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# Event Analysis Introduction Session

## SEL Event Report Frequently Asked Questions

1. How is an event report generated by an SEL relay?
A. Relay trip from trip equation (TR).
Example 1: TR := 49T OR 50P1T OR (in SEL-700 and SEL-400 series relays).
Example 2: TR = 51P1T + 51G1T + (in SEL-300 series relays).
Must know Relay Word bits, which are usually listed in the appendix or setting section of the
instruction manual.
Example: 50P1T = definite-time phase overcurrent trip output.
Must also reference logic diagram for the operation of Relay Word bits.
B. Event report trigger equation (ER).
Example 1: ER := R_TRIG 49A (in SEL-700 series relays).
Example 2: ER := /51P1 (in SEL-300 series relays).
C. Trigger command (TRI).
D. Pulse output command (PUL).

## 2. How many cycles does an event report actually record?

A. Depends on the relay, but generally the options are 15, 30, 60, or 64 cycles.
Length can be set by LER setting (e.g., LER := 15 cycles).
Pre-event length can be set by PRE setting (e.g., PRE := 5 cycles).

## 3. How many event reports can a relay store?

A. Depends on the relay.
Example 1: SEL-787 can store 77 15-cycle event reports or 19 64-cycle event reports.
Example 2: SEL-351S can store 44 15-cycle event reports or 11 60-cycle event reports.

## 4. What are the different types of event reports?

A. Filtered versus raw:
Filtered event reports are 60 Hz fundamental, filtered waveforms and look like pure sine
waves.
Raw event reports contain harmonics and dc and may not look like sine waves.
Will also contain one extra sample at the beginning of the event.
Use these reports for power system transients, dc offsets, and transformer inrush analysis.

## SEL Event Report FAQ Page 1 of 6 20120718

B. Standard versus differential:
Standard event reports contain currents and voltages for all inputs.
Differential event reports contain operate, restraint, and harmonic information. Typically,
there is a differential report for each element (1, 2, and 3).

## 5. How do I retrieve an event report from a relay?

A. Must have a null modem cable, an SEL-C234A cable, or a USB-232 cable with null modem
(SEL-C662).
Open ACSELERATOR QuickSet.
Click on Communications > Parameters.
Choose Connection Type (Serial, Network, or Modem).
Serial. Choose Device and Baud Rate (9600 is the default for the SEL-700 series relays,
and 2400 is the default for the SEL-300 series relays).
Network. Choose IP Address and Telnet.
Modem. Choose Phone number and Baud Rate.
Choose:
8 data bits, 1 stop bit, none for parity, and turn off RTS/CTS.
Default Level 1 password is OTTER and Level 2 is TAIL.
Default user ID is FTPUSER with a password of TAIL for the network.
When the connection is made, the red and green TXD and RXD will pulse a few times.
Click on Tools > Events > Get Event Files.
View the list, and click on the events you want to retrieve.
Select Event Type and Length, and click on Get Selected Events.
Save the retrieved events to a directory where they can be viewed or emailed later.
Open HyperTerminal.
Enter a name for the new connection (e.g., SEL Relay).
Connect using the port number that the cable is connected to.
Set:
Baud Rate (9600 is the default for the SEL-700 series relays, and 2400 is the default for
the SEL-300 series relays).
8 data bits, no parity, 1 stop bit, and Xon/Xoff flow control.
Click on File > Properties > Settings, and set Emulation to VT100.
Press <Enter>. The response should be an equal sign (=).

## SEL Event Report FAQ Page 2 of 6 20120718

Type HIS to get the event history.
Determine which event you want to retrieve, and note the event number.
Click on Transfer > Capture Text, and save the report to a directory that can be viewed or
emailed later.
Start Capture Text.
Type:
CEV 2 for Standard Event 2.
CEV R 2 for Raw Event 2.
CEV DIFF 1 2 for Differential Element 1, Event 2.
When finished, click on Transfer > Capture Text > Stop.

## 6. How do I view a saved event report?

Click on File > Open Event Report File.
Choose an event to view.

## 7. What does an event summary tell me?

A. Date and time of event.
B. Event length and samples per cycle.
C. Frequency.
D. Primary current magnitudes (maximum).
E. Primary voltage magnitudes.
F. Event type and possibly targets.
G. Relay firmware ID string (firmware version and settings version).

## 8. What can I view on a graph?

A. Oscillography of currents and voltages.
B. Current and voltage magnitudes.
C. Sequence component magnitudes and angles.
D. Digital Relay Word bit status.

## SEL Event Report FAQ Page 3 of 6 20120718

9. What relay settings can be viewed in an event?
A. Most relay settings.
CTR, PTR, etc.
Element enables.
Element pickup, dropout, time delays, curves, etc.
Logic settings.
Global settings.
Output settings.

## 10. What does the phasor view show me?

A. Currents for each sample of the event.
B. Voltages for each sample of the event.
C. Sequence currents for each sample of the event.
D. Frequency and dc voltage for each sample of the event.

## 11. What can harmonic graphs tell me?

A. Harmonic content of waveform over one or several cycles.
B. Harmonics in percent of fundamental or in amperes/volts.
C. Useful for differential trips where harmonics play a role in the relay trip.

## 12. How do I generate COMTRADE files from an event report?

A. Use ACSELERATOR Analytic Assistant:
Click on Options, and select Keep COMTRADE Files.
The .CFG and .DAT will be generated.

## 13. How do I start analyzing an event?

A. Look at event summary information.
What was the event? Was it a trip or an ER?
What are the targets that give a clue?
What are the maximum currents? Can they tell you something?
Note the date and the time of the event.
B. Look at the relay settings, and match them with the active digitals in the graph.
Do the targets match the TR equations? Match the event trigger with the trip and element
targeted in the graph.
Do the targets match the ER equation? Match the event trigger with the ER in the graph.
What are the settings for the element that triggered the event?
What are the settings for the element that tripped?

## SEL Event Report FAQ Page 4 of 6 20120718

C. Look at phasor values at the time of the trip and event trigger.
Does the phase rotation look correct per the settings?
Calculate secondary currents, voltages, and impedances.
Compare calculated values to the relay settings.
Should the relay have operated per the settings and event values? Use relay logic diagrams
and instruction manuals.
D. Did the relay operate as it should have? Did the elements operate as they were set?
E. Did the relay operate as expected? Was this a correct operation of the relay?
If not, what operated incorrectly?
What was incorrectly set?

## 14. How are Sequential Events Recorder (SER) reports generated?

A. Relay SER equations.
Example: SER1 := 51P1T, 51G1T.
Relay Word bits must be set in SER equations for them to be recorded.

## 15. How many SER reports are stored?

A. Depends on the relay, but generally 512 (in SEL-300 series relays) or 1024 (in SEL-700 series
relays).

## 16. How do I retrieve an SER report from a relay?

A. Must have null modem cable, SEL-C234A cable, or a USB-232 cable with null modem
(SEL-C662).
Open ACSELERATOR QuickSet.
Click on Communications > Parameters.
Choose Connection Type (Serial, Network, or Modem).
Serial. Choose Device and Baud Rate (9600 is the default for the SEL-700 series relays,
and 2400 is the default for the SEL-300 series relays).
Network. Choose IP Address and Telnet.
Modem. Choose Phone number and Baud Rate.
Choose:
8 data bits, 1 stop bit, none for parity, and turn off RTS/CTS.
Default Level 1 password is OTTER and Level 2 is TAIL.
Default user ID is FTPUSER with a password of TAIL for the network.
When the connection is made, the red and green TXD and RXD will pulse a few times.
Click on Communications > Logging >Terminal Logging.
Save the log file to a directory where it can be viewed or emailed later.

## SEL Event Report FAQ Page 5 of 6 20120718

Click on Communications > Terminal.
Type SER.
When finished, click on Communications > Logging > Terminal Logging.
Open HyperTerminal.
Enter a name for the new connection (e.g., SEL Relay).
Connect using the port number that the cable is connected to.
Set:
Baud Rate (9600 is the default for the SEL-700 series relays, and 2400 is the default for
the SEL-300 series relays).
8 data bits, no parity, 1 stop bit, and Xon/Xoff flow control.
Click on File > Properties > Settings, and set Emulation to VT100.
Press <Enter>. The response should be an equal sign (=).
Click on Transfer > Capture Text, and save the report to a directory that can be viewed or
emailed later.
Start Capture Text.
Type SER.
When finished, click on Transfer > Capture Text > Stop.

## 17. How should I evaluate a solution to a problem?

A. Can you turn the problem on and off? (Have you reached root cause?)
B. Is the solution practical? Can it be done?
C. What are possible consequences of the proposed solution?
D. Have you tested the solution?
E. What are the obstacles of implementing the solution?