Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 48

Your Preparation Partner

Institutions
We updated this document last on April 05, 2017
We update our notes on daily basis as the event occurs. Please keep track of changes in our notes on
www.ias4sure.com. We publish our notes under "Daily Notes" section.

You can also download our Android App from Android Play store to keep track of these changes and practice
MCQs for UPSC Prelims. (http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)

* We took all care in preparing this document. All the information is collected from official websites and Wikipedia. If you still
find any discrepancy in the information provided, please inform us at contact@ias4sure.com

*Maps are taken from internet. They are meant for representational purpose only and are not up to scale. Their copyright
belong to original creators.

Published by: www.ias4sure.com


IAS4Sure 2017 | All Rights Reserved

All rights are reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or
by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission of IAS4Sure. The ebook
is a property of IAS4Sure and is protected by India and international copyright and other intellectual property laws.
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________

Contents
International : Treaties and Agreements ................................................ 4
Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia (CGPCS) ......................................... 4
Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage ............................ 4
Hague Code-of-Conduct ................................................................................................ 4
International Chemical Weapons Convention .............................................................. 5
International Grains Council ......................................................................................... 5
MTCR ............................................................................................................................. 5
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) ................................................................. 6
Pelindaba Treaty ............................................................................................................ 6
Sendai Framework ......................................................................................................... 6
The Australia Group ...................................................................................................... 6
Trade Facilitation Agreement ........................................................................................ 6
National Committee on Trade Facilitation (NCTF)....................................................... 7
TRIPS ............................................................................................................................. 7
Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations ................................................................ 7
Wassenaar Arrangement ............................................................................................... 7
International Governance ....................................................................... 7
Asian Development Bank (ADB) ................................................................................... 7
Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB)...............................................................8
Financial Action Task Force (FATF)..............................................................................8
Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) .................................................................... 9
International Astronomical Union ................................................................................ 9
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) ................................................................ 9
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) ............................... 9
International Court of Justice (ICJ) ............................................................................ 10
International Criminal Court (ICC) ............................................................................. 10
International Development Association (IDA)............................................................ 10
International Energy Agency (IEA) ............................................................................. 10
International Labor Organization (ILO) ...................................................................... 11
International Maritime Organisation ........................................................................... 11
International Seabed Authority .................................................................................... 11
International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea .............................................................. 11
New Development Bank ............................................................................................... 11
Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)........................................................................ 12
UN Convention on the Law of the Sea ......................................................................... 12
UNHRC ........................................................................................................................ 13
United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL).................... 13
World Health Organization (WHO) ............................................................................ 13
World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) ..................................................... 14
World Bank .................................................................................................................. 14
World Food Programme .............................................................................................. 14
International Groups ............................................................................ 14
APEC ............................................................................................................................ 14
ASEAN ......................................................................................................................... 15
ASEM ........................................................................................................................... 16
BBIN ............................................................................................................................ 16
BCIM ............................................................................................................................ 16
BIMSTEC ..................................................................................................................... 17

This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 1
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________

BRICS ........................................................................................................................... 17
Commonwealth of Nations .......................................................................................... 18
East Asia Summit ......................................................................................................... 18
Eurasian Economic Union (EEU) ................................................................................ 19
G4 ................................................................................................................................. 19
G7 .................................................................................................................................20
G20...............................................................................................................................20
India-Africa Forum ...................................................................................................... 21
IBSA ............................................................................................................................. 21
IORA ............................................................................................................................ 21
Mekong-Ganga Cooperation ........................................................................................ 22
OPEC ............................................................................................................................ 22
OECD ........................................................................................................................... 23
RCEP ............................................................................................................................ 23
SAARC.......................................................................................................................... 24
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation............................................................................ 24
Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP) .................................................................................. 25
Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) ........................................... 26
International NGOs and Others............................................................. 26
African Development Bank .......................................................................................... 26
European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) ............................................... 27
Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI).......................................... 27
Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR)27
Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) ...........................................................................28
EU vs EEA ....................................................................................................................28
International Consortium of Investigative Journalists ............................................... 29
International Vaccine Institute (IVI) ........................................................................... 29
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)................................................................. 29
SARTTAC .....................................................................................................................30
World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) ..........................................................................30
National : Constitutional ...................................................................... 30
CAG ..............................................................................................................................30
CEC .............................................................................................................................. 31
Central Administrative Tribunal (CAT) ....................................................................... 31
National Commission for SC........................................................................................ 31
National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST) ................................................... 32
National Commission for Socially and Educationally Backward Classes (NSEBC) .... 32
National : Non Constitutional................................................................ 33
Archaeological Survey of India (ASI)........................................................................... 33
BCI- Bar Council of India............................................................................................. 33
Bureau of Civil Aviation Security ................................................................................. 33
CCI ............................................................................................................................... 33
Central Electricity Authority........................................................................................ 34
Central Pollution Control Board .................................................................................. 34
Central Silk Board ........................................................................................................ 34
Central Water Commission (CWC).............................................................................. 35
CIC ............................................................................................................................... 35
Chief Vigilance Commission (CVC) ............................................................................. 35
CSIR ............................................................................................................................. 35
Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB) ............................................................. 36

This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 2
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________

FSSAI ........................................................................................................................... 36
Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) ......................................................... 36
Indian Council of Historical Research (ICHR) ............................................................ 36
Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India ................................................................. 36
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid-Tropics (ICRISAT) .......... 37
Law Commission of India ............................................................................................ 37
National Commission for Safai Karamcharis (NCSK) ................................................. 37
National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT) ................................................................... 37
National Council of Senior Citizens .............................................................................38
National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) .................................................................38
National Industrial Corridor Development & Implementation Trust (NICDIT) ........ 39
National Innovation Foundation ................................................................................. 39
National Regulatory Authority of India ....................................................................... 39
National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) ......................................................... 40
National Water Development Agency ........................................................................ 40
National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC) ................................................. 40
Press Council of India .................................................................................................. 41
SHRC............................................................................................................................ 41
Securities Appellate Tribunal ...................................................................................... 41
Tea Board of India ....................................................................................................... 42
Technology Development Board (TDB)....................................................................... 42
UGC .............................................................................................................................. 42
Wildlife Crime Control Bureau (WCCB) ...................................................................... 43
Wildlife Institute of India (WII) .................................................................................. 43
National : NGOs .................................................................................... 43
Bombay Natural History Society (BHNS) ................................................................... 43
National Anti-Doping Agency ...................................................................................... 43
National Productivity Council (NPC) .......................................................................... 44
The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) ............................................................... 44
National : PSUs and Companies ...........................................................44
NABARD ...................................................................................................................... 44
National Hydroelectric Power Corporation (NHPC) ................................................... 44
NHAI ............................................................................................................................ 45
Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) .......................................................... 45
Solar Energy Corporation India (SECI) ....................................................................... 45
Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) ........................................................... 45
Uranium Corporation of India (UCIL) ........................................................................ 45
National : Security and Forces ..............................................................46
Border Road Organisation (BRO)................................................................................ 46
Border Security Force (BSF) ........................................................................................ 46
Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) ......................................................................... 46
CERT-In ....................................................................................................................... 46
CRPF ............................................................................................................................ 47
Indian Coast Guard ...................................................................................................... 47
National Security Council ............................................................................................ 47
Nuclear Command Authority (NCA) ........................................................................... 47
Strategic Forces Command (SFC)................................................................................ 47

This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 3
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________

International : Treaties and Agreements

Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia (CGPCS)


It is an international governance mechanism
Established in 2009
Aims to facilitate the discussion and coordination of actions among states and organizations to suppress
maritime piracy near Somali
So far more than 60 countries and international organizations have become part of this forum to work
collectively for the prevention of piracy off the Somali coast.
Seychelles is the current chairman of the CGPCS for the biennium 2016-17
Why in news? India has become the co-chair of Working Group on Maritime Situational Awareness (WG-
MSA) under CGPCS

Download other free notes from http://www.ias4sure.com/download/


Try IAS4Sure Android App and ensure your success in Prelims.
o Practice more than 10,000 quality MCQs which are organised topic wise.
o Practice all past year UPSC papers
o Study Notes in mobile
o Track your Progress
o http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/

Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage


What is Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage?
It sets parameters on a nuclear operators financial liability.
It Seeks to establish a uniform global legal regime for compensation to victims in the unlikely event of a nuclear
accident.
It provides a uniform framework for channelling liability and providing speedy compensation after the nuclear
accident.
It protects nuclear suppliers from liability for an acciden
Why in news? India ratified it

Hague Code-of-Conduct
What is Hague Code of Conduct?
It is a voluntary
It is legally non-binding
It is a confidence building and transparency measure
It seeks to prevent the proliferation of ballistic missiles that are capable of delivering weapons of mass
destruction (WMD).
Established in 2002
It does not ban ballistic missiles, but it calls for restraining their production, testing, and export.
It is the only normative instrument to verify the spread of ballistic missiles.
Austria is the administrative centre coordinating the information exchange under HCOC.

What is the difference between HCoC and MTCR?


MTCR is an informal and voluntary partnership to prevent the proliferation of missile and UAV technology. Therefore,
the aim of both HCoC and MTCR are same.
However, membership of HCoC is not restricted while the membership of MTCR is limited to only 34 export group
members.

This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 4
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________

International Chemical Weapons Convention


The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is a multilateral treaty that bans chemical weapons and requires their
destruction within a specified period of time
CWC is an arms control treaty which outlaws the production, stockpiling, and use of chemical weapons and their
precursors and entered into force in 1997
CWC negotiations started in 1980 in the UN Conference on Disarmament. The convention opened for signature
on January 13, 1993, and entered into force on April 29, 1997.
The CWC is implemented by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), which is
headquartered in The Hague.
The OPCW receives states-parties declarations detailing chemical weapons-related activities or materials and
relevant industrial activities. After receiving declarations, the OPCW inspects and monitors states-parties
facilities and activities that are relevant to the convention, to ensure compliance.
The CWC is open to all nations and currently has 192 states-parties. Israel has signed but has yet to ratify the
convention. A key non-signatory includes North Korea.
Most recently, Angola deposited its instrument of accession to the CWC on 16 September 2015.
As of October 2016, about 93% of the worlds declared stockpile of chemical weapons had been destroyed.

The Chemical Weapons Convention prohibits:


Developing, producing, acquiring, stockpiling, or retaining chemical weapons.
The direct or indirect transfer of chemical weapons.
Chemical weapons use or military preparation for use.
Assisting, encouraging, or inducing other states to engage in CWC-prohibited activity.
The use of riot control agents as a method of warfare.

International Grains Council


International Grains Council

India is a member of the IGC which was previously known as International Wheat Council.
IGC is an intergovernmental forum of exporting and importing countries, for co-operation in wheat and coarse
grain matters. It administers the Grains Trade Convention 1995.
The IGC Secretariat, based in London, also services the Food Aid Committee, established under the Food Aid
Convention.
International Grains Agreement comprises of Grains Trade Convention (GTC) and Food Aid Convention (FAC).
India is a signatory to the International Grains Agreement (IGA), 1995 and its Grain Trade Convention (GTC),
1995 which is effective from July 1, 1995.
India has been included in the category of exporting members in July, 2003 and represented in the
meetings/session of the council held from time to time.

