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PROJECT : CEPALCO CAGAYAN ELECTRIC POWER & LIGHTING CO.

INC DESIGN NO : -
DWG TITLE : PREP'D BY : / 07/07/17
DESCRIPTION : 0 0 0 0 0 CHECKED BY : / 07/07/17
PROJECT ID : 0 APPRV'D BY : / 07/07/17
SHT. NO : of
Rev
- No Date Nature of Revision
- -
DESIGN OF RETAINING WALL
q = 0 KPa
0.00

4.80 = 30 F1 = 0.00
g = 18 F2 = 69.12
Soil 1
GWT 28.80
5.70

28.80
2 = 30 F = 100.12
g2 = 18 F3 = 25.92
0.90

F4 = 5.08
Soil 2
2.46 8.83
40.09

DATA
= Angle of internal friction above GWT = 30.00 degrees
g = Unit weight of soil above GWT = 18.00 KN/m3
2 = Angle of internal friction below GWT = 30.00 degrees
g2 = Unit weight of soil below GWT = 18.00 KN/m3
gw = Unit weight of water = 9.81 KN/m3

fc' = Compressive Strength of Concrete = 21.00 MPa


fsy = Yield strength of steel = 275.00 MPa
tw = Thickness of wall at bottom = 350.00 mm
ts = Thickness of Slab = 350.00 mm
wv = Wall vertical bar diameter = 20.00 mm
wh = Wall horizontal bar diameter = 20.00 mm
h = Distance from top of wall to GWT = 4.80 m
H = Total Wall Height = 5.70 m
Bx = Width along transverse direction = 1.50 m
Bz = Width along longitudinal direction = 1.00 m
Hv = Footing Height = 0.00 m

LOADINGS

q = Surcharge due to vehicle, crane or footing = 0.00 KN/m2


q' = Surcharge (300 KPa acted on GWT Level) = 0.00 KN/m2
Wev = Selfweight of Wall = 60.27 KN
Wov = Selfweight of foundation = 63.68 KN
Eq = Earthquake Load = 10.50 KN

SLAB REINFORCEMENT

ST = Slab transverse bar diameter = 20.00 mm


NST = Number of bar along transverse direction = 8 pcs.
SL = Slab horizontal bar diameter = 20.00 mm
NSL = Number of bar along longitudinal direction = 8 pcs.
PROJECT : CEPALCO CAGAYAN ELECTRIC POWER & LIGHTING CO. INC DESIGN NO : -
DWG TITLE : PREP'D BY : / 07/07/17
DESCRIPTION : 0 0 0 0 0 CHECKED BY : / 07/07/17
PROJECT ID : 0 APPRV'D BY : / 07/07/17
SHT. NO : of
Rev No Date Nature of Revision

LOAD ANALYSIS
- Solve for Ka value of each soil: - Pressure due to soil 2
Ka1 = 1 - sin P4 = P3 - P'2
1+ sin = 2.46 KPa
= 0.333 - Solve for the pressure contributed by water:
Ka2 = 1 - sin Pw = gwzw
1+ sin = 8.83 KPa
= 0.333 - Solve for Forces:
- At top of wall where surcharge acts: F1 = 0.00 x 4.8 ; y = 3.3 m
P1 = q Ka1 = 0.00 KN / m
= 0.00 KPa F2 = 28.80 x 4.80 / 2 ; y = 2.5 m
- At the interface of top of the stratum: 69.12 KN / m
z1 = 4.80 m F3 = 29 x 0.90 ; y = 0.45 m
Then the surcharge carries through, the effect is: 25.92 KN / m
P2 = (q + g1 z1)Ka1
= 28.80 KPa - Include water and soil with F4:
- Considering soil 2 (where the location of GWT is) F4 = 11 x 0.90 / 2 ; y = 0.3 m
z + dz = 4.80 = 5.08 KN / m
solve for g' - Summation of forces:
g' = g2 - g water F = 100.12 KN / m
= 8.19 KN / m3 - Summation of moments:
P'2 = [q + gz1+ g'dz] ka2 F y' = F1 y + F2 y + F3 y + F4 y
P'2 = 28.80 KPa y' = 1.86 m
- Solve for pressure at the bottom of the wall: MF = F y'
P3 = [q + q'+ gz1+ g'dz] ka2 = 185.99 KN.m / m
dz = 0.90 m - Solve for ultimate moment
Mui = 1.4 ( Mt )
P3 = 31.26 KPa = 260.38 KN.m / m.

