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Music Theory

Revision
SCOTT MCGILL
Purpose and Technique

Revision session for first year popular music students


Utilizing a Matrix or Grid technique for learning basic and essential
music theory concepts
Helping to visualize Music Theory concepts especially helpful for
percussionists/drummers and vocalists to visualize Music Theory
materials
Good deal of material in a short amount of timestop and revise as
needed
Topics

Scale Construction (Major and Minor types)


Mode Construction
Chordal Construction
Roman Numeral Usage-Chordal Analysis (Nashville Chart)
Transposition
Scale Construction-Major Scales

Drawing The Matrix beginning with a C Major Scale for Sharp and Flat
Keys
Two types of Major ScalesSharp Keys and Flat Keys each with its own
Matrix
Sharp Keysbring over 5th tone and raise 7th tone a semitone (Raised
tones underlined)
Flat Keysbring over the 4th tone and lower the 4th column a semitone
Lowered tones are underlined)
Note: All Major Scales with a Flat sign in the name such as Bb Major and
Db Major for example are Flat Keys with F Major being the exception.
Note Key Signature Order: Last Column of Sharp Keys 2nd column down
and Last Column of Flat Keys from 1st column down (In Blue Letters)
Each tone of scale is designated by a number (1,2,3, etc.) which
determines scale degree (raise the fifth, lover the third etc.)
Major Scale Matrices
Sharp Keys Flat Keys

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

C D E F G A B C D E F G A B
G A B C D E F# F G A Bb C D E
D E F# G A B C# Bb C D Eb F G A
A B C# D E F# G# Eb F G Ab Bb C D
E F# G# A B C# D# Ab Bb C Db Eb F G
B C# D# E F# G# A# Db Eb F Gb Ab Bb C
F# G# A# B C# D# E# Gb Ab Bb Cb Db Eb F
C# D# E# F# G# A# B# Cb Db Eb Fb Gb Ab Bb
Scale Construction-Minor Scales

Derivative approachMinor Scales derived from Major Scales


Melodic Minor ScaleLower the 3rd tone of Major Scale
Harmonic MinorLower the 3rd and 6th tone of Major Scale
Parallel because scale begins on same root
Natural Minor Scale6th Column of each Major Scale (Relative
Minor)
Wrap around to spell scale
Pentatonic Scalesgapped scales
Major Pentatonic: 1,2,3,5,6 of Major Scale
Minor Pentatonic: 1, b3, 4, 5, b7 of Major Scale
Formation of Minor and Pentatonic
Scales from Major Scales
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

D Major Scale: D E F# G A B C#

D Melodic Minor Scale: D E F G A B C#

D Harmonic Minor Scale: D E F G A Bb C#

D Natural Minor Scale: D E F G A Bb C

D Major Pentatonic Scale: D E F# A B

D Minor Pentatonic Scale: D F G A C


Major, Minor, and Pentatonic
Scales in Standard Notation
Mode Construction

Modal Scales are rotations of the Major Scale constructed by


beginning on different tones of the Major Scale
Greek Names
Names and positions of Modal Scales (I Ionian, II Dorian, III Phrygian,
IV Lydian, V Mixolydian, VI Aeolian, VII Locrian)
Find different Modal Scales using both Sharp and Flat key Matrixes
(short quiz)
Guitarists and Bassistsconstruct scale fingerings using Matrix
Drummers and Vocalistsplay scales on keyboard and sing scales
for intonation and to hear tonality
Scale Degree Positions of the Modal
Scales
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Ionian Dorian Phrygian Lydian Mixolydian Aeolian Locrian

C D E F G A B
G A B C D E F#
D E F# G A B C#
A B C# D E F# G#
E F# G# A B C# D#
B C# D# E F# G# A#
F# G# A B C# D# E#
C# D# E# F# G# A# B#

F G A Bb C D E
Bb C D Eb F G A
Eb F G Ab Bb C D
Ab Bb C Db Eb F G
Db Eb F Gb Ab Bb C
Gb Ab Bb Cb Db Eb F
Cb Db Eb Fb Gb Ab Bb
Formation of Modes from Major
Scale
D Ionian E F# G A B C#
D Ionian Mode (I degree)
D Dorian E F G A B C
D Dorian Mode (II degree)
D Eb F G A Bb C
D Phrygian Mode (III degree) Phrygian

D Lydian Mode (IV degree) D Lydian E F# G# A B C#

D Mixolydian Mode (V degree) D Mixo-


lydian
E F# G A B C

D Aeolian Mode (VI degree) D


Aeolian
E F G A Bb C

D Locrian Mode (VII degree) D Eb F G Ab Bb C


Locrian
Modal Scales in Standard Notation
Chordal Construction-Triads

Three note chords based on thirds or every other tone of a scale


Derivative approach
Four Types: Major (1,3,5), Minor (1, b3, 5), Augmented (1, 3, #5) and
Diminished (1, b3, b5)
Chord Symbols for each type (C Maj, C Min, C Cug, C Dim)
Quiz on types of triad chords
Major Triads based on the 1 st

