* Gas Laws:
1. Boyle's law: For a given mass of an ideal gas at constant temperature, the volume of a gas is
inversely proportional to its pressure, i.e.
1
V or PV = constant P1V1 = P2V2
P
m P P1 P2
(i) PV P = constant = constant or
1 2
m
Where density, , and m = constant
V
(ii) As number of molecules per unit volume
N
n
V
N
V also N = const.
n
N P P1 P2
(iii) PV P = constant = constant or n n
n n 1 2
2. Charle's law: At constant pressure, the volume of the given mass of a gas is directly proportional
to its absolute temperature.
V V1 V2
i.e. V T = constant = T T
T 1 2
V m m
(i) = constant V
T T
or T = constant = 1T1 2T2
289
(ii) Graphical representation: (If m and P are constant)
* Avogadro's law: Equal Volume of all the gases under similar conditions of temperature and
pressure contain equal number of molecules.
i.e. N1 = N2
Avogadro Number: The number of particles (atoms or molecules) in one mole of substance
(gas) is called Avogadro number (NA) which has a magnitude
NA = 6.023 1023 mol1
290
* Equation of State OR Ideal Gas Equation
The equation which relates the pressure (P), volame (V) and temperature (T) of the given
state of an of an ideal gas is known as ideal gas equation or equation of state.
Ideal gas equation is PV = RT
where = number of mole
R = universal gas constant
= 8.314 J.mol1 K1
* Different forms of Ideal gasstateequation
N R
(i) PV RT RT Nk BT kB
NA NA
where kB = Boltzmann`s constant
= 1.38 1023 JK1
N
(ii) P k BT nk BT
V
N
where n = number density of gas
V
= number of molecules per unit volume
M M
(iii) PV RT
Mo Mo
where Mo = molar mass of the gas
M RT RT m
P = ( density of the gas)
V Mo Mo V
* The work done during the change in volume of the gas:
Vf
It can be obtained from the graph of P V W P d
Vi
291
7. Inter molecular forces act only when two molecules come close to each other or collide.
8. The time spent in a collision between two moleules is negligible in comparision to time
between two successive collisions. The collisions between the molecules and between a
molecule and the wall of a container are elastic.
* Pressure of an Ideal gas
1 1
P 2 2 rms
3 3
where = density of the gas
v2rms = <2> = mean squre velocity of molecule
* Relation between pressure and kinetic energy
1
P 2 rms (i)
3
K.E. per unit volume is
1 M 2 1
E = rms = 2rms (ii)
2 V 2
From equation (i) and (ii)
2
P E
3
* Root mean square speed (vrms) :
It is defined as the square root of mean of squares of the speed of the speed of different
molecules.
12 22 32 ........ N2
i.e. rms =
N
From the expression of pressure
1 3P 3PV
P = 2rms rms = =
3 M
3RT 3k BT
= =
M m
M
where = density of the gas
V
M
m mass of each molecule
NA
 rms T
1
 with increase in molecular weight rms speed of gas molecule decreases as vrms
M
292
 rms speed of gas molecules does not depend on the pressure of gas (If temperature remains
constant)
 At T= 0 K , vrms= 0, i.e. the rms speed of molecules of a gas is zero at O K. This temperature
is called absolute zero.
* Kinetic interpretation of temperature
Kinetic energy of of 1 mole ideal gas
1 1 3RT 3
E M 2 rms M RT
2 2 M 2
3
 For 1 molecule E kBT , kB = Boltzmann`s constant
2
3
 For N molecule E N kBT
2
 Kinetic energy per nolecule of gas does not depend upon the mass of the molecule but only
depends on the temperature.
* Mean free path:
The distance travelled by a gas molecule between two successive collisions is known as free path.
The average of such free paths travelled by a molecule is called mean free path.
mean free path,
Total distance travelled by a gas molecule between two successive collisions
= Total number of collisions
1

2 nd 2
1 k BT P
 2
2
P nk BT n
2 nd 2 Pd k BT
 Collision frequency = number of collisions per second.
rms
* Degrees of Freedom :
The term degrees of freedom of a molecule or gas are the number of independent motions that
a molecule or gas can have.
The independent motion of a system can be translational, rotational or vibrational or any combination
of these.
Degress of freedom,
f = 3A  B; where A = Number of independent particles,
B = Number of independent restrictions
 monoatomic gas 3 degrees of freedom
( All translational)
293
 Diatomic gas 5 degrees of freedom
( 3 translational + 2 rotational)
 triatomic gas 6 degrees of freedom (at room temperature)
(Nonlinear) ( 3 translational + 3 rotational)
8 degrees of freedom (at very high temperature)
(3 translational + 3 rotational + 2 vibrational)
* Law of equipartition of energy (Boltzmann law)
According to this law, for any system in equilibrium, the total energy is equally distributed
among its various degrees of freedom and each degrees of freedom is associated with energy
1
k B T where kB = Boltzmann`s constant.