MTCR
35 nation (India is 35th member) grouping that controls export of missile technology, including drones.
Setup in 1987 by the G7 countries
Aims to limit the proliferation of missile and other unmanned delivery systems that could be used for chemical
or nuclear attacks.
It is an informal and voluntary partnership between 35 countries which urge each other to restrict their missile
export and technologies capable of carrying a 500-kilogram payload a minimum of 300 kilometres
India has become 35th member of MTCR in June 2016

Benefits to India:
Would help India in getting access to world-class technology
It would have also allowed India to export its own technology to countries that comply with MTCR
MTCR membership would improve Indias stature among world nations, especially because India is a non-
signatory of both NPT and CTBT that are necessary for membership
India will get to play a role in decision making process of the global body; it would help India to address some of
our concerns especially with Pakistans nuclear program and promote our interest.
India can also sell Thorium which is abundant in India

This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 5
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________

It will be a big step in opening doors for Indias entry into other nuclear regimes it is eyeing for (NSG, Australia
Group and Wassenaar Group)

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)


The NATO is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty signed in April 1949.
It consists of 28 independent member countries across North America and Europe.
It is based on a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defence in response to an
attack by any external party.
NATOs headquarters are located in Brussels, Belgium.
Its headquarters of Allied Command Operations is near Mons.
The combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70% of the global defence spending.
Why in news? Montenegro will become 29th member if all 28 members agree

Pelindaba Treaty
It is also known as African Nuclear Weapons Free Zone Treaty
It was signed in 1996 and came into force in 2009
Treaty has been ratified by 40 countries.
The treaty aims to prevent nuclear proliferation in Africa and also stops unchecked supply of Uranium to the
nuclear powers of the world.
The Treaty prohibits the research, development, manufacture, stockpiling, acquisition, testing, possession,
control or stationing of nuclear explosive devices in the territory of parties to the Treaty and the dumping of
radioactive wastes in the African zone by Treaty parties
The Treaty also prohibits any attack against nuclear installations in the zone by Treaty parties and requires them
to maintain the highest standards of physical protection of nuclear material, facilities and equipment, which are
to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes
All African Union members are the signatories of the treaty
It also requires all parties to apply full-scope International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards to all their
peaceful nuclear activities
Why in news?
o Indian wants to import Uranium from African nations and thus wants relaxation in it.
o India Civil Nuclear Agreement with Namibia is in limbo because of this treaty.
o Namibia has not ratified the agreement due to this treaty

Sendai Framework
Sendai Framework
It is a 15 year agreement
Voluntary
Non-binding
It recognizes that the State has the primary role to reduce disaster risk but that responsibility should be
shared with other stakeholders including local government, the private sector and other stakeholders.

The Australia Group

The Australia Group is an informal forum of countries that seeks to ensure that exports do not contribute to
the development of chemical or biological weapons.
It was established in 1985 and presently has 42 members.
India is not a member.

Trade Facilitation Agreement

Under WTO. Negotiations for it completed at Bali summit, 2013


It is for both developing and developed countries
Aims to remove "Red Tape" at customs i.e. to make import/export hassle free and less cumbersome
Also have provisions of technical assistance and capacity building
Issue? India wants TFA for services too.
This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 6
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________

National Committee on Trade Facilitation (NCTF)


The NCTF is a mandatory requirement under the WTOs Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA).
It is a national level body to facilitate domestic co-ordination and implementation of TFA provisions.
It aims to develop the pan-India road map for trade facilitation.
It will have three tier structure with main national committee for monitoring implementation of TFA

TRIPS
TRIPS is an international agreement administered by the World Trade Organization (WTO), which sets down
minimum standards for many forms of intellectual property (IP) regulations as applied to the nationals of other WTO
Members.
It was negotiated at the end of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in
1994.
TRIPS requires WTO members to provide copyright rights, covering content producers including performers,
producers of sound recordings and broadcasting organizations; geographical indications, including appellations
of origin; industrial designs; integrated circuit layout-designs; patents; new plant varieties; trademarks; trade
dress; and undisclosed or confidential information.
The agreement also specifies enforcement procedures, remedies, and dispute resolution procedures.

Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations


It is a treaty that came into force in 1964
It lays out the rules and regulations for diplomatic relations between countries as well as the various privileges
that diplomats and diplomatic missions enjoy.
One of these privileges is legal immunity for diplomats so that they don't have to face prosecution as per their
host countrys laws.

Why in news?
Indian security agencies recently arrested a Pakistani High Commission staffer on allegations of espionage. The
charges are that he was found to be in possession of defence-related documents. Soon after the arrest, however,
he was released, declared persona non grata, and informed that he must leave India within 48 hours
Pakistan has accused India of violating the international convention for protection of diplomats

Wassenaar Arrangement
Wassenaar Arrangement was established to contribute to regional and international security and stability.
It aims to promote transparency and greater responsibility in transfer of conventional arms and dual-use goods
and technologies.
It has 41 member states and was established in 1996 as an extension of Coordination committee for
Multilateral export Controls (COCOM).
The participating states ensure that transfer of materials do not contribute to the development or enhancement
of military capabilities.
India is not a member of the Wassenaar Arrangement, but hopes to be one soon. The United States is likely to
support Indias bid.

International Governance

Asian Development Bank (ADB)


Established in 1966
HQ : Manila, Philippines
It is modeled on the World Bank
It has a similar weighted voting system where votes are distributed based on member's capital subscriptions.
ADB borrows from international capital markets with its capital as guarantee
Japan and USA are its major donors.
This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 7
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________

There has been criticism that ADB's large scale projects cause social and environmental damage due to lack of
oversight
India has about 6% voting rights (4th highest; Japan highest, USA 2nd highest)
It is owned by 67 members 48 from the region including India.
It is dedicated to reducing poverty in Asia and the Pacific through inclusive economic growth, environmentally
sustainable growth, and regional integration.

Download other free notes from http://www.ias4sure.com/download/


Try IAS4Sure Android App and ensure your success in Prelims.
o Practice more than 10,000 quality MCQs which are organised topic wise.
o Practice all past year UPSC papers
o Study Notes in mobile
o Track your Progress
o http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/

Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB)

This is an international financial institution


It aims to support the building of infrastructure in the Asia Pacific region
It is an initiative of government of China
HQ : Beijing, China
37 founding members
The capital of the bank is $100 billion, equivalent to 2/3 of the capital of the Asian Development Bank and about
half that of the World Bank
China will remain the biggest shareholder in the bank (India second largest), and the shares of non-Asian
countries will be restricted to 25% of the total
The purpose of the multilateral development bank is to provide finance to infrastructure projects in the Asia
Pacific region.
AIIB is regarded by some as a rival for the IMF, the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank (ADB), which
the AIIB says are dominated by developed countries like the United States and Japan
AIIB will concentrate on infrastructure
Critics (such as the US) warn that the China-led bank may fail to live up to the environmental, labour and
procurement standards that are essential to the mission of development lenders. China says the AIIB will adopt
international best practises. The UK, Germany, and France have now decided to join in as founding members,
drawing protests from the USA

Financial Action Task Force (FATF)


It is an intergovernmental policy making body
It aims to establish international standards for combating money laundering and terrorist financing.
It was established in 1989 during the G7 Summit in Paris (France) to combat the growing problem of money
laundering.
It comprises over 36 countries.
India is a member
FATF Secretariat is housed at the headquarters of the OECD in Paris.
Initially it was only dealing with developing policies to combat money laundering. But in 2001 its purpose was
expanded to act against terrorism financing.

Objectives:
Set standards and promote effective implementation of legal, regulatory and operational measures for
combating money laundering, terrorist financing and other related threats to the integrity of the international
financial system.

Functions:

This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 8
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________

1. Set international standards to combat money laundering and terrorist financing.


2. Assess and monitor compliance with the FATF standards.
3. Conduct studies of money laundering and terrorist financing methods, trends and techniques.
4. Respond to new and emerging threats, such as proliferation financing (used for promoting proliferation of
chemical, biological and nuclear weapons)

Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)

It is a UN body
It leads international efforts to defeat hunger
Established : 1945
HQ : Rome, Italy
In theory, acts as a neutral forum where all nations meet as equals to negotiate agreements and debate policy
FAO is also a source of knowledge and information, and helps developing countries and countries in transition
modernize and improve agriculture, forestry and fisheries practices, ensuring good nutrition and food security
for all
India is a member of FAO

International Astronomical Union


IAU is a collection of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional education
and research in astronomy.
Founded: 1919
HQ : Paris, France
Objective:
o Promote and safeguard the science of astronomy in all its aspects through international cooperation.
o It is an internationally recognized authority for assigning designations (names) to celestial bodies (stars,
planets, asteroids, etc.) and any surface features on them.

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

Established in 1957
HQ : Vienna, Austria
It seeks to promote peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to prohibit its use for any military purpose, including
manufacturing of nuclear weapons
It reports to the UNGA and the UNSC (although it is an independent body)
IAEA :
o Promotes development of peaceful applications of nuclear technology,
o provide international safeguards against misuse of nuclear technology and nuclear materials, and
o promote nuclear safety (including radiation protection) and nuclear security standards and their
implementation
Three main areas of work that underpin the IAEA's mission are:
o Safety and Security;
o Science and Technology; and
o Safeguards and Verification
The IAEA executes this mission with three main functions:
o the inspection of existing nuclear facilities to ensure their peaceful use,
o providing information and developing standards to ensure the safety and security of nuclear facilities, and
o as a hub for the various fields of science involved in the peaceful applications of nuclear technology

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)

It is an international financial institution that offers loans to middle-income developing countries.


HQ in Washington DC
It was established in 1944 with the mission of financing the reconstruction of European nations devastated by
World War II
The IBRD and its concessional lending arm, the International Development Association, are collectively known
as the World Bank

This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 9
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________

Following the reconstruction of Europe, the Bank's mandate expanded to advancing worldwide economic
development and eradicating poverty
The IBRD provides commercial-grade or concessional financing to sovereign states to fund projects that
seek to
o improve transportation and infrastructure,
o education,
o domestic policy,
o environmental consciousness,
o energy investments,
o healthcare,
o access to food and potable water, and
o access to improved sanitation

International Court of Justice (ICJ)

It is the primary judicial branch of the United Nations


Established in 1945
It is seated in The Hague, The Netherlands
The court settles legal disputes submitted to it by states and provides advisory opinions on legal questions
submitted to it by duly authorized international branches, agencies, and the UN General Assembly
Judge term : 9 years
Number of Judges : 15
ICJ only has jurisdiction over any dispute, if the both concerned parties (states) submit to the jurisdiction of ICJ
This can be done in two ways
o Voluntary Jurisdiction - Under this, a state accepts jurisdiction of ICJ for a particular case or class of
cases.
o Compulsory Jurisdiction - Under this, the jurisdiction of ICJ is mandated by a treaty or a pre-existing
agreement
India is a party to ICJ

International Criminal Court (ICC)

It is an intergovernmental organisation and international tribunal


It sits in The Hague, The Netherlands
The ICC has the jurisdiction to prosecute individuals for the international crimes of genocide, crimes against
humanity, and war crimes
It was created by the Rome Statute
Has 122 member countries, India is not one of them (neither are China and the USA)
The ICC is intended to complement existing national judicial systems and it may therefore only exercise its
jurisdiction when certain conditions are met, such as when national courts are unwilling or unable to prosecute
criminals or when the United Nations Security Council or individual states refer investigations to the Court
So far, nine investigations have been opened, and 36 individuals have been indicted. All of the official
investigations have been in Africa, and hence the ICC has been accused of selective enforcement of western
imperialism towards African countries
Why India is not a member of the ICC? The issue of State sovereignty and national interests versus the
powers of the ICC, the difficulty of collecting evidence, the problem of finding impartial prosecutors acceptable
to the entire international community and the definition of crimes that would come within the ICCs jurisdiction
emerged are some of the challenges that India cites for not accepting ICCs jurisdiction

International Development Association (IDA)


The International Development Association (IDA) is an international financial institution which offers
concessional loans and grants to the worlds poorest developing countries.
HQ in Washington DC
Recent issue: India is no longer eligible for IDA fund because India per capita income is greater than $1260, so
its a debate whether India will be a beneficiary because India really needs support from it

International Energy Agency (IEA)

This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 10
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________

Located in Paris
Autonomous intergovernmental organization
Established in 1974 in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis
The IEA was initially dedicated to responding to physical disruptions in the supply of oil, as well as serving as an
information source on statistics about the international oil market and other energy sectors.
The IEA acts as a policy adviser to its member states, but also works with non-member countries,
especially China, India, and Russia
India is not a member
The Agency's mandate has broadened to focus on the "3Es" of effectual energy policy:
o energy security,
o economic development, and
o environmental protection
The IEA has a broad role in promoting alternate energy sources (including renewable energy), rational
energy policies, and multinational energy technology co-operation

International Labor Organization (ILO)


Established in 1919
It is a UN agency
HQ : Geneva, Switzerland
It deals with labour issues, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities
for all
India is a member of ILO
The ILO registers complaints against entities that are violating international rules; however, it does not
impose sanctions on governments

International Maritime Organisation


It is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for regulating shipping.
Established in 1948 (Came into force in 1959; First meeting)
HQ : London, UK
The IMO's primary purpose is to develop and maintain a comprehensive regulatory framework for shipping and
its remit today includes safety, environmental concerns, legal matters, technical co-operation, maritime security
and the efficiency of shipping

International Seabed Authority

It is an intergovernmental body that organizes, regulates and control all mineral (non-living resources)
related activities in the international seabed area beyond the limits of national jurisdiction.
HQ : Jamaica
It functions under the aegis of the United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)
It has an observer status to UN
Why in news? India extended contract with ISA to explore Polymetallic Nodules in Indian Ocean

