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Research- is a systematic/scientific investigation of a phenomenon that includes collection,

presentation, analysis and interpretation of facts that link mans speculation with the reality.


1. Intellectual Curiosity

A researcher:

Asks/raises questions to seek answers

Undertakes reflective thinking and inquiry of the things
Is eager to get information
Continues to read the related literature
Formulates and tests a hypothesis

2. Prudence

A researcher is prudent if he conducts his experiment at the right time and at the right
place wisely, effectively and economically.
Likewise the four Ms are used effectively and economically (Man, Money, Materials
and Machinery)

3. Healthy Criticism

The investigator is always doubtful as to the veracity of the results

Normally the researcher always doubts the truthfulness of the findings even if the data
are gathered honestly

4. Intellectual Honesty

Honesty is the best policy for an intelligent researcher because the success or failure of
his research lies on his hand.


R- research-oriented

E- efficient

S- scientific

E- effective
A- active

R- resourceful

C- creative

H- honest

E- economical

R- religious

Values of research to man

1. Research improves the quality of life.

2. Research improves instruction.
3. Research improves students achievements.
4. Research satisfies mans needs.
5. Research reduces the burden of work.
6. Research has deep-seated psychological aspect.
7. Research improves the exportations of food products.


1. Empirical research is based on direct experience or observation by the researcher. The

collection of data relies on practical experience without benefit of the scientific knowledge or
2. Logical research is based on valid procedures and principles. Scientific investigation is done in
an orderly manner, so that the researcher has confidence on the results. Logical examinations on
the procedures used in the research enables the researcher to draw valid conclusions. Thus, the
logic of valid research makes it important for decision making.
3. Cyclical research is a cyclical process. It starts with a problem and ends with a problem.
4. Analytical research utilizes proven analytical procedures in gathering the data, whether,
historically, descriptive, experimental or case study.
Historical Research the data gathered focused on the past.
Descriptive Research the study focuses on the present situation.
Experimental Research future
Case Study past, present, future
5. Replicability the researcher designs and procedures are replicated to enable the research to
arrive at valid and conclusive results. Similarities and differences of replicated researches can be
compared. The more replications, the more valid and conductive the results would be.
6. Critical research exhibits careful and precise judgement.


1) Pure Research
This is also called basic research or fundamental research.
It aims to discover basic truths and principles.
It explores the unknown.
It discovers new facts.

Examples of Pure Research:

a) Archimedes Principle
b) Newtons Law
c) Hookes Law
d) Boyles Law
e) Charles Law
2) Applied Research
This type of research involves seeking new applications of scientific knowledge to
the solutions of a problem, such as the development of a new system or
procedure, new device, new method in order to solve a problem.


Problem: Rice Shortage

Solution: Research on using new varieties of rice will be conducted for the
purpose of producing more rice.

3) Action Research
This is a decision-oriented research involving the application of the steps of
scientific method in response to an immediate need to improve existing


Culture of seaweed using broadcasting method this can be improved by using

bamboo rafts method.


1. Library Research
2. Field Research
3. Laboratory Research
Library Research This is done in the library where answers to specific questions are problems
of the study are available. The historical research lends itself to library research because the
study is focused on the past, and much of the primary and secondary sources are found in the
Field and Laboratory researches also make use of library researches, but the answer to
certain problems are not found in the library. The data are gathered through survey and
Field Research is conducted in a natural setting. No changes are made in the environment.
Field research is both applicable to descriptive survey and experimental methods.
Example using the experimental method:

The cultivation of green Mussel using Bamboo Raft and Staking Methods.

Laboratory Research is conducted in artificial or controlled conditions by isolating the study in

a rigorously specified and operationalized area.
Purposes of Laboratory Research:
1. To test hypothesis derived from theory.
2. To control variance under research conditions.
3. To discover the relations between the dependent and independent variable.

Laboratory Research is applicable to both experimental, descriptive and case study

methods. An example of laboratory research using experimental method is Cultivation of
Milkfish at the Fishpond Using Fish Meal and Bread Meal as Supplemental Feeds.

The researcher uses two compartments, namely the control and experimental ponds. All
things are held constant, except the supplemental feeds used.

