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7/4/2017 BandCombinations

Landsat5(TMsensor) Wavelength(micrometers) Resolution(meters) Landsat7(ETM+sensor) Wavelength(micro


Band1 0.450.52 30 Band1 0.450.515
Band2 0.520.60 30 Band2 0.5250.605
Band3 0.630.69 30 Band3 0.630.69
Band4 0.760.90 30 Band4 0.750.90
Band5 1.551.75 30 Band5 1.551.75
Band6 10.4012.50 120 Band6 10.4012.5
Band7 2.082.35 30 Band7 2.092.35
PanBand .52.90


GroundFeature BandsUsed Contrast Limits
Manipulation
Water 1,2,31,2,41,4,5 No No
Urban 1,2,31,4,5 Yesband4(1,4,5) Yesband4(1,4,5)
Farmland 1,2,31,4,5 Yesband4(1,4,5) Yesband4(1,4,5)
Forest 1,2,31,4,5 Yesband4(1,4,5) Yesband4(1,4,5)
SaltScald 1,2,31,4,5 Yesband4(1,4,5) Yesband4(1,4,5)
Scrub 1,4,5 Yesband4(1,4,5) Yesband4(1,4,5)
Parks/Golf 1,2,3 No No


LandCoverType SpectralBandCombination
Water Band1,4&7/Band1,2&3
Urban Band1,4&7
Farmland Band1,2&3
Forest Band1,4&7
SaltScald Band1,2&3
Remnant
Band1,4&7
Vegetation
Irrigated
Band1,4&7
Vegetation


TerrainFeature ReflectanceResponse
Generallyreflecthighinthevisiblespectrum,however,clearerwaterhas
lessreflectancethanturbidwater.IntheNearIRandMidIRregions
Water waterincreasinglyabsorbsthelightmakingitdarker.Thisisdependent
Bodies uponwaterdepthandwavelength.Increasingamountsofdissolved
inorganicmaterialsinwaterbodiestendtoshiftthepeakofvisible
reflectancetowardtheredregionfromthegreenregion(clearerwater)of
thespectrum.
Northernlatitudeshaveblacksoilsandtropicalregionshaveredsoils.
Soilreflectancedecreasesasorganicmatterincreases.Assoilmoisture
Soil increases,reflectanceofsoildecreasesatallwavelengths.Textureof
soilwillcauseincreasedreflectancewithdecreasedparticlesize,i.e.,the
biggerparticles(rocks,sand,andsoils)basicallycastalargershadow.
Thespectralreflectanceisbasedonthechlorophyllandwaterabsorption
Vegetation intheleaf.Needleshaveadarkerresponsethanleaves.Therewillbe
variousshadesofvegetationbasedontype,leafstructure,moisture
contentandhealthoftheplant.
Concreteandasphaltbothdisplayspectralcurvesthatgenerallyincrease
ManMade fromthevisiblethroughtheNearIRandMidIRregions.However,as
Materials concreteages,itbecomesdarkerandasasphaltagesitbecomeslighter.
Oldsnowmaydevelopacompactedcrustandthemoisturecontent
SnowandIce increaseswhichmakeitlessreflectiveintheNearIRandMidIRregion.
ItispossibletocompareoldandnewsnowbyitsMidIRreflectance.


R,G, PotentialInformationContent
B
Thestandard"falsecolor"composite.Vegetationappearsinshadesofred,urban
areasarecyanblue,andsoilsvaryfromdarktolightbrowns.Ice,snowandclouds
arewhiteorlightcyan.Coniferoustreeswillappeardarkerredthanhardwoods.
Thisisaverypopularbandcombinationandisusefulforvegetationstudies,
4,3,2 monitoringdrainageandsoilpatternsandvariousstagesofcropgrowth.Generally,
deepredhuesindicatebroadleafand/orhealthiervegetationwhilelighterredssignify
grasslandsorsparselyvegetatedareas.Denselypopulatedurbanareasareshownin
lightblue.ThisTMbandcombinationgivesresultssimilartotraditionalcolorinfrared
aerialphotography.
The"naturalcolor"bandcombination.Becausethevisiblebandsareusedinthis
combination,groundfeaturesappearincolorssimilartotheirappearancetothe
humanvisualsystem,healthyvegetationisgreen,recentlyclearedfieldsarevery
light,unhealthyvegetationisbrownandyellow,roadsaregray,andshorelinesare
3,2,1 white.Thisbandcombinationprovidesthemostwaterpenetrationandsuperior
sedimentandbathymetricinformation.Itisalsousedforurbanstudies.Cleared
andsparselyvegetatedareasarenotaseasilydetectedhereasinthe451or432