International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea

It is an intergovernmental organisation
Created by UNCLOS in 1982 (Came in force in 1994)
It established an international framework for law over "all ocean space, its uses and resources"
Based in Hamburg, Germany

New Development Bank

Also referred as BRICS Development Bank


It is a multilateral development bank operated by BRICS states.
The bank's primary focus of lending will be infrastructure projects
The bank will have starting capital of $50 billion, with capital increased to $100 billion over time

This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 11
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________

Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa will initially contribute $10 billion each to bring the total to $50
billion
Unlike the World Bank, which assigns votes based on capital shares, here each participant country will be
assigned one vote, and no country will have veto power
Countries apart from the BRICS countries will also be members- the bank will have some countries from the
south on a rotational basis, on the board of the bank, and they will be allowed to vote
The bank will allow new members to join but the share of BRICS countries cannot drop below 55%
HQ : Shanghai, China
Formed in 2015
The first regional office of the NDB will be opened in Johannesburg, South Africa
K V Kamath is its President
What will NDB do?
o the Bank shall support public or private projects through loans, guarantees, equity participation and
other financial instruments.
o shall cooperate with international organizations and other financial entities, and provide technical
assistance for projects to be supported by the Bank

Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)

It is an international organisation
HQ : The Hague, The Netherlands
Established in 1899
It is not a court and does not have permanent judges.
The PCA is a permanent bureaucracy that assists temporary tribunals to resolve disputes among states (and
similar entities), intergovernmental organizations, or even private parties arising out of international
agreements.
The cases span a range of legal issues involving territorial and maritime boundaries, sovereignty, human rights,
international investment, and international and regional trade.
The decision of the arbitrators is binding in all cases on the parties.
Why in news? In its interim ruling, the UNs Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague ruled that Sergeant
Salvatore Girone (Italian Marine) be allowed to return home until the dispute is resolved through arbitration

UN Convention on the Law of the Sea


It is also called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea treaty
It is the international agreement that resulted from the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea
(UNCLOS III), which took place between 1973 and 1982
The Law of the Sea Convention defines the rights and responsibilities of nations with respect to their use
of the world's oceans, establishing guidelines for businesses, the environment, and the management of marine
natural resources
It defines :

This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 12
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

UNHRC
It is an inter-governmental
governmental body within the United Nations system
It is responsible for strengthening the promotion and protection of human rights around the globe and for
addressing situations of human rights violations and make recommendations on them.
It meets at the UN Office at Geneva.
The Council is made up of 47 United Nations Member States which are elected by the UN General Assembly.
The term of each seat is three years, and no member may occupy a seat for more than two consecutive terms.
The council works closely with the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights and engages the United
Nations special procedures.
The General Assembly can suspend the rights and privileges of any Council member that it decides has
persistently committed gross and systematic violations of human rights during its term of membership. The
suspension process requires a two--thirds majority vote by the General Assembly.

United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL)

UNCITRAL was established by the UN General Assembly in 1966 to promote the progressive harmonisation and
unification of international trade law.
It iss the core legal body of the United Nations system in the field of international trade law.
It also aims to modernize and harmonize rules on international business.
The Commission comprises 60 member States elected by the United Nations General Assembly fo for a term of six
years. Membership is structured to ensure representation of the worlds various geographic regions and its
principal economic and legal systems.
India is a founding member of UNCITRAL.
India is only one of eight countries which have been a member of UNCITRAL since its inception. Last year, it
was re-elected
elected for a term of six years (2016-2022).
(2016

World Health Organization (WHO)

This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 13
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________

WHO is a specialised agency of UN


It is concerned with international public health
Established in 1948
HQ : Geneva, Switzerland
India is a founder member of WHO

Download other free notes from http://www.ias4sure.com/download/


Try IAS4Sure Android App and ensure your success in Prelims.
o Practice more than 10,000 quality MCQs which are organised topic wise.
o Practice all past year UPSC papers
o Study Notes in mobile
o Track your Progress
o http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/

World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO)


The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is one of the 17 specialized agencies of the United Nations.
Created in 1967
Aims to encourage creative activity, to promote the protection of intellectual property throughout the world
HQ : Geneva, Switzerland
India is a member of WIPO and party to several treaties administered by WIPO.

World Bank
The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital
programs.
It comprises of two institutions:
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)
International Development Association (IDA).

Formation: July 1944.


Headquarters: Washington DC, United States.
Motto: Working for a World Free of Poverty.
Membership: 189 countries (IBRD), 173 countries (IDA)

The World Bank is one of the five components of the World Bank Group, which is part of the United Nations system.

World Food Programme

The WFP is the food-assistance branch of the United Nations.


It is the worlds largest humanitarian organization addressing hunger and promoting food security.
It works to help people who cannot produce or obtain enough food for themselves and their families.
It was established in 1961 after the 1960 Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) Conference.
Its headquarter is in Rome (Italy) and has more than 80 country offices around the world.
It provides food assistance to an average of 80 million people in 75 countries each year.
It is a member of the United Nations Development Group (UNDG) and part of its Executive Committee.

International Groups

APEC

This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 14
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

APEC stands for Asia-Pacific


Pacific Economic Cooperation
It is a regional economic forum of 21 Pacific Rim member economies
Established in 1989
APECs 21 members aim to promote free trade throughout the Asia-Pacific
Asia region
APEC account for about half the worlds trade and almost 60 per cent of global GDP
Why was it established?
In response to the growing interdependence
inter of Asia-Pacific
Pacific economies and the advent of regional trade
blocs in other parts of the world;
To fears that highly industrialized Japan (a member of G8) would come to dominate economic activity in
the Asia-Pacific region; and
To establish new markets for agricultural products and raw materials beyond Europe
India is not a member. India has applied but membership was denied because it does not border Pacific Ocean
India is an observer member in APEC
HQ: Singapore
Map :

Latest Summit:
Pasay, Metro Manila (Philippines),, Nov 2015
Lima, Peru, Nov 2016

ASEAN

ASEAN stands for Association of South East Asian Nations


It is a political and economic organisation of 10 SE Asian nations
Formed in 1967
Founding members were Indonesia,
Indonesia Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand i.e. all 10 current
members were not founding members
Current members are:
a. Indonesia
b. Malaysia
c. Philippines
d. Singapore
e. Thailand
f. Brunei
g. Cambodia
h. Laos
i. Myanmar (Burma)
j. Vietnam
Aims:
o Accelerating economic growth,
growth social progress, and sociocultural evolution among its members,
o Protection of regional stability
o Providing a mechanism for member countries to resolve differences peacefully
The ASEAN Way: Doctrine that the member countries will largely mind their own business when it comes
to internal matters of member countries
ASEAN Plus Three: Was created to improve existing ties with the China, Japan and South Korea.
If the ASEAN nations were a single country, their combined economy would rank the 7th largest in the world
HQ : Jakarta, Indonesia
India
o Has and FTA with ASEAN (operational since 2010)
o Shares border both land/marine
This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 15
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

o Large number of Indian origin people living in these countries


Map:

Latest Summit:
Kuala Lampur (Malaysia), Nov 2015

ASEM

ASEM stands for ASIA-Europe


Europe Meeting Summit
It is an informal dialogue process
It brings together 53 entities including 51 countries (including
( India)) from Asia and Europe and two
regional bodies European Union (EU) and the ASEAN
Established in 1996 in Bangkok
The dialogue
alogue addresses political, economic and cultural issues between the two regions
It also seeks to strengthen the relationship between the two regions in a spirit of mutual respect and equal
partnership
Map

BBIN
BBIN stands for Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal
It is a sub-regional
regional architecture of these 4 countries
Aims to formulate, implement and review quadrilateral agreements across areas such as water resources
management, connectivity of power, transport, and infrastructure

BCIM
BCIM stands for Bangladesh-China
China-India-Myanmar
It is a sub-regional organisation
This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 16
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

It aims at greater integration of trade and investment between the four countries
BCIM economic corridor is an initiative conceptualised for significant gains through sub sub-regional economic
cooperation within the BCIM.
The multi-modal
modal corridor will be the first expressway between India and China and will pass through Myanmar
and Bangladesh
BCIM evolved from Kunming
Kunming Initiative
Initiative (A platform in 1990s)

BIMSTEC
BIMSTEC stands for Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral
Multi Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation
It is an international organisation involving a group of countries in South Asia and South East Asia.
7 members :
o Bangladesh
o India
o Myanmar
o Sri Lanka
o Thailand
o Bhutan
o Nepal
Established in 1997 in Bangkok
Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, and Thailand were founding members
HQ : Dhaka, Bangladesh
The main objective of BIMSTEC is technological and economic cooperation among south Asian and south east
Asian countries along the coast of the bay of Bengal . Commerce, investment, technology, tourism, human
resource development, agriculture, fisheries, transport and communication, textiles, leather etc. have been
included in it
BIMSTEC uses the alphabetical order for the Chairmanship
Bhutan has never been chairman (Skipped itself)
Current chairmanship : Nepal
Map:

Latest Summit:
Third Summit was held in Nay Pyi Taw,
Taw Myanmar in March 2014.

BRICS

BRICS is an acronym for Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa
Originally it was BRIC (S. Africa included in 2010). Term coined in 2001
Members are :
o Major emerging national economies
o Developing or newly industrialised nations
o G 20 members
First formal summit was held in 2009 in Russia
Formed in 2011
It encourages commercial, political and cultural cooperation between the BRICS nations
This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 17
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

New Development Bank is an outcome of this platform


Except India, all other members GDP is slowing down bringing average GDP growth of the BRICS to near zero
As of 2015, thee five BRICS countries represent over 3 billion people, or 42% of the world population
Map

Latest Summit:
8th Summit Goa, October 2016
2017 (9th) Summit will be held in China
7th Summit, Russia, July 2015

Commonwealth of Nations

Formerly called the British Commonwealth


It is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that were mostly territories of the
former British Empire
HQ : London
Mozambique and Rwanda are also its members, who were never colonies of Britain
This was set up after the second world war (in 1949) by Britain, to maintain close economic ties with its
erstwhile colonies that were now rapidly becoming independent
It is not a trade block. It aims to promote democracy, human rights, world peace etc.
Commonwealth countries tries in theory do not consider each other foreign, and hence send High Commissioners
and not Ambassadors
Several countries (such as Britain, Caribbean islands) grant the right to vote to any commonwealth country
citizen residing in their territory to
o vote in their elections
In non-commonwealth
commonwealth countries, commonwealth countries can seek assistance at the British embassy, in case
their own country does not have consular services in that country
On occasion, the commonwealth has suspended members for not not maintaining democratic governments (such as
Nigeria from 1995-1999).
1999). Recently, there have been lots of protests demanding that Sri Lanka be dropped, given
the war crimes inflicted on Tamils during the civil war

East Asia Summit


It is a forum of East Asian, South East Asian and South Asian nations.
18 members :
o 10 ASEAN nations
o China, Japan and South Korea (ASEAN + 3)
o Australia
o New Zealand
o India
o Russia
o USA
Started in 2005 from Kuala Lumpur
EAS meetings are held after annual ASEAN leaders meetings. It is an ASEAN led initiative.
Map :

This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 18
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

Latest Summit:
Kuala Lampur (Malaysia), Nov 2015

Eurasian Economic Union (EEU)

It is an economic union of states located in Northern Eurasia


Established in 2015
HQ : Moscow
5 members :
o Armenia
o Belarus
o Kazakhstan
o Kyrgyzstan
o Russia
The EEU introduces the free movement of goods, capital, services and people and provides for common
transport, agriculture and energy policies
In future, it can evolve with provisions for a single currency and greater integration
integrati
Map:

G4
Members : India, Brazil, Germany and Japan
All members support each otherss bids for permanent seats on the United Nations Security Council
2004
Each of these four countries have figured among the elected non-permanent
non permanent members of the council since the
UN's establishment.
Their economic and political influence has grown significantly in the last decades, reaching a scope comparable
to the permanent members (P5)
G4 campaigns for U.N. Reforms, including more representation for developing countries
countries, both in the
permanent and non-permanent
permanent categories, in the UNSC
France supports inclusion of G4 and an African representative as permanent member with no objection to the
veto power being extended to new permanent members. UK supports G4 as new members but without veto
power.
This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 19
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

G7
The Group of 7 (G7) is a group consisting of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and
the United States.
The European Union is also represented within the G7.
These countries are the seven major advanced economies as reported by the International Monetary Fund.
G7 countries represent more than 64% of the net global wealth
Common denominator among members is the economy and long-term term political motives

Latest Summit:
Kashiko Island (Japan), May 2016

G20
It is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from 20 major economies.
Founded in 1999
Its aim was to review policy decisions to enhance international financial stability
It now deliberates on global economic issues and other important development challenges.
First Head of State Summit was held in 2008 (Due to Economic Crisis)
20 Members ( EU U + 19 Countries) :
o Argentina,
o Australia,
o Brazil,
o Canada,
o China,
o France,
o Germany,
o India,
o Indonesia,
o Italy,
o Japan,
o South Korea,
o Mexico,
o Russia,
o Saudi Arabia,
o South Africa,
o Turkey,
o United Kingdom and
o United States
G20 economies account for around 85% of the gross world product (GWP), 80% of world trade (or, if excluding
EU intra-trade, 75%), and two-thirds
thirds of the world population
G20 replaced G8 as the main economic council of wealthy nations
Map: (Blue : members, Pink : Guests)

Latest Summit:
Hangzhou, China in September 2016
In 2017, will be held in Hamburg, Germany

This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 20
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

India-Africa Forum
India Africa Summit
The IndiaAfrica
Africa Forum Summit (IAFS) is the official platform for the African--Indian relations.
Started in 2008
Intergovernmental attempt to give direction and thrust to bilateral synergy
Summits: 2008 (New Delhi); 2011 (Addis Adaba) ; 2015 (New Delhi)

Summit 2015
Delhi Declaration
Infrastructure building - "Cairo
Cairo to cape town, Marrakesh to Mombassa"
Mombassa
Credit at concessional rates of $10 billion over 5 years (in addition to 4.7 billion that India had already pledged
since 2008)
Grant
rant assistance of $600 million (India-Africa
(India dev fund , India-Africa Health fund)

IBSA
IBSA stands for India-Brazil-South
South Africa
South-South cooperation
All Developing Democracies
The forum provides the three countries with a platform to engage in discussions for cooperation in the field of
agriculture, trade, culture, and defence among others.
IBSA was formalised and launched through
throu the adoption of the Brasilia
Brasilia Declaration
Declaration in 2003
Brasilia Declaration (2003) : Approved urgent need for reforms in the United Nations, especially
the Security Council.

IORA

IORA stands for Indian Ocean Rim Association


It consists of coastal statess bordering the Indian Ocean
The IORA is a regional forum which bring together representatives of Government, Business and Academia, for
promoting co-operation
operation and closer interaction among them
21 member states : South Africa, Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya, Madagascar, Comoros, Mauritius,
Seychelles, Iran, Oman, UAE, Yemen, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand,
Australia and Somalia.
Maldives, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Myanmar are not members
Secretariat of IORA is located at Ebene, Mauritius.
The organisation was first established as Indian Ocean Rim Initiative in Mauritius on March 1995 and formally
launched in 1997 by the conclusion of a multilateral treaty known as the Charter of the Indian Ocean Rim
Association for Regional Co-operation
operation
Map: (Somalia is not shown in this. Add that)

Factual Information:
The 2017 Indian-Ocean
Ocean Rim Association (IORA) Summit (March 5-7,
7, 2017) was the first IORA Summit
Summit.

This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 21
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

Mekong-Ganga Cooperation
Established in 2000
It comprises six member :
o India,
o Thailand,
o Myanmar,
o Cambodia,
o Laos and
o Vietnam
They emphasised four areas of cooperation:
o tourism,
o culture,
o education, and
o transportation
The organization takes its name from the Ganga and the Mekong,, two large rivers in the region
Map:

OPEC

OPEC stands for Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries


Founded in 1960 in Bagdad
HQ : Vienna
13 members
o Algeria,
o Angola,
o Ecuador,
o Indonesia,
o Iran,
o Iraq,
o Kuwait,
o Libya,
o Nigeria,
o Qatar,
o Saudi Arabia (the de facto leader),
o United Arab Emirates, and
o Venezuela.
Gabon left OPEC
It operates on the principle of unanimity, and one member, one vote
OPEC sets production targets for its member nations and generally, when OPEC production targets are reduced,
oil prices increase
As of 2015, the 13 countries accounted for 43 percent of global oil production and 73 percent of the world's
"proven" oil reserves, giving
g OPEC a major influence on global oil prices.
OPEC decisions have come to play a prominent role in the global oil market and international relations
Map :

This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 22
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

OECD

OECD stands for Organisation for Economic Co-operation


Co and Development
It is an international economic organisation
Established in 1961
Secretariat : Paris
Members : 34
Aims to stimulate economic progress and world trade
Its members are committed to Democracy and Market Economy
Most OECD members are high-income
income economies with a very high
igh Human Development Index (HDI) and are
regarded as developed countries
India is not a member of OECD
Map: (Dark Blue : Founding members)

RCEP

RCEP stands for Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership


It is a proposed free trade agreement between
between countries of ASEAN(10 countries) and 6 other countries with
which ASEAN has existing FTAs (including India).
10 ASEAN nations are :
a. Brunei,
b. Burma (Myanmar),
c. Cambodia,
d. Indonesia,
e. Laos,
f. Malaysia,
g. Philippines,
h. Singapore,
i. Thailand,
j. Vietnam
6 Other Nations are :
a. Australia,
b. China,
c. India,
d. Japan,
e. South Korea and
f. New Zealand
RCEP negotiations were formally launched in November 2012 at the ASEAN Summit in Cambodia
RCEP is viewed as an alternative to the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade agreement, which includes the United
States but excludes China

This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 23
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

RCEP potentially includes more than 3 billion people or 45% of the worldss population, and a combined GDP of
about $21.3 trillion, accounting for about 40 percent of world trade
The combined GDP of potentialtial of RCEP members surpassed the combined GDP of Trans-Pacific
Partnership (TPP) members in 2007.
Map:

SAARC
SAARC stands for South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
It is regional intergovernmental organization and geopolitical union in South Asia.
Founded in Dhaka in 1985
Secretariat : Kathmandu
8 Members:
o Afghanistan (Joined in 2007)
o Bhutan
o Bangladesh
o India
o Pakistan
o Nepal
o Sri Lanka
o Maldives
Myanmar and China are not its members
Nine observer states: Australia, China, European Union, Japan, Iran, Mauritius, Myanmar, South Korea, and
United States.
SAARC compromises 3% of the world's area, 21% of the world's population and 9.12% of the global economy, as
of 2015
The organization promotes development economics and regional integration
SAFTA : South Asia Free Trade Agreement was launched in 2006
Map: (Dark : members; Light : Observer status)

Latest Summit:
Kathmandu, Nepal in 2014
2016 Summit to be held in Islamabad, Pakistan

Shang
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation

This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 24
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

It is a Eurasian political, economic, and military organisation


Founded in 2001 in Shanghai
6 members:
o China,
o Kazakhstan,
o Kyrgyzstan,
o Russia,
o Tajikistan, and
o Uzbekistan
SCO evolved from Shanghai Five (All above minus Uzbekistan)
On July 10, 2015, the SCO decided to admit India and Pakistan as full members, and they are expected to join
by 2016
Main activities: cooperation on security, military activities, and economic and cultural cooperation
Member countries are rich in energy resources (both fossil fuels and uranium)
HQ : Beijing, China
Map:

Latest Summit:
Ufa (Russia), July 2015
Tashkent, Uzbekistan, June 2016

Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP)

TPP is a Trade Agreement among 12 Pacific Rim countries


It was signed on 4 February 2016 in Auckland, New Zealand
It has not entered into force
Goals:
o promote economic growth;
o support the creation and retention of jobs;
o enhance innovation, productivity and competitiveness;
o raise living standards;
o reduce poverty ty in our countries;
o promote transparency, good governance,
o enhanced labor and environmental protections
12 Signatories:
o USA,
o Canada,
o Mexico,
o Chile,
o Peru,
o Japan,
o Australia,
o New Zealand,
o Malaysia,
o Brunei,
o Singapore,
This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 25
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

o Vietnam
The agreement covers 40% of the worlds economy
India is not a part of this.
Map: (Orange : members; Blue : Potential members)

Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP)

It is a proposed trade agreement between the European Union and the United States
Aims to promote trade and multilateral economic growth
Its main three broad areas are:
o market access;
o specific regulation; and
o broader rules and principles and modes of co-operation
co
It is under negotiation
Map:

International
nternational NGOs and Others

African Development Bank

The African Development Bank (AfDB) was established in 1963 with a view to promote the Economic
Development and social progress of its regional members.
India became member of the African Development Bank (AfDB) in 1983.
The Union Finance Minister and Secretary, Department of Economic Affairs (DEA), Ministry of Finance are the
Governor and Alternate Governor of the Bank respectively.
Why in news? India will be hosting the next Annual Meetings of the African Development Bank (A(AfDB) Group
in Ahmedabad in May 2017

This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 26
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________

European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN)


CERN is world's largest nuclear and particle physics laboratory.
It is situated in North West suburbs of Geneva on France-Swiss Border.
It was established in .
Members: It has 22 member states, four associate member states (including India and Pakistan) and three
International Organisations have observer status.
Functions:
o The laboratory helps scientists and engineers probing fundamental structure of Universe using the most
sophisticated scientific instruments and advanced computing systems
o Provide the necessary infrastructure needed for high-energy physics research including particle
accelerators.
Achievements:
o CERN operates the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which is the worlds largest and most powerful particle
accelerator.
o It is associated with the discovery of the Higgs Boson which is popularly known as the God particle.
o Indian scientists has been active in construction of the LHC in the areas of design, development and
supply of hardware accelerator components, software development and deployment in the machine.
o They also had played significant role in the CMS (Compact Muon Experiment), one of the two large
experiments that led to discovery of God particle.
Why in news? India has become an associate member.
How this membership helps India?
o As an Associate Member of CERN, India will be a part of the huge scientific and technological endeavour.
o The India-CERN association as a whole is interdisciplinary in nature and the involvement of physicists,
electronics hardware and software engineers will pave the path for overall knowledge development in the
best possible way.
o Becoming Associate Member of CERN will enhance participation of young scientists and engineers in
various CERN projects and bring back knowledge for deployment in the domestic programmes.
o It will also open opportunities for Indian industries to participate directly in the CERN project.
o Through the Teachers programme, teachers teaching in the higher secondary schools would also be able to
participate in the programme and pass on the knowledge and quest for high-end science to their students,
thereby encouraging large number of students to pursue their career in science.

Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI)


What is CEPI?
CEPI is a public-private alliance to finance and coordinate the development of new vaccines to prevent and
contain infectious disease epidemics.
CEPIs plan includes preparations for possible outbreaks of Marburg fever, Lassa fever, MERS, SARS, Nipah
virus, Rift Valley fever, chikungunya, and others.
It is being funded by the Wellcome Trust, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, World Economic Forum (WEF),
Governments of Norway, Japan, India (Department of Biotechnology) and Germany.

Why in news?
It received $460-million to develop vaccines against 3 emerging highly-contagious and fatal diseases.
These three diseases are Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-coronavirus, Lassa fever, and Nipah virus.

Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR)

The CCAMLR was established by international convention in 1982 with the objective of conserving Antarctic
marine life.
It is part of the Antarctic Treaty System.
It was signed by 14 states and has been ratified by 35 states (including India) and the European Community
Headquarters: Tasmania, Australia.
Goal: Preserve marine life and environmental integrity in and near Antarctica
The CCAMLR was established in response to increasing commercial interest in Antarctic krill resources, a
keystone component of the Antarctic ecosystem and over-exploitation of several other marine resources in the
Southern Ocean

This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 27
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________

Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS)


CAS is an international quasi-judicial body
It is established to settle disputes related to sport through arbitration.
Its Headquarter is located in Lausanne (Switzerland).
Its courts are located in New York, Sydney and Lausanne.
According to rule 61 of the Olympic Charter, all disputes in connection with the Olympic Games can only be
submitted to CAS.
Since 2016, an anti-doping division of CAS was given full authority to judge doping cases at the Olympic Games.
It had replaced earlier mechanism of the IOC disciplinary commission.
Why in news? CAS has banned Indian wrestler Narsingh Yadav for four years in doping case

Download other free notes from http://www.ias4sure.com/download/


Try IAS4Sure Android App and ensure your success in Prelims.
o Practice more than 10,000 quality MCQs which are organised topic wise.
o Practice all past year UPSC papers
o Study Notes in mobile
o Track your Progress
o http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/

EU vs EEA

The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union of 28 countries. It operates an internal (or
single) market which allows free movement of goods, capital, services and people between member states
The EU countries are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Republic of Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,
Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the UK
The EEA includes EU countries and also Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway. It allows them to be part of
the EUs single market
Switzerland is neither an EU nor EEA member
What is EEA?
o EEA provides for the free movement of persons, goods, services and capital within the internal market of
the European Union (EU).
o The EEA was established on 1 January 1994 upon entry into force of the EEA Agreement
Why in news? After Brexit, UK has an option to be part of EEA
Map:

This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 28
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________

International Consortium of Investigative Journalists


The International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ) is a Washington-based international network
launched in 1997 by the Center for Public Integrity which includes 165 investigative journalists in over 65
countries who work together on "issues such as "cross-border crime, corruption, and the accountability of
power."
For the Panama Papers more than 80 journalists worked on the data, culminating in a partial release on 3 April
2016, garnering global media attention.

International Vaccine Institute (IVI)

IVI is an international non-profit organization devoted to developing and introducing new and improved
vaccines to protect the people, especially children, against deadly infectious diseases.
It was established in 1997 on the initiatives of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
Its work is exclusively on vaccine development and introduction specifically for people in developing countries,
with a focus on neglected diseases affecting these regions.
Currently, IVI has 40 countries and the World Health Organization (WHO) as signatories to its Establishment
Agreement.
Why in news? India has become full-time member of IVI

Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)

The OIC is an international organization founded in 1969.


Members: It consists of 57 member states including Iran and Pakistan.
Administrative centre (headquarters): Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Objective:
1. Raise the collective voice of the Muslim world.
2. Collectively work to safeguard and protect the interests of the Muslim world in the spirit of promoting
international peace and harmony.
3. OIC has permanent delegations to United Nations and the European Union.
Issues with India: In this organisation, India is a blocked country, though it has about 12% of the worlds
Muslim population. India has been blocked by Pakistan from joining the OIC over Kashmir issue.

This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 29
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________

OIC regard parts of Kashmir as occupied by India.

SARTTAC

SARTTAC stands for South Asia Training and Technical Assistance Centre
Opened by IMF
Located in New Delhi
It purpose is economic capacity building in South Asia.
It will work to support local member countries of South Asia viz. India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal
and Sri Lanka to build human and institutional capacity and implement policies for growth and poverty
reduction
SARTTAC is financed mainly by its six member South Asia countries (mentioned above) with additional support
from Australia, South Korea, European Union and United Kingdom.
It strategic goal is to help its member countries strengthen their institutional and human capacity to design and
implement macroeconomic and financial policies that promote growth and reduce poverty.
It will allow the IMF to meet more of the high demand for technical assistance and training from the region.
It is expected to become the focal point for the delivery of IMF capacity development services to South Asia.

World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)


It is an international non-governmental organization (NGO) working in the field of the biodiversity conservation, and
the reduction of humanitys footprint on the environment.

National : Constitutional

CAG

The Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India is an authority, established by the Constitution of India
under article 148.
CAG audits all receipts and expenditure of the Government of India and the state governments, including those of
bodies and authorities substantially financed by the government.
The CAG is also the external auditor of Government-owned corporations and conducts supplementary audit of
government companies, i.e., any non-banking/ non-insurance company in which the state and Union
governments have an equity share of at least 51% or subsidiary companies of existing government companies.
The reports of the CAG are taken into consideration by the Public Accounts Committees (PACs) and Committees
on Public Undertakings (COPUs), which are special committees in the Parliament of India and the state
legislatures.
The CAG enjoys the same status as a judge of Supreme Court of India in Indian order of precedence.
Appointment: CAG is appointed by the President of India following a recommendation by the Prime Minister. On
appointment, he/she has to make an oath or affirmation before the President of India.
Removal: The CAG can be removed only on an address from both house of parliament on the ground of proved
misbehaviour or incapacity.The CAG vacates the office on attaining the age of 65 years age even without
completing the 6 years term.

Demand to Make CAG accountable to Parliament

Demand to make CAG responsible to parliament through constitutional amendment


Often CAG's report are not presented to legislature on time, as they might be deemed inconvenient by the
government of the day. This dilutes CAG's effectiveness in ensuring Executives accountability to parliament

The present constitutional structure ensures independence of the CAG to go into the entire gamut of audit
functions where public interest is involved.

It is useful to draw the publics attention to Article 324 of the Constitution, which fully empowers the Election
Commission of India (ECI) to superintend, direct and control the election of the President, the Vice-President and
the legislatures, both at the Centre and in the States. Apropos the elections, the powers of the ECI are absolute
and even litigation before the judiciary can only come after the completion of the election process.

This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 30
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________

In most Commonwealth countries, the legislative auditor is the Auditor-General, whose office is a core element of
parliamentary oversight, and he or she reports directly to Parliament and to the PAC. In some instances, the
Auditor-General is an officer of Parliament, with the latter guaranteeing him independence from the executive (as
in the case of Australia and the U.K.) while in some other instances, he or she is independent of both the executive
and the legislature, as in the case of India.

CEC
The President of India (based on a recommendation from incumbent Govt of India) appoints the Chief Election
Commissioner. Conventionally, senior-most Election Commissioner is appointed as CEC(no collegium like for
CIC/ CVC)

Removal is only by impeachment-like action

Central Administrative Tribunal (CAT)


Basic Facts:
CAT was established under Article 323A of the Constitution (inserted by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment,
1976).
It is a multi-member body consisting of Chairman and members.
It was established in 1985 under Section 29 of the Administrative Tribunals Act, 1985.
The Principal seat of Central Administrative Tribunal is at New Delhi and it has 16 Outlying Benches scattered
all over the Country.
The Tribunal is headed by the Chairman and 65 Members, 33 from Judicial (including Chairman) and 33 from
the Administrative stream.
The Chairman is normally a retired Chief Justice of a High Court.

Functions of the tribunal:


The tribunal adjudicates disputes and complaints with respect to Recruitment and Conditions of Service of the
persons appointed to the Public Services and Posts in connection with the affairs of the Union or any State or of
any other Local Authorities within the territory of India or under the control of the Government of India.
Apart from above the Tribunal also has the jurisdiction on the employees of 208 Public Sector Undertakings/
Organizations notified by the Government.

National Commission for SC


NCSC
It is a constitutional body established with a view to provide safeguards against the exploitation of Scheduled
Castes.
Aims to promote and protect their social, educational, economic and cultural interests, special provisions were
made in the Constitution.

How this institution has evolved over time?


In order to ensure that the safeguards provided to SCs and STs are properly implemented, the Constitution on
its inception provided for appointment of a special office under Article 338 of the Constitution to investigate
all matters relating to the safeguards provided for Scheduled Castes & Scheduled Tribes and report to the
President about the working of these safeguards. In pursuance of this provision a Special Officer known as the
Commissioner for Scheduled Castes & Scheduled Tribes was appointed for the first time on 18th November,
1950.
A proposal was mooted for amendment of Article 338 of the Constitution (46th Amendment) by replacing the
single member Special Officer by multi-member system. The first Commission for SC & ST came into being on
August, 1978.
The setup of the Commission of 1978 underwent change in 1987 and it was named as National Commission for
Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. This Commission being a National Level Advisory body played the role
of adviser on major policy and developmental issues relating to SCs/STs
Later, through the 89th Amendment of the Constitution it was decided to have a separate National
Commission for Scheduled Castes & separate National Commission for Scheduled Tribes. This came into effect
in 2004.
Thus, the erstwhile National Commission for SCs & STs was bifurcated into two different Commissions.

This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 31
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________

Functions of the commission:


To investigate and monitor all matters relating to the safeguards provided for the Scheduled Castes under this
Constitution or under any other law for the time being in force or under any order of the Government and to
evaluate the working of such safeguards.
To inquire into specific complaints with respect to the deprivation of rights and safeguards of the Scheduled
Castes.
To participate and advise on the planning process of socio-economic development of the Scheduled Castes and
to evaluate the progress of their development under the Union and any State.
To present to the President, annually and at such other times as the Commission may deem fit, reports upon the
working of those safeguards.
To make in such reports recommendations as to the measures that should be taken by the Union or any State for
the effective implementation of those safeguards and other measures for the protection, welfare and socio-
economic development of the Scheduled Castes.
To discharge such other functions in relation to the protection, welfare and development and advancement of
the Scheduled Castes as the President may, subject to the provisions of any law made by Parliament, by rule
specify.

Composition:
The Commission consists of a chairperson, a vice-chairperson and three other members.
They are appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal.
Their conditions of service and tenure of office are also determined by the president.
The commission presents an annual report to the president.

National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST)

NCST is constitutional body set up under Article 338A added through Constitution (89th Amendment)
Act, 2003.
It was bifurcated from erstwhile National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
The First commission was constituted on 2004 with Kunwar singh as the chairperson.
Composition:
o Chairperson,
o A Vice-Chairperson and
o Three full-time Members (including one lady Member).
All of them have tenure of three years from the date of assumption of charge.
Functions:
o Investigate and monitor all matters relating to the safeguards provided for the STs under the Constitution
or under any other law or under any order of the Government and evaluate the working of such
safeguards.
o Inquire into specific complaints with respect to the deprivation of rights and safeguards of STs.
o Participate and advise in planning process of socio-economic development of the STs and to evaluate the
progress of their development under the Centre and any State;
o Present before President, annually reports upon the working of those safeguards.
o It has to recommend measures to be taken by Governments for effective implementation of those
safeguards and other measures for the protection, welfare and socio-economic development STs.

National Commission for Socially and Educationally Backward Classes (NSEBC)


It will replace National Commission for Backward Class.
In this regard, constitutional amendment bill for amending Constitution mainly by insertion of Article 338B will
be soon introduced in the Parliament.

What has been approved?


Creation of a National Commission for Socially and Educationally Backward Classes (NSEBC) under new Article
338 B.
Composition of the new NSEBC will include Chairperson, Vice Chairperson and three other Members.
Insertion of provision after Article 341 and 342 by inserting Article 342 A to provide for Parliaments approval
for every inclusion into and exclusion from the Central List of Other Backward Class (OBCs).
Insertion of a new Clause (26C) under Article 366 of the Constitution to define Socially and Educationally
Backward Classes;
Repealing of National Commission for Backward Classes Act, 1993 and Rules framed under it.
Dissolution of the Commission constituted under the Act of 1993

This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 32
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________

National : Non Constitutional

Archaeological Survey of India (ASI)


The ASI is the premier organization for the archaeological researches and protection of the cultural heritage of
the country.
The prime objection of ASI is to maintain the archaeological sites, ancient monuments and remains of national
importance.
Headquarters: New Delhi.
Established: 1861 by Alexander Cunningham.
It regulates all archaeological activities as per the provisions of the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites
and Remains Act, 1958.
It functions under the aegis of the Union Ministry of Culture. It also regulates Antiquities and Art Treasure Act,
1972.

BCI- Bar Council of India


Body entrusted with regulating the legal profession and to deal with lawyers who step out of line.
Numerous cases of Lawyer strikes
o 2009: clash between lawyers and police in Madras HC --> led to formation of ShriKrishna Committee
o September 2015: group of lawyer protesting against judges in Madras HC
o June 2015: Madurai Lawyers against decision of wearing helmet in Court premises
o July 2015: Indefinite strike by Delhi district court lawyers
Madras HC directed the Union government to consider entrusting the functions of Bar Council to an Expert
Committee headed by retired SC judge along with academicians, legal experts, Doctors, Prominent Social
workers, retd. IAS and police officers.
SC order in Common Cause vs UOI: It is unprofessional for lawyers to go on strike or boycott court; It is duty
of state and National bar councils to take action against striking associations. It held that only in Rarest of rare
cases abstention from court is justified.

Some concerns:

Politicization of bar associations e.g. in TN --> DMK, AIDMK, PMK


Quality of lawyers deteriorating
o Suggestion to stop three year degree and retain only 5-year course
o Amend Advocates Act to prevent entry of criminal or extremist elements into the profession

Bureau of Civil Aviation Security

The Bureau of Civil Aviation Security (BCAS) was initially set up as a Cell in the DGCA in January 1978 on the
recommendation of the Pande Committee.
The BCAS was reorganized into an independent department under the Ministry of Civil Aviation on 1st April,
1987 following the 1985 bombing of Air India Flight 182.
The main responsibilities of BCAS include laying down standards and measures with respect to security of civil
flights at international and domestic airports in India.
a. Laying down Aviation Security Standards in accordance with Annex 17 to Chicago Convention of ICAO for
airport operators, airlines operators, and their security agencies responsible for implementing Aviation
Security measures
b. Ensure that the persons implementing security controls are appropriately trained and possess all
competencies required to perform their duties.
c. Surprise/Dummy checks to test professional efficiency and alertness of security staff.
d. Mock exercise to test efficacy of Contingency Plans and operational preparedness of the various agencies.

