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There are many applications and subdivisions

of Geography. These include:
Population Geography
Historical Geography
Exciting applications
Geographic Information Systems
Remote Sensing
are integrated, spatial, data-handling programmes which will collect, store, and
retrieve spatial data from the real world.

any system that collects, stores, analyses, and displays data that are tied to
Remote sensing
The gathering and recording of information about the earth’s surface by
methods which do not involve actual contact with the surface under
1. Two General Approaches
2. Physical and Human Geography
3. The Four Traditions of Geography
4. A Synthesized Approach
5. Others
1. Two general approaches
a. localization > geographical pattern > explanation
b. process > geographical change > explanation
example of localization > geographical pattern > explanation
(adaptation from Holt-Jensen 2008)
example of localization > geographical pattern > explanation
(adaptation from Holt-Jensen 2008)
2. Physical-Human Geography Divide

a. Physical Geography
- geomorphology, climatology, hydrology, geography of
soils, vegetational geography, zoo geography

b. Human Geography
- cultural geography, population geography, urban
geography, economic geography, political geography
The internal structure of geography. (Haggett 2001)
3. Four Geographical Traditions

a. spatial geometry and movement

b. area studies regions

c. man-land human and environmental impacts

d. earth sciences physical geography

4. Synthesized Approach

Haggett (1972/1983, 2001) suggested a framework that divides

the subject of geography in the way it analyses its problems

a. Spatial analysis localizations, patterns

b. Ecological analysis human and env’t

c. Regional complex analysis a combination

of the two above
The internal structure of geography. (Haggett 2001)
The acquisition and colonization by a nation of other territories and their
peoples. In this respect, colonialism is as old as society. The term took on a
more specific meaning in the late nineteenth century when colonists saw it as
the extension of ‘civilization’ from Europe to the ‘inferior’ peoples of
‘backward’ societies.
The control of one or a number of countries by a dominant nation. This control
may be political, economic, or both, and indicates a degree of dependence in
the subordinate nation.
Cultural turn
The increased focus, from 1990s onwards, on culture as a geographical agent
and product. This critical perspective stresses that the categories used to
describe the social, economic, and political aspects of human groups are
socially constructed. The cultural turn values vernacular and ethnic
geographies as much as ‘scientific’ geographies, and considers among others,
codes and systems of signs, and the building and inheritance of identities and

related to postmodernism, postcolonialism, poststructuralism.

A philosophical stance which claims that it is impossible to make grand
statements-meta narratives-about the structures of society or about historic
causation, because everything we perceive, express, and interpret is influenced
by our gender, class, and culture; knowledge is partial and situated, and no one
interpretation is superior to another.

Postmodernism has confirmed in geographers the recognition that space, place,

and scale are social constructs, not external givens.
Stemming from the work of F. Fanon and Edward Said, the examination of the
impact, and legacy, of the European conquest, colonization, and dominance of
non-European cultures, lands, and peoples, together with the analysis of the
ideas of European superiority inherent in European colonization.
giving priority to one’s own ethnic group.

making assumptions about other societies which are based on the norms of
one’s own society. This may result in the development of global models or
theories which are based, for example, on Western conditions.
The assumption that the world is, and should be,
shaped mainly by men for men.
Masculinist geography
There are those who argue that, before the 1960s, this is all geography was,
and those who argue that masculinist geographies are overdue.
Feminist geography
a geography which questions the patriarchal and hierarchical assumptions on
which geography is based, and emphasizes the oppression of women and the
gender inequality between men and women especially expressed in gendered
space – from the masculine spaces of mines to City finance houses, to the
feminized spaces of primary schools and garment factories.
The view that human actions are stimulated and governed by some outside
agency like the environment or the economy. Individuals have no choice in
regulating their actions, which may be predicted from the external stimuli
which triggered them. This view is currently rejected.
A view of the environment as a range of opportunities from which the
individual may choose. This choice is based on the individual’s needs and
norms. It grants that the range of choices may be limited by the environment,
but allows choices to be made, rather than thinking on deterministic lines.
Possibilism sees individuals or groups making choices within the scope of the
environment. Probabilism suggests that some choices are a good deal more
likely than others.
Plate 1

Mental map
Of the up campus
Points of interest
Famous places
Places you remember
Indicate the top of the page
Don’t forget your name and section
In the general sense, we are all geographers.
In a stricter sense, those who study and employ geographical concepts.
Immanuel Kant
Alexander von Humboldt
Karl Ritter
Friedrich Ratzel
Ellen Churchill Semple
Geography is knowledge organized
around space
Alexander von humboldt
Altitudinal zonation
Karl ritter
Father of regional geography
Friedrich ratzel
Lebensraum - living space for states
Ellen semple
Influenced by environmental
Environmental determinism
A belief that people’s actions are determined by their environments.
This belief is rejected today.
A social movement, a philosophy
Conservation of environment, improvement of the state of the environment
Paul vidal de la blache
Genre de vie - lifestyle as reflection of physical
and social imprints on the landscape
Richard hartshorne
Region as basic unit of analysis
For geography
Carl sauer
Cultural landscape
According to carl sauer
Culture is the agent.
Landscape is the medium.
Cultural landscape is the product.
Torsten hAgerstrand
Time geography or
Time-space geography
Yi-fu tuan
Place = space + meaning
Fred schaefer
Proponent of the spatial tradition
Places and
landscape as a human system
the aesthetics of landscape
place making/place marketing
coded spaces
postmodern spaces
Different people perceive the environment differently.

Landscape is a text written by individuals and groups possessing culture and


Signs are codes that exists within a landscape and are those that draw our
attention to them away from others.
Why and how do
our mental maps change?
Landscape as a human system
Landscapes possess human imprints on the environment.
An area, the appearance of an area, or the gathering of objects which produce
that appearance.
A German concept of landscape which attempted to classify landscapes,
usually distinguishing between the natural and the cultural landscape.
Landscape as a human system

ordinary landscapes (vernacular landscapes)

symbolic landscapes
derelict landscapes
Ordinary landscape
The everyday landscapes that people create in the course of their lives
Symbolic landscape
representations of particular values or aspirations that the builders and
financiers of those landscapes want to impart to a larger public
Derelict landscapes
landscapes that have experienced abandonment, misuse, disinvestment, or
Humanistic approach
Places the individual-especially individual values, meaning systems,
intentions, and conscious acts-at the center of analysis
Landscape is a text
and is written with a code
Landscape as text
The idea that landscapes can be read and written by groups and individual.
culturally determined standard of beauty and good taste.
Landscapes have a power
to induce awe or wonder
A landscape so impressive that it inspires awe or wonder.
Place making/place marketing
sense of place
experience, meaning, and cognitive images
images and behavior
The persistent attachment of individuals or peoples to a specific location or
The scientific study of the formation and evolution of human customs and
The study of the social and cultural meanings that people give to personal
Place making/place marketing
All social organizations and individuals have formal or informal territorial limits. We
claim geographic spaces to be under our influence or control.

Territoriality is also defined as any attempt to fulfill socially produced needs for
identity, defence, and stimulation.

Territoriality for social interaction

Territoriality for regulation of access to people and resources
Territoriality for provision of a focus and symbol of group membership an identity
Sense of place
Feelings evoked among people as a result of the experiences and memories
that they associate with a place and the symbolism they attach to it.
Pause and think
of your own senses of place for different places.
Place making/place marketing
experience, meaning, and cognitive images

The real world > information > senses > perception > brain and personality >
cognition > culture > transformed cognitive image
Place making/place marketing
Kevin Lynch, in his work “The Image of the City”, researched on what
elements people have in their cognitive images.

paths channels of movement

edges barriers
districts areas you enter and leave
nodes strategic points for travel
landmarks physical reference points
Place making/place marketing
images and behavior

Environments are “learned” through experience. Meanwhile, cognitive images,

once generated, influence behavior. People’s values and feelings work with
cognitive images to influence behavior in e.g. shopping.

risk-taking and sentimental feelings.