(Root), 3rd, and 5th of each Major


Scale 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

C D E F G A B
G A B C D E F#
D E F# G A B C#
A B C# D E F# G#
E F# G# A B C# D#
B C# D# E F# G# A#
F# G# A# B C# D# E#
C# D# E# F# G# A# B#
F G A Bb C D E
Bb C D Eb F G A
Eb F G Ab Bb C D
Ab Bb C Db Eb F G
Db Eb F Gb Ab Bb C
Gb Ab Bb Cb Db Eb F
Cb Db Eb Fb Gb Ab Bb
All Four Triad Types on the root
notes D and Ab
Major (D Maj) Minor (D Min) Augmented (D Aug Diminished (D Dim or
(Ab Maj) (Ab Min) or D+, Ab Aug or Do, Ab Dim or Abo)
1, 3, 5 1, b3/-3, 5 Ab+) 1, b3 or -3, b5 or -5
1, 3, #5 or +5
D, F#, A D,F,A D, F#, A# D, F, Ab

Ab, C, Eb Ab, Cb, Eb Ab, C, E Ab, Cb, Ebb


Chordal Construction-Seventh
Chords
Four note chords based on thirds or every other tone of a scale
Derivative approach
Five Principle Types: Major 7th (1,3,5,7), Dominant 7th (1, 3, 5, b7),
Minor 7th (1, b3, 5, b7), Minor 7th b5 or Half Diminished (1, b3, b5,
b7), and Diminished 7th (1, b3, b5, bb7)
Chord Symbols for each type (C Maj7, C7, C Cmin7, C Min7b5, C
Dim 7)
Quiz on types of triad chords
Major Seventh Chords based on the 1st (Root),
3rd, and 5th of each Major Scale
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

C D E F G A B
G A B C D E F#
D E F# G A B C#
A B C# D E F# G#
E F# G# A B C# D#
B C# D# E F# G# A#
F# G# A# B C# D# E#
C# D# E# F# G# A# B#
F G A Bb C D E
Bb C D Eb F G A
Eb F G Ab Bb C D
Ab Bb C Db Eb F G
Db Eb F Gb Ab Bb C
Gb Ab Bb Cb Db Eb F
Cb Db Eb Fb Gb Ab Bb
All Five Basic Seventh Chord Types
on the root notes D and Ab
Major 7th (D Dominant 7th Minor 7th (D Minor 7th b5/-5 Diminished (D
Maj7) (Ab (D7) (Ab7) Min7) (Ab or Half Dim 7 or Do7,
Maj7) 1, 3, 5, b7/-7 Min7) Diminished 7th Ab Dim or
1, 3, 5,7 1, b3/-3, 5, (D Min7b5/-5, Abo7)
b7/-7 Ab Min7b5) 1, b3 or -3, b5
1, b3 or -3, or -5, bb7)
b5/5, b7/-7
D, F#, A, C# D, F#, A, C D, F, A, C D, F, Ab, C D, F, Ab, Cb

Ab, C, Eb, G Ab, C, Eb, Gb Ab, Cb, Eb, Gb Ab, Cb, Ebb, Ab, Cb, Ebb,
Gb Gbb
Roman Numeral Analysis: Usage

Common Pop/Rock/Jazz and Classical vernacular when discussing


chord sequences for performance (Blues I, IV, V in Dominant 7th
chords, Jazz Musicians II, V, I progressions, III, VI, II, V, etc.
Each column or tone of each scale (scale degree) has a number
that can be designated by a number/Roman Numeral
Chords of any type can be placed on each scale degree of a
Major Scale, or degrees falling in between any scale degree of a
Major Scale
Chord built upon the root of a scale/key is called I, chord built upon
the second degree of a scale/key is called II, etc.
Nashville Number System is based on this form of analysis
Roman Numeral Analysis

I Cant Help Myself The Four Tops (Motown)


Key of C Major
Chord Sequence: C Major (2 bars) G Major (2 bars) D Minor (2 bars)
F Major (1 bar) G Major (1 bar)
Roman Numeral Analysis: Imaj (2 bars), VMaj (2 bars), IIMin (2 bars),
IVMaj (1 bar) Vmaj (1 bar)

C (I) D (II) E (III) F (IV) G (V) A (VI) B (VII)

C Maj G Maj D Min F Maj G Maj

I Maj V Maj II Min IV Maj V Maj


Transposition

Transposition-playing a specific chord sequence or melody based in


one scale or key to another scale or key
Reasons: Instrumental and Vocal Ranges, Overall Sound of Band or
Ensemble
Roman Numeral Analysis is a blueprint or recipe for transposing
I Cant Help Myself in C Major transposed to D, Ab, and B Major

I Maj V Maj II Min IV Maj V Maj

C Maj G Maj D Min F Maj G Maj

D Maj A Maj E Min G Maj A Maj

Ab Maj Eb Maj Bb Min Db Maj Ab Maj

B Maj F# Maj C# Min E Maj F# Maj


Transposition of I Cant Help Myself in Standard
Chord Chart Notation (from the key of C Major to D,
Ab, and B Major
Review of Topics Covered

Matrix or Grid System as one approach to learn Music Theory


Materials
Scales (Major, Melodic, Harmonic, and Natural Minor Scales, Major
and Minor Pentatonic Scales)
Modes (based on the Major Scale-common practice)
Chordal Construction (Triads and Seventh Chords)
Roman Numeral Analysis
Transposition
Thank You

Scott McGill
handfarm1@aol.com