DESIGN OF WALL

Solve for Vertical Reinforcement: - Horizontal Reinforcement


d = 290.00 mm Use F = 0.052 ( Max Bending Coeff;Anchor R.D)
d = 270.00 mm
Mu = F qu H2 Muv = F qu B2

= 129.65 KN.m./m = 6.74 KN.m/m


Muo = b f'c d w (1-0.59w) Muo = b f'c d w (1-0.59w)

w = 0.09 w = 0.00

p = w f'c / fy p = w f'c / fy

p = 0.006561 p = 6.56E-05

Ast = p b d Ast = p b d

Ast = 1902.81 mm2 Ast = 17.71 mm2

Asmin = 0.002 b d Asmin = 0.002 b d


= 580 mm2 = 540 mm2
PROJECT : CEPALCO CAGAYAN ELECTRIC POWER & LIGHTING CO. INC DESIGN NO : -
DWG TITLE : PREP'D BY : / 07/07/17
DESCRIPTION : 0 0 0 0 0 CHECKED BY : / 07/07/17
PROJECT ID : 0 APPRV'D BY : / 07/07/17
SHT. NO : of
Rev No Date Nature of Revision
Sreq. = 165 ~ 150 mm Sreq. = 582 ~ 300 mm

DESIGN OF SLAB
Dead Load: Earthquake Load:
Wc = g V of concrete slab V = 0.15 G + jcQ
= 8 KN/m2 = 24.13 KN
Wov = Weight of soil use V :
= 160.89 KN V = 24.13 KN
Live Load: Factored Load:
L = Live Load Dead Load = 1.25
= 0.00 KN Live Load = 1.50
Loads induced by soil: Soil Pressure = 1.50
Mx = 129.65 KN.m./m. Earthquake = 1.00
Mz = 129.65 KN.m./m.

S Fx R Fy S Fz U Fy S Mx S Mz
LOAD COMB
KN KN KN KN/m2 KN-m KN-m
11 Dead + Live + Soil 0.00 402.21 0.00 10.50 129.65 129.65
12 Dead + Soil 0.00 402.21 0.00 10.50 129.65 129.65
13 Dead + Live + Soil + Eqx 24.13 402.21 0.00 10.50 129.65 129.65
14 Dead + Live + Soil + Eqz 0.00 402.21 24.13 10.50 129.65 129.65

Fyt = RFy + UFy/BxBz


Mzt = Mz + FxHv
Mxt = Mx + FzHv
Point 1 ; q = (Fyt/BL) - (6Mzt/BL2) - (6Mxt/LB2)
Point 2 ; q = (Fyt/BL) + (6Mzt/BL2) - (6Mxt/LB2)
Point 3 ; q = (Fyt/BL) + (6Mzt/BL2) + (6Mxt/LB2)
Point 4 ; q = (Fyt/BL) - (6Mzt/BL2) + (6Mxt/LB2)

x-x z-z Actual soil pressure,(q)at point no.


Load Fyt/(BxBz) 6Mxt/BxBz2 6Mzt/BzBx2 1 2 3 4
Number
KN/m2 KN/m2 KN/m2 KN/m2 KN/m2 KN/m2 KN/m2
11 278.64 518.60 345.73 -585.69 451.51 1142.98 105.77
12 278.64 518.60 345.73 -585.69 451.51 1142.98 105.77
13 278.64 518.60 345.73 -585.69 451.51 1142.98 105.77
14 278.64 518.60 345.73 -585.69 451.51 1142.98 105.77

Allowable bearing Capacity of Soil = 380.9924 kPa


= ###

Take maximum moment: = ###


Mz = 129.65 KN.m.

dex = 265.00 mm

dez = 245.00 mm

Temperature & Shrinkage:

Primary r/f Ast / bd 0.8/fsy


x-x 0.006 > 0.003 ok!!!
PROJECT : CEPALCO CAGAYAN ELECTRIC POWER & LIGHTING CO. INC DESIGN NO : -
DWG TITLE : PREP'D BY : / 07/07/17
DESCRIPTION : 0 0 0 0 0 CHECKED BY : / 07/07/17
PROJECT ID : 0 APPRV'D BY : / 07/07/17
SHT. NO : of
Rev No Date Nature of Revision
Secondary r/f Ast/bD 0.7/fsy
z-z 0.010 > 0.003 ok!!!
Primary r/f Muo > 1.2Mcr
Where 1.2Mcr = 1.2 Z f'cf
f'cf = 0.6 fc'
= 2.750
Check maximum reinforcement:
x-x:
p = 0.006

Ru = 0.85f'c fy 0.85f'c 2
1- p-
2 0.85f'c fy
= 1.654

Muo = Ru b d2

= 156.81 KN.m. > 129.65 ok!!!


Mcr = 57.93 KN.m. ok!!!

z-z:
p = 0.010

Ru = 0.85f'c fy 0.85f'c 2
1- p-
2 0.85f'c fy
= 2.598

Muo = Ru b d2

= 140.36 KN.m. > 129.65 ok!!!