CCI
Competition Commission of India is a body of the Government of India responsible for enforcing The Competition Act,
2002 throughout India and to prevent activities that have an adverse effect on competition in India. It was established

This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 33
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________

on 14 October 2003. It became fully functional in May 2009.

The objectives of the Act are sought to be achieved through the Competition Commission of India (CCI).
CCI consists of a Chairperson and 6 Members appointed by the Central Government.
The duty of the Commission is to eliminate practices having adverse effect on competition, promote and sustain
competition, protect the interests of consumers and ensure freedom of trade in the markets of India.
The Commission is also required to give opinion on competition issues on a reference received from a statutory
authority established under any law and to undertake competition advocacy, create public awareness and impart
training on competition issues.
The Competition Act, 2002 prohibits anti-competitive agreements, abuse of dominant position by enterprises
and regulates combinations (acquisition, acquiring of control and Merger and acquisition), which causes or
likely to cause an appreciable adverse effect on competition within India.

To achieve its objectives, the Competition Commission of India endeavours to do the following:

Make the markets work for the benefit and welfare of consumers.
Ensure fair and healthy competition in economic activities in the country for faster and inclusive growth and
development of economy.
Implement competition policies with an aim to effectuate the most efficient utilization of economic resources.
Develop and nurture effective relations and interactions with sectoral regulators to ensure smooth alignment of
sectoral regulatory laws in tandem with the competition law.
Effectively carry out competition advocacy and spread the information on benefits of competition among all
stakeholders to establish and nurture competition culture in Indian economy.

Central Electricity Authority


Central Electricity Authority

The Central Electricity Authority (CEA) is a statutory organization constituted under Section 3 (1) of the
repealed Electricity (Supply) Act, 1948 and continued under Section 70 of the Electricity Act, 2003.
It was established as a part time body in 1951 and made a full time body in the year 1975. As per Section 70 (3) of
the Electricity Act, 2003, the authority shall consist of not more than 14 members, including its chairperson of
whom not more than eight shall be full time members to be appointed by the Central Government.
The CEA is headed by a chairperson who, as the Chief Executive of the authority, oversees largely the
development of power sector in the country.
It advises the government on matters relating to the National Electricity Policy (NEP) and formulates short-term
and perspective plans for the development of electricity systems.
It is the designated authority for cross border trade of electricity.
It also prescribes the standards on matters such as construction of electrical plants, electric lines and
connectivity to the grid, safety and grid standards and installation and operation of meters.
It is also responsible for concurrence of hydro power development schemes of central, state and private sectors
for efficient development of river and its tributaries for power generation.

Central Pollution Control Board


The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) of India is a statutory organisation under the Ministry of
Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC).
It was established in 1974 under the Water (Prevention and Control of pollution) Act, 1974.
CPCB is also entrusted with the powers and functions under the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act,
1981.
It serves as a field formation and also provides technical services to the Ministry of Environment and Forests
under the provisions of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
It Co-ordinates the activities of the State Pollution Control Boards by providing technical assistance and
guidance and also resolves disputes among them.

Central Silk Board


CSB is a statutory body established under the Central Silk Board Act, 1948.
It functions under the aegis of Union Ministry of Textile.
It is a national organization for overall development of silk sector in India
This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 34
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________

Central Water Commission (CWC)


CWC is apex Technical Organization of India in the field of Water Resources.
It is presently functioning as an attached office of Union Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and
Ganga Rejuvenation.
It is charged with the general responsibilities of initiating and coordinating schemes of control, utilization and
conservation of water resources throughout the country.
These schemes are meant for purpose of Flood Control, Irrigation, Navigation, Drinking Water Supply and
Water Power Development.
It also undertakes the investigations, construction and execution of any such schemes as required.
The work of the Commission is divided among 3 wings namely :
1. River Management Wing (RM),
2. Designs and Research Wing (D&R) and
3. Water Planning and Projects Wing (WP&P).

CIC
Central Information Commission:
The Central Information Commission (CIC) is set up under the Right to Information Act and is the authorised body,
established in 2005, under the Government of India.
The Chief Information Commissioner heads the Central Information Commission. CIC hears appeals from
information-seekers who have not been satisfied by the public authority, and also addresses major issues
concerning the RTI Act.

The Chief Information Commissioner and Information Commissioners are appointed by the President on the
recommendation of a committee consisting of
The Prime Minister, who shall be the Chairperson of the committee.
The Leader of Opposition in the Lok Sabha.
A Union Cabinet Minister to be nominated by the Prime Minister.

Chief Vigilance Commission (CVC)

It is the apex vigilance institution.


It was created via executive resolution (based on the recommendations of Santhanam committee) in 1964
but was conferred with statutory status in 2003.
Presently, the body consists of central vigilance commissioner along with 2 vigilance commissioners.
They are appointed by the President of India on the recommendations of a committee consisting of Prime
Minister, Union Home Minister and Leader of the Opposition in Lok Sabha (if there is no LoP then the leader of
the single largest Opposition party in the Lok Sabha).
Their term is 4 years or 65 years, whichever is earlier.
It submits its report to the President of India.
The Central Vigilance Commissioner or any Vigilance Commissioner can be removed from his office only by
order of the President on the ground of proved mis behavior or incapacity after the Supreme Court, on a
reference made to it by the President, has, on inquiry, reported that the Central Vigilance Commissioner or any
Vigilance Commissioner, as the case may be, ought to be removed.
CVC is advisory body.

CSIR
Established
26th September, 1942

Chairperson
Prime Minister of India

About:
It is an autonomous body and the largest research and development (R&D) organisation in India running 37
laboratories and 39 field stations or extension centres.

This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 35
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________

Although it is mainly funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology, it operates as an autonomous body
registered under the Registration of Societies Act, 1860.
The research and development activities of CSIR includes aerospace engineering, Structural engineering, ocean
sciences, Life sciences, metallurgy, chemicals, mining, food, petroleum, leather, and environment.

Latest developments
CSIR has been asked in 2016, to aim to self-generate half of its budget from its portfolio of inventions as well
encourage its staff scientists to become entrepreneurs and start companies of their own.

Why important? CSIR Platinum Jubilee celebrations in 2016

Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB)


The FIPB is inter-ministerial body that offers a single window clearance for applications on Foreign Direct
Investment (FDI) that are under the approval route.
The finance secretary is the chairman of the FIPB.
It is housed in the Department of Economic Affairs, Union Ministry of Finance.
Presently, FDI proposals up to 3,000 crore rupees are cleared by the FIPB.
However, those proposals involving FDI of more than 3,000 crore rupees are given final clearance by the
Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA)

FSSAI
FSSAI is a nodal statutory agency responsible for protecting and promoting public health in India through the
regulation and supervision of food safety.
FSSAI was established under the Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 and operates under aegis of Union
Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.

Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)

ICAR is an autonomous body responsible for co-ordinating agricultural education and research in India.
It is the largest network of agricultural research and education institutes in the world.
It reports to the Department of Agricultural Research and Education under the Union Ministry of Agriculture.
The Union Minister of Agriculture serves as its president.

Indian Council of Historical Research (ICHR)

ICHR is an autonomous body of the Union Ministry of Human Resource Development.


It was established by an Administrative Order of the then Union Ministry of Education and Social Welfare.
It is based in New Delhi with regional centers in Bengaluru (Karnataka) and Gowahati (Assam).
ICHR disburses funds for carrying out research to Indian as well as foreign scholars on their applications for
fellowships, grants, and symposia made to ICHR or through HRD Ministry.
It has provided financial assistance to the historians and direction to the research scholars in their multifarious
topics of historical research.
Why in news? ICHR is planning to document stories and legends relating to villages and towns across India
into an encyclopaedia.

Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India


IBBI has been tasked to regulate functioning of insolvency professionals, insolvency professional agencies and
information utilities under Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code 2016.
The Code was notified by the Union Government in May 2016 replacing existing bankruptcy laws.
It seeks to consolidate and amend laws relating to reorganisation as well as insolvency resolution of corporate
persons, individuals and partnership firms in a time-bound manner.
Under this new law, employees, creditors and shareholders will have powers to initiate winding up process at
first sign of financial stress such as serious default in repayment of bank loan

This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 36
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid-Tropics (ICRISAT)


ICRISAT is a non-profit agricultural research organization.
HQ : Hyderabad, Telangana.
It was founded in 1972 by a consortium of organizations convened by the Ford and the Rockefeller Foundations.
Its charter was signed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and United Nations Development
Programme (UNDP).
It has several regional centres around globe- Niamey (Nigeria), Nairobi (Kenya) and research stations Bamako
(Mali), Bulawayo (Zimbabwe).
Since its inception, India has granted special status to ICRISAT as a UN Organization operating in the
Indian Territory making it eligible for special immunities and tax privileges.

Law Commission of India

21st Law Commission of India is for a period of 3 years (2015-2018),


Retired Judge of the Supreme Court Justice B S Chauhan was appointed as its Chairman

About

The Law Commission of India is a non-statutory body constituted by the Government of India from time to
time.
The Commission was originally constituted in 1955 and is re-constituted every three years.
The tenure of the 20th Law Commission was upto 31st August, 2015.
Various Law Commissions have been able to make important contribution towards the progressive development
and codification of laws of the country. Law Commissions have so far submitted 262 reports.

Composition

a full-time Chairperson;
four full-time Members (including a Member-Secretary);
Secretary, Department of Legal Affairs as ex officio Member;
Secretary, Legislative Department as ex officio Member; and
not more than five part-time Members.

Functions

Undertake research in law and review of existing laws in India for making reforms therein and enacting new
legislations.
Undertake studies and research for bringing reforms in the justice delivery systems for elimination of delay in
procedures, speedy disposal of cases, reduction in cost of litigation etc.
Identify laws which are no longer relevant and recommend for the repeal of obsolete and unnecessary
enactments.
Suggest enactment of new legislations as may be necessary to implement the Directive Principles and to attain
the objectives set out in the Preamble of the Constitution.
Prepare and submit to the Central Government, from time to time, reports on all issues, matters, studies and
research undertaken by it and recommend in such reports for effective measures to be taken by the Union or any
State.

National Commission for Safai Karamcharis (NCSK)

The NCSK was established in 1994 to deal with the grievances of persons engaged in manual scavenging.
It has a sanctioned strength of four members and a chairperson.
It is statutory body established under National Commission for Safai Karamcharis Act, 1993.
It aims to promote and safeguard the interests and rights of Safai Karamcharis.
Its mandate is to study, evaluate and monitor the implementation of various schemes for Safai Karamcharis as
an autonomous organisation.

National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT)

This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 37
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________

The National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT) is a quasi-judicial body in India that adjudicates issues relating to
companies in India.

Established

1st June, 2016 (Companies Act, 2013)

Composition

President (Justice M.M. Kumar) and judicial and technical members, as necessary.

Structure

The NCLT has eleven benches, two at New Delhi (one being the principal bench) and one each at Ahmedabad,
Allahabad, Bengaluru, Chandigarh, Chennai, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Kolkata and Mumbai.

Powers of the National Company Law Tribunal

The NCLT has been given wide powers under the Companies Act, 2013 to adjudicate:

Cases initiated before the Company Law Board under the previous act (Companies Act, 1956)
All proceedings pending before any District court or High Court under the Old Act
Cases pending before the Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction (BIFR), including those pending
under the Sick Industrial Companies (Special Provisions) Act, 1985
Appeals or any other proceedings pending before the Appellate Authority for Industrial and Financial
Reconstruction (AAIFR)
Fresh proceedings pertaining to claims of oppression and mismanagement of a company, winding up of
companies and all other powers prescribed under the Companies Act.
In addition, the recently enacted Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 (Bankruptcy Code), also provides wide
powers to the NCLT to adjudicate upon the 'insolvency resolution process' and liquidation of corporate debtors.

Benefits of NCLT and NCLAT


The formation of the NCLT and the NCLAT is a significant step towards attaining fast and efficient resolution of
disputes relating to affairs of the Indian corporates.
It is expected that once all relevant provisions under the Companies Act and the Bankruptcy Code are made
effective, these tribunals would provide holistic solutions to issues being faced by companies, including those of
winding up, oppression/mismanagement and insolvency.
Being the sole forum dealing with company related disputes, these tribunals would also eliminate any scope for
overlapping or conflicting rulings and minimise delays in resolution of disputes, thus, proving to be a boon for
litigants.
Note
All appeals against any order of the NCLT may be filed by the aggrieved parties with the National Company Law
Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT). However, any appeal against the orders of the CLB before the constitution of the
NCLT would continue to lie before the relevant High Court and not the NCLAT.

