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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BUSINESS, SOCIAL AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

ISSN: 2309-7892, Page: 107-111, Volume 01, Issue 02, January-March 2014
Review Paper
ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH, YIELD AND NUTRIENT
CONTENT OF MUNGBEAN (BARI Mung 5)

W.S. Rupa1, M.S. Miah1, I.H. Shiam2, H. Mehraj2 and A.F.M. Jamal Uddin1*

W.S. Rupa, M.S. Miah, I.H. Shiam, H. Mehraj and A.F.M. Jamal Uddin (2014). Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on
Growth, Yield and Nutrient Content of Mungbean (Bari Mung 5). Int. J. Bus., Soc. and Sci. Res. 01(02):107-111. Retrieve
from http://www.ijbssr.com/currentissueview/13090118

Received Date: 13/12/2013 Acceptance Date: 20/02/2014 Published Date: 22/02/2014

Abstract
An experiment was conducted at Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University farm during the
period from February to April 2012 to study the effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers
on growth and yield of mungbean (BARI Mung 5). The experiment was followed by
Randomized Completely Block Design with three replications. During the experiment
following treatments were incorporated T0; Control, T1; 10 tha-1 Cowdung (Recommended
dose), T2; 10 tha-1 Cowdung + 25 % of recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer, T3; 10
tha-1 Cowdung + 50 % of recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer, T4; 10 tha-1 + 75% of
recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer, T5; 10 tha-1 Vermicompost (Recommended
dose), T6; 10 tha-1 Vermicompost + 25% of recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer, T7;
10 tha-1 Vermicompost + 50 % of recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer, T8; 10 tha-1
Vermicompost + 75 % of recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer, T9; 100 % Inorganic
fertilizer. Maximum numbers of pods/plant (25.6), seeds/pod (12.1), seeds/plant (312.6),
seed yield/plant (14.6 g), 1000-seed weight (35.6 g), seed yield (1127.5 kg/ha), N content
in seeds (3.39%), P content in seeds (0.35%) and K content in seeds (2.25%) was found
from T8 treatment while lowest was found from T0.
Keywords: Mungbean, fertilizers, yield and NPK content
Introduction
Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) is one of the important pulse crops of Bangladesh but production per
unit area is very low (736 kg/ha.) as compared to other countries of the world (BBS, 2007).
Average yield of mungbean in Bangladesh is very low which is primarily due to substandard
methods of cultivation, poor crop stand, imbalanced nutrition, poor plant protection measures and
lack of high yielding varieties. Mungbean yield and quality can be improved by the balanced use of
fertilizers and also by managing the organic manures properly. Chemical fertilizers lead to loss of
soil fertility due to imbalanced use of fertilizers that has adversely impacted agricultural
productivity and causes soil degradation. Now there is a growing realization that the adoption of
ecological and sustainable farming practices can only reverse the declining trend in the global
productivity and environment protection (Aveyard, 1988, Wani and Lee, 1992, Wani et al., 1995).
Soil organic matter could affect the diversity of soil microbial community and increase the crop
growth and yield (Bending et al., 2002). Management of soil organic matter has now become a
major issue in dealing with the problems of soil fertility and productivity in Bangladesh. A good
soil should have at least 2.5% organic matter, but in Bangladesh most of the soils have less than
1.5%, and some soils even less than 1% organic matter (BARC, 2005). Based on above conditions
present experiment was conducted with an aim to evaluate the growth, yield and NPK content in
mungbean as influenced by combined use of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers.
Materials and Method
The experiment was carried out at the Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University (SAU) farm, Dhaka
to study the effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on growth and yield of mungbean (BARI
Mung 5) using Randomized Completely Block Design with three replications during the period
from February to April of 2012. During the experiment, following treatments were incorporated:
T0; Control, T1; 10 tha-1 Cowdung (Recommended dose), T2; 10 tha-1 Cowdung + 25 % of
recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer, T3; 10 tha-1 Cowdung + 50 % of recommended dose of
inorganic fertilizer, T4; 10 tha-1 + 75% of recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer, T5; 10 tha-1

*Corresponding Author: jamal4@yahoo.com


1
Department of Agricultural Chemistry, 2Department of Horticulture, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka,
Bangladesh
Rupa et al. 108

Vermicompost (Recommended dose), T6; 10 tha-1 Vermicompost + 25% of recommended dose of


inorganic fertilizer, T7; 10 tha-1 Vermicompost + 50 % of recommended dose of inorganic
fertilizer, T8; 10 tha-1 Vermicompost + 75% of recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer, T9; 100
% Inorganic fertilizer. Each plot was measured 3 m x 2 m. The lands were finally prepared on 17th
February 2012. Organic fertilizers (Cowdung and vermicompost) were applied along with urea,
TSP, MoP, gypsum, zinc sulphate and boric acid as per treatments during the final land
preparation. Healthy seeds of mungbean @ 35 kg ha-1 were sown by hand as uniformly as possible
in furrows with 30 cm line to line distance. Data was taken from ten randomly tagged plants. Data
were taken at plant height, number of leaves/plant, number of branches/plant, days to 50%
flowering, number of pods/plant, number of seeds/pod, number of seeds/plant, seed yield plant,
1000-seed weight, seed yield/ha, nitrogen content in seeds (%), phosphorus content in seeds (%),
potassium content in seeds (%). The plant material (seed) were dried in an oven at 600 C at 72
hours after sun drying and finely ground in a grinder machine for chemical analysis.
The total nitrogen was determined from the seed sample by macro Kjeldahl method. The samples
were digested by commercial H2SO4 in presence of catalyst mixture K2SO4, CuSO4 and selenium
powder. The formed (NH4)2 SO4 was mixed with NaOH during distillation. The was received in
4% boric acid (H3BO3) solution and 5 drops of mixed indicator of bromocresol green
(C2H14O5BO4S) and methyl red (C10H10N3O2) solution. Finally the distillate was titrated with
standard (0.05N) H2SO4until the color changed to pink (Jackson, 1973).
The %N in plant was calculated by the following formula:

(T-B) N 0.014 100


%N=
S

Where, T = Titration value for sample (ml.), B = Titration value for blank (ml), N = Normality of
H2SO4, S = Weight of sample (g) and 1 ml N H2SO4 0.014 g N
Exactly 0.5 g plant sample was taken in a 250 ml conical flask and 10 ml of di-acid mixture (HNO3
: HClO4 = 2 : 1) was added to each conical flask. The flask was then placed on an electric hot plate
and heated until white fumes were evolved. Then the flask was removed from the hot plate and
allowed to cool. After cooling, the digest was filtered and transferred to a 100 ml volumetric flask
and the final volume was made up to 100 ml with distilled water (Singh, 1999). From the digest,
phosphorus, potassium and sulphur were analyzed by following standard methods.
Phosphorus in the digest was determined colorimetrically using SnCl2 as reducing agent. The
intensity of color read at 660 nm wave length with a spectrophotometer (Jackson, 1973). Potassium
of the plant sample was determined with the help of flame emission spectrophotometer. The
samples were aspirated into a gas flame. The air pressure was fixed at 10 PSI. Percent emission
was recorded following the method described by Ghosh et al. (1983).
The collected data on different growth and yield parameters and nutrient contents of mungbean
were statistically analyzed. The means for all treatments were calculated and the analyses of
variances for all the characters were performed by F variance test using MSTAT-C computer
package program. The significance of difference between pair of means was performed by the
Dancans Multiple Range Test (DMRT) (Gomez and Gomez, 1984).
Results
Plant height: Tallest plant was found in T8 (53.8 cm) which was statistically similar with T7 (52.9
cm); followed by T4 (49.7 cm) and T3 (46.1 cm) whereas shortest from no fertilizer (T0: 32.7 cm) at
harvest (Table 1).
Number of leaves/plant: Maximum number of leaves/plant was recorded in T8 (18.8) which was
statistically similar with T7 (18.7) whereas minimum from T0 (No fertilizer; 14.8) at harvest (Table
1).
Number of branches/plant: Maximum number of branches/plant was recorded in T4 (3.9) which
was statistically similar with T8 (3.8) and T7 (3.8). On the other hand, T0 (No fertilizer) treatment
showed lowest number of branches/plant (3.2) at harvest (Table 1).
Days to 50% flowering: Minimum days to 50% flowering were observed in T8 (39.7) which was
statistically similar with T7 (39.9) and was closely followed by T4 (40.0) while maximum days from
T0 (43.2) (Table 1).