Mcr = 33.01 KN.m. ok!!!
-
STABILITY CHECK

Check for stability against overturning:


Take 1 meter strip:
Weight of wall

250

5700
350

o
350.00
1500

OM = 185.99 kN.m. Active

Weight of wall:

Volume x Vx Uwt. Wwt. Mwt.


1 1.3375 1.38 1.839 23.54 31.48 43.29
2 0.2675 1.23 0.328 23.54 6.30 7.71
3 0.525 0.75 0.394 23.54 12.36 9.27
4 6.1525 0.58 3.538 18.00 110.75 63.68
5 0.2675 1.18 0.317 18.00 4.82 5.70
6 185.99 Resisting Pressure
Total

RM = 315.64 kN.m.

RM
= 1.697 > 1.5 ok
OM

Check for stability against sliding:

Fs = 20.02 kN
Fr = 82.85 kN

Fs
= 4.138 > 1.75 ok
Fr
0.22
0.88
1.10

0.80
0.00

250

5550
400
900

40.98 65.77 0.00


4400 4400
SOIL PROPERTIES:
soil retained is active
angle of internal friction (retained soil), r = 26.00 deg.
angle of internal friction (base), b = 26.00 deg.
backfill slope (heel side), h = 0.00 deg.
backfill slope (toe side), t = 0.00 deg.
cohesion (base), Cb = 0.00 kPa
specific weight of soil above ground water (backfill), Yba = 16.00 kN/m3
specific weight of soil below ground water (backfill), Ybb = 16.00 kN/m3
allowable soil bearing pressure, Qall = 80.00 kPa

MATERIAL PROPERTIES:
minimum compressive strength of concrete, f'c = 21.00 Mpa
reinforcement yielding strength, fy = 275.00 Mpa
unit weight of concrete, Yc = 24.00 kN/m3
unit weight of water, Yw = 9.81 kN/m3
reinforcement diameter (wall) db = 16 mm
reinforcement diameter (footing) db = 20 mm
strength reduction factors,
for flexure, = 0.90
for shear, = 0.75
concrete cover for wall, ccw = 50.00 mm
concrete cover for foorting, ccf = 75.00 mm
desired factor of safety against overturning, FSo = 1.50
desired factor of safety against sliding, FSS = 1.50

DIMENSIONS:
wall thickness at top, tt = 250 mm
wall thickness at bottom, tb = 400 mm
footing thickness, tf = 350 mm
height of wall, hw = 5.20 m
toe width, bt = 4.00 m
heel width, bh = 0.00 m
height of soil over toe, hp = 1.00 m
height of ground water, hGWT = 5.20 m
total height of structure (hw + tf), H = 5.55 m
base width (bt + bh + tb), B = 4.40 m

LOADING CALCULATION:
surcharge load at heel, qs = 0.00 kPa
Active lateral pressure coefficient, cos - (cos2 - cos2 )1/2
ka = cos *
(Rankine Theory) cos + (cos2 - cos2 )1/2

ka = 0.39

Passive lateral pressure coefficient, cos + (cos2 - cos2 )1/2


kp = cos *
(Rankine Theory) cos - (cos2 - cos2 )1/2

kp = 2.56

At rest lateral soil coefficient,


ko = 1 - sin
(Rankine Theory)

ko = 0.56

Lateral soil pressure above ground water (heel side), Pa1 = ka * Yba * (H - hgwt) = 2.19 kPa
Lateral soil pressure below ground water (heel side), Pa2 = ka * Y' * hgwt = 12.57 kPa
Lateral pressure due to surcharge, Ps = ka * qs * H = 0.00 kPa
Lateral pressure due to ground water, PGWT = hGWT * Yw = 51.01 kPa
Lateral soil pressure (toe side), Pp = kp * Yba * hp = 40.98 kPa

weight of structure, surcharge and soil retained


-consider 1m strip
weight of wall, Ww = (tt + tb)/2 * hw * Yc
Ww = (0.5 * (0.25 + 0.4) * 5.2 * 24) = 40.56 kN/m
weight of footing, Wf = tf * (bt + tb + bh) * Yc
Wf = 0.35 * (4 + 0.4 + 0) * 24 = 36.96 kN/m
weight of soil at heel side, Wsh = hw * (bh + (tb - tp) + bh + hw tan )/2) * Yb
Wsh = 5.2 * (0 + (0.4 - (0.25) + 0)/2) * 16 = 111.75 kN/m
weight of soil at toe side, Wst = bt * (hp - tf) * Yb
Wst = 4 * (1 - 0.35) * 16 = 43.25 kN/m
weight of surcharge, Wsu = qs * b h
Wsu = 0*0 = 0.00 kN/m