National Council of Senior Citizens


The council is chaired by the Minister of Social Justice & Empowerment.
The Council is mandated to meet at least twice a year.
The council was originally known as National Council for Older Persons (NPOP). It was renamed in 2012.
The mandate of the National Council of Senior Citizens is to advise the Central and State Governments on the
entire gamut of issues related to the welfare of senior citizens and enhancement of their quality of life, with
special reference to the following:-
o Policies, programmes and legislative measures.
o Promotion of physical and financial security, health and independent and productive living.
o Awareness generation and community mobilization.

National Disaster Response Force (NDRF)


Facts:
NDRF stands for National Disaster Response Force
It comes under Ministry of Home Affairs
This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 38
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________

It is the only dedicated disaster response force in the world

Background:
The Disaster Management Act, 2005 has made the statutory provisions for constitution of National Disaster
Response Force (NDRF) for the purpose of specialized response to natural and man-made disasters.
Two national calamities in quick succession in the form of Orissa Super Cyclone (1999) and Gujarat Earthquake
(2001) brought about the realization of the need of having a specialist response mechanism at National Level to
effectively respond to disasters. This realization led to the enactment of the DM Act on 26 Dec 2005.

Role and Mandate of NDRF:


Specialized response during disasters.
Proactive deployment during impending disaster situations.
Acquire and continually upgrade its own training and skills.
Liaison, Reconnaissance, Rehearsals and Mock Drills.
Impart basic and operational level training to State Response Forces (Police, Civil Defence and Home Guards).
Community Capacity Building Programme.
Organize Public Awareness Campaigns.

Why it is said to be UNIQUE?


It is the only dedicated disaster response force of the world.
The only agency with comprehensive response capabilities having multi-disciplinary and multi-skilled, high-
tech, standalone nature.
Experienced paramilitary personnel specially trained and equipped for disaster response.
Capabilities for undertaking disaster response, prevention, mitigation and capacity building.

National Industrial Corridor Development & Implementation Trust (NICDIT)

NICDIT will be the apex body to oversee integrated development of all industrial corridors across the country. It will
implement all the five proposed industrial corridors, together covering 15 States.

About NICDIT:
NICDIT will function under the administrative control of Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP)
i.e. Ministry of Commerce & Industry.
It will also coordinate all efforts of Union Government for the development of industrial corridor projects and
will monitor their implementation.
It will help in bringing in holistic planning and development approach and sharing the learning from
development of industrial corridors.
It has been given permission to utilise financial assistance already sanctioned and an additional sanctioned
amount of Rs 1,584 crore within the extended period up to 31 March, 2022.
Besides, an Apex Monitoring Authority will be constituted under the chairpersonship of the Finance Minister to
periodically review the activities of NICDIT and progress of the projects.
It will consist of Minister of Commerce & Industry, Minister of Railways, Minister of Road Transport &
Highways, Minister of Shipping, Vice-Chairman of NITI Aayog and Chief Ministers of states concerned as
members.

National Innovation Foundation

NIF is an autonomous body of the Department of Science and Technology, Union Ministry of Science and
Technology.
It was set up in February 2000 to provide institutional support for scouting, sustaining, spawning and scaling up
the grassroots innovations across the country.
Since then, it has been actively engaged in promoting creativity and innovation in society.
It has taken major initiatives to serve knowledge-rich but economically poor people of the country.
It is committed to making India innovative by documenting, adding value, protecting IPR of contemporary
unaided technological innovators as well as of outstanding traditional knowledge-holders and disseminating
their innovations on non-commercial and commercial basis

National Regulatory Authority of India

This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 39
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________

It is India's vaccine regulatory body.


NRAI comprises the Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO), State Drug Regulatory Authorities,
Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI) and Pharmaco-vigilance Programme of India (PvPI) structures
at the Central and States levels.
Why in News? WHO has given maximum ratings to NRAI
Significance of these ratings : India is one of the main players in the pharmaceutical industry worldwide
and often is referred as pharmacy of the world. India, as a large vaccine producing country, is currently
supplying several vaccines to the United Nations agencies (UNICEF, WHO and PAHO). A fully functional NRAI
is a pre-requisite for WHO prequalification of vaccines. One of the requirements to become eligible and retain
prequalification status is to get assessed.

National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA)

NTCA is a statutory body under the Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate change.
It was provided statutory status by the Wild Life (Protection) Amendment Act, 2006 which had amended
Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972.
It addresses the administrative as well as ecological concerns for conserving tigers, by providing a statutory basis
for protection of tiger reserves.
It also provides strengthened institutional mechanisms for the protection of ecologically sensitive areas and
endangered species.
It ensures enforcing of guidelines for tiger conservation and monitoring compliance of the same.
It also places motivated and trained officers having good track record as Field Directors of tiger reserves.

National Water Development Agency

NWDA is the agency of the Union Ministry of Water Resources.


It was set up in July, 1982 as autonomous society under the Societies Registration Act, 1860.
It was established to carry out the water balance and other studies on a scientific and realistic basis for optimum
utilisation of Water Resources of the Peninsular rivers system.
Besides it was tasked to prepare feasibility reports and give concrete shape to Peninsular Rivers Development
Component of National Perspective.
In 1990, it was also entrusted with the task of Himalayan Rivers Development Component of National
Perspectives.
Recently, the functions of NWDA have been further modified and the work of preparation of detailed Project
Reports (DPR) of various link proposals and Pre-feasibility Reports.
It has been also entrusted to prepare feasibility reports of intra-State links as proposed by the States.

National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC)

National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC) was set up as per the NCBC Act, 1993 in pursuance to the
Supreme Court judgement in the Indra Sawhney case (1992).
It is statutory body
The commission has five members:
1. a Chairperson who is or has been a judge of the Supreme Court or of a High Court;
2. a social scientist;
3. two persons, who have special knowledge in matters relating to backward classes; and
4. a Member-Secretary, who is or has been an officer of the Central Government in the rank of a Secretary to
the Government of India.
Their term is of Three years.
The commission considers inclusions in and exclusions from the lists of communities notified as backward for
the purpose of job reservations and tenders the needful advice to the Central Government.
It examines requests for inclusion of any class of citizens as a backward class in the lists of OBCs.
It also hears complaints of under-inclusion or over-inclusion of any backward class in such lists and tenders
such advice to the Union Government as it deems appropriate.
The advice of the NCBC is ordinarily binding upon the Union Government

This Commission will be replaced by a constitutional body now i.e. National Commission for Socially
and Educationally Backward Classes (NSEBC)

This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 40
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________

Press Council of India


The Press Council of India is a statutory body in India that governs the conduct of the print media.
Presently, the Council functions under the Press Council Act 1978 which arose from the recommendations of
the Second Press Commission of India (1978).
The Press Council is a quasi-judicial body which acts as a watchdog of the press. It adjudicates the complaints
against and by the press for violation of ethics and for violation of the freedom of the press respectively.

SHRC
Issue:
The Centre has told the Supreme Court that Delhi cannot have a State Human Rights Commission as it is a Union
Territory and not a State. It says, Delhi has to continue without an SHRC until Parliament amends the law."

Basics:
The Protection of Human Rights Act of 1993 provides for the creation of not only the National Human Rights
Commission but also a State Human Rights Commission at the state level.

Jurisdiction:
A State Human Rights Commission can inquire into violation of human rights only in respect of subjects mentioned in
the State List (List-II) and the Concurrent List (List-III) of the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution. However, if any
such case is already being inquired into by the National Human Rights Commission or any other Statutory
Commission, then the State Human Rights Commission does not inquire into that case.

Composition:
The State Human Rights Commission is a multi-member body consisting of a chairperson and two members.
The chairperson should be a retired Chief Justice of a High Court and members should be a serving or retired
judge of a High Court or a District Judge in the state with a minimum of seven years of experience as District
Judge and a person having knowledge or practical experience with respect to human rights.
The chairperson and members are appointed by the Governor on the recommendations of a committee
consisting of the chief minister as its head, the speaker of the Legislative Assembly, the state home minister and
the leader of the opposition in the Legislative Assembly.
In the case of a state having Legislative Council, the chairman of the Council and the leader of the opposition in
the Council would also be the members of the committee.
A sitting judge of a High Court or a sitting District Judge can be appointed only after consultation with the Chief
Justice of the High Court of the concerned state.

Term:
The chairperson and members hold office for a term of five years or until they attain the age of 70 years,
whichever is earlier.
After their tenure, the chairperson and members are not eligible for further employment under a state
government or the Central government.

Appointment and Removal:


Although the chairperson and members of a State Human Rights Commission are appointed by the governor,
they can be removed only by the President (and not by the governor).
The President can remove them on the same grounds and in the same manner as he can remove the chairperson
or a member of the National Human Rights Commission.

Securities Appellate Tribunal

Securities Appellate Tribunal is a statutory body established under the provisions of Section 15K of the Securities
and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992
Its task is to hear and dispose of appeals against orders passed by the Securities and Exchange Board of India or
by an adjudicating officer under the Act
It also exercise jurisdiction, powers and authority conferred on the Tribunal by or under this Act or any other
law for the time being in force.
It covers the whole of India.
Why in news? It quashed a SEBI order for giving different punishment to different companies for same offence.

This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 41
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________

Tea Board of India


The Tea Board is set up under the Tea Act 1953. It has succeeded the Central Tea Board and the Indian Tea
Licencing Committee which functioned respectively under the Central Tea Board Act, 1949 and the Indian Tea
Control Act, 1938 which were repealed.
The Tea Board is functioning as a statutory body of the Central Government under the Ministry of
Commerce.
The Board is constituted of 31 members (including Chairman) drawn from Members of Parliament, tea
producers, tea traders, tea brokers, consumers, and representatives of Governments from the principal tea
producing states, and trade unions .
The Board is reconstituted every three years.

Functions:
The Tea Board India is responsible for the assignment of certification numbers to exports of certain tea
merchants. This certification is intended to ensure the teas origin, which in turn would reduce the amount of
fraudulent labelling on rare teas.
The Tea Board Indias tasks include endorsement of the diverse production and productivity of tea, financial
support of research organisations and the monitoring of advances in tea packaging as it relates to health
beneficial aspects.
It coordinates research institutes, the tea trade and government bodies, ensuring the technical support of the tea
trade in the global industry.

Download other free notes from http://www.ias4sure.com/download/


Try IAS4Sure Android App and ensure your success in Prelims.
o Practice more than 10,000 quality MCQs which are organised topic wise.
o Practice all past year UPSC papers
o Study Notes in mobile
o Track your Progress
o http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/

Technology Development Board (TDB)

TDB is a statutory body established under Technology Development Board Act, 1995.
Its mandate is to promote development and commercialisation of indigenous technology and adaptation of
imported technology for wider application.
It consists of 11 Board members.
The board plays a pro-active role by encouraging enterprises to take up technology oriented products.
The Union Government had reconstituted the board in March 2000.
It is the first organization of its kind within the government framework with the sole objective of
commercializing the fruit of indigenous research.
It provides financial assistance to research and development institutions and equity capital or loans to industrial
concerns.

NOTE: TDB can be used in answers related to Make in India, Innovation etc.

UGC

Statutory body
Set up in 1956
It is charged with coordination, determination and maintenance of standards of higher education.
It provides recognition to universities in India, and disburses funds to such recognized universities and colleges.
Previously, UGC was formed in 1946 to oversee the work of the three Central Universities of Aligarh, Banaras
and, Delhi. In 1947, the Committee was entrusted with the responsibility of dealing with all the then existing
Universities.
This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 42
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________

After independence, the University Education Commission was set up in 1948 under the Chairmanship of S.
Radhakrishnan and it recommended that the UGC be reconstituted on the general model of the University
Grants Commission of the United Kingdom.
The UGC was however, formally established in November 1956, by an Act of Parliament as a statutory body of
the Government of India.

Wildlife Crime Control Bureau (WCCB)


Basics:
It is a statutory body
It is a multi-disciplinary body under the Union Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change
(MoEFCC) to combat organized wildlife crime in the country.
It was established in June 2007 by amending the Wildlife (Protection) Act (WLPA), 1972, a special Act to
protect the wildlife and fauna in the country.
HQ : New Delhi
Regional offices at Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and Jabalpur; three sub-regional offices at Amritsar,
Guwahati, and Cochin; and five border.

