrow.

It is used in all tenses.

I had to work last night.

She has had to work every day this week.

"Have to" is less formal than "Must", so it is more common in


Must not and Don't have to

"Must not" and "don't have to" are completely different, but their meanings are often confused.

"Must not" is a negative obligation and shows something that is prohibited, like in these examples:

You must not eat in the computer room. (Food in the computer room is prohibited.)

"Don't have to" shows something that is not necessary.

I don't have to work today. (Working is not necessary.)

Exercise 1: Choose the correct option to fill in the
b) had to
c) have to
1. You ___________ wear a helmet. d) has
a) has to
7. You _________ wear the uniform at all times.
b) have to
a) must
2. You ___________ use a key. b) must to
a) must c) must have
b) must to d) must has

3. She ___________ work tomorrow. 8. You __________ wait until 10 am.

a) must to a) having to
b) must have b) have
c) has to c) have to
d) have to d) to have

4. I __________ finish my homework last night. 9. Students __________ register by last week.
a) must a) must
b) must to b) must to
c) had to c) have to
d) have to d) had to

5. We ___________ use the password. 10. You __________ arrive on time.

a) must a) has to
b) must to b) must to
c) has to c) have to
d) must has to d) have

6. They ___________ bring the money tomorrow.

a) has to

Exercise 2: Choose the correct option to fill in the

blank. 3. Denny ___________ save his money.
a) must to
1. She ___________ work in the moring. b) must have
a) has to c) has to
b) have to d) have to

2. You ___________ wear a jacket. 4. I __________ clean the kitchen yesterday.

a) must a) must
b) must to b) must to
c) had to d) must has
d) have to
8. You __________ bring your identification.
5. We ___________ not speak loudly. a) having to
a) must b) have
b) must to c) have to
c) has to d) to have
d) must has to
9. Students __________ use a pen on the test.
6. Harold and Lenny ___________ finish the a) must
project this week.
b) must to
a) has to
c) has to
b) have
d) have
c) have to
10. Maurice __________ clean his house last night.
d) has
a) has to
7. You _________ use safety glasses at all times.
b) must to
a) must
c) must had to
b) must to
d) had to
c) must have


Listed below are examples and uses of modal verbs of probability. Modal verbs of probability are used to express an
opinion of the speaker based on information that the speaker has. Example: He must be at work, it's 10 o'clock. In this
case, the speaker is 100 % sure that the person is at work based on the speaker's knowledge that the person in
question usually works at during the day.


Use 'must' plus the verb when you are 100% (or almost 100%) sure that something is the case.
Present = must + verb (do)

They must be in Spain by now. They told me they were going last week.
Jack must think I'm crazy because I think grammar is easy!
Past = must have + past participle (done)
Anna is smiling. She must have done well on the test.
Alice must have asked for some help on the test because she got an A.

Might / May

Use 'might' or 'may' to express an opinion that you think has a good possibility of being true.

Present = might / may + verb (do)

She might come this evening, but she also had some work to do.
David may invite Jessica to the match. I know he really likes her.
Past = might / may + have + past participle (done)

Jack might have gone to France for her vacation. I think he wanted to practice French this summer.


Use 'could' to express a possibility which is one of many. This form is not as strong as 'might' or 'may'. It is just one
of a number of possibilities.
Present = could + verb (do)

Jane could be at work, or she could be at home. I'm not sure.

We could hire that company or the other. It doesn't really matter.
Past = could have + past participle (done)

Peter could have arrived late. I know he missed the bus.

Alice was tired. She could have stayed at home today, or she might have gone to work.

Can't / Couldn't

Use 'can't' to express an opinion that you are 100% sure is NOT true. We use 'must be' or 'must have been' if we're
sure in a positive sense, but 'can't be' or 'can't have been / couldn't have been' if we are sure in a negative sense. Note
that the past form remains 'can't have done' in British English, but changes to 'couldn't have done' in American
Present = Can't + verb (do)

You can't be serious! I'm not going to loan you $1 million dollars!
Peter can't like that show. He doesn't enjoy comedy.
Past = Can't / Couldn't + have + past participle (done)

They can't have worked until late because they were on time for the meeting.
She couldn't have believed that story. She knows he's a liar!

1: Talking about the present:

must / might / could / may / can't

must + infinitive
might / might not + infinitive
could / could not + infinitive
may / may not + infinitive
can't + infinitive

For example:
I am waiting for Julie with another friend, David.
I ask: 'Where is Julie?'
David guesses:

She must be on the bus. (I'm fairly sure this is a good guess)
She might come soon. (maybe)
She could be lost. (maybe)
She may be in the wrong room. (maybe)
She can't be at home. (I'm fairly sure this isn't true)

Notice that the opposite of 'must' is 'can't in this case.

Will / won't

We use will and won't when we are very sure:

She'll be at work now.

Should / shouldn't
Should and shouldn't are used to make an assumption about what is probably true, if everything is as we expect:

They should be there by now.