2
 At a given temperataue T, all ideal gas molecules no matter what their mass have the same average
3
translational kinetic energy =k BT
2
 At same temperature gases with different degrees of freedom (i.e. H2 and He) will have different
f
average energy k BT
2
( f = degress of freedom different for different gases.)
f
 The total energy associated with each modlec k BT
2
* Specific heat of a gas :
 Specific heat at constant volume (Cv)
 The amount of heat required to change the temperature of l mole of gas by 1 K, keeping its
volume constant, is called specific heat of the gas at constant volume.
 Specific heat at constant volume (Cp)
The amount of heat required to change the temperature of l mole of gas by 1 K, keeping its
pressure constant, is called specific heat of the gas at constant pressure.
Molar specific heat:
 The quantity of heat required to change the temperature of 1 mole of gas by 1 K (or 1o C) is
called molar specific heat of the gas.
Ratio of CP and CV is .
f
1 R
C 2 2 1 f
P 1 CV f R , C P 1 R
CV f f 2 2
R
2
294
MCQ
Choose the correct alternative from given options.
1. Volume, pressure and temperature of an ideal gas are V, P and T respectively. If mass of molecule
is m, then its density is [ kB = Boltzmann`s constant]
P Pm .P
(A) k T (B) k T (C) k TV (D) mk B T
B B B
2. The temperature of an ideal gas at atmospheric pressure is 300 K and volume 1 m3. If temperature
and volume become double, then pressure will be
(A) 4 105 Nm2 (B) 2 105 Nm2 (C) 1 105 Nm2 (D) 0.5 105 Nm2
3. At 100 K and 0.1 atmospheric pressure, the volume of helium gas is 10 litres. If volume and
pressure are doubled, its temperature will change to
(A) 127 K (B) 400 K (C) 25 K (D) 200 K
4. What is the mass of 2 litres of nitrogen at 22.4 atmospheric pressure and 273 K.
(R = 8.314 Jmol k1)
(A) 14 22.4 g (B) 56 g (C) 28 g (D) None of these.
5. An electron tube was sealed off during manufacture at a pressure of 1.2 107 mm of mercury at
270C. Its volume is 100 cm3. The number of molecules that remain in the tube is _______
(density of mercury is 13.6 gcm3)
(A) 3.9 1011 (B) 3 1016 (C) 2 1014 (D) 7 1011
6. A vessel contains 1 mole of O2 gas (relative molar mass 32) at a temperature T. The pressure of
the gas is P. An identical vessel containing 1 mole of He gas (relative molar mass 4) at a
temperature 2T has pressure of ..........
p
(A) 8 P (B) (C) 2 P (D) P
8
7. The equation of state for 5 g of oxygen at a pressure P and temperature T, when occupying a
volume V, will be
5 5 5
(A) PV RT (B) PV RT (C) PV RT (D) PV = 5 RT
32 16 2
8. A gas at 1 atmosphere and having volume 100 ml is mixed with another gas of equal moles at
0.5 atm and having volume 50 ml in flask of one litre, what is the final pressure?
(A) 0.125 atm (B) 0.75 atm (C) 1 atm (D) 0.5 atm
PV
9. The quantity k T represents
B
295
11. 02 gas is filled in a vessel. If pressure is doubled, temperature becomes four times, how many times
its density will become.
1 1
(A) 4 (B) (C) 2 (D)
4 2
12. At a given volume and temperature the pressure of a gas
(A) Varies inversely as the square of its mass (B) Varies inversely as its mass
(C) is independent of its mass (D) Varies linearly as its mass
13. If pressure of a gas contained in a closed vessel is increased by 0.4% when heated by 10 C the
initial temperature must be.
(A) 2500 C (B) 250 C (C) 250 K (D) 2500 K
14. To decrease the volume of a gas by 5% at constant temperature the pressure should be
(A) Incseased by 5.26% (B) Decreased by 5.26%
(C) Decreased by 11% (D) Increased by 11%
15. A gas at the temperature 250 K is contained in a closed vessel. If the gas is heated through
1 K, then the percentage increase in its pressurse will be
(A) 0.4% (B) 0.1 % (C) 0.8% (D) 0.2%
16. The product of the pressure and volume of an ideal gas is
(A) A constant
(B) Directly proportional to its temperature.
(C) Inversely proportional to its temperature.
