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Name Maria Franciosa Date 2/11/15 Grade Level 3

Subject Science & Music Topic Instrument Sound Creation

Purpose: To expand students knowledge of how sounds are created in their world, specifically through musical instruments.

Core Standard(s):

NH Science Curriculum Framework:


S:SPS4:2:2.1 Communicate ideas and observations through a variety of tools and formats (e.g., oral, journal, drawing,
projects, multimedia).
S:PS2:4:3.1 Identify the various forms of energy, such as electrical, light, heat, sound.

National Core Arts Standards:


MU:Cn11.1.3a Demonstrate understanding of relationships between music and the other arts, other disciplines, varied
contexts and daily life.

Objective(s):
Students will be able to apply background knowledge on sound and pitch creation to musical instruments in hypothesizing
how sound is created and pitch is changed in each instrument and compare with peers and answer.
I can create hypotheses about sound and pitch.
Students will be able to describe, at a basic level, how the sound is created for each instrument and how the pitch adjusts for
that instrument.
I can describe how an instruments sound is created.

Assessment:
Formative:
Teacher will listen to hypotheses from students, checking in as students share hypotheses with each other.
Teacher will listen as students describe how sound is created in each instrument and assist in discussions when needed.

-Keep mindful of their prior knowledge, trying to relate their ruler and water exercises to the instruments

Materials Needed for Learning Experience:


Teacher: 2 drums (one large, one small), Clarinet, Trombone, Violin, Smart Notebook File

Students: Hypothesis chart, pencil

Anticipated Length of Learning Experience: 30-40 minutes

Student Grouping: Whole group to start then shift to small groups


Group One: Wyatt, Kilee (recorder), Moshe, Taylor
Group Two: Makaela, Jack (recorder), Aiden B.
Group Three: Aidan L, Damian (recorder), Broden
Group Four: Bea (recorder), Justin, Landon

Prerequisite Knowledge:
Teacher: Basic knowledge of drums, clarinet, trombone and violin; the way to create each sound and change pitch. Sound
vocabulary: pitch, vibration, frequency and hypothesis.

Student: Knowledge of how sound is created. Sound vocabulary: pitch, vibration, frequency and hypothesis. Background
knowledge from ruler exploration and jar/water exploration.
Procedure:
1. Introduction:
Today we will be doing a little sound exploration with musical instruments.
Review questions to activate prior knowledge:
Before I bring out the instruments can someone tell me how sound is created.
-If struggling with the right answer, ask them to think back to the ruler activity and what they saw the
ruler do- move up and down- vibrate. Seeing the vibration in the water of the jars when struck.
How did the pitch change in each activity?
-Ruler length, pitch up and down. Water level in same size jars changes pitch. Same water level, different
size jars changes pitch.
Set Expectations:
We will be working in small groups to create hypotheses, educated guesses, about how each instrument creates a
sound. I will go over the parts of the instrument and if we have time at the end let you try one out. In order for us
to try out the instruments we need to work well in groups, be kind, respectful listeners, keep conversations about
sound creation and have smooth transitions between group conversations and whole class discussions.
2. Body of Learning Experience:
Before we divide into our groups we are going to do the first instrument together as a class.
Have sample row of hypothesis chart on board.
Drums
Who can tell me what instrument this is? Drums belong to the percussion family of instruments.
Parts: Drumhead, Shell
Hypothesize: What will create the sound? What will cause the vibration? What will vibrate? How might I
change the pitch?
Share hypotheses, fill in chart.
Play, analyze hypotheses, show slo-mo drum head hit video- vibration of head creating sound when
struck
Go over smaller head changing pitch, or tightening lugs to change pitch.
Divide into small groups- go over expectations
Each group will have a hypothesis chart and one person will write in the groups hypothesis on the chart.
We will then share our hypotheses with the class- there is no wrong answer in making a hypothesis.
When we move from group conversations to class conversation we want to keep working on smooth
transitions, the faster we transition to quiet respectful listening, the more instruments we can see and the
more time we will have for you to play an instrument.
Divide into groups- have each group sit together.
Clarinet
Who can tell me what instrument I am putting together? Clarinets belong to the woodwind family. Go
over parts quickly (especially the mouthpiece)
Play an open note; let them hypothesize in their groups- record their hypothesis on the chart.
o During hypothesis time, go around to each group, show them the instrument up close, guide
them if necessary
Share hypotheses with the class.
Explain how sound is created- through the vibration of the reed when I blow air through the mouthpiece.
How do I change pitch? Try their hypotheses, go over answer- covering the holes- lengthens the
instrument (less places for the air to escape)
Violin- if time (check in with clock, skip if getting close to end of block)
What instrument? Violins belong to the string family. 2 parts: instrument and bow.
Hypothesize & share
Sound is created when I bow the string- bow causes string to vibrate
Pitch change when I put my fingers down on the strings- shortens the strings- similar to when we
shortened the ruler
Trombone
What instrument? Trombones belong to the brass family. Parts, slide, bell, mouthpiece
Play open note; let them hypothesize & share
Sound is created by my lips vibrating- buzzing- in the mouthpiece
Pitch change by lowering the slide and changing lip buzz speed. Relate slide to ruler.
Play Time- if time
Choice: 1 hit on drum or 1 bow of violin
When I say go you may carefully make 2 lines, one for violin, one for drum. If there is any pushing,
shoving, etc you will be asked to return to your seat and will lose the chance to play. These instruments
are delicate and must be treated with great caution and care. Once you play you can quietly return to
your seat and start packing up your materials
While going through have them think about what is vibrating when the strike or bow the instrument.

3. Conclusion:
Collect papers, return to seats.
What creates sound? Vibration!
Today we learned how sound is created in the instruments, keep this in mind as you move forward in your sound
unit and create your own instruments.

Child Guidance:
Attention getting strategies: 5,4,3,2,1 quiet coyote, waiting silently, 123 all eyes on me
Transitions: Moving by group.

Differentiation: Scribe for student who refuses to write (1 scribe assigned in each group). Should a group finish writing their
hypothesis early they should continue to think about why the pitch will change, coming up with reasoning to back up their
hypothesis.

Resources Used:
Cheeseborough, J. (Director) (2013). Brass Methods I&II. MU255. Lecture conducted from Keene State College, Keene NH.
Paul, A. (Director) (2013). String Methods I&II. MU223. Lecture conducted from Keene State College, Keene NH.
Sylvern, C. (Director) (2014). Woodwind Methods I&II. MU227. Lecture conducted from Keene State College, Keene NH.