It shouldn't take long to drive here.

This use of should isn't usually used for negative events. Instead, it's a better idea to use will:

The underground will be very busy now (not: 'should be').

Can is used for something that is generally possible, something we know sometimes happens:

Prices can be high in London.

Can is not used to talk about specific possibilities:

He could be on the bus (not: 'can be').

2: Using modal verbs to talk about the past:

must / might / could / may / can't + have + past participle

(Click here to review how to make the past participle)

must have + past participle

might / might not have + past participle

could / couldn't have + past participle
may / may not have + past participle
can't have + past participle

For example:
You: Where was Julie last night?

She must have forgotten about our date.

She might have worked late.
She could have taken the wrong bus.
She may have felt ill.
She can't have stayed at home.

Will / won't + have + past participle

Will and won't / will not + have + past participle are used for past certainty (compare with present use of 'will'

The parcel will have arrived before now.

Should + have + past participle

Should + have + past participle can be used to make an assumption about something that has probably happened, if
everything is as we expect (compare with present use of 'should' above):

The train should have left by now

We can use could + infinitive to talk about a general possibility in the past (compare with the use of 'can' above):

Prices could be high in the sixteenth century.

This is not used to talk about specific possibilites in the past (instead we usecould + have + past participle):

He could have been working late (not: 'could be'. As this is a specific possiblity, 'could be' is present tense)

Exercise 1: Put in must + infinitive or must + have + past participle:

1. Keiko always does really well on exams. She _____________ (study) a lot.

2. That woman drives a very expensive car. She _____________ (have) a lot of money.

3. You _____________ (practise) a lot before you gave your speech. It was really great.

4. When Lizzie got home yesterday, there were flowers on the table. Her husband _____________ (buy) them.

5. Where is my purse? I saw it earlier, so it _____________ (be) in this room.

6. Sarah couldnt find her glasses. She thought she _____________ (leave) them at her office.

7. It _____________ (be) cold outside. That man in the street is wearing a coat.

8. All my plants _____________ (be) dead! I forgot to water them before I left for my holiday.

9. Susie is so late! She _____________ (miss) the train.

10. Theres rubbish all over my garden! A fox _____________ (be) in the bin.

11. Anna has a huge library in her house. She _____________ (love) books.

12. Oh no, I dont have my keys! I _____________ (leave) them in the taxi.

13. When Lucy got home she found the ice cream had melted. It _____________ (be) too hot in the car.

14. If you havent eaten all day, you _____________ (be) hungry.

15. Jimmy and Louisa _____________ (be) very tired. They have a new baby.

16. It _____________ (rain) a lot in the night. There are puddles everywhere.

17. David _____________ (be) happy. His girlfriend just agreed to marry him.

18. What an amazing kitchen youve got! You _____________ (like) cooking.

19. John _____________ (eat) all the biscuits! There are none left.

20. When I got up this morning, the kitchen was spotless. Lily _____________ (tidy) it before she went to bed last

Exercise 2: Put in cant or must:

1. Why is that man looking around like that? He _____________ be lost.

2. That woman _____________ be a doctor! She looks far too young.
3. John always fails the tests, even though hes clever. He _____________ study enough.
4. The food is really good at that restaurant. They _____________ have a great chef.
5. Whos that at the door? It _____________ be Susie shell still be at work now.
6. This _____________ be Johns house. This house has a red door, and its number 24, just like he said.
7. Julie _____________ have much money, or she would buy a new car. Her old one is falling apart.
8. He _____________ be at work now, can he? Its nearly midnight.
9. What a lot of lovely flowers you have! You _____________ really like gardening.
10. David _____________ drink a lot of coffee. Hes finished two packets already this week!
11. This _____________ be Jamies coat. Hes very tall, and this is tiny.
12. Her life _____________ be easy. She has four children and very little money.
13. Wheres Lucy? She _____________ be at the library, as she often goes there at this time.
14. This bill _____________ be right! 50 for two cups of coffee!
15. Emmas amazingly good at the piano. She _____________ practise a lot.

16. The car in front is driving so slowly that I think they _____________ be looking for something.
17. Youve already eaten enough for three people! You _____________ still be hungry!
18. This book _____________ belong to the library. Its certainly not mine.
19. It only takes three hours to fly from London to Sydney? That _____________ be correct!
20. There _____________ be something wrong with the fridge! Its making a very unusual noise.


The zero conditional is called the present real conditional. It is for present actions.

If + subject + Present Simple , subject + Present Simple


If you heat ice, it melts.

Ice melts if you heat it.
If I go to bed late, I wake up late.
You pay higher income taxes when you earn more money.


If you do not exercise, you gain weight.

If you exercise, you do not gain weight.
If I dont study, I dont do well on tests.


Does ice melt if you heat it?

When do you wake up if you have to work?
If you have to work, when do you wake up?