(D) Approx. equal to the universal gas constant.
o o
17. At O C the density of a fixed mass of a gas divided by pressure is x. At 100 C, the ratio will
be
297
34. When the pressure on 1200 ml of a gas is increased from 70 cm to 120 cm of mercury at constant
temperature, the new volume of the gas will be
(A) 400 ml (B) 600 ml (C) 700 ml (D) 500 ml
0
35. A gas at 27 C temperature and 30 atmospheric pressure is allowed to expand to the atmospheric
pressure if the volume becomes two times its initial volume, then the final temperature becomes
(A) 2730 C (B) 1730 C (C) 1730 C (D) 1000 C
36. A gas at 270 C has a volume V and pressure P. On heating its pressure is doubled and volume
becomes three times. The resulting temperature of the gas will be
(A) 15270 C (B) 6000 C (C) 1620 C (D) 18000 C
o
37. A perfect gas at 270 C is heated at constant pressure to 3270 C. If original volume of gas at 27 C
o
is V then volume at 327 C is
(A) 2 V (B) V (C) V 2 (D) 3 V
38. A vessel contains 1 mole of O2 gas (molar mass 32) at a temperature T. The pressure of the gas
is P. An identical vessel containing one mole of He gas (molar mass 4) at temperature 2T has a
pressure of
P
(A) 2 P (B) P (C) 8 P (D)
8
39. The pressure and temperature of two different gases P and T having the volumes V for each. They
are mixed keeping the same volume and temperature, the pressure of the mixture will be,
P
(A) P (B) (C) 4 P (D) 2 P
2
40. Air is filled at 600 C in a vessel of open mouth. The vessel is heated to a temperature T so that
th
1
part of air escapes. Assuming the volume of the vessel remaining constant the value of T is.
4
(A) 3330 C (B) 1710 C (C) 4440 C (D) 800 C
41. A gas is filled in a cylinder, its temperature is incresecd by 20% on kelvin scale and volume is
reduced by 10%. How much percentage of the gas will leak out
(A) 15% (B) 25% (C) 40% (D) 30%
42. The pressure is exerted by the gas on the walls of the container because
(A) It sticks with the walls
(B) It is accelerated towards the walls
(C) It loses kinetic energy
(D) On collision with the walls there is a change in momentum
43. The relation between the gas pressure P and average kinetic energy per unit volume E is
2 3 E
(A) P E (B) P E (C) P E (D) P =
3 2 2
44. The root mean square speed of hydrogen molecules of an ideal hydrogen kept in a gas chamber
at 00C is 3180 ms1. The pressure on the hydrogen gas is (Density of hydrogen gas is
8.99 10 2 kg m 3 , 1 atm 1.01 105 Nm 2 )
(A) 1.0 atm (B) 3.0 atm (C) 2.0 atm (D) 1.5 atm
298
45. Gas at a pressure Po is contained in a vessel. If the masses of all the molecules are halved and
their speeds are doubled, the resulting pressure will be equal to
P0
(A) 2 P0 (B) 4 P0 (C) (D) P0
2
46. A cylinder of capacity 20 litres is filled with H 2 gas. The total average kinetic energy of translatory
motion of its molecules is 1.5 105 J. The pressure of hydrogen in the cylinder is
(A) 4 106 Nm2 (B) 3 106 Nm2
(C) 5 106 Nm2 (D) 2 106 Nm2
47. The average kinetic energy per molecule of a gas at 230 C and 75 cm pressure is 5 10 14 erg for
H 2 . The mean kinetic energy per molecule of the O2 at 227 C and 150 cm pressure will be
299
56. The average translational kinetic energy of O2 (molar mass 32) molecules at a particular temperature
is 0.068 eV. The translational kinetic energy of N2 (molar mass 28) molecules in eV at the same
temperature is
(A) 0.003 eV (B) 0.068 eV (C) 0.056 eV (D) 0.678 eV
57. At O K which of the follwing properties of a gas will be zero
(A) Kinetic energy (B) Density (C) Potential energy (D) Vibrational energy
58. The kinetic energy of one mole gas at 300 K temperatue is E. At 400 K temperature kinetic enrgy
E'
is E'. The value of is
E
16 4
(A) 2 (B) (C) 1.33 (D)
9 3
59. The average kinetic energy of hydrogen molecules at 300 K is E. At the same temperature the
average kinetic energy of oxygen molecules will be
Mo RT RT Mo
(A) 2.5 (B) 2.5 M (C) 1.73 M (D) 1.73
RT o o RT
300
o
67. A sample of gas is at O C. To what temperature it must be raised in order to double the rms
speed of molecule.
o o o o
(A) 270 C (B) 819 C (C) 100 C (D) 1090 C
1
68. If the ratio of vapour density for hydrogen and oxygen is , then under constant pressure the
16
ratio of their rms velocities will be
(A) 4:1 (B) 1:16 (C) 16:1 (D) 1:4
69. The molecules of a given mass of a gas have a rms velocity of 200 m s at 27 C and
1.0 105 Nm 2 pressure when the temperature is 127 C and pressure is 0.5 10 5 Nm 2 , the
rms velocity in m s will be
100 2 400
(A) 100 2 (B) (C) (D) None of these
3 3
70. If the molecular weight of two gases are M1 and M 2 , then at a given temperature the ratio of
root mean square velocity 1 and 2 will be
M1 M2
(A) (B)
M2 M1
M1 M 2 M1 M 2
(C) (D)
M1 M 2 M1 M 2
71. To what temperature should the hydrogen at 327 C cooled at constant pressure, so that the root
mean square velocity of its molcules become half of its previous value
(A) 100 C (B) 123 C (C) 0 C (D) 123 C
72. At what temperature is the root mean square velocity of gaseous hydrogen molecules equal to that
of oxygen molecules at 47 C ?
(A) 73 K (B) 80 K (C) 20 K (D) 3 K
th
73. The root mean square velocity of the molecules in a sample of helium is 57 that of the molecules
in a sample of hydrogen. If the temperature of hydorgen sample is 00C, then the temperature of
the helium sample is about
(A) 273 C (B) 0 C (C) O K (D) 100 C
74. At room temperature ( 27 C ), the rms speed of the molecules of certain diatomic gas is found to
be 1930 m/s. The gas is
(A) O2 (B) C 2 (C) H2 (D) F2
75. If three molecules have velocities 0.5, 1 and 2 the ratio of rms speed and average speed is (The
velocities are in km/s)
(A) 0.134 (B) 1.34 (C) 1.134 (D) 13.4
301
76. At what temperature pressure remaining constant will the rms speed of a gas molecules increase
by 10% of the rms speed at NTP?
(A) 57.3 K (B) 57.30 C (C) 557.3 K (D) 57.30 C
77. When temperature of an ideal gas is increased from 27o C to 227o C, its rms speed changed from
400 ms1 to Vs. The Vs is
(A) 516 ms1 (B) 746 ms1 (C) 310 ms1 (D) 450 ms1
78. At what temperature the molecules of nitrogen will have the same rms. velocity as the molecules
of Oxygen at 127oC.
(A) 2730 C (B) 3500 C (C) 770 C (D) 4570 C
79. The temperature of an ideal gas is increased from 270 C to 1270 C, then percentage increase in
rms is
(A) 33% (B) 11% (C) 15.5% (D) 37%
80. Let A and B the two gases and given : TA 4 M A . Where T is the temperature and M is
TB MB
A
molecular mass. If A and B are the r.m.s speed, then the ratio will be equal to __________
B
(A) 2 (B) 4 (C) 0.5 (D) 1
1
81. The rms. speed of the molecules of a gas in a vessel is 400 ms . If half of the gas leaks out,
at constant temperature, the r.m.s speed of the remaining molecules will be
(A) 800 ms1 (B) 200 ms1 (C) 400 2 ms1 (D) 400 ms1
82. At which temperature the velocity of 02 molecules will be equal to the rms velocity of N2 molecules
at 00 C
(A) 930 C (B) 400 C
(C) 390 C (D) can not be calculated.
83. The rms speed of the molecules of a gas at a pressure 105 Pa and temperature 00 C is
0.5 km/s. If the pressure is kept constant but temperature is raised to 8190 C, the rms speed
becomes
(A) 1.5 kms1 (B) 2 kms1 (C) 1 kms1 (D) 5 kms1
84. The root mean square velocity of a gas molecule of mass m at a given temperature is proportional
to
(A) m0 (B) m1/2 (C) m1/2 (D) m
85. The ratio of the vapour densities of two gases at a given temperature is 9:8, The ratio of the rms
velocities of their molecule is
(A) 3 : 2 2 (B) 2 2 : 3 (C) 9:8 (D) 8:9
86. At what temperature, pressure remaining unchanged, will the rms velocity of a gas be half its value
at OoC ?
(A) 204.75 K (B) 204.750 C (C) 204.75 K (D) 204.750 C
87. The rms velocity of gas molecules is 300 ms1. The rms velocity of molecules of gas with twice
the molecular weight and half the absolute temperature is
(A) 300 ms1 (B) 150 ms1 (C) 600 ms1 (D) 75 ms1
302
88. Calculate the temperature at which rms velocity of S02 molecules is the same as that of O2
molecules at 270 C. Molecular weights of Oxygen and SO2 are 32 g and 64 g respectively
(A) 3270 C (B) 327 K (C) 1270 C (D) 2270 C
89. For a gas, the rms speed at 800 K is
(A) Four times the value at 200 K
(B) Twice the value at 200 K
(C) Half the value at 200 K
(D) same as at 200 K
90. A mixture of 2 moles of helium gas (atomic mass = 4 amu), and 1 mole of argon gas (atomic mass
vrms (helium)
= 40 amu) is kept at 300 K in a container. The ratio of the rms speeds is
vrms (argon)
(A) 0.45 (B) 2.24 (C) 3.16 (D) 0.32
0 0
91. The temperature of an ideal gas is increased from 27 C to 927 C. The root mean square speed
of its molecules becomes
(A) Four times (B) Onefourth (C) Half (D) Twice
92. At a given temperature the root mean square velocities of Oxygen and hydrogen molecules are in
the ratio
(A) 1:4 (B) 1:16 (C) 16:1 (D) 4:1
93. If mass of He atom is 4 times that of hydrogen atom, then rms speed of the is
(A) Two times of H rms speed.
(B) Four times of H rms speed.
(C) Same as of H rms speed.
(D) half of H rms speed.