lateral forces computation


-consider 1m strip

Fh1

Fsu
5.55

Fh1'
5.20

Fh2 Fh3
Fp
1.00

40.98 0.00 2.19 12.57 51.01


Lateral soil force above ground water (heel side), Fh1 = (Pa1 * (H - hgwt))/2
Fh1 = (2.19 * (5.55 - 5.2) * 0.5 = 0.38 kN/m
Fh1' = Pa1 * hgwt
Fh1' = 2.19 * 5.2 = 11.37 kN/m
Lateral soil force below ground water (heel side), Fh2 = (Pa2 * hgwt)/2
Fh2 = (12.57 * 5.2) * 0.5 = 32.68 kN/m
Lateral force due to ground water (heel side), Fh3 = (PGWT * hgwt)/2
Fh3 = (51.01 * 5.2) * 0.5 = 132.63 kN/m
Lateral force due to surcharge (heel side), Fsu = Ps * hgwt
Fsu = 0 * 5.2 = 0.00 kN/m
Lateral soil force (toe side), Fp = (Pp * hp)/2
Fp = 40.98 * 1 = 40.98 kN/m

STABILITY CHECK:
righting moments overturning moments
weight of structure, surcharge and soil retained lateral forces of soil, water and surcharge
factored loads factored loads
W x Wx load factors yW yWx F y Fy load factors yW yWx
Ww 40.56 4.14 167.778 1.2 * Ww 48.67 201.33 Fh1 0.38 5.32 2.0344 1.6 * Ww 0.4592 3.26
Wf 36.96 2.2 81.312 1.2 * Wf 44.35 97.57 Fh1 11.37 2.6 29.563 1.6 * Wf 13.644 47.30
Wsh 111.75 0.24 27.144 1.2 * Wsh 134 32.57 Fh2 32.68 1.73 56.649 1.6 * Wsh 39.218 90.64
Wst 43.25 2.00 86.4971 1.2 * Wst 51.9 103.80 Fh3 132.63 1.73 229.89 1.6 * Wst 159.15 367.82
WT 232.51 1.56 362.73 - ### 435.28 FT 177.06 1.80 ### - ### ###
Surcharge

passive force Factored Loads


Factored Loads F y Fy load factors yW yWx
F y Fy load factors yW yWx Wsu 0.00 4.40 0 1.6 * Wf 0 0.00
Fp 40.98 0.33 13.659 1.6 * Fp 49.17 21.85 Fsu 0.00 2.78 0 1.6 * Wf 0 0.00

check structure against overturning


resisting moment, RM = 376.39 kN-m
overturning moment, OM = 347.24 kN-m -0.05
factor of safety against overturning, FS = RM / OM
FS = 1.08 FAILED!
desired factor of safety against overturning, FSo = 1.50

check structure against sliding


sum of resisting lateral forces FR = (WT * tan b) + Fp + (Cb * B)
FR = 154.38 kN
sum of sliding lateral forces FT = 177.06 kN
factor of safety against sliding, FS = FR / FT
FS = 0.87 FAILED!
desired factor of safety against sliding, FSS = 1.50

check for soil bearing capacity


total base length, B = 4.40 m
total vertical forces, WT = 232.51 kN
net moment moment, MT = RM - OM
MT = 58.26 kN-m
eccentricity from middle of base, e = B/2 - (MT/WT)
e = 1.95 mm
solving for bearing capacity
qmax = WT/B * (1 + 6e/B), qmax = 232.51484970792/4.4 * (1 + 6 * 1.94944351198139/4.4)
64.44 qallmax = 193.32 FAILED!
allowable soil bearing pressure, Qall = 80.00 kPa

qmin = WT/B * (1 - 6e/B), qmin = 232.51484970792/4.4 * (1 - 6 * 1.94944351198139/4.4)


-29.2 qmin = -87.63 since qmax < allowable therefore SAFE!
allowable soil bearing pressure, Qall = 80.00 kPa with UPLIFT!
REINFORCEMENT DESIGN (STRUCTURE):
CALCULATING REINFORCEMENT FOR WALL,
check for shear capacity at wall base,
effective depth of wall base, d = 342 mm
calculated shear at base, V = 212.47 kN
shear capacity of concrete, Vc = 0.17 * * * (f'c) * b * d
Vc = 199.82 kN (ACI 318M-14, eqn. 22.5.5.1)
incease wall thickness or concrete strength

calculating maximum moment at wall base, Mu = 1.6H - 1.6Hp + 1.6L


Mu = 127.06 kN-m
reinforcement design at wall (vertical),
Ru = Mu / ( * b * d2) Ru = 1.21 Mpa
= (0.85 * f'c)/fy * (1 - 1 - ((2 * Ru)/(0.85 * f'c))) = 0.0045602
max = 0.75 * (0.85 * f'c)/fy * (600/(600+fy) max = 0.0333818 OK!
min = 0.002
therefore use, = 0.00456
As = *b*d As = 1559.5843 mm2
reinforcement spacing, s = 128.92 mm
use, S = 125 mm therefore use spacing 16mm @ 125mm
reinforcement design at wall (horizontal),
d = 267 mm
therefore use, = 0.002
As = *b*d As = 684 mm2
s = 293.95 mm
use, S = 275 mm therefore use spacing 16mm @ 275mm