1. Rules

If you take your cell phone into class, it must be turned off.
If you drink alcohol, dont drive.
Do not use a calculator when you write the test.

2. Scientific Facts and General Truths

If you heat water to 100 degrees Celsius, it boils.

If you drop something, it falls.
When you combine oil and water, they do not mix.

3. Cause and Effect

If you push the button, the volume increases.

If you close the door, it locks automatically.
The computer turns off when you disconnect the battery.

4. Routine

I wear my boots when I work.

She uses glasses when she drives.
When I cook, I use olive oil.

Exercise 1: Choose the correct option for these zero conditional sentences.

If you eat fast food,
b) it was hard to hear you speak.
a) you will gain weight.
c) it is hard to hear you spoke.
b) you gains weight.
d) it's hard to hear you will speak.
c) you gain weight.
5. I always wear a jacket
d) you gained weight.
a) when it will be cold.
2. If you study hard,
b) when it is cold.
a) you get good grades.
c) when it was cold.
b) you got good grades.
d) when it is being cold.
c) you getting good grades.
6. He never buys lunch
d) you will get good grades.
a) if he doesn't has cash.
3. When she works early,
b) if he no have cash.
a) she woke up early.
c) if he won't have cash.
b) she will wake up early.
d) if he doesn't have cash.
c) she wake up early.
7. When you heat water,
d) she wakes up early.
a) it boils.
4. When the radio plays,
b) it's boiling.
a) it's hard to hear you speak.
c) boils the water.

c) it was boil. c) if the teacher will be sick?
d) if the teacher is sick?
8. Does ice melt
a) if it is in the sun? 10. Does the computer work
b) if it were in the sun? a) if you use batteries?
c) if they are in the sun? b) if you used batteries?
d) if it will be in the sun? c) if you will use batteries?
c) if you had used batteries?
9. What do you do
a) if the teacher was sick?
b) if the teacher had been sick?
Exercise 2: Make zero conditional sentences:

For example:
(not / rain / the flowers / die)
If it doesnt rain, the flowers die.

1. (I / wake up late / I / be late for work)

2. (my husband / cook / he / burn the food)
3. (Julie / not wear a hat / she / get sunstroke)
4. (children / not eat well / they / not be healthy)
5. (you / mix water and electricity / you / get a shock)

6. (people / eat / too many sweets / they / get fat)

7. (you / smoke / you / get yellow fingers)
8. (children / play outside / they / not get overweight)
9. (you / heat ice / it / melt)
10. (I / speak to John / he / get annoyed)
11. (I / feel good the next day / I / go to bed early)
12. (lots of people / come / Jenny / have a party)
13. (she / buy expensive clothes / she / go shopping)

14. (my daughter / pass her exams / she / work hard)
15. (David / be sick / he / drink milk)
16. (the river / freeze / it / be very cold)
17. (I / like to visit the museums / I / be in a new city)
18. (I / cycle to work / the weather / be fine)
19. (my flatmate / clean it really well / she / clean the house)
20. (everybody / be grumpy / it / rain a lot)

Exercise 3: Make zero conditional sentences:

1. If you press that button, the light______(come) on.

2. It's easier to sleep if______(you / not / be) stressed.
3. The teacher gets angry if___(we / not / work) hard.
4. If _____(I / go) on a boat, I always feel sick.
5. His mother gets annoyed if_____(he / be) late.
6. If_______(I / not / know) a word, I look in my dictionary.
7. They play football if ______(they / not / have) any homework.
8. If you freeze water,_______(it / turn) to ice.


Vicky and Rachel are talking about possible future actions.

They may catch the bus, or they may miss it.

B Type 1: If we hurry, we'll catch the bus If + Subject + Present Subject, subject + will + Infinitive

The verb in the if-clause (e.g. hurry) is in the present simple, not the future.

NOT If we'll hurry, we'll catch the bus. But we can use will in the if-clause when we make a request.
If you'll just wait a moment, I'll find someone to help you. (- Please wait a moment...)

We can use the present continuous (e.g. are doing) or the present perfect (e.g. have done) in the if-clause.
If we're expecting visitors, the flat will need a good clean. If you've finished with the computer, I'll put it away.

The main clause often has will. But we can use other modal verbs (e.g. can). If you haven't got a television, you can't
watch it, can you? If Henry jogs
regularly, he might lose weight. If Matthew is going to a job interview, he should wear a tie.
The if-clause usually comes first, but it can come after the main clause. If I hear any news, I'll phone you./I'll phone
you if I hear any news.

C More uses of type 1

We can use type 1 conditionals in offers and suggestions.
If you need a ticket, I can get you one. If you feel like seeing the sights, we can take a bus tour. We can also use them
in warnings and threats.
If you go on like this, you'll make yourself ill. If you don't apologize, I'll never speak to you again.
Ex.1. Type l (A-C)
Comment on the situations. Use if+ the present tense + will/can.

? It might rain. If it does, everyone can eat inside.

If it rains, everyone can eat inside.

? The children mustn't go near Nick's dog. It'll bite them.

If the children go near Nick's dog, it'll bite them.

1 Rachel might fail her driving test. But she can take it again.

2 United might lose. If they do, Tom will be upset.

3 The office may be closed. In that case Mark won't be able to get in.

4 Nick may arrive a bit early. If he does, he can help Tom to get things ready.

5 The party might go on all night. If it does, no one will want to do any work tomorrow.

6 Emma may miss the train. But she can get the next one.

7 Is Matthew going to enter the race? He'll probably win it

Ex.2. Put the verb into the correct first conditional form:
1. If I __________________ (go) out tonight, I __________________ (go) to the cinema.
2. If you __________________ (get) back late, I __________________ (be) angry.
3. If we __________________ (not / see) each other tomorrow, we __________________ (see) each other next week.
4. If he __________________ (come), I __________________ (be) surprised.
5. If we __________________ (wait) here, we __________________ (be) late.
6. If we __________________ (go) on holiday this summer, we__________________ (go) to Spain.
7. If the weather __________________ (not / improve), we__________________ (not / have) a picnic.
8. If I __________________ (not / go) to bed early, I __________________ (be)tired tomorrow.
9. If we __________________ (eat) all this cake, we __________________(feel) sick.
10. If you __________________ (not / want) to go out, I __________________(cook) dinner at home.
11. I __________________ (come) early if you __________________ (want).
12. They __________________ (go) to the party if they __________________ (be) invited.
13. She __________________ (stay) in London if she __________________ (get) a job.
14. He __________________ (not / get) a better job if he __________________ (not / pass) that exam.
15. I __________________ (buy) a new dress if I __________________ (have) enough money.
16. She __________________ (cook) dinner if you __________________ (go) to the supermarket.
17. They __________________ (go) on holiday if they __________________ (have) time.
18. We __________________ (be) late if we __________________ (not / hurry).
19. She __________________ (take) a taxi if it __________________ (rain).
20. I __________________ (not / go) if you __________________ (not / come) with me


A Introduction

If + Subject + Past perfect Subject + would have/could have/might have + Past participle

Rachel: Would you like some cake, Jessica?

Jessica: No thanks. If I ate cake, I'd get fat.
Rachel: But it's delicious.
Jessica: It looks delicious. Ifl had your figure, I'd eat the whole lot.
I ate cake and / had your figure are imaginary or unreal situations.
Jessica isn't going to eat the cake, and she hasn't got a figure like Rachel's.

B Type 2: If I ate cake, I'd get fat

Note the past simple (e.g. ate). We do not use would in the if-clause. NOT If I'd-ea^eake.
But we can use would in the if-clause when we make a request.
If you'd like to come this way, the doctor will see you now. (= Please come this way ...)

As well as the past simple we can use the past continuous (e.g. was doing) in the if-clause.
If Rachel was playing her stereo, it wouldn't be so quiet in here. In a type 2 if-clause we sometimes use were instead
of was, especially in the clause if I were you.
If Rachel were playing her stereo, it wouldn't be so quiet in here.
If I were you, I'd ask a lawyer for some advice.

The main clause often has would. We can also use could or might.
If we had a calculator, we could work this out a lot quicker.
If Rachel worked harder, she might do even better at her studies.

The if-clause usually comes first, but it can come after the main clause.
If I knew, I'd tell you./I'd tell you if I knew.

C Type 1 and type 2

Compare these examples.

Type 1: If you have a lie-down, you'll feel better
Type 2: Ifl had a million pounds, I'd probably buy a yacht.

The present tense (have) refers to a possible future action, something which may or may not happen.
The past tense (had) refers to something unreal. If I had a million pounds means that I haven't really got a
million pounds, but I am imagining that I have. Compare these examples.
Type 1: If we take the car, we'll have to pay for parking.
Type 2: If we took the car, we'd have to pay for parking.

Here both sentences refer to a possible future action. But in the type 2 conditional, the action is less
probable. If we took the car may mean that we have decided not to take it.

We can use type 2 conditionals in offers and suggestions.

If you needed a ticket, I could get you one.
If you felt like seeing the sights, we could take a bus tour. Type 2 is less direct than type 1.
The speaker is less sure that you want to see the sights.

Ex. 1. Supply the correct form of the verb in brackets:

1. He would have come to the party if he had known (know) about it.
2. If I________________________(have) your address, I would have called on you.
3. If the weather ________________________(be) nice yesterday, they would have gone to the park.
4. If you ________________________ (call) me, I would have been glad to go.
5. If he ________________________ (wear) his overcoat, he would not have caught cold.
6. I would have visited you if I________________________ (know) you were living in New York.
7. If I________________________ (be) in your place, I would have told him.
8. He would have gotten sick if he ________________________ (go) out in the rain.
9. If he________________________ (tell) me the truth, I would not have been so angry.
10. If yesterday ________________________ (be) a holiday, we would have gone to the beach.

Ex. 2. Supply the correct form of the verb in brackets:

1. If he had studied more, he he would have succeeded. (succeed) .

2. If he had not worn his overcoat, he ________________________(catch ) cold.
3. I ________________________ (help) him if he had asked me.
4. He ________________________ (be) angry if he had learned the truth.
5. We ________________________ (come) earlier if we had known about it.
6. We ________________________ (be) glad to meet you if you had invited us.
7. He________________________ (write) to you if he had had your address.
8. I ________________________ (tell) you about it if I had known all the facts.
9. We ________________________ (go) to the movie last night if we had been free.
10. They ________________________ (drive) to the country if they had had a car.

Ex.3. Complete the sentences using Past Unreal Conditional (II conditional):

1) If I ___________________(be) you, I ___________________( (get) a new job. ..

2) If he ___________________( (be) younger, he ___________________( (travel) more. ..

3) If we ___________________( (not/be) friends, I ___________________( (be) angry with you. ..

4) If I ___________________( (have) enough money, I ___________________( (buy) a big house. ..

5) If she ___________________( (not/be) always so late, she ___________________( (be) promoted. ..

6) If we ___________________( (win) the lottery, we ___________________( (travel) the world. ..

7) If you ___________________( (have) a better job, we ___________________( (be) able to buy a new car. ..

8) If I ___________________( (speak) perfect English, I ___________________( (have) a good job. ..

9) If we ___________________( (live) in Mexico, I ___________________( (speak) Spanish. ..

10) If she ___________________( (pass) the exam, she ___________________( (be) able to enter university. ..

Ex.4. Complete the sentences:

1. If she (win) ________ the lottery, she would travel around the world.
2. If she (choose) ________ him as the winner of the beauty contest, he'll buy her some drinks.
3. She (weep) ________ if she finds out he is cheating on her.
4. I would leave him if I (be) ________ you.
5. I'll be happy if it (start) ________ to rain.
6. You would live longer if you (stop) ________ smoking.
7. I (help) ________ him if you do the same.
8. If I found my keys, I (can) ________ leave this town.
9. She would give up if you (not support) ________ her.
10. If people (eat) ________ less fat in Europe, they would live healthier.


The present perfect tells us about the past and the present.
The aircraft has landed means that the aircraft is on the ground now.

B Form

The present perfect is the present tense of have + a past participle.

I/you/we/they have washed OR I/you/we/they've washed
he/she/it has washed OR he/she/it's washed
I/you/we/they haven't washed have I/you/we/they washed?
he/she/it hasn't washed has he/she/it washed?

Regular past participles end in ed, e.g. washed, landed, finished.

We've washed the dishes. Have you opened your letter? The aircraft has landed safely. How many points has
Matthew scored? The students haven't finished their exams.

C Irregular forms

Some participles are irregular.

I've made a shopping list. We've sold our car. I've thought about it a lot.
Have you written the letter? She hasn't drunk her coffee.

There is a present perfect of be and of have.

The weather has been awful. I've had a lovely time, thank you.

D Use

When we use the present perfect, we see things as happening in the past but having a result in the present.

We've washed the dishes. (They're clean now.) The aircraft has landed. (It's on the ground now.)
We've eaten all the eggs. (There aren't any left.) They've learnt the words. (They know the words.)
You've broken this watch. (It isn't working.)

Irregular verbs:

The present perfect (2):
just, already, yet; for and since

A Just, already and yet

We can use the present perfect with just, already and yet.

Just means 'a short time ago'.

Vicky heard about the concert not long ago.

Already means 'sooner than expected'.

They sold the ticketsvery quickly.

We use yet when we are expecting something to happen.

Vicky expects that Rachel will buy a ticket.

Just and already come before the past participle (heard, sold). Yet
comes at the end of a question or a negative sentence.
Here are some more examples:
We've just come back from our holiday.
I've just had an idea.
It isn't a very good party. Most people have already gone home.
My brother has already crashed his new car.
It's eleven o'clock and you haven't finished breakfast yet.
Has your course started yet?

B For and since

We can use the present perfect with for and since.

Vicky has only had that camera for three days. Those people have been at the hotel since Friday.
I've felt really tired for a whole week now.

We've lived in Oxford since 1992. NOT We live-here-since-1992. Here

something began in the past and has lasted up to the present time.

We use for to say how long this period is {for three days). We use since to say when the period began (since Friday).

We use how long in questions.

How long has Vicky had that camera? ~ Since Thursday, I think.
How long have Trevor and Laura been married? ~ Oh, for about three years.

We can also use the present perfect with for and since when something has stopped happening. /
haven't seen Rachel for ages. She hasn't visited us since July.

The present perfect (3): ever, this week, etc.

Claire has gone to Australia. Claire has been to Australia.

Gone there means that she is still there. Been there means that the visit is over.

B Ever and never

Mark: Where have you been this time, Claire?

Claire: I've just come back from the States. Florida.
Mark: You get around, don't you? I've never been to Florida. Was it good?
Claire: It was OK. Not as good as Australia. I might go to Brazil next time. Have you ever been there?
Mark: No, / haven't.

We can use ever and never with the present perfect. We use ever in questions.
In Have you ever been to Brazil? the word ever means 'in your whole life up to the present time'. Never means 'not

Here are some more examples.

Have you ever played cricket? ~ No, never. Has Andrew ever had any fun? ~ I don't think so.
I've never ridden a motor bike in my life. You've never given me flowers before. This is the most
expensive hotel we've ever stayed in.

C First time, second time, etc

After It's/This is the first/second time, we use the present perfect.

This is the first time we've been to Scotland, so it's all new to us.
This is the second time Rachel has forgotten to give me a message. I love this film. I think it's the fourth time I've
seen it.

D Today, this week, etc

We use the present perfect with today and phrases with this, e.g. this morning, this week, this year.
We've done quite a lot of work today.
I haven't watched any television so far this week.

Have you had a holiday this year? ~ No, not yet. This year is the period which began in January and has lasted up to
the present time.
Ex. 1. Complete the sentences using Present Perfect Simple Tense:

1. The tennis game________________ just ________________. Hurry up! (start)

2. Bill ________________ in Tokyo several times. He knows it well. (be)
3. Your train ________________ already ________________, Sir. Youll have to take the 8:15 train which leaves
from Victoria Station. (leave)
4. Im quite sure that I ________________ that woman before. (see)
5. My friends ________________ in this house for over 10 years. (live)
6. Peter ________________ just ________________ a letter. Hes reading it now. (receive)
7. He isnt in Chile. He________________ to America. (go)
8. John ________________ for that company since 1987. (work)
9. Bob ________________to San Francisco several times. He can tell you where to go and what to do there. (go)
10. The students ________________ already ________________ that book (read)
11. Mary ________________ to him about it twice already. (speak)
12. I ________________ that man before. I dont remember when, but Im sure I know him. (meet)

Ex.2. Change the following sentences into a) negative form and, b) interrogative form :

1. The soccer game has already finished.


2. Peter has had dinner already.


3. They have studied the report.


4. The plane has already left.


5. John has sent them a fax.


6. Theyve given her Toms new address.


Ex.3. For and since - Complete the sentences.

? You ought to wash the car. You haven't washed it for ages.
? I'd better have a shower. I haven't had one since Thursday.

1 I think I'll ring my girlfriend. I haven't .......................................... the weekend.
2 We're going to see some old friends. We haven't............................................... five years.
3 Let's watch a video, shall we? We haven't.............................................. quite a while.
4 We could have a barbecue. We haven't .............................................. last summer.
5 Shall we play tennis? We haven't.............................................. our holiday.

Ex.4. Present Perfect Mixed Exercise

Make the present perfect - choose positive, negative or question:

1. (I / go / to the library today)

2. (you / keep a pet for three years)
3. (you / come here before?)
4. (it / rain all day?)
5. (who / we / forgot to invite?)
6. (we / not / hear that song already)
7. (he / not / forget his books)
8. (she / steal all the chocolate!)
9. (I / explain it well?)
10. (who / he / meet recently?)
11. (how / we / finish already?)
12. (he / study Latin)
13. (I / know him for three months)
14. (where / you / study Arabic?)
15. (what countries / they / visit in Europe?)
16. (he / hurt his leg)
17. (she / leave her phone in a taxi)
18. (we / not / lose our tickets)
19. (she / call her mother?)
20. (he / take a taxi?)


A Introduction

I felt really tired when I took the train to work yesterday

because Sarah and 1 had been to a party the evening before.
We hadn't gone to bed until after one. I hadn't been on the
train long when I had a bit of a shock. I suddenly realized that
I'd left my wallet at home. Then I began to wonder. Had I left
it in the office the day before? I just couldn't remember. I
wanted to go back to bed. I felt awful.

The situation is in the past (I took the train ... I felt tired ...).
When we talk about things before this past time, we use the
past perfect.
Sarah and I had been to a party the evening before.
I'd left my wallet at home.

We are looking back from the situation of the train journey to

the earlier actions - going to a party and leaving home without
the wallet.

Here are some more examples of the past perfect. It was twenty to six. Most of the shops had just closed.
I went to the box office at lunch-time, but they had already sold all the tickets. By 1960 most of Britain's old colonies
had become independent.

As well as actions, we can use the past perfect to talk about states.
I felt better by the summer, but the doctor warned me not to do too much. I'd been very ill. The news came as no
surprise to me. I'd known for some time that the factory was likely to close.

B Form

The past perfect is had + a past participle.

He had enjoyed the party, OR He'd enjoyed the party.
They hadn't gone to bed until late. Where had he put his wallet?

C Present perfect and past perfect

Compare these examples.

PRESENT PERFECT (before now) PAST PERFECT (before then)
My wallet isn't here. I've left it behind. My wallet wasn't there. I'd left it behind.
The match is over. United have won. The match was over. United had won.
That man looks familiar. I've seen him The man looked familiar. I'd seen him somewhere before.
somewhere before.

We use the present perfect simple.

- For actions happened at an unstated time in the past

- for actions which started in the past and are still continuing in the present.

- for actions which have recently finished and their results are visible in the present.

- to talk about an experience.

Time expresions used with the present perfect simple

for, since, just, already, yet, lately, recently, so far, ever, etc.

We use for to express duration. eg I have known Peter for eight years

We use since to state a starting point. She hasn't been to Europe since 1994.

We use just and already in affirmative sentences. She has already done her homework.

We use yet in questions and negations. Has Tom fixed the car yet? They haven't traveeled to Miami yet.

Have gone (to) - have been (to) (Present perfect of the verb go)

Jane and Paul have gone to Portugal (they went some time ago and they are still there)

I have been to London.( I havc visited London and have come back. I am not there now)

Ex.1. Put the verbs into the correct form (past perfect simple).

1. The storm destroyed the sandcastle that we (build) .

2. He (not / be) to Cape Town before 1997.
3. When she went out to play, she (do / already) her homework.
4. My brother ate all of the cake that our mum (make) .
5. The doctor took off the plaster that he (put on) six weeks before.
6. The waiter brought a drink that I (not / order) .
7. I could not remember the poem we (learn) the week before.
8. The children collected the chestnuts that (fall) from the tree.
9. (he / phone) Angie before he went to see her in London?
10. She (not / ride) a horse before that day.

Ex.2. Complete the sentences with the correct form.

1) I _______________________ a new mobile phone. (just/buy)

2) _________________________a cat without a tail? (you/ever/see)
3)My sister ____________________ sushi. (never/ eat)
4)We________________________ your new tape yet. (hear)
5)How many words____________________________ for your language project? (you/write)
6)Sheila ______________________________her breakfast yet. (Have)
7)What ________________________________to the computer? (they/ do)
8)John and Alex _________________________ in France for 20 years.(live)
9)Where ______________________________ my keys? ( I /leave)
10)Simon ______________________________ Pat's parents yet.(meet)
11) We ________________________________ her an e-mail. (just/ send)
12) Where is your mother? She __________________________to the supermarket.(go)
13) Simon ____________________________to South Africa once. He wants to go there again. (go)

Ex.3. Fill in the gaps with since or for.

1) I haven't been to Erika's house ____________ May.

2) Lucas has worked in the bank _____________ five years.
3)I have known him _______________ I was six.
4) It has rained ________________more than three days.
5) They have been married ________________ 1999.











Once a week, Tom cleans the house. Once a week, the house is cleaned by Tom.


1. Mr Jones watches films.

2. The people speak English.
3. He reads comics.
4. We play volleyball.
5. They sing the song.
6. I take photos.
7. She does the housework.
8. The policemen help the children.
9. He writes poems.
10. Mother waters the flowers.
11. He opens the door.
12. We set the table. -
13. She pays a lot of money. -
14. I draw a picture. -
15. They wear blue shoes. -
16. They don't help you. -
17. He doesn't open the book. -
18. You do not write the letter. -

19. Does your mum pick you up? -
20. Does the police officer catch the thief? -

THE PASSIVE VOICE: passive voice sentences in the Simple Present

1. Thomas washes the dishes. --> The dishes by Thomas.

2. Frank feeds the dogs. --> The dogs by Frank.

3. Maria prepares the food. --> The food by Maria.

4. David cleans the kitchen. --> The kitchen by David.

5. My father pays the bills. --> The bills by my father.

6. The gardener trims the bushes. --> The bushes by the gardener.

7. Helen sets the table. --> The table by Helen.

8. My mother waters the plants. --> The plants by my mother.

9. Arthur does the laundry. --> The laundry by Arthur.

10. My uncle drives us to school. --> We to school by my uncle.


My mother is making deliciuos cakes now.


Affirmative Form Object + am / is / are + being + verb (3 column)

Negative Form Object + am / is / are + NOT + being + verb (3 column)

Question Form Am / is / are + Object + being + verb (3 column) ?

Present Continuous Tense (passive Voice)

Auxiliary verb in passive voice: am being/is being/are being

Active voice: Passive voice:

I am writing a letter A letter is being written by me. (+)
I am not writing a letter. A letter is not being written by me. (-)
Am I writing a letter? Is a letter being written by me? (?)

Rewrite the sentences in passive voice.

2. Sheila is drinking a cup of tea. -

3. My father is washing the car. -
4. Farmer Joe is milking the cows. -
5. She is taking a picture of him. -
6. I am writing a poem. -
7. We are not playing football. -
8. He is not wearing a tie. -
9. Is she preparing the party? -
10. Are they talking about the meeting? -
11. Is she watering the flowers?
12. The cat is tearing the new book.
13. Is the agent chasing the criminal?
14. We are collecting the donations at the moment.
15. They are washing my car now.
16. Mr. Barber is handing out the exam papers.
17. Who is checking the passports?
18. GPS is calculating the route to your destination.