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7/4/2017 BandCombinations
combination.Cloudsandsnowappearwhiteandaredifficulttodistinguish.Also
notethatvegetationtypesarenotaseasilydistinguishedasthe451combination.
The321combinationdoesnotdistinguishshallowwaterfromsoilaswellasthe753
combinationdoes.
Thiscombinationprovidesa"naturallike"rendition,whilealsopenetrating
atmosphericparticlesandsmoke.Healthyvegetationwillbeabrightgreenandcan
saturateinseasonsofheavygrowth,grasslandswillappeargreen,pinkareas
representbarrensoil,orangesandbrownsrepresentsparselyvegetatedareas.Dry
vegetationwillbeorangeandwaterwillbeblue.Sands,soilsandmineralsare
highlightedinamultitudeofcolors.Thisbandcombinationprovidesstrikingimagery
7,4,2 fordesertregions.Itisusefulforgeological,agriculturalandwetlandstudies.If
therewereanyfiresinthisimagetheywouldappearred.Thiscombinationisusedin
thefiremanagementapplicationsforpostfireanalysisofburnedandnonburned
forestedareas.Urbanareasappearinvaryingshadesofmagenta.Grasslands
appearaslightgreen.Thelightgreenspotsinsidethecityindicategrassylandcover
parks,cemeteries,golfcourses.Olivegreentobrightgreenhuesnormallyindicate
forestedareaswithconiferousforestbeingdarkergreenthandeciduous.
Healthyvegetationappearsinshadesofreds,browns,orangesandyellows.Soils
maybeingreensandbrowns,urbanfeaturesarewhite,cyanandgray,brightblue
areasrepresentrecentlyclearcutareasandreddishareasshownewvegetation
growth,probablysparsegrasslands.Clear,deepwaterwillbeverydarkinthis
4,5,1 combination,ifthewaterisshalloworcontainssedimentsitwouldappearasshades
oflighterblue.Forvegetationstudies,theadditionoftheMidIRbandincreases
sensitivityofdetectingvariousstagesofplantgrowthorstresshowevercaremustbe
takenininterpretationifacquisitioncloselyfollowsprecipitation.UseofTM4andTM
5showshighreflectanceinhealthyvegetatedareas.Itishelpfultocompareflooded
areasandredvegetatedareaswiththecorrespondingcolorsinthe321combination
toassurecorrectinterpretation.Thisisnotagoodbandcombinationforstudying
culturalfeaturessuchasroadsandrunways.
ThiscombinationofnearIR(Band4),midIR(Band5)andred(Band3)offersadded
definitionoflandwaterboundariesandhighlightssubtledetailsnotreadilyapparentin
thevisiblebandsalone.Inlandlakesandstreamscanbelocatedwithgreater
4,5,3 precisionwhenmoreinfraredbandsareused.Withthisbandcombination,
vegetationtypeandconditionshowasvariationsofhues(browns,greensand
oranges),aswellasintone.The4,5,3combinationdemonstratesmoisture
differencesandisusefulforanalysisofsoilandvegetationconditions.Generally,the
wetterthesoil,thedarkeritappears,becauseoftheinfraredabsorptioncapabilitiesof
water.
Thisbandcombinationalsoprovidesa"naturallike"renditionwhilealsopenetrating
atmosphericparticles,smokeandhaze.Vegetationappearsinshadesofdarkand
lightgreenduringthegrowingseason,urbanfeaturesarewhite,gray,cyanorpurple,
sands,soilsandmineralsappearinavarietyofcolors.Thealmostcomplete
absorptionofMidIRbandsinwater,iceandsnowprovideswelldefinedcoastlines
andhighlightedsourcesofwaterwithintheimage.Snowandiceappearasdark
7,5,3
blue,waterisblackordarkblue.Hotsurfacessuchasforestfiresandvolcano
calderassaturatetheMidIRbandsandappearinshadesofredoryellow.One
particularapplicationforthiscombinationismonitoringforestfires.Duringseasons
oflittlevegetationgrowththe742combinationshouldbesubstituted.Flooded
areasshouldlookverydarkblueorblack,comparedwiththe321combinationin
whichshallowfloodedregionsappeargrayandaredifficulttodistinguish.
Likethe451combination,thiscombinationprovidestheuserwithagreatamountof
informationandcolorcontrast.Healthyvegetationisbrightgreenandsoilsare
5,4,3 mauve.Whilethe742combinationincludesTM7,whichhasthegeological
information,the543combinationusesTM5whichhasthemostagricultural
information.Thiscombinationisusefulforvegetationstudies,andiswidelyusedin
theareasoftimbermanagementandpestinfestation.
5,4,1 Thiswilllooksimilartothe742combinationinthathealthyvegetationwillbebright
green,exceptthe541combinationisbetterforagriculturalstudies.
Thiscombinationinvolvesnovisiblebands.Itprovidesthebestatmospheric
7,5,4 penetration.Coastlinesandshoresarewelldefined.Itmaybeusedtofind
texturalandmoisturecharacteristicsofsoils.Vegetationappearsblue.Iftheuser
prefersgreenvegetation,a745combinationshouldbesubstituted.Thisband
combinationcanbeusefulforgeologicalstudies.
Thiscombinationdisplaytopographictextureswhile731maydisplaydifferencesin
5,3,1
rocktypes.

LandsatThematicMapper(TM)

Band1(0.450.52um):providesincreasedpenetrationofwaterbodiesandalsocapableofdifferentiatingsoilandrock
surfacesfromvegetationandfordetectingculturalfeatures.

Band2(0.520.60um):itissensitivetowaterturbiditydifferencesithighlightedtheturbidwaterintheBarkleyLake.
Becauseitcoversthegreenreflectancepeakfromleafsurfaces,ithasseparatedvegetation(forest,croplandswithstanding
crops)fromsoil.Inthisbandbarrenlandsurbanareasandroadsandhighwayshaveappearedasbrighter(lighter)tone,but
forest,vegetation,barecroplands,croplandswithstandingcropshaveappearedasdark(black)tone.AlsotheKentuckyLakehas
appearedasblacktone.

Band3(0.630.69um):sensesinastrongchlorophyllabsorptionregionandstrongreflectanceregionformostsoils.Ithas
discriminatedvegetationandsoil.Butitcouldntseparatedwaterandforest.Forestlandandwaterbothhaveappearedasdark
tone.Thisbandhashighlightedbarrenlands,urbanareas,streetpatternintheurbanareaandhighways.Ithasalsoseparated
croplandswithstandingcropsfrombarecroplandswithstubble.

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7/4/2017 BandCombinations
Band4(0.760.90um):operatesinthebestspectralregiontodistinguishvegetationvarietiesandconditions.Becausewater
isastrongabsorberofnearIR,thisbandhasdelineatedwaterbodies(lakesandsinkholes),distinguishedbetweendryandmoist
soils(barrenlandandcroplands).Inthisbandcroplandsandgrasslandshaveshowedhigherreflectance(brightertone)thanthe
forest.Thisbandhasalsoseparatedcroplandsfrombarecroplands.Sincestandingcrops(vegetation)hashigherreflectancein
thenearIRregion,theyhaveappearedasbrightertoneandduetopresenceofmoisturecontentinthebarecroplands,theyhave
appearedasdarkertone.Intheband4barrenlands,urbanareasandhighwayshavenotbeenhighlightedandtheyappearedas
darktone.Band4isusefulforcropidentificationandemphasizessoilcropandlandwatercontrast.

Band5(1.551.75um):issensitivetotheturgidityoramountofwaterinplants.Band5hasseparatedforestlands,
croplands,waterbodydistinctly.Forestshaveappearedascomparativelydarkertonethanthecroplands(lightgray).Band5has
separatedwaterbody(darktone)frombarrenlands,croplands,andgrasslands(lightertone).Sinceurbanareaandcroplands
haverespondedalmostinsamespectralreflectanceband5couldnotbeabletoseparatetheseareas.

Band7(2.082.35um):hasseparatedlandandwatersharply.Band7hasstrongwaterabsorptionregionandstrong
reflectanceregionforsoilandrock.Urbanarea,croplands,highways,barecroplandshaveappearedasbrighttoneandwater
body,foresthaveappearedasdarktone.