An example of Laboratory Research using the descriptive method is The Effectiveness

of Traditional and Modern Methods of Teaching Physics.

Test is the instrument used to gather data in this study. All things are made equal except
the method used.

A variable is defined as a quantity or a characteristic that has two or more mutually

exclusive values of properties.


1. Independent Variable this is the stimulus variable which is chosen by the researcher to
determine its relationship to an observed phenomenon.
2. Dependent Variable this is the response variable which is observed and measured to
determine the effect of the independent variable.
3. Controlled Variable this is a variable controlled by the researcher in which the effects can be
neutralized by eliminating or removing the variable.
4. Intervening Variable this is a variable which interferes with the independent and dependent
variables but its effect can either strengthen or weaken the independent and dependent
Cultivation of Milkfish at the Fishpond Using Fish Meal and Bread Meal as
Supplemental Feeds

Independent Variables: Intervening Variables

Supplemental Feeds pH, Salinity, Oxygen, etc.
Fish Meal
Bread Meal

Dependent Variable

Growth Rate


Independent Variable Dependent Variable

cause effect

Control Variable

Commercial Fish food


An investigator knows that a problem is researchable when:

1. There is no known solution to the problem.

2. The solutions can be answered by using statistical methods and techniques.
3. There are probable solutions but they are not yet tested.
4. The occurrence of phenomenon requires scientific investigation to arrive at precise solution.

A research problem should be SMART, whether historical, descriptive, experimental or

case study.


1. Specific the problem should be stated clearly and exactly.

2. Measurable it is easy to measure by using research instruments (i.e., questionnaires,
rating scale, test, etc.) in collecting data.
3. Achievable the data are achievable using correct statistical techniques to arrive at
precise results.
4. Realistic the results are not manipulated.
5. Time-bound time frame is required in every activity because the shorter the
completion of the activity the bette.


1. The specialization of the researcher.

2. Existing and past researches.
3. Thesis
4. Research journals/magazines


1. Interesting an interesting research problem attracts the attention of the researcher to study
the problem further. It also makes him determined to work on until its completion.
2. Relevant to the needs of the people researchers must keep in mind that they work not for
themselves but for the people.
3. Innovative a good research problem may not be necessarily new. It may be a restatement and
restructuring of an old problem to make it new. In this manner, results will be more relevant and
useful to a greater number of people.
4. Cost Effective The 4 Ms --------- Man, Money, Materials and Machinery are needed in
conducting a research. A research problem should be economical and effective in solving the
problems in the society. It should also augment social, economical and health conditions of the
people and many others. There are funding institutions which grant financial assistance:
A. NRCP National Research Council of the Philippines\
B. DOST Department of Science and Technology
C. PCAMARRD Philippine Council for Aquaculture and Marine Resources and Research
D. IFS International Foundation for Science
E. JICA Japan International Cooperating Agency

5. Measurable and Time-bound a good research problem is measurable by using research

instruments like tests, questionnaires, rating scales, observation schedules/interviews and statistical
treatments to arrive at scientific and meaningful results. A good research can be completed within a
time frame stated.

The shorter the completion of the project, the better.



The effect of Honey and Aspirin on the Rooting Ability of Avocado Stem Cuttings


The main purpose of the study is to determine the effectiveness of Honey and Aspirin on the
rooting ability of avocado stem cuttings.

Specifically, this aims to answer the following questions:

1. Is there any difference between the number of cuttings that produce roots on the:
a. Upper stem cuttings, and
b. Lower stem cuttings?
2. Is there any difference on the number of cuttings that produce roots using:
a. Honey
b. Aspirin, and
c. Water only?


A hypothesis is defined as a wise guess that is formulated and temporarily adopted to explain
the observed facts covered by the study. A hypothesis guides the investigator in that it describes the
procedure to follow in conducting the study. Hypothesis is important for it tells the investigator what to
do and how to go about in solving the problem. The researcher is in a much better position if there are
hypothesis to guide him on the kind of data to collect (Leedy, 1981).

Types of Hypothesis

There are two types of hypothesis, namely null (H0) and alternative (H1). These hypotheses are
always stated in declarative sentence form.