Coded spaces
We must learn how to recognize the signs and symbols that go into the making
of landscape.
The practice of writing and reading signs
As for malls as coded spaces,
how do we read them?
Sacred space
an area recognized by individuals or groups as worthy of special attention as a
site of special religious experiences or events. Different peoples apportion
different amounts of space to sacredness.
Postmodern spaces
A shift since the 1980s was observed involving changes in cultural sensibilities
which include avant garde and popular culture. This shift was from modernism
to postmodernism
A forward-looking view of the world that emphasizes reason, scientific
rationality, creativity, novelty, and progress.
A view of the world that emphasizes on openness to a range of perspectives in
social inquiry, artistic expression, and political empowerment.
Postmodern spaces
Postmodernism abandons Modernism’s emphasis on economic and scientific
progress, arguing the Modernism’s failure to deliver such progress is indicative
of its flaws. Because of this, Postmodernism also rejects the value of grand
universal theories. For some, Postmodernism is living for the moment.
Postmodernism is consumption-oriented.

Globalization and postmodernism converge in consumption. Examples are

ethnic cuisines.
Is cyber space
a geographical space?
About cyberspace
There are virtual stores, virtual meeting places, etc. The culture propagated by
the Internet is very much core-oriented. There is also the issue of the
personality or publicity of the cyberspace of individuals.
behavior, knowledge, and human environments
landscape as a human system
the aesthetics of landscape
place making/place marketing
coded spaces
postmodern spaces
Introduction to geography
popular notions
basic concepts
Environmental determinism
A belief that people’s actions are determined by their environments.
This belief is rejected today.
At a casual meeting of friends
one asks a geographer,
“what do geographers do?”
Popular notions
memorizing place facts
locating states and cities
having encyclopedic knowledge
writing travel descriptions
drawing maps
Popular notions: Reasons
geographical societies
as a science of synthesis.
Are geographers jacks of all trades and masters of none?
Geographers alone study places.
“does not border on the systematic sciences, overlapping them in common
parts on a common plane, but is on a transverse plane cutting through them.”
(Hartshorne 1939)
“is a mother discipline from which other disciplines have emerged.
(Ackerman 1958)
This outward-looking perspective
is its raison d'etre.
(Capelle 1979)
The main question of geography
Why and how the what is where?
Relevance: on the side
global warming and climate change
the extent of an area, usually expressed in terms of the earth’s surface. From
this meaning derives the term spatial; and spatial relationships are at the heart
of geography

absolute space
relative space
*temporal change of space (D. Massey)
a particular point on the earth’s surface; an identifiable centre produced from
human and social interactions and thereafter endowed with meaning.
Place is space plus meaning
“Space lies open ... it is like a blank sheet on which meaning may be imposed.
Enclosed and humanized space is place.”
(Yi-Fu Tuan)
absolute location – is expressed with reference to an arbitraty grid system as it
appears on a map

relative location – is concerned with a feature as it relates to other features.

nominal location – place name.

a level of representation and pertains to cartography. It is the ratio between
map distance and ground distance. E.g. 1:250,000

the scale of an investigation or study, such as local, regional, or national.

absolute – measured in meters, inches, etc.
relative – measured in time, cost, effort, etc.
topological – measured in number of steps. concerned with sequences.
pertains to north, south, east, and west. Also, a geographic feature may have a
direction towards an object. Direction is synonymous with orientation, e.g.
north-south orientation.
also known as spatial interaction, this is the action between two points, upon
one another.
An expression of mutual dependency based on an ability to produce goods in
one area which are needed in another.

A state of two points wherein one point has a demand and the other possesses
the corresponding supply.
The capacity of a good to be transported.

The value of a good which determines its propensity to be transported or


low-transferability versus high-transferability goods (e.g. hay versus sports cars)

Intervening opportunity
Any substitute for the entity demanded between two points, which have
the transfer of people, goods, services, finance, matter, energy, and information
from one point to another.
For interaction/movement to occur
There must be complementarity between the two points.
The transferability of the entity to be transferred is greater
than the cost of transport.
There must be no intervening opportunities between the two points.
culture as process
building cultural complexes
cultural systems
cultural nationalism
culture and identity
culture and the environment
globalization and cultural change
Geographers are concerned about how place and space shape culture
and vice versa.

Culture has been profoundly affected by globalization.

Culture as process
This reminds us that spaces, places, and landscapes are continually subjected
to different forms of culture. These spaces, places, and landscapes also shape
a shared set of meanings that are lived through the material and symbolic
practices of everyday life.
Cultural geography
The study of the ways in which space, place, and landscape shape culture at
the same time that culture shapes shapes space, place,a nd landscape
Building cultural complexes
Carl Sauer, and the Berkeley School, have been interested in the concept of
cultural landscapes.

Historical geography was an approach used by British geographers

Genre de vie, a particular way of life of a particular culture, was the focus of
French geographers.
Cultural landscape
A characteristic and tangible outcome of the complex interactions between a
human and a natural environment.
Historical geography
The geography of the past.
Sauer’s equation
Culture is the agent, the natural area is the medium,
the cultural landscape is the result.
Genre de vie
A functionally organized way of life that is seen to be characteristic of a
particular cultural group.
Cultural trait
A single aspect of the complex of routine practices that constitute a particular
cultural group,
Cultural region
The area within which a particular cultural system prevails.
Cultural systems
These systems unite even people with diverse attributes. Cultural systems
include those that pertain to:

geography and religion

geography and language
Cultural system
A collection of interacting elements that, taken together, shape a group’s
collective identity.
belief system and a set of practices that recognize the existence of a power
higher than humans.
a spatial dispersion of a previously homogeneous group
A means of communicating ideas or feelings by means of a conventionalized
system of signs, gestures, marks, or articulate vocal sounds
Regional variations form standard language. In terms of accent, vocabulary,
and grammar.
Language family
A collection of individual languages believed to be related in their prehistoric
Language branch
A collection of languages that possess a definite common origin but have split
into individual languages
Language group
A collection of several individual languages that are part of a language brach,
share a common origin, and have similar grammar and vocabulary.
Cultural hearth
The geographical origin or source of innovations, ideas, or ideologies. A
termed coined by geographer Carl Sauer).
Cultural nationalism
Some nations are fighting other cultural influences by isolationism, active
legislation, and other efforts.
Cultural nationalism
An effort to protect regional and national cultures from the homogenizing
impacts of globalization.
Culture and identity
sexual geographies
gender and class
The set of practices and identities that a given culture considers related to each
other and to those things it considers sexual acts and desires
A socially created system of rules about who belongs and who does not belong
to a particular group based on actual or perceived commonality.

According to Smith, an ethnic group possess these six characteristics:

an identifying name, common myth of descent, shared history, distinctive and
shared culture, placement, relatively indivisible self-worth.
A problematic classification of human beings based on skin colour and other
physical characteristics.
category reflecting the social differences between men and women rather than
the anatomical differences that are related to sex.
Culture and environment
cultural ecology
political ecology
Cultural ecology
the study of the relationship between a cultural group and its natural
Cultural adaptation
the use of complex strategies by human groups to live successfully as part of a
natural system.
Political ecology
an approach to cultural geography that studies human-environment
relationships through the relationships of patterns of resource use to political
and economic forces.
Globalization and cultural
Globalization is creating impact on the multiplicity of culture groups in the

There are common traits between inhabitants of the fast world.