Ratiotransformationsoftheremotelysenseddatacanbeappliedtoreducetheeffectsofenvironment.Ratiosalsoprovide
uniqueinformationandsubtlespectralreflectanceorcolordifferencesbetweensurfacematerialsthatareoftendifficulttodetect
inastandardimage.Itisalsousefulfordiscriminatingbetweensoilsandvegetation.

ThenumberofpossibleratiocombinationsforamultispectralsensorwithPbandsisn=P(P1).ThusfortheTMssix
reflectancebandstherearethirtydifferentratiocombinations15originaland15reciprocal.Forthepurposeofthisstudyten
bandratioswereexaminedtoidentifytheLULCfeatures.

TM3/TM4:Thisratiohasdefinedbarrenlandsandurbanareauniquely.Butitcouldnotdefinewaterbody,forestsandcroplands.

TM4/TM3:Thisratiodistinguishedvegetation,waterandcroplands.Ithasenhancedforests,barrenlands.Becauseforestsor
vegetationexhibitshigherreflectanceinnearIRregion(0.760.90um)andstrongabsorptioninredregion(0.630.69um)
region.Thisratiouniquelydefinesthedistributionofvegetation.Thelighterthetone,thegreatertheamountofvegetation
present.

TM5/TM7:Thisratioseparatedlandandwateruniquely.Sincesoilsexhibitstrongabsorptionintheband7(2.082.35um)and
highreflectanceinband5(1.551.75um),soilhasbeenenhancedinthisratio.Landhasappearedaslightertoneandwater
appearedasdarktone.

TM2/TM3:thisratiohasdistinguishedcroplands,barrenlandssharply.Butithasntseparatedcroplands,forestsandwater
body.Bothforestsandwaterbodyhasappearedaslightertoneandbarrenlandappearedhasdarktone.Itdidnotenhanceurban
area.Chlorophyllhasstrongreflectanceintheband2(0.520.60um)regionandstrongabsorptionintheband3(0.630.69um)
region,vegetationhasappearedashighertone.

TM3/TM2:Thisratiohasseparatedforestsandcroplands.Becauseband3(0.630.69mm)istheredchlorophyllabsorptionband
ofhealthygreenvegetationandband2(0.520.69mm)isthereflectancebandfromleafsurfaces.Thisratiocanbeusefulto
discriminatebroadclassesofvegetation.Croplandshaveappearedaslighter(brighter)toneandforestsappearedasdarktone.

TM4/TM5:Itenhancesthewaterbody,vegetationandpresenceofmoisturecontentinthecroplands.Waterbodyhasappeared
asdarktoneandvegetationaslightertone.BecausewaterisastrongabsorberinnearIRregion(band4)andhigherreflectance
inband5region.Itcanbeusefulfordiscriminatingwaterbodiesfromland.

TM5/TM4:Ithasseparatedwaterbodyfromforest,barrenlandsandvegetation.Inthisratiowaterhasappearedasdarktone
andforest,barrenlands,barecroplandsallhaveexhibitedbrightertone.

TM5/TM7:Ithasseparatedwaterbodyfromlands(soils).Ithasalsoenhancedpresenceofmoistureincroplands.Allwater
bodiesappearedasdarktone.Bothband5andband7aresensitivetomoisturecontentvariationinsoilsandvegetation.This
ratioisusefulforcropdroughtstudiesandplantvigorinvestigations.

TM3/TM5:Thisratioenhancesbarrenlands,highways,streetpatternswithintheurbanareasandurbanbuiltuporcemented
areas.Itcouldnotenhancetheclearwaterbutitenhancedturbidwater.Thisratioisusefulforobservingdifferencesinwater
turbidity.Barrenlands,highways,urbanandbuiltupareashaveappearedaslightertoneandforests,waterbodyandcroplands
appearedasdarktone.

TM7/TM2:Thisratiohasseparatedforestsandcroplands.Butitcouldnotseparatedforestsfromwaterbodybothfeatureshave
appearedasdarktone.Itenhanceshighways,urbanandbuiltupareasandcroplandsandallofthemhaveappearedaslighter
tone.

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Thesitereflectsmyownopinions,notthoseofotherslinkedthroughout.Copyright2001[JamesW.Quinn].
Questionsorcommentsregardingthissiteshouldbedirectedto
jquinn@uni.edu

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