The null hypothesis (H0) is a denial of an existence of an attribute, a relationship or a difference

of an effect. It is always stated in a negative form in contrast, the alternative hypothesis (H1) is the
opposite extreme of null hypothesis because it is always stated in a positive form. Alternative hypothesis
is the affirmation of the existence of an observed phenomenon.

Is there a difference in the mean rank levels of the problems met by Science and Math


There is no significant difference in the mean levels of the problems met by Science and
Math professors.


There is a significant difference in the mean rank levels of the problems met by Science
and Math professors.


Theoretical and conceptual framework provide clear explanation regarding the relationships of
variables. The research study must have the theoretical framework as legal basis to describe properlythe
process of the study.


Shapes the justification of the research problem in order to provide the legal basis for defining
the parameters. It is desirable for an investigator to identify key concepts that are used in the
study for better understanding of the role of theory in the research.
Theoretical framework is a symbolic construction which uses abstract concepts, facts or laws,
variables and other relations that explain and predicts how an observed phenomenon exists and
operates. An investigator is required to formulate existing theories which link his study because
theories are useful device for interpreting, criticizing and unifying established scientific laws or
facts that guide in discovering new generalization.


Presents scientific and well-defined concepts which are called constructs. Its function is similar
to theoretical framework because the constructs used are derived from abstract concepts of the
theoretical framework.


Level Independent Variable Intervening Variable Dependent Variable

Theoretical Educational Qualification Values Performance

Conceptual BS M.A. Ph.D Age Outstanding

Economic/Social Status Very Satisfactory

Attitude Fair


Independent Variables

Supplemental Feeds: Growth Rate of Feeds:

Fish Meal Weight (Mass)

Bread Meal Length

Figure 1.Paradigm of the Independent and Dependent Variables on the Growth Rate of Milkfish

Cultured in the Fishpond Using Fish Meal and Bread Meal as Supplemental Feeds.


Assumptions are presumed to be true statements of facts related to the research problem. They
are clearly stated to give readers of theses. A foundation to form conclusions resulting from

Some researchers may state their assumptions outright but it is advisable that evidences or
arguments in support of these assumptions are presented first.


Cultivation of Milkfish at the Fishpond Using Bread Meal and Fish Meal as Supplemental Feeds


1) Milkfish fry that are used in the study are healthy.

2) The fry that are used are similar in size and of the same breed.
3) The Milkfish fry receive the same environmental condition.


The significance of the study in a thesis/dissertation or in a research paper is a must for research
project seeking for financial assistance by other agencies, significance of the study should be presented
comprehensively in order to convince the screening committee of the importance of the study.
The discussion of the significance of the study is presented either in the inductive or deductive
perspective. In an inductive perspective, the researcher moves from the particular to the general and
presents the importance of the study from the target beneficiaries, to the researcher himself, to the
people in the province, region and nation. Likewise, in a deductive perspective, general to particular,
discussion of the importance of the study starts first from the national level to the researcher himself
and to the target beneficiaries.

The investigator should prove that the study has important contributions in relation to (a)
solving the problem (b) bridging a knowledge gap, (c) improving social, economic and health conditions,
(d) enriching research instruments and methods, and (e) supporting government thrusts.


Scope and limitations of the study is an important section of a thesis, dissertation, and research
paper. This includes the coverage of the study area, the subjects, the research instruments, the research
issues or concerns, the duration of the study, and the constraints that have direct hearing on the result
of the study.


This is the last section of a thesis, dissertation, and research paper in Chapter 1. Thesis and
dissertation do not include this section of the study if there are more than 15 terms defined because this
portion is for the glossary. In this section, the key terms are clearly defined.

There are two ways to define the key terms used in the study. These are (1) conceptual and (2)
operational definition.

1) Conceptual Definition the definition of terms are based on concepts or hypothetic ones which
are usually taken from the dictionary.
2) Operational Definition are based on observable characteristics and how it is used in the study.

It is advicable that the researcher should use two ways in defining the terms to make the meaning clear.
The operational definition is preferable when defining technical terms.


As mentioned in the previous chapter, the review of related literature is one of the components
of a research process. A researcher needs to review write-ups, readings, and studies related to his
present study to determine the similarities and differences of the findings between the past and present
studies. This also aims to gain insight into the problem that are critical and controversial. Likewise, a
review of related readings, literature, and studies provide the investigator a background regarding the
aspects which have been studied and not yet studied. It also assists him on what to do on the
components of the research process. This also gives him ideas to proceed with his study until its
Moreover, the researcher should have the ability to compare between what he should read and
include in his study and what he should not read. Basically, the investigator is required to the present

The word related means the readings, literature and studies which have direct bearing or
relation to the present study.

In a research paper, thesis and dissertation, the review of related literature is divided into three
parts. These are (1) related readings (2) related literature and (3) related studies.


The major sources of related reading are laws and department directives such as circulars, order
memoranda and others which are related to the present study. These laws and department directives
serve as legal bases for the paradigm of the study. This also presents the study as having direct or
indirect implication to the government thrusts.

In presenting the related readings, the researcher has to arrange related readings from the past
readings to most recent readings or vice versa.


Literature may be defined as written works collectively, especially, these of enduring

importance, exhibiting creative imagination and artistic skill which are written in a particular period,
language and subject, (Funk and Wagnalls Dictionary, 1976). In other words, any written materials such
as books, journals, magazines, novels, poetry, yearbook and encyclopedia are considered as literature.

The related literature is a section in a research paper, thesis and dissertation in which the
sources are taken from books, journals, magazines, novels, poetry and many others.

Similarly, the presentation of related literature is chronological order either from the past to
present or vice versa. Some universities allow an arrangement by topic order while others allow an
alphabetical arrangement.


Published and unpublished research studies are sources of materials that are included in this
section. The research studies which have direct bearing to the present study are segregated into local
and foreign studies.

The presentation of foreign and local studies is similar with related readings and related
literature which are arranged in chronological order.

1. Historical Design
2. Descriptive Designs
3. Experimental Design
4. Case Study Design



A branch of knowledge

Historical Research/Design

Systematic and critical inquiry of the whole truth of past events using critical method in the
understanding and the interpretation of facts.


Primary Sources
Documents contract, deed, will
Remains diplomas, certificates, relics, textbooks, physical things
Secondary Sources
English Textbooks, encyclopedia, articles, bibliography


1. Collection of data with consideration and remains/relic of primary and secondary sources, of
bibliographical procedure and organization of materials.
2. Criticism of data collected including the process of external criticism and internal criticism.
3. Presentation of the facts in readable form involving problems of organization, composition,
exposition and interpretation.


Focuses at the present condition

Provide essential knowledge about plants
Purpose is to find the truth
Have different forms such as increased insight
Types of Descriptive Research
Descriptive Survey
Descriptive Normative Survey
Descriptive Studies
Descriptive Analysis
Descriptive Classification
Descriptive Evaluative
Descriptive Comparative
Correlational Survey
Longitudinal Survey


It is a problem-solving technique that the study is described from the past, present and future.
It is an intensive investigation of a particular individual, institution, community, or any group
considered as a unit which includes the developmental, adjustment, remedial or corrective
This method is usually applied by guidance counsellors, midwives, nurses, physician,
psychologist and educators.
It is not limited to conditions of mal-adjustments such as behaviour problem under privileged


1. Recognition and determination of the status of the phenomenon to be investigated

2. Collection of data related to the factors of circumstances associated with the given
3. Diagnosis or identification of casual factors as a basic for remedial or development treatment
4. Application of remedial or development treatment/measures
5. Subsequent follow-up to determine the effectiveness of the corrective or developmental
measure applied

II created by: Good and Scates (1972) II


Beginning Parts


1. Title Page
2. Approval Sheet
3. Acknowledgements
4. Contents
5. Tables
6. Figures
7. Plates
8. Abstract


Is the first page of a research paper and a thesis

Page number is not indicated
It presents the title, kind of research work, the faculty to be submitted, full name of the
researcher, month and year of submission.

Bear in mind that the title is in all capitals and in all inverted pyramid style



ABILITY OF AVOCADO (Persen Americana)



Another preliminaries section of a thesis in which the researcher expresses his/her gratitude to
different persons who assisted, facilitated, oriented and guide him to make his/her work a reality.

The researcher should recognize and appreciate the assistance, guidance and selfless effort and
wise council of his/her adviser and reader.


CONTENTS is preferable to use that TABLE OF CONTENTS because it is understood that

contents of a thesis include the list of all elements of the preliminaries the chapter title, the main
heading and subheadings in the text including the bibliography, appendix and curricular vital.

The page number of contents i. indicated at the bottom in a small Roman Numeral for instance,
iv. and succeeding pages are indicated along the right-hand margin in small Roman Numeral, i.e, v, vi,
vii, viii and so on. These pages are indicated five (5) single spaces from the top right-hand margin.


1. Historical Research Design

2. Descriptive Research Design
3. Experimental Research Design
4. Case Study Design

The list of tables should follow the contents. If there are only two or three tables in the text of
a thesis, they may be omitted in the listing of the front matter. All captions should appear exactly the
same on the listing.


1. Tables are numbered consecutively in Arabic Numeral not Roman numeral throughout the

Ex. Table 1, Table 2, Table 3 and so on

2. Tables are double-numbered base on the chapter number in Arabic numerals.

Ex. Table 4.1, Table 4.2 and so on

These tables represent tables 1, 2 and so on in chapter 4.

The first letter of the first word and all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs and verbs of tables
captions should be capitalized.

In the text captions table, the Arabic number should be aligned with the rest of the captions
and successive lines are in hanging-indented block style. This is called hanging-indented block style

Moreover, the caption is indicated above the table.


Table 1. Distribution of Fishery Supervisory Officials,

Fishery Teachers and Students by School CAPTION

School Supervisory Officials Fishery Teachers Students

Western Visayas 2 13 291
College of Fisheries


The list of figures follow the list of tables. The list of figures is omitted in the front matter of a
thesis if there are only 2 or 3 figures in the text. If there are 4 or more figures in the text, they are
presented in the list of figures in the front matter of a thesis. Flow charts, graphs, charts, drawings,
maps, paradigms and diagrams are usually grouped as figures.

There are two ways of numbering figures, similar with tables. First, they are numbered
consecutively with Arabic numerals. Second, they are double numbered based on the chapter number
and with Arabic numerals.
The first letter of the first word of the figure captions as well as all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs
and verbs should be capitalized. The captions are indicated below the figure in hanging-indented block


The term plate usually refers to any kind of photographic representation or illustration. Plates
are common in natural sciences, research papers and thesis, especially on the taxonomix study of plants
and animals.

The plates have one way of numbering. They are numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals
(not Roman numerals) throughout the research paper and thesis.

The first letter of the first word and all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs and adverbs of the
plates caption should all be capitalized.

In the text, the captions plate and Arabic number should be aligned with the rest of the
captions in a hanging-indented block style and placed below the picture.

The same is true with tables and figures. The list of plates is omitted in the front matter if there
are only 2 or 3 plates in the text.


An abstract is a brief and concise descriptive summary of the statement of the problem,
hypothesis, research design, determination of sample size, sample design and technique, the
subjects, the research instrument, validation of the research instrument, data gathering
procedure, data processing method, statistical treatment, findings, conclusions and
The abstract gives the reader a panoramic view of the research paper, thesis and dissertation,
hence, the reader has to decide whether to read the whole research paper and thesis not
because an abstract is not a part of a paper and neither numbered nor counted as a page.
The abstract has 2 forms, namely, the short form and the long form. The short form consist of
100-175 words and is required for a research paper for publication in a research journal. The
long form (500-1000) is required in masteral and doctoral dissertations.

The text of a Research Paper, Thesis and Dissertation

The text or body of a Research Paper and a thesis contain 5 chapters.

1. The Problem and Its Background

2. Review of Related Literature
3. Methodology
4. Results, Analysis and Interpretation
5. Summary, Conclusions and Reccomendations
The first page of every chapter is numbered in Arabic numerals and are indicated at the bottom.
All pages are numbered and the position of succeeding page is 5 single spaces from the top of
the page and flush one inch with the right margin.


There are 3 levels of headings in every chapter. These are:

1. Middle Heading is the first level.

2. Left Side Heading is the second level.
3. Paragraph Heading is the third level.

In every chapter, there is only one middle heading. This may be many left side headings, but few
or no paragraph heading in a chapter of a research paper, thesis or dissertation.

The MIDDLE HEADINGS of the whole text of a thesis are:



The LEFT SIDE HEADING in chapter 1 are:

1. State of the problem

2. Theoretical/conceptual framework
3. Assumptions
4. Hypotheses
5. Significance of the study
6. Scope and limitations of the study
7. Definitions of key terms
8. General organization and coverage of the study

In chapter 2, the LEFT SIDE HEADINGS are:

1. Related Readings
2. Related Literature
3. Related Studies
4. Justification of the present study


This is places at the middlemost portion of a page, three single spaces from the chapter number
of a page and all letters are capitalized. If the title is more than forty-five pica spaces (space occupied by
a letter), the second line is flushed two single spaces in an inverted pyramid format. No punctuation of
the middle heading, unless it ends with a question mark or exclamation point.

The chapter in Arabic numeral (not Roman numeral) is five double spaces from the top of a
page, all letters are capitalized, and indicated at the center of a page.

The first line after the middle heading is indicated three single spaces and it is indented seven
spaces. The succeeding lines are all two single spaces.

Bear in mind that one double space is not the same with two single spaces. Two single soaces is
wider in space than one double space.


The left side heading is the second level heading of research paper and a thesis. There are many
left side headings in a chapter. This is placed three single spaces after the last line; and all words are
underlined solidly. Only the first letter of each word capitalized, except articles, prepositions and

In the left side heading is more than 28 pica spaces then the lines are divided. The second line is
places one single space below with a two-single hanging indention

The first line after the left side heading is placed two single spaces and seven pica spaces
indention. The next and succeeding lines are indicated two single spaces.


This is the third level heading of the research paper and a thesis. A chapter may have few or no
paragraph heading. Paragraph heading is placed two single spaces after the last line; indented seven
pica spaces; all words is capitalized; ends with a period; and the text or body starts in the same line.


This is the act wherein the writer uses the passages, ideas, writings and statements of others
without giving credit.


Purposes of Documentation:

1. Acknowledging, Indebtedness
2. Establishing validity of evidence
3. Providing cross-reference
4. Amplifying ideas

There are two kinds of notes in documenting source materials:

1. Endnotes
2. Footnotes


- Refer to notes indicated at the end of the sentence in parenthetical documentation


3 Types of Endnotes:

1. Author-year format
2. Author-year-page format
3. Author-page format


a) Work with one author

Canned milkfish is more acceptable, nutritious, and economical than milkfish

without Sargassum (Calmorin, 1992)

b) Work with two or three authors

Fishery conservation is the proper control of fishery resources (Calmorin, Yap,

and Tinaypan, 1990)

c) Work with four or more authors

Control variable may be defined as that variable controlled by the experiment

to cancel out or neutralize any effect that they might otherwise have on the desire
phenomenon. (De Jesus et al., 1984)

When work has four or more authors, only the surname of the first author plus
et al. and year are included in parenthesis. The meaning of et al. is and others.


a) One author
(Calmorin, 1997, p7)
b) Two or three authors
(Calmorin and Yap, 1997, p2)
(Atto, Tan and Yap, 1995, p12)
c) 4 or more authors
(Reyes et al., 1984, p12)


a) 1 author
(Reyes, p153)
b) 2 or 3 authors
(Dy, and Tan, p61)
(Dy, Tan, and Yap, p61)
c) 4 or more authors
(Tan et al., p31)


- Refers to the list of source materials used by the investigator in which the surnames
of authors are arranged in alphabetical order.
A. Books
Ardale, Vanancio. 1992. Basic Concepts and Methods in Research. Great Books
Trading. Quezon pp. 143.
B. Publication


Albarracin, Narciso. 1973. Work-Oriented Curriculum. Elementary Education

Journal. 1:1 June 1973.

C. Unpublished Materials
Orcullo, Vashti Mariama M. Obliterating Potency of Lemongrass Extract on
Cockroaches. Thesis. Tagbilaran City Science High School. April 2011.