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Universitas Indonesia

Fakultas Teknik Jurusan Teknik Mesin

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng


Introduction
Flow Diagnostics encountered with the problem of:
Flow measurement
Flow Visualization

Flow Diagnostics:
Konvensional Method
Advance Method

Probe Type:
Intrusive (flow insertion) probe method
Non-intrusive probe method

Quantity of Measurement
Pressure
Velocity
Discharge

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng


Pressure Measurement in Flow
Pressure measurement in a flow
Static Pressure
The thermodynamic pressure p is the static pressure in a
fluid flow
The static pressure is a parameter to describe the state of a
fluid irrespective of its velocity

single wall tap method multiple wall tap method

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng


Pressure Measurement in Flow
Pressure measurement in a flow
Stagnation Pressure
The stagnation pressure at a point in a fluid flow is the total pressure
which would result if the fluid were brought to rest isentropically
In actual practice, a stagnation point is created by bringing the fluid to
rest at the desired point and the pressure
A simple device to measure the stagnation
pressure is a tube with a hole in the front
inserted in the flow such that the velocity is
normal to the plane of the hole
Dynamic Pressure
the stagnation pressure is in excess of
the static pressure by an amount
equivalent to the dynamic presurre
Stagnation pressure = static pressure +
dynamic pressure
u 2
po p
2
Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng
Pitot Tube
Velocity measurement in a flow
Stagnation Pressure Probe in Open Channel Flow
In an open channel, the liquid surface is at the atmospheric pressure
and the pressure at any depth d below the free surface must be p = gd
If the rise of the liquid in the stagnation tube is h above the free surface,
the pressure po at stagnation point O must be po = g (h+d)

Then:
2 g h d gd
u 2 gh

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng
Pitot Tube
Velocity measurement in a flow
Pitot Static or Prandtl Probe in Pipe Flow
The difference between the two pressures is recorded on a U tube
differential manometer
In the position of equilibrium, the static pressures at S1and S2, must be
equal

Then: 2 m gh
u

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng
Hot Wire Anemometry
Velocity measurement in a flow
Hot Wire Anemometry
The technique of hot-wire anemometry has acquired popularity in recent
years for the measurement of
(a) fluid velocity in magnitude and direction,
(b) level of turbulence and
(c) shear stresses in fluid flow.
The principle of measurement
is based on the convective heat
loss from an electrically heated
thin wire by the flow of fluid
over it
The hot-wire will thus tend to
operate at a constant
temperature

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng


Hot Wire Anemometry
Velocity measurement in a flow
Hot Wire Anemometry
Consider a thin wire mounted to supports and exposed to a
velocity U.
When a current is passed through wire, heat is generated (I2Rw).
In equilibrium, this must be balanced by heat loss (primarily
convective) to the surroundings.
If velocity changes,
convective heat Current I Sensor dimensions:
transfer coefficient will length ~1 mm
diameter ~5 micrometer
change, wire
temperature will
change and eventually
reach a new
equilibrium.
Wire supports
Velocity U
(St.St. needles)
Sensor (thin wire)

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng


Hot Wire Anemometry
Velocity measurement in a flow
Hot Wire Anemometry 2,4

Static heat transfer: 2,2

W = H

E volts
2
I2Rw = hA(Tw Ta
I2Rw = Nukf/dA(Tw -Ta) 1,8

1,6
h = film coefficient of heat transfer 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
A = heat transfer area U m /s

d = wire diameter
kf = heat conductivity of fluid
Nu = dimensionless heat transfer coefficient

Kings law
Forced convection regime, i.e. Re >Gr1/3 (0.02 in air) and Re<140
Nu = A1 + B1 Ren = A2+ B2 Un
I2Rw2 = E2 = (Tw -Ta)(A + B Un)
The voltage drop is used as a measure of velocity.
Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng
Hot Wire Anemometry
Velocity measurement in a flow
Hot Wire Anemometry probe

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng


Hot Wire Anemometry
Velocity measurement in a flow
Hot Wire Anemometry Calibration
Despite extensive work, no universal expression to describe heat
transfer from hot wires and films exist
For all actual measurements, direct calibration of the anemometer is
necessary

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng


Laser Doppler Velocimetry
Velocity measurement in a flow
Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV)
Doppler effect refers to the shift in frequency which a second object
observes after the scattered light reaches
LDV is concerned with the measurement of fluid velocity, turbulence
and other parameters where a Laser beam is focussed into a moving
zone which has tiny particles introduced artificially
The beam is scattered by the particles and the shift in irectly recorded
through a photomultiplier
2U x
fD sin


Ux fD
2 sin

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng


Laser Doppler Velocimetry
Velocity measurement in a flow
Application of Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV)
Laminar and turbulent flows
Investigations on aerodynamics
Supersonic flows
Turbines, automotive etc.
Liquid flows
Surface velocity and vibration
measurement
Hot environments (flames,
plasma etc.)
Velocity of particles
Etc.