CALCULATING REINFORCEMENT FOR HEEL FOOTING :


check for shear capacity heel footing
effective depth of heel, d = 265 mm ultimate bearing pressures:
selfweight of heel, Wh = 1.2 * Yc * bh * tf
Wh = 0.00 kN Wh + Wb + Ws

weight of soil retained, Wb = 1.2 * Yb * bh * hw


Wb = 0.00 kN
weight of surcharge, Ws = 1.6 * qs * bh
p' f2
Ws = 0.00 kN 276.14 -149.31
f1
pressure change, p' = (qUMax - qUMin) * bh/B
p' = 0.00 kPa 0.00
f1 = (p' * bh)/2 f1 = 0.00 kN 4.40
f2 = qUMin * bh f2 = 0.00 kN
V = Wh + Wb + Ws - f1 - f2 V = 0.00 kN
shear capacity of concrete, Vc = 0.17 * * * (f'c) * b * d
Vc = 154.83 kN (ACI 318M-14, eqn. 22.5.5.1)
adequate!

calculating maximum moment in heel footing,


moment arm, y = #DIV/0! m
Mu = V*y Mu = #DIV/0! kN-m
reinforcement design at heel side (footing),
Ru = Mu / ( * b * d2) Ru = #DIV/0! Mpa
= (0.85 * f'c)/fy * (1 - 1 - ((2 * Ru)/(0.85 * f'c))) = #DIV/0!
max = 0.75 * (0.85 * f'c)/fy * (600/(600+fy) max = 0.0333818 #DIV/0!
min = 0.002
therefore use, = #DIV/0!
As = *b*d As = #DIV/0! mm2
reinforcement spacing, s = #DIV/0! mm
use, S = #DIV/0! mm #DIV/0!
CALCULATING REINFORCEMENT FOR TOE FOOTING,
check for shear capacity heel footing
effective depth of heel, d = 265 mm ultimate bearing pressures:
selfweight of toe, Wt = 1.2 * Yc * bt * tf
Wt = 40.32 kN Wt + Wb
Wb = 1.2 * Yb * bt * hp
Wb = 76.80 kN
pressure change, p' = (qUMax - qUMin) * bT/B
f2
p' = 386.77 kPa p' -149.31
f1
f1 = (p' * bt)/2 f1 = 773.54 kN 276.14
f2 = (qUMax - p') * bt f2 = -442.53 kN 4.00
V = Wh + Wb - f1 - f2 V = 213.89 kN 4.40
Vc = 0.17 * * * (f'c) * b * d
Vc = 154.83 kN (ACI 318M-14, eqn. 22.5.5.1)
incease footing thickness or concrete strength!

calculating maximum moment in heel footing,


moment arm, y = 4.41 m
Mu = V*y Mu = 943.46 kN-m
reinforcement design at heel side (footing),
Ru = Mu / ( * b * d2) Ru = 14.93 Mpa
= (0.85 * f'c)/fy * (1 - 1 - ((2 * Ru)/(0.85 * f'c))) = Err:502
max = 0.75 * (0.85 * f'c)/fy * (600/(600+fy) max = 0.0333818 Err:502
min = 0.002
therefore use, = Err:502
As = *b*d As = Err:502 mm2
reinforcement spacing, s = Err:502 mm
use, S = Err:502 mm Err:502
cos
0.8988
0.8988
1
1

active
at rest

1.3154
2.75 1.375 -0.06
1.555
Net Moment : 186.79 1120.74 1681.1 kN.m.
Net Weight : 156.65 939.9 1409.9 kN
Shear : 177.66 1065.96 1598.9 kN

4.40
w1 x w2 x w1x w2x sum
31.2 4.125 9.36 4.175 128.7 39.078 167.78

w1 x w2 x w1x w2x sum


6.24 4.35 0 4.4 27.1440003 0 27.144
moment at c.o.g foundation :
Vertical Loads: Horizontal loads:
factored loads factored loads
W x Wx load factors yW yWx F y Fy load factors yW yWx
Ww 40.56 1.97 79.716 1.2 * Ww 48.672 95.66 Fh1 0.38 5.32 2.0344 1.6 * Ww 0.4592 3.26
Wf 36.96 0.00 0 1.2 * Wf 44.352 0.00 Fh1' 11.37 2.6 29.563 1.6 * Wf 13.644 47.30
Wsh 111.75 2.93 327.275506 1.2 * Wsh 134.1 392.73 Fh2 32.68 1.73 56.649 1.6 * Wsh 39.218 90.64
Wst 43.25 -0.28 -12.1209892 1.2 * Wst 51.898 -14.5 Fh3 132.63 1.73 229.89 1.6 * Wst 159.15 367.82
WT ### 1.70 394.87 - 279.02 ### FT ### 1.80 ### - ### ###