My mother made a delicious cake yesterday.THE DELICIOUS CAKE WAS MADE BY MY MOTHER

Affirmative Form Object + was / were + verb (3 column)

Negative Form Object + was/ were + NOT + verb (3 column)

Question Form Was/were + Object + verb (3 column) ?

Past Simple Tense (passive Voice)

Auxiliary verb in passive voice: was/were

Active voice: Passive voice:

I killed a snake A snake was killed by me. (+)
I did not kill a snake. A snake was not killed by me. (-)
Did I kill a snake? Was a snake killed by me? (?)

Rewrite the sentences in passive voice.

1. She sang a song. -

2. Somebody hit me. -
3. We stopped the bus. -
4. A thief stole my car. -
5. They didn't let him go. -
6. She didn't win the prize. -
7. They didn't make their beds. -
8. I did not tell them. -
9. Did you tell them? -
10. Did he send the letter?
11. Who wrote this book?
12. How did they steal her car?
13. The children rang the bell a few minutes ago.
14. The kids forgot the whole story in a few days.
15. Did the president make his speech last night?
16. The police didn't question him very closely.
17. The wild animals killed two men yesterday.

Make the sentences Passive:

1. D.Defoe wrote the novel about Robinson Crusoe at the age of

2. Grandparents brought up Mike and his younger sister.
3. Millions of people visit Moscow every year.
4. Sir Christopher Wren designed St.Pauls Cathedral in the late 17th century.

5. My friends invited us to a party.

6. A group of artists organized this original exhibition.
7. In Bangladesh people celebrate New Year in April.
8. Our team won the game yesterday.
9. Most people in the USA speak English.
10. All students in our class use computers.


My mother was making delicious cakes. DELICIOUS CAKES WERE BEING MADE BY MY MOTHER

Affirmative Form Object + was/were + being + verb (3 column)

Negative Form Object + was/were + NOT + being + verb (3 column)

Question Form Was/were + Object + being + verb (3 column) ?

1. We were talking about Francis. -

2. He was playing the guitar. -
3. She was watching a film. -
4. I was repairing their bikes. -
5. They were not eating dinner. -
6. We were not painting the gate. -
7. You were not driving him home. -
8. He was not feeding the dogs. -
9. Was she reading these lines? -
10. Were they carrying bags? -


My mother has just made deliciuos cakes.


Affirmative Form Object + have/has + been+ verb (3 column)

Negative Form Object + have/has + + NOT + been + verb (3 column)

Question Form Have/has + Object + been + verb (3 column) ?

1. Kerrie has paid the bill. -

2. I have eaten a hamburger. -
3. We have cycled five miles. -
4. I have opened the present. -
5. They have not read the book. -
6. You have not sent the parcel. -
7. We have not agreed to this issue. -
8. They have not caught the thieves. -
9. Has she phoned him? -
10. Have they noticed us?


1. I had worn blue shoes. -

2. Joe had cleaned the tables. -
3. We had lost the key. -
4. They had started a fight. -
5. I had been reading an article. -
6. I had not closed the window. -
7. They had not bought the paper. -
8. She had not noticed me. -
9. Had she solved the problem? -
10. Had he recorded that song?


My mother will make delicious cakes tomorrow. - DELICIOUS CAKES WILL BE MADE TOMORROW

Affirmative Form Object + will + be + verb (3 column)

Negative Form Object + will + NOT + be + verb (3 column)

Question Form Will + Object + be + verb (3 column) ?

1. Jane will buy a new computer. -

2. Her boyfriend will install it. -
3. Millions of people will visit the museum. -
4. Our boss will sign the contract. -
5. You will not do it. -
6. They will not show the new film. -
7. He won't see Sue. -
8. They will not ask him. -
9. Will the company employ a new worker? -
10. Will the plumber repair the shower? -


1. They sell the magazines everywhere.

2. William saw the accident.

3. They must send it at once.

4. She will send it by airmail.

5. They have found the child at last.

6. You can pay the bill later.

7. He is repairing his car.

8. They were discussing the question when I entered.

9. Shakespeare wrote "Hamlet".

10. They are building a new bridge in the town.

11. They will meet us at the station.

12. He will give me a new book.

13. People play basketball in our country.

14. An Englishman visited me.

15. They sell CDs in this shop.

16. You must develop this film as soon as possible.

17. They will tell me the latest news.

18. Somebody is building a garage here.

19. They will laugh at you.

20. I forgot that John had given me the instructions.

21. They were building some new roads when we returned.

22. They will give the results in two days.

23. They told me that he is not in town.

24. His parents took him to hospital last night.

25. We have informed them in time.

26. You can post your letters here.