Functions:
Under Section 38 (Z) of WLPA, 1972, it is mandated to collect and collate intelligence related to organized
wildlife crime and disseminate it to state and other enforcement agencies for immediate action.
It assist foreign authorities and international organization concerned to facilitate co-ordination and universal
action for wildlife crime control.
It is tasked with capacity building of the wildlife crime enforcement agencies for scientific and professional
investigation into wildlife crimes and assist states to ensure success in wildlife crimes prosecutions.
It advises Union Government on issues relating to wildlife crimes having national and international
ramifications, relevant policy and laws.
It also assists and advises the Customs authorities in inspection of the consignments of flora & fauna as per the
provisions of Wild Life Protection Act, CITES and EXIM Policy governing such an item.

Wildlife Institute of India (WII)


WII is an autonomous institution under the Union Ministry of Environment Forest and Climate Change.
It is based in Chandrabani, Dehradun.

Functions:
It conducts specialised research in areas of study like Endangered Species, Biodiversity, Wildlife Management,
Wildlife Policy, Wildlife Forensics, Habitat Ecology, Spatial Modelling, Ecodevelopment, and Climate Change.

National : NGOs

Bombay Natural History Society (BHNS)

BNHS is one of the largest non-governmental organisations in India engaged in conservation and biodiversity
research.
It was founded on 15 September 1883 and headquartered at Hornbill House, Mumbai.
It supports many research efforts through grants and publishes the Journal of the Bombay Natural History
Society.
Department of Science and Technology has designated it as a Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation.

National Anti-Doping Agency


NADA
It was set up as registered society under the Societies Registration Act of 1890 in 2005
It has a mandate for ensuring Dope free sports in India.
It is responsible for promoting, coordinating, and monitoring doping control program in sports in all its forms.
Comes under Union Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports.
This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 43
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________

National Productivity Council (NPC)


NPC is a national level autonomous organization under Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion, Ministry
of Commerce & Industry to promote productivity culture in India.
It was established as a registered society on 12th February 1958 by the Government with aim to stimulate and
promote productivity and quality consciousness across all sectors in the country.
It is a tri-partite non-profit organization (NGO) with equal representation from government, employers and
workers organizations.
It also has representatives from technical and professional institutions including members from local
productivity councils and chamber of commerce on its Governing Body.
It also implements the productivity promotion schemes of Government and carry out programmes of Tokyo
based Asian Productivity Organization (APO), an inter-governmental body of which India is founder member.

The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI)

TERI is a non-profit research institution that conducts research work in the fields of energy, environment and
sustainable development.
Established in 1974 as Tata Energy Research Institute and was renamed The Energy and Resources Institute in
2003.
Focus: It aims to focus on formulating local and national level strategies for shaping global solutions to critical
issues.

National : PSUs and Companies

NABARD

NABARD is an apex development bank in India.


The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) holds the majority stake in it.
Headquarters: Mumbai, Maharashtra.
Established: 1982 on the recommendations of Shivaraman Committee to implement the National Bank
for Agriculture and Rural Development Act, 1981.
It has been entrusted with matters concerning policy, planning and operations in the field of credit for
agriculture and other economic activities in rural areas in India.
It is active in developing financial inclusion policy and is a member of the Alliance for Financial Inclusion.
Mandate:
1. Facilitate credit flow for promotion and development of agriculture, small-scale industries, cottage and
village industries, handicrafts and other rural crafts.
2. Support all other allied economic activities in rural areas, promote integrated and sustainable rural
development and secure prosperity of rural areas.

Recent Amendments:
Amendments in Act to increase authorized capital of NABARD from Rs. 5,000 crore to Rs. 30,000 crore and
further increase it beyond Rs. 30,000 crore in consultation with RBI, as deemed necessary from time to time.
It also includes certain other amendments including changes in long title and certain sections to bring
Handlooms and Medium Enterprises in NABARDs mandate.
Transfer of 0.4% equity of RBI in NABARD amounting to Rs. 20 crores, to the Union Government.

Why these amendments?


Increase in authorized capital will enable NABARD to respond to the its commitments undertaken, in respect of
Long Term Irrigation Fund (LIF) and Governments decision regarding on-lending to cooperative banks.
It will enable NABARD to augment its business and enhance its activities, thus facilitating promotion of
integrated rural development and securing prosperity of rural areas by generating of more employment.
The transfer of entire shareholding of RBI held in NABARD to the Union Government will remove the conflict in
RBIs role as banking regulator and shareholder in NABARD

National Hydroelectric Power Corporation (NHPC)

This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 44
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________

NHPC is enterprise of Central Government incorporated with an objective to plan, promote and organise an
integrated and efficient development of hydroelectric power in all aspects.
Established: 1975 Headquarters: Faridabad, Haryana.
Besides, hydroelectric power the company has expanded its objects to include other sources of energy like Solar,
Geothermal, Tidal, Wind etc.
At present, NHPC is a Mini Ratna Category-I Enterprise of the Central Government with an authorised share
capital of Rs. 1,50,000 Million

NHAI

NHAI is an autonomous agency of the Union Government, responsible for management of a network of over
70,000 km of national highways in India.
It was established through National Highways Authority of India Act, 1988.
In February 1995, it was formally made an autonomous body.
It is a nodal agency of the Union Ministry of Road Transport and Highways.
It is responsible for the development, management, operation and maintenance of National Highways.

Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI)


SEBI is the statutory regulator for the securities market in India.
It was established in 1988 and given statutory powers through the SEBI Act, 1992.
Purpose: Protect the interests of investors in securities, promote the development of securities market and to
regulate the securities market.
SEBI is responsive to needs of three groups, which constitute the market i.e.
o issuers of securities,
o investors and
o market intermediaries.
It has three functions:
o quasi-legislative (drafts regulations in its legislative capacity),
o quasi-judicial (passes rulings and orders in its judicial capacity) and
o quasi-executive (conducts investigation and enforcement action in its executive function).

Solar Energy Corporation India (SECI)

SECI is a not-for-profit company established in 2011 under Section-25 of the Companies Act 1956
It comes under the direction of Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE).
It is a facilitation and implementation institution dedicated to Solar Energy sector

Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI)

Established in 1997
Established by an Act of Parliament, called the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act, 1997
Aims to regulate telecom services, including fixation/revision of tariffs for telecom services which were earlier
vested in the Central Government.
The TRAI Act was amended by an ordinance, effective from 24 January 2000, establishing a
Telecommunications Dispute Settlement and Appellate Tribunal (TDSAT) to take over the adjudicatory and
disputes functions from TRAI.
TDSAT was set up to adjudicate any dispute between a licensor and a licensee, between two or more service
providers, between a service provider and a group of consumers, and to hear and dispose of appeals against any
direction, decision or order of TRAI

Uranium Corporation of India (UCIL)

UCIL is a centrally owned Public Sector Undertaking (PSU), under the Department of Atomic Energy for
uranium mining and uranium processing.
It was founded in 1967

This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 45
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________

It is responsible for the mining and milling of uranium ore in India.


At present, the UCIL has uranium mining projects are in Jadugora, Bhatin, Narwapahar, Turamdih and
Banduhurang in Jharkhand and Andhra Pradesh respectively.

National : Security and Forces

Border Road Organisation (BRO)


The Border Roads Organisation (BRO) develops and maintains road networks in Indias border areas and
friendly neighbouring countries.
It is staffed by officers and troops drawn from the Indian Armys Corps of Engineers, Electrical and Mechanical
Engineers, Army Service Corps, Military Police and army personnel on extra regimental employment.
Officers from the Border Roads Engineering Service and personnel from the General Reserve Engineer Force
(GREF) form the parent cadre of the Border Roads Organisation.
Currently, the organisation maintains operations in twenty-one states, one UT (Andaman and Nicobar Islands),
and neighbouring countries such as Afghanistan, Bhutan, Myanmar, and Sri Lanka.
The BRO operates and maintains over 32,885 kilometres of roads and about 12,200 meters of permanent
bridges in the country.

Border Security Force (BSF)

BSF is the sentinels of Indian borders with Pakistan and Bangladesh.


It came into existence on 1st December, 1965.
It was created by merging various State Armed Police Battalions for achieving a better coordinated synergy
between the border guarding functions in peace time and fighting the war during the eventuality on both
Western and Eastern fronts.
BSF is deployed on Indo-Pakistan International Border, Indo-Bangladesh International Border, Line of Control
(LoC) along with Indian Army and in Anti-Naxal Operations.
Since its inception, BSF has proven its credentials during various counter insurgency and anti-militancy
operations, internal security duties, natural calamities etc.

Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)

CBI is the foremost investigative police agency in India.


It is non constitutional and non-statutory body.
It derives power to investigate from the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, 1946
It was established in 1941 as the Special Police Establishment.
It was renamed to present nomenclature in 1963.
Headquarters: New Delhi.
Motto: Industry, Impartiality, Integrity.
It is headed by Director, an IPS officer of DGP rank.
He is selected as per the provisions of Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) Act, 2003
The CBI Director is selected by a collegium comprising Prime Minister, Chief Justice of India and Leader of
Opposition or leader of the largest party in opposition in Lok Sabha

CERT-In

CERT-In stands for Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In)


CERT-In is nodal government agency that deals with cyber security threats like hacking and phishing in India.
It is nodal department under the aegis of Union Ministry of Communications and Information Technology.
Headquarters: New Delhi
Objective:
o Protect Indian cyberspace and software infrastructure against destructive and hacking activities.
o Strengthen security-related defence of the Indian Internet domain. Issue guidelines, vulnerability notes,
advisories, and whitepapers regarding to information security practices, prevention, procedures, response
and reporting of cyber security incidents.

This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 46
Institutions
Try IAS4Sure Android App. > 10,000 Quality practice MCQs. All past year UPSC papers. Track your progress
(http://www.ias4sure.com/mobile-app/)
_______________________________________________________________

CRPF
CRPF is the largest central armed police force or paramilitary force in India.
It functions under the aegis of Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA).
Its primary role is to assist States/Union Territories in police operations to maintain law and order and contain
insurgency.
It was established in 1939, under Crown Representatives Police but after independence it was made statutory
CRPF after enactment of the CRPF Act, 1949.
At present, CRPF is the worlds largest paramilitary force with 228 battalions and over three lakh personnel.

Indian Coast Guard

Under Coast Guard Act, 1978.


It undertakes the assigned tasks during peace time and to supplement the efforts of Indian Navy during war.
The duties are safety and protection of artificial islands and offshore terminals, installations and devices in
maritime zones; protection & assistance to fishermen at sea while in distress; preservation and protection of
marine environment; assistance to customs & other authorities in anti-smuggling operations.
It has been entrusted the :
o Offshore security coordination authority;
o National maritime search and rescue coordinating authority;
o Lead intelligence agency for coastal and sea border;
o Coastal security in territorial waters

National Security Council

It was established in 1998


It is the apex agency looking into external and internal security, military affairs, conventional and non-
conventional defense, space and high technology, counter insurgency, counter terrorism, economy and
environment.
It is headed by the Prime Minister, with the National Security Adviser as its Secretary. The military has no
representation in this tier.
It has a three tiered structure comprising the Strategic Policy Group, the National Security Advisory Board and a
Secretariat represented by the Joint Intelligence Committee.

Nuclear Command Authority (NCA)


NCA is Indias nodal authority responsible for command, control and operational decisions regarding Indias
nuclear weapons programme.
It has Executive Council and Political Council.
The NCAs directives are executed by the Strategic Forces Command
The Executive Council is chaired by the National Security Adviser (NSA).
It gives inputs to the Political Council, which authorises a nuclear attack if need be.
The Political Council is chaired by the Prime Minister and is advised by the Executive Council.
This separation of power mechanism is meant to ensure that the nuclear weapons are under civilian control
(elected government). Besides it act as a Command and Control (C2) mechanism prevents their accidental or
unauthorised use.

Strategic Forces Command (SFC)

The SFC is a tri-Service command that forms part of Indias Nuclear Command Authority (NCA).
It was created on January 4, 2003 by an executive order of Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) headed by then
Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee.
Function: It is responsible for the management and administration of the countrys tactical and strategic
nuclear weapons stockpile.
It is headed by a Commander-in-Chief of the rank of Air Marshal.

This document is a part of IAS4Sure Notes | For more info, please visit http://www.ias4sure.com
2017 IAS4Sure | All Rights Reserved | Last Updated: 05 April 2017 47