94. At temperature T, the rms speed of helium molecules is the same as rms speed of hydrogen
mdecules at normal temperature and pressure. The value of T is
(A) 5460 C (B) 00 C (C) 2730 C (D) 136.50 C
95. The root mean square speed of hydrogen molecules at 300 K is 1930 m/s. Then the root mean
square speed of Oxygen molecules at 900 K will be
1930
(A) 836 m/s (B) 643 m/s (C) 1930 3 m/s (D) m/s
3
96. If rms speed of a gas is rms = 1840 m/s and its density = 8.99 102 kg/m3 , the pressure of
the gas will be
(A) 1.01 103 Nm2 (B) 1.01 105 Nm2 (C) 1.01 107 Nm2 (D) 1.01 Nm2
97. When the temperature of a gas is raised from 270 C to 900 C , the percentage increase in the
rms velocity of the molecules will be
(A) 15% (B) 17.5% (C) 10% (D) 20%
98. The rms speed of a gas at a certain temperature is 2 times than that of the Oxygen molecule
at that temperature, the gas is_____
(A) SO2 (B) CH4 (C) H2 (D) He
303
99. The temperature at which the rms speed of hydrogen molecules is equal to escape velocity on earth
surface will be
(A) 5030 K (B) 10063 K (C) 1060 K (D) 8270 K
100. What is the meanfree path and collision frequency of a nitrogen molecule in a cylinder containing
nitrogen at 2 atm and temperature 17oC ? Take the radius of nitrogen molecule to be 1A .
M olecular mass of nitrogen = 28 , k B = 1.38 1023 JK1, 1 atm = 1.013 105 Nm2
2 1 2 3
(A) 1 (B) 1 (C) 1 (D) 1
f f f f
106. A diatomic gas molecule has translational, rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom. The
Cp
is
Cv
(A) 1.29 (B) 1.33 (C) 1.4 (D) 1.67
107. The value of Cv for one mole of neon gas is
3 7 1 5
(A) R (B) R (C) R (D) R
2 2 2 2
108. The relation between two specific heats of a gas is
(A) CV CP R J (B) CP CV J
(C) CP C V R J (D) CV CP J
304
109. The molar specific heat at constant pressure for a monoatomic gas is
3 5 7
(A) R (B) R (C) 4 R (D) R
2 2 2
R
110. For a gas 0.67 . This gas is made up of molecules which are
CV
(A) Diatomic (B) monoatomic
(C) polyatomic (D) mixture of diatomic and polyatomic molecules
111. The specific heat of an ideal gas is
(A) Proportional to T2 (B) Proportional to T3
(C) Proportional to T (D) Independent of T
112. The specific heats at constant pressure is greater than that of the same gas at constant volume
because (A) At constant volume work is done in expanding the gas.
(B) At constant pressure work is done in expanding the gas.
(C) The molecular vibration increases more at constant pressure.
(D) The molecular attraction increases more at constant pressure.
5 7
113. One mole of ideal monoatomic gas is mixed with one mole of diatomic gas .
3
3
What is for the mixture? denotes the ratio of specific heat at constant pressure to that at
constant volume.
35 23 3 4
(A) (B) (C) (D)
23 15 2 3
114. For a gas if ratio of specific heats at constant pressure and volume is , then value of degrees
of freedom is
2 25 3 1 9
(A) 1 (B) 1 (C) 2 1 (D) 1
2 2
7
115. The molar specific heat at constant pressure of an ideal gas is R . The ratio of specific heat
2
at constant pressure to that ratio at constant volume is
5 9 8 7
(A) (B) (C) (D)
7 7 7 5
7
116. For a gas , the gas may probably be
5
(A) Neon (B) Argon (C) Helium (D) Hydrogen
117. From the following P  T graph, what inference can be drawn
(A ) V 2< V1 (B) V2= V1
(C) V 2>V1 (D) none of these
305
118. The figure shows the volume V versus temperature T graphs for
a certain mass of a perfect gas at two constant pressure of
P1 and P2. What inference can you draw from the graphs.
(A) P1< P2
(B) P1>P2
(C) P1= P2
(D) No inference can be drawn due to insufficient information.
119. Which one the following graphs represents the behaviour of an ideal gas
Direction:
(a) If both Assertion and Reason are true and the Reason is correct explanation of the Assertion.
(b) If both Assertion and Reason are true, but Reason is not correct explanation of the Assertion.
(c) If Assertion is true; the Reason is false.
(d) If Assertion is false, but the reason is true.
121. Assertion : 300 cc of a gas at 270 C is cooled at 30 C at constant pressure. The final volume
of the gas would be 270 cc
V2 T2
Reason : This is as per charle's law V T
1 1
306
KEY NOTE
1 1 B B 26
26 A A51 B 51 76 BB 101 A
76 B 101 A
2 2 C C 27
27 C C52 B 52 77 AB 102 77
A A 102 A
3 3 B B 28
28 B B53 C 53 78 CC 103 78
D C 103 D
4 C 29 D 54 D 79 C 104 B
4 C 29 D 54 D 79 C 104 B C
5 A 30 C 55 B 80 A 105
6 5 C A 30
31 C C55 B 56 80 AB 105 D
81 D 106 B
7 6 A C 31
32 C D56 B 57 81 DA 106 B
82 C 107 A
8 7 A A 33
32 D B57 A 58 82 CC 107 83
A C 108 C
9
8 C A 34
33 B C
58 C 59 83 CB 108 84
C B 109 B
10 B 35 B 60 B 85 B 110 B
11 9 D C 34
36 C A59 B 61 84 BC 109 B
86 D 111 D
12 10 D B 35
37 B A60 B 62 85 BB 110 B
87 B 112 B
13 11 C D 36
38 A A61 C 63 86 DA 111 D
88 A 113 C
14 12A D 39
37 A D62 B 64 87 BA 112 89 B 114 A
15 A 40 B 65 D 90 C 115 D
13 C 38 A 63 A 88 A 113 C
16 B 41 B 66 C 91 D 116 D
17 14 B A 39
42 D D64 A 67 89 BB 114 A
92 A 117 C
18 15A A 40
43 B A65 D 68 90 CA 115 D
93 D 118 B
19 16A B 44
41 B B66 C 69 91 DC 116 94
D C 119 C
20 17 C B 45
42 D A67 B 70 92 AB 117 95
C A 120 D
21 C 46 C 71 D 96 B 121 A
18 A 43 A 68 A 93 D 118 B
22 D 47 B 72 C 97 C 122 A
23 19 C A 44
48 B D69 C 73 94 CB 119 C
98 B 123 B
24 20 B C 45
49 C A70 B 74 95 AC 120 D
99 B
25 21 C C 50
46 B C71 D 75 96 BC 121 100
A C
22 D 47 D 72 C 97 C 122 A
23 C 48 A 73 B 98 B 123 B
24 B 49 A 74 C 99 B
25 C 50 C 75 C 100 C
307
Hint / Solution
M
1. (B) PV = RT PV M RT
O
PM o M
RT V
PM o P m N A Pm Pm
RT RT R k BT
T
NA
T
2. (C) PV RT P
V
If T and V both doubled, then pressure remains same
3. (B) PV RT PV T
If P and V doubled, then T becomes four times,
PV
4. (C) PV RT
RT
Mass of litre nitrogen = M o
5. (A) Gas equation for N molecules, PV = NkBT
PV
N
k BT
RT
6. (C) PV RT P
V
For same , R and V, P T
7. (A) molecular weight of oxygen = 32 (g)
5
number of moles in 5 g of oxygen =
32
Equation of state is PV = RT
5
PV RT
32
8. (A) Total number of moles is conserved,
PV
1 1 PV PV
2 2
RT RT RT
1 100 0 .5 5 0 P 1000
+ = ( 1 L = 100 m )
RT RT RT
P 0.125 atm
308
9. (C) The ideal gas equation is
PV RT
PV RT 1
R
PV k B N AT kB
NA
PV
N A Avogadro's number..
k BT
10. (B). PV RT
M
PV RT
Mo
M RT
V Mo
RT M
Mo V
P R
= const.
T M o
11. (D) PV RT
M
P RT
M M P
P RT
Mo T
12. (D) PV RT
M
PV RT P M ( V, T Constant )
Mo
13. (C). PV RT
P T ( Closed vessel i.e. volume is constant)
P1 T1
P2 T2
95
PV
1 1 P2 V1 V2 95% V1
100
309
P2 1.0526 P1
P1 0.0526 P1
P1 5.26% P1
Pressure 5.26% increases.
15. (A) Closed Vessel . i.e. volume remains constant.
From, PV RT
P2 T2
P T
P1 T1
P2 P1 T2 T1
P1 T1
M
17. (B) PV RT RT
Mo
M Mo
PV RT
density Mo
=
P RT
density M
= x...........................(i)
P At 0 C R 273
density M
P = .........................(ii)
At 100 C R 373
density 273
P x
At 100 C 373
PV
18. (A) =R = constant P1V1 P2 V2
T T1 T2
19. (A) PV=RT
since P is const. V T
V1 T1
V2 T2
M MRT
= RT V=
Mo M oP
310
21. (C) PV= RT
P1V1
1 ( T const.)
P2 V2 2
PV
22. (D) PV Nk B T N
k BT
Now, N '
2P 2V PV
4
N 1
4N N' 4
k BT k BT
23. (C) PV=RT
M
PV = RT P M ( V, R, T  Constant)
Mo
P1 M1 107 10
6
M2 = 2.5 kg
P2 M 2 2.5 10 M2
Hence mass of the gas taken out of the cylinder = 10 2.5 = 7.5 kg
PV
24. (B) PV = RT =
RT
M P2 M 2 T2
25. (C) PV = RT PV = RT P MT
Mo P1 M1 T1
1 1
26. (A) VP3 = constant = k P 3 P 1
V V 3
k
P 1
3
V
k
PV = RT 1
V RT
3
V
2
3
k V RT
2
3
RT
V
k
2 2
3 3
V1 T V T
Hence 1
V2 T2 27 V T2
1 T
T2 9 T
9 T2
311
P1 T1
27. (C) Using Gaylussac's law P T
2 2
P1 P2 P
T2 2 T1
T1 T2 P1
V2 T2 V
T2 2 T1
V1 T1 V1
V1 T1
30. (C) V T
V2 T2
1 V P 100 100
31. (C) P 2 1 V2 V1 0.9524 V1
V V1 P2 105 105
V2 1 0.0476 V1
V1 0.0476 V1
V1 4.76% V1
P2 T2 T
32. (D) PT P2 P1 2
P1 T1 T1
V2 T2 V V1 T2 T1
33. (B) V T 2
V1 T1 V1 T1
P1V1 P2 V2 PV
35. (B) T2 2 2 T1
T1 T2 P1V1
P1V1 PV PV
36. (A) 2 2 T2 2 2 T1
T1 T2 Pl V1
V1 T1
37. (A) VT
V2 T2
312
38. (A) PV = RT P=T ( V and R = constant )
P2 2 T2
P1 1T1
PV PV
39. (D) PV= RT 1 and 2
RT RT
P '
1 2 RT
2 PV RT
2P
V RT V
40. (B) For open mouth vessel, pressure is constant.
volume is also given constant.
Hence from PV RT
M 1 T1 M 2
PV RT T
Mo M T2 M1
1 th
part escapes, so remaining mass in the vessel is
4
3
3 M
273 60 4 1
M 2 M1 T 444 K 1710 C
4 T M1
41. (B) Let initial conditions = V, T
final conditions = V', T'
By Charle's law, V T ( P remains constant )
V V' V V'
V ' 1.2 V
T T' T 1.2 T
But as per question, volume is reduced by 10%
means V' = 0.9 V
so percentage of volume leaked out
1.2 0.9 V 100 % 25%
1.2 V
F 1 P
42. (D) Pressure P ( P = change in momentum)
A A t
2
43. (A) P ( Energy per unit volume )
3
2 E 2
E
3 V 3
3P 2
44. (B) rms P rms
3
313
3P 3PV P 1 P1 M 2
45. (A) rms rms
M M 2 P2 M1
3 2E
46. (C) E PV P
2 3V
47. (B) The average kinetic energy
3 E T
E k BT 1 1
2 E 2 T2
48. (D) Kinetic energy is a function of temperature.
E1 T1
49. (A) ET
E 2 T2
50. (C) Kinetic energy of ideal gas depends only on its temperature. Hence, it remains constant
whether pressure is increased or decreased.
51. (B) Kinetic energy is directly proportional to temperature. Hence if temperature is doubled,
kinetic energy will also be doubled.
E1 T1
52. (B) Average kinetic energy Temperature
E 2 T2
E1 T1
53. (C) ET
E 2 T2
E1 T1
54. (D) ET
E 2 T2
3
55. (B) Average translational K.E. of a molecule is = k BT
2
At 300 K, average K.E. = 6.21 10 21 J
At 600 K average K.E. = 2 6.21 10 21
= 12.42 1021 J
3k BT
We know that rms =
m
At 300 K, rms = 484 ms1
At 600 K, rms = 2 484 684 ms 1
3
56. (B) Average translational K.E. of a molecules k BT
2
(Where, kB = Boltzmann's constant )
This is same, for all gases at same temperature.
57. (A) At 0 K Kinetic energy is zero.
314
3 E' T'
58. (C) E RT E T
2 E T
59. (B) E T
3 2 eV 2 1.6 10 19
60. (B) k B T 1 eV T 23
7.7 103 K
2 3 kB 3 1.38 10
3RT 1
61. (C) rms =
M o rms Mo
62. (B) rms T
2 2 2 2 2
1 2 3 4 5
63. (C) rms = = 4.24
5
rms 2 T2
64. (A) rms
T rms T1
1
3RT RT RT
66. (C) rms = 3 1.73
Mo Mo Mo
67. (B) rms T , To double the rms speed temperature should be made four times i.e.
T2 4T1
3P 2 16
68. (A) vrms 1 4 :1
2 1 1
69. (C) rms velocity doesn't depend on pressure, it depends upon temperature only.
3RT 1 T1
rms = rms T T 2 rms
Mo 2 T2
3RT 1 1 M2
70. (B) rms = 1 and 2 1
Mo M1 M2 2 M1
3RT
71. (D) rms = rms T T 2rms
Mo
3RT
72. (C) rms T M o ( rms , R constant)
Mo
315
3RT T
73. (B) rms rms
Mo Mo
He 5 THe M H 2 25 4
THe 273
H2 7 TH 2 M He 49 2
273 K 00 C
3 RT
74. (C) rms
Mo
3 RT 3 8.3 300
Mo 2 2 103 kg 2 g
2 rms 1920
Gas is hydrogen.
12 22 32
75. (C) rms speed, rms =
3
1 2 3
average speed,
3
rms t T
76. (B) As and rms speed increases by 10%
rms O T0
273 t 273 t 2
1.1 or 1.1 1.21 t 273 1.21 1 57.30 C
273 273
2 T2
77. (A) rms T
1 T1
3RT
78. (C) rms T Mo ( rms , R constant)
Mo
TN2 M O N
2
TO 2 M O O 2
3RT
79. (C) rms
Mo
3RT2 3 RT1
Mo Mo 20 17.32
% increase in rms 100% 100% 15.5%
3RT1 17.32
Mo
316
TA T TA TB
80. (A) 4 B 2
MA MB MA MB
3 RTA 3 RTB
2
MA MB
A
A 2 B 2
B
81. (D) Since temperature is constant.
so vrms remains same.
3 RT
82. (C) rms = T Mo ( rms , R Const. )
Mo
TO2 M o O
2
TN2 Mo N 2
rms 1 T1
83. (C) rms T
rms 2 T2
3k BT 1
84. (B) rms rms m 2
m
1
85. (B) At a given temperature rms
1
86. (D) rms T and rms 2 rms 1
2
rms 2 T 1
273 t
1
rms 1 T0 2 273 0 2
273 t 1 273
t 273 = 68.25273 = 204.750 C
273 4 4
3 RT
87. (B) rms
Mo
317
3 RT
88. (A) rms
Mo
v1 T
89. (B) rms T 1
v2 T2
3RT
rms He Mo He 40
90. (C) 10 3.16
rms Ar 3RT 4
M o Ar
2 T2
91. (D) rms T
1 T1
1 rms O M o H
92. (A) rms So 2
= 2
Mo rms H M o O
2 2
1 mH
93. (D) rms He
m H m He
3RT T M o He
94. (C) rms = T M o He =
M0 TH M o H
3 RT rms O TO2 M o H
95. (A) rms = 2
= 2
Mo rms H 2
TH2 M o O
2
3P 2
96. (B) rms = or P = rms
3
318
3RT 2 T2 273+90
97. (C) rms = = = =1.1
Mo 1 T1 273+27
2
% increase = 1 100% = 0.1100% =10%
1
1 1 M o 2 1 M o 2
98. (B) rms = = M o 2 = 16
Mo 2 M o 1 2 32
3RT
T
escape Mo
So, rms = Vescape
Mo 3R
100. (C) =
k BT
=
1.3810 290
23
= 1.11 107 m
2
2Pd 2 2 3.14 2.02610 210
5 10
rms 508.24
Collision Frequency = no. of collision per second = = 4.58109
1.1110 7
1 k BT 6.65 108 m
101. (A) =
2nd 2 2 Pd 2
102. (A) A monoatomic gas molecule has only three translational degrees of freedom.
103. (D) A diatomic molecule has three translational and two rotational degrees of freedom. Hence
total degrees of freedom, f = 3+2 = 5
104. (B) For a triatomic gas f = 6 ( 3 translation + 3 rotational )
Cp 2
105. (C) 1
Cv f
106. (B) Degrees of freedom = 3 ( translatory ) + 2 ( rotatory ) + 1 ( vibratory ) = 6
Cp 2 2 1 4
1 = 1 = 1 1.33
Cv f 6 3 3
107. (A) Neon gas is mono atomic and for mono atomic gases C v 3 R
2
R
108. (C) When Cp and Cv are given with caloric and R with Joule then Cp Cv =
J
319
f 3
109. (B) C p C v R Cp R Cv R R = R+ R f = 3
2 2
5
R
2
R 3
110. (B) C v = = 1.5 R = R
0.67 2
This is the value for mono atomic gases
111. According to the equilibrium theorem, the molar heat capacities should be independent of temperature
How ever, variations in Cv and Cp are observed as the temperature changes. At very high
temperatures, vibrations are also inportant and that affects the values of Cv and Cp for diatomic
and poly atomic gases. Here in the question according to given information (D) may be correct
answer.
112. (B)
11 2 2 1 53 1 75
1 1 2 1
53 1 75 1 3 1.5
113. (C) mix 1 1 1 2
2 7
1 1 2 1 3 5
5
1 1
2 2 f 1 2
114. (A) 1 f
f f 2 1 1
7
115. (D) molar specific heat at constant pressure, Cp R
2
7 5
Since C p C v R C v Cp R R R R
2 2
7
116. (D) for a diatomic gas.
5
T T
117. (C) As 2 1 tan 2 > tan 1
P 2 P 1
T
Also from PV RT , V V2 V1
P
V V
118. (B) As 1 2 tan 1 < tan 2
T 1 T 2
V 1 1 1
from PV = RT ; Hence P P P1 P2
T P 1 2
119. (C) For an ideal gas PV = constant
i.e PV doesn't vary with V
1
120. (D) At constant temperature, PV = constant P
V
320
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