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng


Laser Doppler Velocimetry
Velocity measurement in a flow
Application of Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV)

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng


Laser Doppler Velocimetry
Velocity measurement in a flow
Application of Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV)

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng


Laser Doppler Velocimetry
Velocity measurement in a flow
Fibre optics Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV)

4 60X24

60X61

60X41

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng


Laser Doppler Velocimetry
Velocity measurement in a flow
3D Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV)

Measuring three velocity


components requires three
beam pairs.
Two pairs are emitted from a
2D probe
One pair from a 1D probe
The two probes are aligned so
their intersection volumes
coincide.
The velocity components
measured by the beams from
the 2D probe are orthogonal.
The third velocity component
can be orthogonalized by
software.

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng


Laser Doppler Velocimetry
Velocity measurement in a flow
Seeding: Ability to follow flow

ParticleFrequencyResponse
d Up U f
U 18 2
dt p dp p / f

Particle Fluid Diameter (m)


f = 1 kHz f = 10 kHz
Silicone oil atmospheric air 2.6 0.8
TiO2 atmospheric air 1.3 0.4
MgO methane-air flame 2.6 0.8
(1800 K)
TiO2 oxygen plasma 3.2 0.8
(2800 K)

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng


Particle Image Velocimetry
Velocity measurement in a flow
Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV)

HWA, LDV PIV


Single-point Whole-field method
measurement Non-intrusive (seeding)
Traversing of flow Instantaneous flow field
domain
Time consuming
Only turbulence statistics

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng


Particle Image Velocimetry
Velocity measurement in a flow
Principle of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV)
The fluid motion is represented as a displacement field


u ( X , t ) X i (t2 )
vi ( t )
Particle
trajectory

Fluid
D pathline


X i (t1 ) t

D( X ; t , t ) u X (t ), t dt
t

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng


Particle Image Velocimetry
Velocity measurement in a flow
Optical Configurationof Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV)

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng


Particle Image Velocimetry
Velocity measurement in a flow
Exposure of PIV image

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng


Particle Image Velocimetry
Velocity measurement in a flow
Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) Results

Turbulent pipe flow


Re = 5300
10085 vectors

Hairpin vortex

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng


Particle Image Velocimetry
Velocity measurement in a flow
Vorticity field derived from PIV results

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng


Particle Image Velocimetry
Velocity measurement in a flow
Software for Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) Processing

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng


Particle Image Velocimetry
Velocity measurement in a flow
Software for Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) Processing

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng


Phase Doppler Anemometry
Particle Size measurement in a combustion flow
Phase Doppler Anemometry

Extension of the LDV principle


Simultaneous measurement of velocity (up to 3 components)
and size of spherical particles as well as mass flux,
concentration etc.
First publication by Durst and Zar in 1975
First commercial instrument in 1984
Non-intrusive measurement (optical technique), on-line and in-
situ
Absolute measurement technique (no calibration required)
Very high accuracy
Very high spatial resolution (small measurement volume)

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng


Phase Doppler Anemometry
Principle set-up of PDA
X

Detector 1

Flow
Beam intersection
angle

Scattering angle Z
Elevation angle
Polarization
(parallel or perpendicular
to scattering plane)
Scattering plane
Shape and size of Y Detector 2
detector aperture

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng


Phase Doppler Anemometry
Optical principle of PDA
A particle scatters light from
two incident laser beams
Both scattered waves
interfere in space and create a
beat signal with a frequency
which is proportional to the

Incident beams
velocity of the particle
Two detectors receive this
signal with different phases
The phase shift between
these two signals is
proportional to the diameter
of the particle

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng


Phase Doppler Anemometry

Measurement
volume
Aperture plate

Composite lens

Front lens

Easy set-up and alignment Multimode


fibres Detector Unit
Three receivers in one probe with PMTs.

Exchangeable aperture masks


Up to three velocity components

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng


Phase Doppler Anemometry
The Dual PDA
Measurement errors due
to trajectory and slit
effects are eliminated X
Particularly optimized
for applications U1
to sprays with Z
transparent droplets
Enables improved
concentration V2
and mass flux V1
measurements Y Scattering
plane U2
Provides the ability to
reject non-spherical
droplets

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng


Phase Doppler Anemometry
Mass flux measurements Patternator tubes

The Dual PDA FiberFlow


85 mm
30
can measure
volume and Traversing
direction
mass flux with
better accuracy. 0.3

normalized droplet volume flow [-]


DualPDA
0.25 pressure swirl atomizer
Patternator

This is confirmed 0.2

by comparing 0.15

the results from 0.1

a patternator and 0.05

the Dual PDA. 0


-60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Position in Spray Cone [mm]

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng


Phase Doppler Anemometry
Applications
Sprays and liquid atomization processes
Water sprays
Fuel-, diesel injection
Paint coating
Agricultural sprays
Medical, pharmaceutical sprays
Cosmetic sprays
Powder production
Spray drying
Liquid metal atomization
Bubble dynamics
Cavitation
Aeration
Multiphase mass transfer
Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng
Phase Doppler Anemometry
Automotive Fuel Injection Nozzle Design

Aircraft Engine Fuel Injection

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng