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Chapter 21

Electric Current and Direct-Current Circuit


Outline
21-1 Electric Current
21-2 Resistance and Ohms Law
21-3 Energy and Power in Electric Circuit
21-4 Resistance in Series and Parallel
21-5 Kirchhoffs Rules
21-6 Circuits containing Capacitors
21-7 RC Circuits
21-6 Circuits containing Capacitors

Capacitors in Parallel
Capacitor are connected in parallel, and they have the same
voltage.
Figure 21-16 shows three capacitors connected in parallel.

Figure 21-16
Capacitors in Parallel
Deriving equivalent capacitance

In fig. 21-16 (a), the magnitudes of the charges on each capacitor


are

Q1 C1 , Q2 C2 , Q3 C3 ,

The total charge on the three capacitors is

Q Q1 Q2 Q3 C1 C2 C3 (C1 C2 C3 ) (1)

In fig. 21-16 (b), the magnitude of the charge on an equivalent


capacitor is
Q Ceq (2)

Compared the above two equations (1) and (2), we have

Ceq C1 C2 C3
Equivalent capacitance for Capacitors in Parallel

Ceq C1 C2 C3 ... C (21 14)

SI unit: farad, F
Problem 21-56 capacitor in parallel
Two capacitors, one 7.5 F, and the 15F, are connected in
parallel across a 12-V battery.
(a) Find the equivalent capacitance of the two capacitors.
(b) Find the charge stored in each capacitor.
Solution
1) Since the 2 capacitors in parallel:

Ceq C1 C2
Ceq 7.5F 15F
22.5F

2) Both capacitors have the same voltage 12 V:


Q1 C
Q1 12(V ) (7.5 10 6 F ) 9.0 10 5 C

Q2 C
Q2 12(V ) (15 10 6 F ) 1.8 10 4 C
Capacitors in Series
Capacitor are connected in series (one after the other), and they
have the same charge.
Figure 21-17 shows three capacitors connected in series.

Figure 21-17
Capacitors in Series
Deriving equivalent capacitance

In figure (a), since all the capacitors have the same charge Q,
we have
Q Q Q
V1 , V2 , V3 ,
C1 C2 C3

And the total potential difference across the three capacitors


must equal the battery emf,
Q Q Q 1 1 1
V1 V2 V3 Q( ) (21 15)
C1 C2 C3 C1 C2 C3

In figure (a), since Q = Ceq, we have


1
Q (21 16)
Ceq
Compare (21-15) and (21-16), one has
1 1 1 1

Ceq C1 C2 C3
Equivalent capacitance for Capacitors in Series

1 1 1 1 1
... (21 17)
Ceq C1 C2 C3 C

SI unit: farad, F
Problem 21-56 capacitor in series
Two capacitors, one 7.5 F, and the 15F, are connected in series
across a 12-V battery.
(a) Find the equivalent capacitance of the two capacitors.
(b) Find the charge stored in each capacitor.
Solution
1) Since the 2 capacitors in series:

1 1 1

Ceq C1 C2
1 1 1
0.20 ( F ) 1
Ceq 7.5F 15F
Ceq 5.0 F

2) Both capacitors have the same voltage 12 V:

Q1 Q2 Q
12(V ) (5 10 6 F ) 6.0 10 5 C
Active Example 21-3 Find Equivalent Capacitance
A electric circuit consists of a 12.0 V battery and three capacitors
connected partly in series and partly in parallel. Find the total energy
store in the capacitors.

Active Example 21-3


Find the Equivalent
Capacitance and the Stored
Energy
Solution

1) Find the equivalent capacitance of a 10.0 uf and 5.00 uf in series,


3.33 uF
2) Find the equivalent capacitance of circuit (3.33 uf and 20.0 uf in
parallel)
Ceq = 23.3 uF

3) Find the stored energy

1
U CeqV 2 1.68 103 J
2
21-7 RC Circuit

A RC circuit consists of a resistor R and capacitor C.

Figure 21-18
A Typical RC Circuit

Charging the circuit !!


The formula that can be used to calculate the charge on the
capacitor with time t as a parameter is,
q(t ) C (1 e t / ) (21 18),

where, e is exponential. = RC is called Time Constant (s: second),


which determines the property of the CR circuit. When t = ,
q = 0.632 C (63.2% of the final charge).

Figure 21-19
Charge Versus Time for an RC Circuit
The current as a function of time t can be expressed as


I (t ) ( )e t / (21 19),
R

= RC is called Time Constant (s: second),

Figure 21-20
Current Versus Time in an RC
Circuit
Example 21-9 Charging a Capacitor
A circuit consists of a 126- resistor, a 275- resistor, a 182-uF
capacitor, a switch, and a 3.00-V battery all in series. Initially the
capacitor is uncharged and the switch is open. At time t = 0, the
switch is closed.
(a) What charge will the capacitor have a long time after the switch is
closed?
(b) At what time will the charge on the capacitor be 80.0% of the value
found in part (a)?

Picture the problem


Example 21-9
Charging a Capacitor
Solution Time constant RC (126 275)(182 106 F ) 73.0 103 s
Part (a)
1) After a long time ( t ),

q(t ) C (1 et / ) C
(182 106 F )(3.00V ) 546 106 C

2) Set q(t) = 0.800 C, and solving for t,

q(t ) C (1 et / ) 0.8C
We have

1 et / 0.8
t ln(0.200)
so,
t ln(0.200) (73.0 103 s) ln(0.200) 118 103 s
Summary

Equivalent capacitance for Capacitors in Parallel

Ceq C1 C2 C3 ... C (21 14)

Equivalent capacitance for Capacitors in Series

1 1 1 1 1
... (21 17)
Ceq C1 C2 C3 C

RC Circuit

q(t ) C (1 et / ) (21 18),


Example 21-8 Energy in Parallel
Two capacitors, one 12.0 uf, and the other of unknown capacitance
C, are connected in parallel across a battery with an emf 9.00 V.
The total energy stored in the two capacitors is 0.0115J. What is
the value of the capacitance C.

Example 21-8
Energy in Parallel
Solution
1) Since the Capacitor energy is
1 1
U QV CeqV 2
2 2
We have
1
0.0115 J Ceq (9.00V ) 2
2
Ceq 284 106 F 284 F
2) Solve for C in terms of equivalent capacitance:
Ceq C1 C
284 F 12.0 F C
C 284 F 12.0 F 272 F