Final question
Is there a global culture?
culture as process
building cultural complexes
cultural systems
cultural nationalism
culture and identity
culture and the environment
globalization and cultural change
are representations of the world on a two-dimensional surface.
Types of maps
General maps
display the major features of an area of the Earth’s surface.
e.g. topographic, road maps
Topographic maps
display the longstanding and more permanent features of the Earth’s surface
such as buildings, highways, political boundaries, contour lines, mountains and
Thematic maps
are designed to represent the spatial dimensions of particular conditions,
processes, or events.

types: dot, choropleth, isoline, located charts, topological, cartogram

Located charts
A map transformation based on a scale other than a true scale, e.g. population
or income.
When making generalizations for a map
Which features are to be included?
Which features are to omitted?
Which features are to be a bit displaced?
How accurate are the shapes?
Map projection
a systematic rendering on a flat surface of the geographical coordinates of the
features found on Earth’s surface.

types: equidistant, conformal, azimuthal, equal-area

variables to consider: distance, area, shape, direction
Equidistant: polyconic
Conformal: mercator
Azimuthal: lambert
Equal area: mollweide
More basic
the physical attributes of a location – its terrain, soil, vegetation, and water
sources, for example
the location of a place relative to other places and human activities: its
accessibility to routes, for example, or its nearness to population centres.
Cognitive distance
The distance that people perceive to exist in a given situation
Friction of distance
The deterrent or inhibiting effect of distance on human activity.
Distance-decay function
The rate at which a particular activity or process diminishes
with increasing distance.
The usefulness of a specific place or location to a particular person or group.
People seek to maximize the net utility of location.
Nearness principle
a concept by Richard Morrill that states that people will seek to
1.Maximize the overall utility of places at minimum effort.
2. Maximize connections among places at minimum cost
3.Locate related activities as close together as possible.
Topological space
the connections between, or connectivity of, particular points in space
Cognitive space
space defined and measured in terms of the nature and degree of people’s
values, feelings, beliefs, and perceptions about locations, districts, and regions.
Terra incognita
unknown areas.
Any activity, deliberate or unintentional, that enables space to acquire meaning.
The number of connections available to a point or network.
alpha index – the ration of the actual number of circuits in a network to the
maximum possible number of circuits in that network. It is given as:

α = (e-v+p/2v-5) x 100, wherein,

e = number of edges/lines
v = number of vertices/nodes
p = number of subgraphs
beta index – a simple measure of connectivity relating the number of edges to
the number of nodes.

β = e/v, wherein,
e = number of edges/lines
v = number of vertices/nodes
gamma index – the measure of the connectivity in a network.

γ = e/1.5n(n-1), wherein,
e = number of edges/lines
n = number of nodes/vertices

The index ranges from 0 (no connection between nodes) to 1.0 (the maximum
number of connections, with direct links between all the nodes.
König number– the number of steps between a given point and the
topologically farthest point from it.
the ease of approach to one location from other locations. Physical accessibility
is where a resource is within reach. Social accessibility is where the individual
has the means to reach the resource or location.

can be measured by an accessibility matrix. Enough math. The method for

deriving an accessibility matrix should be next time.
the ability to move. It may also be used to describe any kind
of spatial movement.
Spatial diffusion
The way that things spread through space and over time. It is characterized by a
s-curve. Three types are expansion, relocation, and hierarchical.

expansion diffusion – diffusion from a centre without phenomena leaving the


relocation diffusion – diffusion from a centre with phenomena leaving the


hierarchical diffusion – diffusion that passes through a regular sequence of

orders, without necessarily spreading to places in between.
Any tract of the earth’s surface with either natural or man-made characteristics
which mark it off as being different from the areas around it.

Types: formal/single-factor, multi-factor, vernacular

Formal/single-factor region
regions that are based on one measurable attribute. A region marked by
relative uniformity of characteristics, such as the Scottish Highlands. The
variations within the region are less than variations between the region and
other areas.

nodal-region – a region based on nodes and movement.

Multi-factor region
regions that are based on two or more attributes.

functional region – a type of region characterized by its function such as a

city-region or a drainage basin.
Vernacular region
is the local region as identified by the region’s own inhabitants.
Nature, society,
And technology
nature as a concept
Earth and early humans
European expansion and globalization
human action and recent environmental change
Nature, society, and technology constitute a complex relationship.

It is important to understand the many social ideas of nature.

Social relationships with nature have developed over the course

of human history.

The globalization of the world economy has meant that environmental

problems are also global in their scope. In response, new ways of
understanding have emerged.
Nature as a concept
Environmental thinkers, including a number of geographers, are beginning to
advocate the need to consider nature not as something that sits apart from
humans, but as inseparable from society.
a social creation as well as the physical universe that includes human beings.
sum of the inventions, institutions, and relationships created and reproduced
by human beings across particular places and times.
physical objects or artifacts, activities or processes, and knowledge
or know-how.
Nature as a concept
The relationship of nature, society, and technology

The formula I = PAT

where in,
I = impact on Earth‟s resources
P = Population
A = Affluence
T = Technology
Does higher means better?
or is it the other way around?
Nature as a concept
Technologies can affect the environment in a threefold way:
1. The harvesting of resources
2. The manufacture of goods and services
3. The consumption of goods and services
Nature as a concept
religious perspectives on nature:
You saw a cow in the sunken garden

What would be the first thing to think of if you think

Judeo-christian perspective on nature
The view that nature was crated by God and is subject to God and is subject to
God in the same way that a child is subject to parents.
taoist perspective on nature
The view that nature should be valued for its own sake, not for how it might be
Buddhist perspective on nature
The view that nothing exists in and of itself, and everything is part of a natural,
complex, and dynamic totality of mutuality and interdependence.
Islamic perspective on nature
The view that the heavens and Earth were made for human purposes.
animistic perspective on nature
The view that natural phenomena – both animals and inanimate-possess an
indwelling spirit or consciousness.
Possible answers
Judeo-Christian “How about a beef patty for a burger?”
Taoist “The cow is important in itself.”
Buddhist “The cow and I are one.”
Islamic “I obey therefore I don‟t abuse the cow.”
Animistic “The cow is conscious that I want to have him for a burger,
that he is important, that I don‟t want to abuse him and that
we are one.”
Nature as a concept
environmental philosophies and political views of nature:
environmental ethics
You saw a cow in the sunken garden

What would be the first thing to think of if you think using

environmental ethics?
The philosophy that emphasizes interdependence and relatedness between
humans and nature.
A philosophy whereby a person attempts to rise above nature and the
limitations of the body to the point where the spirit dominates the flesh.
The view that natural resources should be used wisely and that society‟s
effects on the natural world should represent stewardship, not exploitation.
An approach to nature advocating that certain habitats, species, and resources
should remain off-limits to human use, regardless of whether the use maintains
or depletes the resource in question.
Environmental ethics
A philosophical perspective on nature that prescribes moral principles as
guidance for our treatment of it.
The view that patriarchal ideology is at the centre of our present
environmental malaise.
Possible answers
romanticism “Respect the cow.”
transcendentalism “Rise above the cow.”
conservationism “Too much cow is too much.”
preservationism “Don‟t touch the cow.”
environmental ethics “The cow has rights too.”
ecofeminism “Cows are for men.”
Earth and early humans
paleolithic impacts
neolithic peoples and domestication
early settlements and their environmental impacts
Paleolithic impacts
Neolithic peoples and domestication
Early settlements and environmental impacts
Paleolithic period
The period when chipped-stone tools first began to be used.
Clovis point
A flaked, bifaced projectile whose length is more than twice its width. This
implement increased the likelihood of a kill.
The buildup of sand and clay in a natural or artificial waterway.
The removal of trees from a forested area without adequate replanting.
European expansion and
initial internal expansion
overseas colonial expansion
Virgin soil epidemics
conditions in which the population at risk has no natural immunity or previous
exposure to the disease within the lifetime of the oldest member of the group
Columbian exchange
interaction between the Old World, originating with the voyages of Columbus
Corn: from old world or new world?
New World Old World
corn banana
tomato onion
potato wheat
vanilla coffee
Demographic collapse
phenomenon of near genocide of indigenous populations
Ecological imperialism
introduction of exotic plants and animals into new ecosystems.
Human action and recent
Environmental change
climate change
land use and land cover
effect on flora and fauna
Acid rain
The wet deposition of acids on Earth created by the natural cleansing
properties of the atmosphere.
The degradation of land cover and damage to the soil and water in grasslands
and arid and semi-arid lands
Global change
Combination of political, economic, social, historical, and environmental
problems at the world scale
Environmental justice
Movement reflecting a growing political consciousness, largely among the
world‟s poor, that their immediate environs are far more toxic than those in
wealthier neighborhoods.
What should we do then?
to protect the environment and pursue our human interests?
Human action and recent
Environmental change
sustainable development

Article 9 of the UN Declaration of Human Rights states that all people „should
promote sustainable development all over the world to assure dignity, freedom,
security and justice for all people.‟
Sustainable development
a type of development that „meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.‟
Human action and recent
Environmental change
sustainable development

There are problems with definitions, howerver. The term „future generations‟
specifies no time limit. Which practices are „socially desirable?‟ What is the
extent of „environmental change.‟ There is also the perceived necessity of
nature as a concept
Earth and early humans
European expansion and globalization
human action and recent environmental change
Physical and
Physical geography
The branch of geography which deals with the natural features of the earth’s

can include geomorphology, meteorology, climatology, biogeography, and

An integrated view of earth
using Physical geography
Earth-Sun relationship
the earth as a system
major earth systems
major features
vegetation and soils
Earth-sun relationship
The sun is the primary source of energy for the earth.
The spatial relationship of the earth to the sun is of vital importance to life on
the planet.

The closest point on the Earth’s orbit relative to the Sun. January 3.
The farthest point on the Earth’s orbit relative to the Sun. July 4.
A day when daytime and nighttime are of equal length. Equinoxes occur twice
a year.

spring equinox – 21 March

autumn equinox – 22 September
A day when the overhead sun is furthest from the equator. Solstices occur
twice in a year.

summer solstice – 21 June

winter solstice – 21 December

summer solstice is when daytime is longest in the Northern Hemisphere

winter solstice is when daytime is shortest in the Southern Hemisphere
Earth-sun relationship

January 3 perihelion
March 21 spring equinox
June 21 summer solstice
July 4 aphelion
September 22 autumn equinox
December 21 winter solstice
Earth-sun relationship
seasonal zones

tropical Tropic of Cancer, Tropic of Capricorn

polar Arctic, Antarctic
Earth as a system
Earth is an ecosphere, a system composed of the atmosphere, hydrosphere,
biosphere, and lithosphere. It is a self-contained system with radiation as input
and output.
any set of interrelated factors. A system has components, structure, behaviour,
interconnectivity, functions.

two types:
open matter and energy circulate in and out of the system
closed only energy circulates in and out of the system
What type of system is the earth?
Is it an open or a closed system? Why?
These spheres function as the components of the Earth system, the ecosphere:

The layer of air surrounding the Earth, with an average composition, by
volume, of 79% nitrogen, 20% oxygen, and 1% of other gases.
All the water on, or close to, the surface of the earth. Some 97% of this water
is in the earth’s seas and oceans; of the rest, about 75% is in ice caps and –
sheets, about 25% in surface drainage and groundwater, and about 0.03% in
the atmosphere.
The zone where life is found.
simple: the rest of the earth, including molten and hardened rock.
strict.: the earth’s crust, and that upper layer of the mantle which lies above
the asthenosphere.

When talking about earth’s major spheres, we shall use the simple definition.
Lithosphere divisions
Using the simple definition of the lithosphere, it can be divided according to:

composition crust, mantle, core

physical properties lithosphere (strict), plastic asthenosphere,
mesosphere, outer core, inner core
Major earth systems
The ecosphere, or the Earth system, can be subdivided into two systems, which
consists of the four spheres/components stated beforehand:

the hydrologic system hydrosphere, atmosphere. (flows)

the tectonic system lithosphere, biosphere. (fixeds)
The hydrologic system
is the complex cycle through which water moves from the oceans, to the
atmosphere, over the land, and back to the oceans again. Water in the
hydrologic system – moving as surface runoff, groundwater, glaciers, waves,
and currents – erodes, transports, and deposits surface rock material.
Hydrologic subsystems
larger scale ocean circulation, atmospheric circulation

smaller scale: river systems

Ocean surface currents
Atmospheric cells
The tectonic system
involves the movement of the lithosphere which is broken into a mosaic of
separate plates. These plates move independently, separating, colliding, and
sliding past one another. The margins of the plates are the sites of considerable
geologic activity such as seafloor spreading, continental rifting, mountain
building, volcanism, and earthquakes.
Tectonic subsystems
divergent plate boundaries
transform plate boundaries
convergent plate boundaries
within-plate tectonics and mantle plumes

major components: continental and oceanic plates

Major features
continents and continental shelves
ocean basins
One of the main continuous bodies of land on the earth’s surface. Commonly,
seven continents are recognized: Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe,
North America, and South America.

Continents are composed of shields, stable platforms, and folded mountains.

Continental shelf
The gently sloping submarine fringe of a continent. This is ended by a steep
continental slope which occurs at around 150m below sea level.
The largest bodies of water on earth. Commonly, the oceans are the Pacific,
Indian, Atlantic, and Arctic Oceans.
Ocean basin
A continuous solid structure under the oceans. Ocean basins are composed of
the oceanic ridge, the abyssal floor, seamounts, trenches, and continental
A physical feature of the earth’s surface, such as a meander or a volcano.
Landform s: processes

internal plate movement, vulcanism, diastrophism

external weathering, erosion, deposition
Plate movement
the term for large crustal movements, such as those associated with plate
tectonics and sea-floor spreading.
the movement of molten rock in the mantle outward toward the surface of the
earth. Two types are intrusive and extrusive volcanism.
crustal movement on a smaller scale than plate movement. It includes local or
regional warping, folding, and faulting of the crust.
The breakdown, but not the removal, of rocks.
The removal of part of the land surface by wind, water, gravity, or ice.
the dropping of material which has been picked up and transported by wind,
water, or ice.
a summary of mean weather conditions over a time period, usually based on
thirty years of records. Climates are largely determined by location with
respect to land- and sea-masses, to large-scale patterns in the general
circulation of the atmosphere, latitude, altitude, and to local geographical
current, rather than average, atmospheric conditions. Weather variables include
humidity, temperature, sunshine hours, cloud cover, visibility, and precipitation
(fog, rain, snow, sleet, and frost).
Climate categories
Koeppen’s Five Major Climate Categories

A tropical Moist hot all-year low latitudes

B dry desert/steppe low-mid latitudes
C moist, mild winter subtropical mid latitudes
D moist, severe winter continental mid-high latitudes
E polar always cold
H undifferentiated highlands
Vegetation regions
regions that are largely influenced by climate and soils

forest and woodland

mountains and ice caps
Soil regions
regions that are largely influenced by climate and vegetation

alfisols oxisols
aridisols spodosols
entisols ultisols
histosols vertisols
Inceptisols mountains and ice caps
Human geography
a generalized term for those areas of geography not dealing exclusively with
the physical landscape or with technical matters such as remote sensing. It is
concerned with the relationships between man’s activities and the physical
environment, with spatial analysis, and with those processes which lead to
areal differentiation. The term covers a number of fields. These fields include
Agricultural geography
Behavioral geography
Cultural geography
Economic geography
Industrial geography
Political geography
Regional geography
Social geography
Urban geography
These and other fields
are the subjects of our next seven meetings.
Regional geography
The study in geography of regions and of their distinctive qualities. A
precondition of this study is the recognition of a region, its naming, and the
delimitation of its boundaries.
World region
A functional region of groups of countries which are in proximity to one
another and that possess factors that are common across the given countries
and perform specific functions within the world region.
There are seven continents
can be interconnected.
An activity!
plate 3
USA and Canada Africa
Europe The Middle East
The Russian Domain South Asia
Japan Southeast Asia
Australia and New Zealand East Asia
Middle America The Pacific Islands
South America The Polar Regions
A move to foster or protect an indigenous culture in a particular region. This
may be a formal move, made by the state as it creates administrative or
planning regions, or an informal move for some degree of independence
arising from a gut felling, based on territory, of a minority group.
The changing
The Changing World
Pre-Modern Geographic Change
A New World Geography
Organizing the Periphery
The changing world
Core, Semiperiphery, Periphery
The changing world
The modern world-system was first established over a long period from the
fifteenth to the mid-seventeenth centuries. It began in fifteenth-century
Europe. Exploration, shipbuilding, and navigation caused economic, social and
cultural expansion in from European to non-European areas.

A highly structured relationship between places and regions was created. This
is due to reasons such as competition among states.
The changing world
Core regions emerged. These regions previously participated using military
means. Presently, they wield much political and economic influence.

Those places which were unsuccessful became peripheral countries.

Within the global core, there are regional cores, semiperipheries, and
peripheries. Regional cores are made up of local cores and peripheries.
An interdependent system of countries linked by economic and political
External arena
Regions of the world not yet absorbed into the modern world-system.
Independent political units with territorial boundaries that are internationally
recognized by other political units.
Core regions
Regions that dominate trade, control the most advanced technologies, and
have high levels of productivity within diversified economies.
Peripheral regions
Regions with undeveloped or narrowly specialized economies with low levels
of productivity.
Semiperipheral regions
Regions that are able to exploit peripheral regions but are themselves exploited
and dominated by core regions.
Geographic change
Hearth Areas
The Growth of Early Empires
The Geography of the Pre-Modern World
Geographic change
Systematically differentiated human geographies began with mini-systems.
Swidden cultivation was practiced thereafter.

Hearth areas emerged where there was plenty of resources:

1. The Middle East.
2. South Asia.
3. The Americas
Geographic change
The growth of early empires happened when higher population densities,
changes is social organization, craft production, and trade brought about by the
first agricultural revolution happened. The social economy of the world-
empires were redistributive-tributary.

Famous world empires – Egypt, Greece, China, Byzantium, and Rome.

Geographic change
Urbanization and colonization were important contributions of the world-
empires to an evolving world system.

The law of diminishing returns was an influence for expansion of the world-
empires. The legacy of the world-empires is still on our landscapes today.
Geographic change
The geography of the pre-modern world was comprised of the sparsely-
populated interiors, the nomadic areas, and the hearths of sedentary
agricultural production.

The more developed areas were connected through trade.

A society with a single cultural base and a reciprocal social economy.
Slash-and-burn system
System of cultivation in which plants are cropped close to the round, left to
dry for a period, and then ignited.
Mini-systems that have been absorbed into a common political system while
retaining their fundamental cultural differences.
Law of diminishing returns
The tendency for productivity to decline, after a certain point, with the
continued application of capital and/or labour to a given resource base.
The sphere of economic influence of a town or city
a new world geography
European Overseas Expansion
Industrialization and Geographic Change
Internal Development of the Core Regions
a new world geography
Aside from the gathering of gold and silver, plantations were also the means
by which Europeans solidified their position in the center of the emerging
modern world-system.

Dependency of the periphery on the core emerged while the core regions
developed within in terms of banking, import substitution, among others.
a new world geography
New production technologies based on harnessing energy such a s coal
New transportation technologies such as rail, and steam ship.
Deliberate exercise of colonization and imperialism.

Leadership cycles emerged and hegemony ensued.

a new world geography
Leadership cycles:
1. Portuguese
2. Dutch
3. British
4. United States
a new world geography
The internal growth of the core regions is exemplified by the modernization of
farming equipment and the growing complexity of internal transportation
Large landholdings that usually specialize in the production of one particular
crop for market.
Import substitution
The process by which domestic producers provide goods or services that
formerly were bought from foreign producers.
Leadership cycles
Periods of international power established by individual states through
economic, political, and military competition.
Domination over the world economy exercised by one national state in a
particular historical epoch through a combination of economic, military,
financial, and cultural means.
Staples trap
An over-reliance on the export of staples makes an economy (national or
regional) vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices and without alternatives
when resource depletion occurs.
Staples thesis
A proposition arguing that the export of Canada’s natural resources, or staples,
had a pervasive impact on this country, one consequence being that Canada
became locked into dependency as a resource hinterland for more advanced
Organizing the periphery
The International Division of Labor
Organizing the periphery
Colonies specialized when there was:
1. Established demand in the industrial core
2. Comparative advantage in their production of a good
3. No competition of products within core countries

The result was that countries were organized around narrow specializations.
The keyword was dependency.
Organizing the periphery
Imperialism, in the process of organizing the core, was alongside free trade
and investment. Scramble for territorial and commercial domination was
developed. The core countries engaged in pre-emptive geographical
expansionism in order to protect their established interests and to limit the
opportunities of others through military supervision, administrative control,
and economic regulations.

Africa was carved in to a patchwork of colonies and protectorates in just 34

years, from 1880 to 1914, with little regard for either physical geography or
the pre-existing human geographies.
Organizing the periphery
Subaltern theory examines the ways in which the periphery is marginalized by
the colonizing centre. The centre engages in a process of “othering” in which
the experiences of the margin are seen as irrelevant.

For example, the image of the “Orient” is created by the West and is imposed
on the Asian lands.

The remedy suggested was to view the centre from the margin.
Division of labor
The specialization of different people, regions, or countries in particular kinds
of economic activities
Comparative advantage
Principle whereby places and regions specialize in activities for which they
have the greatest advantage in productivity relative to other regions or for
which they have the least disadvantage.
Subaltern theory
A theory examining the ways in which the colonized margin is culturally
dominated by the colonizing centre
Three Worlds
A New International Division of Labor
The Fast World and the Slow World
The imperial world order began to disintegrate shortly after World War II.
The resulting order were three worlds:
1. First World United States and the world-system core
2. Second World Soviet Union, China, and their satellite countries
3. Third World Most of the periphery and independent.
Transnational corporations and commodity chains became more common and
became main drivers of economies of nations.

A new internationl division of labor was accompanied by three other factors of

an internationalization of finance
a new technology system
a homogenization of international consumer markets.
Notable results of globalization:
1. commodity chains, consumerism, pop culture, English language
2. environmental degradation
3. growth of globally oriented groups
4. differences in the world economy
5. mingling, clashing, and the emergence of cultures and pathways to
economic and cultural development
The Fast World and the Slow World means that the core is now a close-knit
triad of the geographical raid of the geographical centres of North America, the
European Union of Western Europe, and Japan. In 1999, the fifth of the
world’s population living in the highest-income countries had

74 percent of world income (the bottom fifth had just 1 percent)

82 percent of the world export markets (the bottom fifth had just 1 percent)
74 percent of world telephone lines, today’s basic means of communication
(the bottom fifth had just 1.5 percent).
Economic and political strategies by which powerful states in core economies
indirectly maintain or extend their influence over other areas or people.
Transnational corporations
Companies with investments and activities that span international boundaries
and with subsidiary companies, factories, offices, or facilities in several
Commodity chains
Networks of labor and production processes beginning with the extraction or
production of raw materials and ending with the delivery of a finished
Producer services
Services that enhance the productivity or efficiency of other firms’ activities or
that enable them to maintain specialized roles.
Spatial justice
The fairness of the distribution of society’s burdens and benefits, takingi nto
account spatial variations in people’s needs and in their contribution to the
production of wealth and social well-being.
Fast world
People, places, and regions directly involved, as producers and consumers, in
transnational industry, modern telecommunications, materialistic consumption,
and international news and entertainment.
Slow world
People, places, and regions whose participation in transnational industry,
modern telecommunications, materialistic consumption, and international
news and entertainment is limited.
Digital divide
Inequality of access to telecommunications and information technology,
particularly the Internet.

Vance Model
Rimmer Model
Taaffe, Morrill and Gould Model

North America and Europe: First World Countries
USA-United Kingdom; Canada-France

Transport networks are products of interests and efforts for political, cultural, and
economic dominance

First World and Southeast Asian Countries

Spain-Philippines, The Netherlands -Indonesia


Transport network change from a period of pre-colonial underdevelopment,
through a period of external political intervention, to the period of political

First World Countries and African Countries

Ghana, Nigeria
The Changing World
Pre-Modern Geographic Change
A New World Geography
Organizing the Periphery
the geographer’s
A general geographical process of study
data collection
data analysis
pertains to space.
pertains to the field of Geography or to the focus of the field.
Inside the box
A pen and paper
A camera
A GPS unit
A map
A voice recorder
Global positioning system
A set of software, units, people, satellites, and stations that are used for
gathering location data.
The geography
Of economic
what “economic development” means
everything in its place: principles of location
pathways to development
globalization and local economic development
Meaning of economic dev’T
Statistical measures are used to measure economic development, but for
human geographers and other social scientists, the term “economic
development” is used to refer to processes of change involving the nature and
composition of the economy of a particular region as well as increases in the
overall prosperity of the region.
Pause, what do you see
when development “arrives” in a place?
Meaning of economic dev’T
These processes can involve three types of changes:
1. Changes in the structure of the region’s economy.
2. Changes in forms of economic organization within the region.
3. Changes in the availability and use of technology within the region.
Meaning of economic dev’T
the unevenness of economic development

Geographically, the single most important feature of economic development is

that it is uneven. The core regions within the world-system – currently, the tri-
polar core of North America , Europe, and Japan – have the most diversified
economies, the most advanced technologies, the highest levels of productivity,
and the highest levels of prosperity. Other countries and regions – the
periphery and semiperiphery of the world-system – are often referred to as
developing or less-developed.
Gross domestic product (GDP)
An estimate of the total value of all materials, foodstuffs, goods, and services
that are produced by a country in a particular year.
Gross national product (GNP)
Similar to GDP, but in addition includes the value of income from abroad.
Meaning of economic dev’T
global core-periphery patterns

GDP and GNP can be problematic because they are based on each nation’s
currency. On the other hand, purchasing power parity (PPP), measures how
much of a common “market basket” of goods and services each currency can
purchase locally, including goods and services that are not traded
internationally. The purchasing power of core, semiperiphery, and periphery
countries are different from each other.
Meaning of economic dev’T
development and gender equality

Women, in general, have lower employment and wage rates than men.
However, women are playing a central and increasing role in processes of
development and change in the global economy. Women tend to work longer
hours than men.
Meaning of economic dev’T
regional patterns

Inequality in economic development often has a regional dimension. Initial

conditions are a crucial determinant of regional economic performance. Scarce
resources, a history of neglect, lack of investment, and concentrations of low-
skilled people all combine to explain the lagging performance of certain areas.
Such regional patterns exist at different scales.
Meaning of economic dev’T
resources and technology

Patterns of economic development are the result of many different factors. One
of the most important is the availability of key resources such as cultivable
land, energy sources, and valuable minerals. Unevenly distributed across the
world, however, are both key resources and just as important, the combinations
of energy and minerals crucial to economic development. A lack of natural
resources can, of course, be remedied through international trade.
Meaning of economic dev’T
resources and technology

Politics and technology are tied to resources.

Technology systems
clusters of interrelated energy, transportation, and production technologies that
dominate economic activity fro several decades at a time. These technology
systems have changed in 50-year intervals since the 1790, in the period of the
industrial revolution.
Meaning of economic dev’T
the economic structure of countries and regions

The economic structure of much of the world is dominated by the primary

sector. In contrast, the primary sector of the world’s core regions is typically
small, occupying only 5 to 10 percent of the labor force.
Primary activities
Economic activities that are concerned directly with the natural resources of
any kind.
Secondary activities
Economic activities that process, transform, fabricate, or assemble the raw
materials derived from primary activities, or that reassemble, refinish, or
package manufactured goods.
Tertiary activities
Economic activities involving the sale and exchange of goods and services.
Quaternary activities
Economic activities that deal with the handling and processing of knowledge
and information.
Meaning of economic dev’T
stages of development and geographical divisions of labor

Variations in economic structure – according to primary, secondary, tertiary, or

quaternary activities – reflect geographical divisions of labor. Geographical
divisions of labor are national, regional, and locally based economic
specializations that have evolved with the growth of the world-system of trade
and politics.
Meaning of economic dev’T
Rostow’s model of economic development

traditional society limited tech; static society

preconditions for take-off commerce, agriculture, extraction
take-off manufacturing
drive to maturity wider industrial and commercial base
high mass consumption exploitation of comparative
advantages in international trade
Principles of location
Principles of Commercial and Industrial Location

material inputs
processing costs
pull of market
transfer costs
government policies
behavioral considerations
Principles of location
economic interdependence: agglomeration effects

In the real world, the various factors of commercial and industrial location all
operate within complex webs of functional interdependence. These webs
include relationships of industries, stores, and offices. Among these
relationships are principles of agglomeration.
Agglomeration effects
cost advantages that accrue to individual firms because of their location among
functionally related activities.
External economies
cost savings that result from circumstances beyond a firm’s own organization
and methods of production.
Ancillary activities
activities such as maintenance, repair, security, and haulage services that serve
a variety of industries.
Localization economies
cost savings that accrue to particular industries as a result of clustering
together at a specific location.

These cost savings come from flows of information and from sharing of a pool
of labor, specialize subcontractors, suppliers, research institutions, distribution
agents, lawyers, etc.
Principles of location
economic interdependence: agglomeration effects

Sources of external economies are external economies of scale, agglomeration

for information, and fixed social capital. External economies are often referred
to as urbanization economies.
Economies of scale
cost savings that accrue to particular industries as a result of clustering
together at a specific location.
Infrastructure, fixed social capital
The underlying framework of services and amenities needed to facilitate
productive activity.
Urbanization economies
External economies that accrue to producers because of the package of
infrastructure, ancillary activities, labor, and markets typically associated with
urban settings.
Agglomeration effects
How do we produce them?
Pathways to development
Patterns of economic development are the product of principles of lcoation and
economic interdependence, but they are historical in origin and cumulative in
Geographical path advantage
The historical relationship between the present activities associated with a
place and the past experiences of that place.
Initial advantage
The critical importance of an early start in economic development, a special
case of external economies.
Pathways to development
How are regional economic cores created? Regional cores of economic
development – such as cities or central business districts – are created
cumulatively, following some initial advantage, through the operation of
several of the basic principles of economic geography.

creation and location of an economic activity > backward linkages > forward
linkages > ancillary industries

Cumulative causation characterizes such developments. This up-spiral of local

growth would tend to attract people – enterprising young people, usually – and
investment funds from other areas.
Backward linkages
develop as new firms arrive to provide the growing industry with components,
supplies, specialized services, or facilities.
Forward linkages
develop as new firms arrive to take the finished products of the growing
industry and use them as inputs to their own production and distribution.
Cumulative causation
A spiral build-up of advantages that occurs in specific geographic settings as a
result of the development of external economies, agglomeration effects, and
localization economies.
Backwash effects
the negative impacts on a region (or regions) of the economic growth of some
other region.
Pathways to development
How core-periphery patterns are modified

If cumulative causation and backwash effects are the only processes the
change economic geography, then the world should be polarized. Spread
effects balance the other two effects. Import substitution also cause cumulative
causation in peripheral regions. There are also agglomeration diseconomies,
deindustrialization, creative destruction, government intervention, and growth
poles. Government intervention acts through planning.
Spread effects
the positive impacts on a region (or regions) of the economic growth of some
other region.
Agglomeration diseconomies
the negative economic effects of urbanization and the local concentration of
a relative decline in industrial employment in core regions.
Creative destruction
the withdrawal of investments fro activities (and regions) that yield low rates
of profit in order to reinvest in new activities (and new places).
Growth poles
economic activities that are deliberately organized around one or more high-
growth industries. Related are technopoles. Italian and US growth-pole efforts
have been disappointing. In practice, governments oten fail to invest in the
right industries, and nearly always fail to invest heavily enough to kick-start
the process of cumulative causation.
Globalization and local
economic development
The globalization of the world economy exposed local economic conditions to
external influences and linked local economies and individuals into a system
of interdependence.

the global assembly line (conglomerate corporations, EPZs)

the global office (electronic offices and decentralization, clusters of specialized
offices, offshore financial centers)
tourism and economic development
Conglomerate corporations
companies that have diversified into a variety of different economic activities,
usually through a process of mergers and acquisitions.
what “economic development” means
everything in its place: principles of location
pathways to development
globalization and local economic development
The politics of
Territory and
the development of political geography
geopolitics and the world order
The two-way street of politics and geography
Political geography
The geographical analysis of political studies. It is concerned, among other
things, with the spatial expression of political ideals and consequences of
decision-making by a political identity.
Development of pol geog
Political geography was influenced by the people-land tradition and
environmental determinism

State growth and change was emphasized.

This new emphasis was called geopolitics.

The State’s power to control space or territory and shape the foreign policy of
individual States and international political relations.
A territorial unit with clearly defined and internationally accepted boundaries,
having an independent existence and being responsible for its own legal
Development of pol geog
Friedrich Ratzel: the State is like an organism

1. The space of the State grows with the expansion of the population having
the same culture.
2. Territorial growth follows other aspects of development.
3. A State grows by absorbing smaller units.
4. The frontier is the peripheral organ of the State that reflects the strength
and growth of the State; hence it is not permanent.
Development of pol geog
Friedrich Ratzel: the State is like an organism

5. States in the course of their growth seek to absorb politically valuable

6. The impetus for growth comes to a primitive State from a more highly
developed civilization.
7. The trend toward territorial growth is contagious and increases in the
process of transmission.
Development of pol geog
Boundaries and Frontiers

Boundaries are important phenomena because they allow territoriality to be

defined and channeled. The creation of boundaries is, therefore, an important
element in place making.

Because boundaries define territories, boundaries are inclusionary and

The delimited area over which a State exercises control and which is
recognized by other states.

The word ‘territory’ can also be used to describe informal areas of jurisdiction.
Development of pol geog
frontier regions

Frontier regions occur where boundaries are very weakly developed. They
involve zones of underdeveloped territoriality, areas that are distinctive for
their marginality rather than for their belonging.
Development of pol geog
boundary formation

Formal boundaries tend to follow natural barriers such as rivers, mountainn

ranges, and oceans. Where no natural features occur, formal boundaries tend to
be fixed along the easiest and most practical cartographic device: a straight
line. Formal boundaries detour for a number of reasons. After primary
divisions have been established, internal boundaries are demarcated.

Territories delimited by formal boundaries are known as de jure spaces or

regions. De jure territories are often used as the basic units of analysis in
human geography for their significance and for convenience.
Geopolitics and the
world order
States, as part of the world system, are one of the most powerful institutions
cultivating the process of globalization. The State effectively regulates,
supports, and legitimates the globalization of the economy.
The increase in volume, scale, and velocity of social (and environmental)
interactions. Globalization is not new, pre-dating colonialism.
On the side, according to p.j. taylor
The process of modern capitalist accumulation is experienced locally, justified
nationally, and organized globally.
A group of people often sharing common elements of culture such as religion
or language, or a history or political identity.
An ideal from consisting of a homogeneous group of people governed by their
own State.
The exercise of State power over people and territory, recognized by other
States and codified by international law.
has been coined to describe the feeling of belonging to a nation as well as the
belief that a nation has a natural right to determine its own affairs.
Centripetal forces
forces that strengthen and unify the State.
Centrifugal forces
forces that divide or tend to pull the state apart.
Geopolitics and the
world order
types of states

federal a form of government in which power is allocated to units

of local government within the country.
unitary a form of government in which power is concentrated in
the central government
A group of States united for a common purpose.
Geopolitics and the
world order
States can also be though of as sets of institutions for the protection and
maintenance of society.

On the side, Ratzel did not think that the State is an organism, but only that it
acts like one.

Geopolitics was taken up and distorted by others to become nasty tools.

Geopolitics and the
World order
Imperialism, colonialism, north/south divide

On the side, there is still neocolonialism. There is also an ongoing colonization

process in Antarctica.
North/south divide
The differentiation made between the colonizing States of the Northern
Hemisphere and the formerly colonized States of the Southern Hemisphere.
The acquisition, by colonized peoples, of control over their own territory.
Geopolitics and the
World order
Geographers have historically played very central roles in the imperialist
efforts of European States. Royal geographical societies in England and
Scotland were explicitly formed to aid in the expansionary efforts of their
home countries.
A term suggested by Halford Mackinder (1904) to indicate the wealthy interior
of Eurasia. Mackinder maintained that whoever controlled the heartland would
eventually control the world as political units became larger and larger.
East/west divide
Communist and noncommunist countries, respectively.
Domino theory
If one country in a region chose or was forced to accept a communist political
and economic system, then neighboring countries would be irresistibly
susceptible to falling to communism.
International organization
group that includes two or more States seeking political and/or economic
cooperation with each other.
Supranational organizations
Collections of individual States with a common goal that may be economic
and/or political in nature and which diminish, to some extent, individual State
sovereignty in favor of the group interests of the membershp.
Is it possible
for world government to exist?
The two-way street of
Politics and geography
The politics of geography is about the influence of geography on politics.
The geography of politics is about the influence of politics on geography.
The two-way street of
Politics and geography
the politics of geography

regionalism and sectionalism

suburbs versus cities and rural versus urban (e.g. NIMBYism)
a feeling of collective identity based on a population’s politico-territorial
identification within a State or across State boundaries.
extreme devotion to local interests and customs.
The two-way street of
Politics and geography
the geography of politics

geographical systems of representation (territorial organizations,

reapportionment, redistricting, gerrymandering)
Territorial organization
a system of government formally structure by area, not by social groups.
The process of allocating electoral seats to geographical areas.
The defining and redefining of territorial district boundaries.
The practice of redistricting for partisan purposes.
Does identity precede territory
or is it the other way around?
In political geography, a two-way process is observed: that which involves
politics to geography, and geography to politics

The where of politics is important in political geography

States are important in the relations of politics and geography.

Political geography involves phenomena from the household scale to the

global scale.
the development of political geography
geopolitics and the world order
The two-way street of politics and geography
And Urban
urban geography and urbanization
some types of cities
history of urbanization
urban systems
urban growth and decline processes
urban structure and land use
urban form and design
urban trends and problems
Urban geography
The study of the site, evolution, morphology, spatial pattern, and classification
of towns.
of, living, or situated in a city or town. As no standard figures are given for the
size of cities and towns, this concept can be rather vague. An area may be
classified as urban by its role as a central place for a tributary area, providing
a range of shops, banks, and offices. A high density of population may also be
used as an indicator but the city may include large areas of low-density
Urban geog and urbanization
Urban areas of the world are the linchpins of human geographies.

In human economic and social organization, towns and cities have four
fundamental aspects:
1. mobilizing function
2. decision-making capacity
3. generative function
4. transformative capacity
Urban geog and urbanization
scope of urban geography as a discipline

urban system, urban form, urban ecology, urbanism, types of cities, historical
development of cities, urban growth and decline processes, urban structure and
land use, urban form and design, urban trends and problems
Urban system
an interdependent set of urban settlements within a specified region.
Urban form
The physical structure and organization of cities.
Urban ecology
the social and demographic composition of city districts and neighborhoods.
The way of life, attitudes, values, and patterns of behavior fostered by urban
the increase in the proportion of the population residing in towns, brought
about by migration of rural populations into towns and cities, and/or the higher
urban levels of natural increase resulting from the greater proportion of people
of childbearing age in cities.(this, in turn, reflects patterns of migration).
Urbanization indicates a change of employment structure from agriculture and
cottage industries to mass production and service industries.
Urban geog and urbanization
The things said in the previous page about urbanization backs up the view that
urbanization results from, rather than causes, social change. This is most
notable in the development of capitalism and its attendant industrialization. It
is said that the development of the landless labourer and the concentration of
wealth into a few hands encourages urbanization. Others argue that
urbanization is the inevitable result of economic growth, with the rise of
specialized craftsmen, merchants, and administrators. A further view streses
the importance of agglomeration economies; cities offer markets, labour,
comparative advantage.
Urban geog and urbanization
Clark observes that the effects of globalization compound, rather than replace,
local processes or urban development. They introduce reasons for urban
growth and urbanisation which add to the traditional attractions of cities as
central places.

Urbanization is a relatively recent process in the Third World where it is even

more rapid than population growth and where the larges agglomerations are
growing most rapidly. The negative effects of urbanization include the loss of
agricultural land coupled with problems of urban food supply, the destruction
of habitats, and urban diseconomies.
some types of cities
ecclesiastical or university centers megalopolis
defensive strongholds the unintended metropolis
administrative centers frontier urban areas
gateway city the islamic city
shock city post-industrial city
colonial city edge city
megacity 100-mile city
world city primate city
History of urbanization
In broad terms, the earliest urbanization developed independently in the
various hearth areas of the first agricultural revolution.

Urbanization can be attributed to agricultural surplus and population pressure.

Most experts agree that changes in social organization were an important

precondition for urbanization. These changes include the emergence of
specialized skills, specialized classes, and the need for concentrated human
History of urbanization
Some urbanized areas declined or collapsed due to disasters, lack of labor, and
lack of social and economic infrastructure.

Eventually, local urban expansion, colonialism, imperialism, and

industrialization became primary forces behind urbanization.

Today’s urbanization involves some places that are more urbanized than others
and some places urbanizing faster than others.

A number of peripheral countries are experiencing high rates of urbanization.

Gateway city
city that serves as a link between one country or region and other because of
its physical situation.
Shock city
city that is seen as the embodiment of surprising and disturbing changes in
economic, social, and cultural life.
Colonial cities
Cities that were deliberately established or developed by administrative or
commercial centers by colonial or imperial powers.
Urban systems
Every town and city is part of one of the interlocking urban systems that link
regional-, national-, and international-scale human geographies in a complex
web of interdependence.

Central places are interconnected and form hierarchies. Low-order goods tend
to be located near each other. High-order goods tend to be located far from
each other. Spacing depends on range and threshold. High-order goods have
the greatest ranges and are therefore spaced far from each other. High-order
goods require large thresholds. Low-order goods require low-thresholds.
Central place
A settlement in which certain products and services are available to
Central place theory
A theory that seeks to explain the relative size and spacing of towns and cities
as a function of people’s shopping behavior.
the maximum distance that consumers will normally travel to obtain a
particular product or service.
the minimum market size required to make the sale of a particular product or
service profitable.
Urban systems
Urban systems also exhibit clear functional differences within such
hierarchies, yet another reflection of the interdependence of places.

Functional interdependence between urban areas results in a unique

relationship between the population size of cities and their rank within the
overall urban system.
Rank-size rule
a statistical regularity in city-size distributions of cities and regions.
condition in which the population of the largest city in an urban system is
disproportionately large in relation to the second- and third-largest cities in
that system.

Primacy in peripheral countries is usually a consequence of primate cities’

roles as imperial capitals and centers of administration, politics, and trade for
a much widerr urban system than their own domestic system.
the functional dominance of cities within an urban system. Cities do not need
to be both primate and to be possessing centrality.
Urban systems
world cities

the sites of the most of the leading global markets for a number of goods and

The sites of clusters of specialized, high-order businesses that are international

in scope

The sites of concentrations of corporate headquarters

Urban systems
world cities

The sites of most of the leading nongovernmental organizations and

intergovernmental organizations

The sites of the most powerful and internationally influential media

organizations; news and information services; and culture industries
Urban systems
world cities

These characteristics work in synergy. A world city is an interface between the

global and the local. Three world cities dominate the global urban system:
New York, London, and Tokyo. There are second-tier and third-tier world
very large city characterized by both primacy and high centrality within its
national eonomy.
the functional dominance of cities within an urban system. Cities do not need
to be both primate and to be possessing centrality.
Growth and decline processes

The growth of an urban area involves and economic base, basic functions,
nonbasic functions. The prosperity from basic functions is used in building
nonbasic functions. The whole process is of cumulative causation.
Economic base
set of manufacturing, processing, trading or services activities that serve
markets beyond the city.
Basic functions
Economic activities that provide income fromm sales to customers boyond
city limits.
Nonbasic functions
Economic activities that serve a city’s own population.
Growth and decline processes

deindustrialization, decentralization, agglomeration diseconomies,

counterurbanization. These factors are involved in the refocusing of the forces
of cumulative causation.
Urban structure
and land use
basic types of land uses
agricultural, residential, commercial, industrial, institutional, recreational.

combinations of land uses

central business district, zone in transition, edge cities

urban land use and structure processes

gentrification, congregation, segregation
Central business district, cbd
central nucleus of commercial land uses in a city.
Zone in transition
area of mixed commercial and residential land uss surrounding the CBD.
Edge cities
nodal concentrations of shopping and office space that are situated on the outer
fringes of metropolitan areas, typically near major highway intersections.
the invasion of older, centrally located working-class neighborhoods by
higher-income households seeking the character and convenience of less
expensive and well-located residences.
the territorial and residential clustering of specific groups or sub-groups of
Minority group
population subgroups that are seen – or that see themselves as somehow
different from the general population.
the spatial separation of specific population subgroups within a wider
Urban structure
and land use
results of congregation and/or segregation

areas in which tendencies toward congregaion and discrimination are long-
standing, but dominated by internal cohesion and identity.
areas that are also long-standing, but which are more the product of
discrimination than congregation.
areas that may result from congregation, discrimination, or both, but in
relatively weak and short-lasting ways.
Urban structure
and land use
space competition in American cities

accessibility and living space

social and ethnic group
corridors and sectors
Invasion and succession
a process of neighborhood change whereby one social or ethnic group
succeeds another.
Urban structure
and land use
urban structure models

concentric zone theory

sector theory
multiple-nuclei theory
Concentric zone theory
The theory, proposed by E.W. Burgess (1926), that urban land use may be
classified as a series of concentric zones.

Zone I is the CBD

Zone II is the zone in transition
Zone III is of the houses of the working class
Zone IV is a residential area for the better-off
Zone V is a residential area for the commuters
Sector theory
The view that housing areas in a city develop in sectors along the lines of
communication, from the CBD outwards.

High quality areas run along roads and also reflect the incidenc eof higher
ground. Industrial sectors develop along canals and railways, away from high
quality housing. Thus a high status residential area will spread out along the
lines of the sector by the addition of new belts of housing beyond the outer arc
of the city, these contrasts will be perpetuated as the city grows. This theory
was advanced by H. Hoyt (1939) as an alternative to Brgess’ concentric model,
and was based on residential rent patterns in the USA.
Multiple nuclei model
A model of town growth advanced by C.D. Harris and E.L. Ullman based on
the fact that many towns and nearly all large cities grow about many nuclei
rather than around a simple CBD.

Some of these nuclei are pre-existing settlements, others arise from

urbanization and external economies. Distinctive land-use zones deveelop
because some activities repel each other … New industrial areas develop in
suburban locations since they require easy access, and outlying business
districts may develop for the same reason.
Urban structure
and land use
comparative urban structure

European cities are typically the product of several major epochs of urrban
development. Colonial cities are those that were deliberately established or
developed as administrative or commercial centers by colonial or imperial
powers. Cities of the periphery have the experience of unprecedented rates of
growth driven by rural “push” – overpopulation and the lack of employment
opportunities in rural areas – rather than the “pull” of prospective jobsin towns
and cities. Traditional Islamic cities have a single most dominant feature,
which is the city’s principal mosque.
Urban form and design
symbolic landscapes

the Islamic city

planned urban design (feng shui, renaissance, baroque, Beaux Arts,

City Beautiful Movement, Modern Movement,

postmodern urban design

Urban trends and problems

the unintended metropolis

frontier urbanization
the megacity
the 100-mile city
post-industrial cities
edge city
Urban trends and problems

poverty and neighborhood decay

unemployment and underemployment
slums of hope, slums of despair
transport and infrastructure problems
environmental degradation
governance and management
Urban areas are linchpins of human geographies at various scales.
Urban areas are engines of economic development
The historical developments of cities are important
Core and periphery cities are different from and similar with each other.
Cities have unique characteristics such as centrality and primacy
Social and economic processes together shape a city
Urban landscapes are multilayered texts that can be read.
Problems beset urban areas.
urban geography and urbanization
some types of cities
history of urbanization
urban systems
urban growth and decline processes
urban structure and land use
urban form and design
urban trends and problems