Wind Loads: factored loads


W x Wx load factors yW yWx
FWw 4.41 6.60 29.106 1.2 * Ww 5.292 34.93
WtW 0.504
Wall Sheal Stoe
a= 0.25 2.64 4.32 Fp 40.98 0.33 13.659 1.6 * Fp 49.173 21.85
b= 0.40 0.00 4.00
H= 5.20 5.20 0.65
X= 0.1654 0.878736 2.08
Y= 2.4 3.466667 0.33
Allowable Net Moment: Ultimate Net Moment:
Net Moment : 90.4 kN.m. Net Moment: -13.3 kN.m.
Net Weight : 232.5 kN Net Weight: 279.0 kN

Allowable Net Moment with wind :


Net Moment : 119.5 kN.m.
Net Weight : 233.0 kN
Shear : 177.1

Use Ultimate Loads to be compared with q ult :


0.38
0.24

Ultimate : 4.14 111.75


B = 4.40 m
0.00
WT = 233.02 kN 40.56
2.00
5.32

MT = 119.50 kN-m moment center of footing 32.68 132.63


2.78

2.6

43.25
e = B / 2 - (MT / WT)
1.73
1.73

e = 1.69 mm

qallmax = P / A + (6*M / B2)


qallmax = 90.00
2.2

qmin = P / A - (6*M / B2)


qmin = 15.81
qult = c Nc Sc bc +q Nq Cwq Sq bq dq + 0.5 g Bf ng Cwy Sy by

c =

W x f1 x f2 x Wx f1x f2x sum


0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0.00 0 0 0 0 0
W x f1 x f2 x Wx f1x f2x sum
117.12 2.000 773.54 2.666667 -442.53 2.000 234.24 2062.8 -885.1 -943.5
0.00

250

5950
450
2000

81.95 37.17 0.00


4650 4650
SOIL PROPERTIES:
soil retained is active
angle of internal friction (retained soil), r = 26.00 deg.
angle of internal friction (base), b = 26.00 deg.
backfill slope (heel side), h = 0.00 deg.
backfill slope (toe side), t = 0.00 deg.
cohesion (base), Cb = 0.00 kPa
specific weight of soil above ground water (backfill), Yba = 16.00 kN/m3
specific weight of soil below ground water (backfill), Ybb = 16.00 kN/m3
allowable soil bearing pressure, Qall = 80.00 kPa

MATERIAL PROPERTIES:
minimum compressive strength of concrete, f'c = 21.00 Mpa
reinforcement yielding strength, fy = 275.00 Mpa
unit weight of concrete, Yc = 24.00 kN/m3
unit weight of water, Yw = 9.81 kN/m3
reinforcement diameter (wall) db = 16 mm
reinforcement diameter (footing) db = 20 mm
strength reduction factors,
for flexure, = 0.90
for shear, = 0.75
concrete cover for wall, ccw = 50.00 mm
concrete cover for foorting, ccf = 75.00 mm
desired factor of safety against overturning, FSo = 1.50
desired factor of safety against sliding, FSS = 1.50

DIMENSIONS:
wall thickness at top, tt = 250 mm
wall thickness at bottom, tb = 450 mm
footing thickness, tf = 450 mm
height of wall, hw = 5.50 m
toe width, bt = 2.70 m
heel width, bh = 1.50 m
height of soil over toe, hp = 2.00 m
height of ground water, hGWT = 0.00 m
total height of structure (hw + tf), H = 5.95 m
base width (bt + bh + tb), B = 4.65 m
LOADING CALCULATION:
surcharge load at heel, qs = 0.00 kPa

Active lateral pressure coefficient, cos - (cos2 - cos2 )1/2


ka = cos *
(Rankine Theory) cos + (cos2 - cos2 )1/2

ka = 0.39

Passive lateral pressure coefficient, cos + (cos2 - cos2 )1/2


kp = cos *
(Rankine Theory) cos - (cos2 - cos2 )1/2

kp = 2.56

At rest lateral soil coefficient,


ko = 1 - sin
(Rankine Theory)

ko = 0.56

Lateral soil pressure above ground water (heel side), Pa1 = ka * Yba * (H - hgwt) = 37.17 kPa
Lateral soil pressure below ground water (heel side), Pa2 = ka * Y' * hgwt = 0.00 kPa
Lateral pressure due to surcharge, Ps = ka * qs * H = 0.00 kPa
Lateral pressure due to ground water, PGWT = hGWT * Yw = 0.00 kPa
Lateral soil pressure (toe side), Pp = kp * Yba * hp = 81.95 kPa

weight of structure, surcharge and soil retained


-consider 1m strip
weight of wall, Ww = (tt + tb)/2 * hw * Yc
Ww = (0.5 * (0.25 + 0.45) * 5.5 * 24) = 46.20 kN/m
weight of footing, Wf = tf * (bt + tb + bh) * Yc
Wf = 0.45 * (2.7 + 0.45 + 1.5) * 24 = 50.22 kN/m
weight of soil at heel side, Wsh = hw * (bh + (tb - tp) + bh)/2) * Yb
Wsh = 5.5 * (1.5 + (0.45 - (0.25) + 1.5)/2) * 16 = 140.80 kN/m
weight of soil at toe side, Wst = bt * (hp - tf) * Yb
Wst = 2.7 * (2 - 0.45) * 16 = 66.96 kN/m
weight of surcharge, Wsu = qs * b h
Wsu = 0 * 1.5 = 0.00 kN/m

lateral forces computation


-consider 1m strip

Fh1

Fsu
5.95

Fh1'
0.00

Fh2 Fh3
Fp
2.00

81.95 0.00 37.17 0.00 0.00


Lateral soil force above ground water (heel side), Fh1 = (Pa1 * (H - hgwt))/2
Fh1 = (37.17 * (5.95 - 0) * 0.5 = 110.59 kN/m
Fh1' = Pa1 * hgwt
Fh1' = 37.17 * 0 = 0.00 kN/m
Lateral soil force below ground water (heel side), Fh2 = (Pa2 * hgwt)/2
Fh2 = (0 * 0) * 0.5 = 0.00 kN/m
Lateral force due to ground water (heel side), Fh3 = (PGWT * hgwt)/2
Fh3 = (0 * 0) * 0.5 = 0.00 kN/m
Lateral force due to surcharge (heel side), Fsu = Ps * hgwt
Fsu = 0*0 = 0.00 kN/m
Lateral soil force (toe side), Fp = (Pp * hp)/2
Fp = 81.95 * 2 = 163.91 kN/m

STABILITY CHECK:
righting moments overturning moments
weight of structure, surcharge and soil retained lateral forces of soil, water and surcharge
factored loads factored loads
W x Wx load factors yW yWx F y Fy load factors yW yWx
Ww 46.20 2.84 131.395 1.2 * Ww 55.44 157.67 Fh1 110.59 1.98 219.33 1.6 * Ww 132.7 350.93
Wf 50.22 2.325 116.762 1.2 * Wf 60.26 140.11 Fh1' 0.00 0 0 1.6 * Wf 0 0.00
Wsh 140.80 3.85 541.933 1.2 * Wsh 169 650.32 Fh2 0.00 0.00 0 1.6 * Wsh 0 0.00
Wst 66.96 1.35 90.396 1.2 * Wst 80.35 108.48 Fh3 0.00 0.00 0 1.6 * Wst 0 0.00
WT 304.18 2.89 880.49 - ### 1056.58 FT 110.59 1.98 ### - ### ###
surcharge
passive force factored loads
factored loads F y Fy load factors yW yWx
F y Fy load factors yW yWx Wsu 0.00 3.90 0 1.6 * Wf 0 0.00
Fp 163.91 0.67 109.272 1.6 * Fp 197 174.84 Fsu 0.00 2.98 0 1.6 * Wf 0 0.00

check structure against overturning


resisting moment, RM = 880.49 kN-m
overturning moment, OM = 219.33 kN-m
factor of safety against overturning, FS = RM / OM
FS = 4.01 SAFE against overturning
desired factor of safety against overturning, FSo = 1.50

check structure against sliding


sum of resisting lateral forces FR = (WT * tan b) + Fp + (Cb * B)
FR = 312.27 kN
sum of sliding lateral forces FT = 110.59 kN
factor of safety against sliding, FS = FR / FT
FS = 2.82 SAFE against sliding
desired factor of safety against sliding, FSS = 1.50

check for soil bearing capacity


total base length, B = 4.65 m
total vertical forces, WT = 304.18 kN
net moment moment, MT = RM - OM
MT = 661.16 kN-m
eccentricity from middle of base, e = B/2 - (MT/WT)
e = 0.15 mm
solving for bearing capacity
qmax = WT/B * (1 + 6e/B), qmax = 304.18/4.65 * (1 + 6 * 0.15/4.65)
qmax = 78.08 since qmax < allowable therefore SAFE!
allowable soil bearing pressure, Qall = 80.00 kPa

qmin = WT/B * (1 - 6e/B), qmin = 304.18/4.65 * (1 - 6 * 0.15/4.65)


qmin = 52.75 since qmax < allowable therefore SAFE!
allowable soil bearing pressure, Qall = 80.00 kPa no uplift
REINFORCEMENT DESIGN (STRUCTURE):
CALCULATING REINFORCEMENT FOR WALL,
check for shear capacity at wall base,
effective depth of wall base, d = 392 mm
calculated shear at base, V = 132.70 kN
shear capacity of concrete, Vc = 0.17 * * * (f'c) * b * d
Vc = 229.04 kN (ACI 318M-14, eqn. 22.5.5.1)
adequate!

calculating maximum moment at wall base, Mu = 1.6H - 1.6Hp + 1.6L


Mu = 211.31 kN-m
reinforcement design at wall (vertical),
Ru = Mu / ( * b * d2) Ru = 1.53 Mpa
= (0.85 * f'c)/fy * (1 - 1 - ((2 * Ru)/(0.85 * f'c))) = 0.005825
max = 0.75 * (0.85 * f'c)/fy * (600/(600+fy) max = 0.0333818 OK!
min = 0.002
therefore use, = 0.005825
As = *b*d As = 2283.4029 mm2
reinforcement spacing, s = 88.05 mm
use, S = 75 mm therefore use spacing 16mm @ 75mm
reinforcement design at wall (horizontal),
d = 292 mm
therefore use, = 0.002
As = *b*d As = 784 mm2
s = 256.46 mm
use, S = 250 mm therefore use spacing 16mm @ 250mm

CALCULATING REINFORCEMENT FOR HEEL FOOTING,


check for shear capacity heel footing
effective depth of heel, d = 365 mm ultimate bearing pressures:
selfweight of heel, Wh = 1.2 * Yc * bh * tf
Wh = 19.44 kN Wh + Wb + Ws

weight of soil retained, Wb = 1.2 * Yb * bh * hw


Wb = 158.40 kN
weight of surcharge, Ws = 1.6 * qs * bh
p' f2
Ws = 0.00 kN 118.00 39.00
f1
pressure change, p' = (qUMax - qUMin) * bh/B
p' = 25.49 kPa 1.50
f1 = (p' * bh)/2 f1 = 19.11 kN 4.65
f2 = qUMin * bh f2 = 58.49 kN
V = Wh + Wb + Ws - f1 - f2 V = 100.23 kN
shear capacity of concrete, Vc = 0.17 * * * (f'c) * b * d
Vc = 213.26 kN (ACI 318M-14, eqn. 22.5.5.1)
adequate!

calculating maximum moment in heel footing,


moment arm, y = 0.80 m
Mu = V*y Mu = 79.95 kN-m
reinforcement design at heel side (footing),
Ru = Mu / ( * b * d2) Ru = 0.67 Mpa
= (0.85 * f'c)/fy * (1 - 1 - ((2 * Ru)/(0.85 * f'c))) = 0.0024839
max = 0.75 * (0.85 * f'c)/fy * (600/(600+fy) max = 0.0333818 OK!
min = 0.002
therefore use, = 0.002484
As = *b*d As = 906.61963 mm2
reinforcement spacing, s = 346.52 mm
use, S = 300 mm therefore use spacing 20mm @ 300mm
CALCULATING REINFORCEMENT FOR TOE FOOTING,
check for shear capacity heel footing
effective depth of heel, d = 365 mm ultimate bearing pressures:
selfweight of toe, Wt = 1.2 * Yc * bt * tf
Wt = 34.99 kN Wt + Wb
Wb = 1.2 * Yb * bt * hp
Wb = 103.68 kN
pressure change, p' = (qUMax - qUMin) * bT/B
f2
p' = 45.87 kPa p' 39.00
f1
f1 = (p' * bt)/2 f1 = 61.93 kN 118.00
f2 = (qUMax - p') * bt f2 = 194.74 kN 2.70
V = Wh + Wb - f1 - f2 V = 118.00 kN 4.65
Vc = 0.17 * * * (f'c) * b * d
Vc = 213.26 kN (ACI 318M-14, eqn. 22.5.5.1)
adequate!

calculating maximum moment in heel footing,


moment arm, y = 1.59 m
Mu = V*y Mu = 187.17 kN-m
reinforcement design at heel side (footing),
Ru = Mu / ( * b * d2) Ru = 1.56 Mpa
= (0.85 * f'c)/fy * (1 - 1 - ((2 * Ru)/(0.85 * f'c))) = 0.005945
max = 0.75 * (0.85 * f'c)/fy * (600/(600+fy) max = 0.0333818 OK!
min = 0.002
therefore use, = 0.005945
As = *b*d As = 2169.9159 mm2
reinforcement spacing, s = 144.78 mm
use, S = 125 mm therefore use spacing 20mm @ 125mm