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Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on Bari Mung 5 109

Number of pods/plant: Maximum number of pods/plant was found in T8 (25.6) which was
statistically similar with T4 (25.5) and closely followed by T7 (25.1) and T3 (24.3) while minimum
from T0 (15.3) (Table 1).
Table 1. Effect of various combinations of organic and inorganic fertilizers on different attributes
of BARI Mung 5x
Plant Number of Number of Days to
No. of pods No. of
Treatments height at leaves/plant branches/ 50%
/plant seeds/pod
harvest at harvest plant flowering
T0 32.7 d 14.8 c 3.2 c 43.2 a 15.3 e 10.1 e
T1 38.7 c 15.0 bc 3.4 bc 41.7 abc 18.4 d 10.9 cde
T2 45.7 b 15.3 bc 3.5 abc 41.3 bcd 21.3 c 11.0 cd
T3 46.1 b 16.6 abc 3.7 ab 40.2 bcd 24.3 ab 11.1 bcd
T4 49.7 b 16.9 abc 3.9 a 40.0 cd 25.5 ab 12.1 a
T5 45.8 b 15.4 bc 3.6 ab 42.0 ab 21.4 c 10.8 cde
T6 47.2 b 16.5 abc 3.7 ab 40.9 bcd 23.2 abc 11.1 bcd
T7 52.9 a 18.7 a 3.8 a 39.9 d 25.1 ab 11.5 abc
T8 53.8 a 18.8 a 3.8 a 39.7 d 25.6 a 12.1 a
T9 44.5 b 15.0 bc 3.5 abc 40.7 bcd 22.6 bc 10.4 de
LSD 3.6 2.6 0.4 1.8 2.5 0.8
CV (%) 2.7 5.8 4.0 8.3 6.9 2.5
x
In a column means having similar letter(s) are statistically similar and those having dissimilar letter(s)
differ significantly as per 0.05 level of probability

T0; Control, T1; 10 tha-1 Cowdung (Recommended dose), T2; 10 tha-1 Cowdung + 25 % of recommended
dose of inorganic fertilizer, T3; 10 tha-1 Cowdung + 50 % of recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer,
T4; 10 tha-1 + 75% of recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer, T5; 10 tha-1 Vermicompost
(Recommended dose), T6; 10 tha-1 Vermicompost + 25% of recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer, T7;
10 tha-1 Vermicompost + 50 % of recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer, T8; 10 tha-1 Vermicompost +
75 % of recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer, T9; 100 % Inorganic fertilizer

Number of seeds/pod: Maximum number of seeds/pod was found in T8 (12.1) which was
statistically similar with T4 (12.1) and closely followed by T7 (11.5) whereas minimum from T0
(10.1) (Table 1).
Number of seeds/plant: Maximum number of seeds/plant was recorded in T8 (312.6) while
minimum from T0 (188.1) (Table 2).
Table 2. Effect of various combinations of organic and inorganic fertilizers on different attributes
of BARI Mung 5 x
K
Seed N P
Number of 1000-seed Seed yield content
Treatments yield/ content in content in
seeds/plant weight (g) (kg/ha) in seeds
plant (g) seeds (%) seeds (%)
(%)
T0 188.1 h 7.9 f 29.5 f 699.1 c 3.19 g 0.29 g 1.06 d
T1 228.6 fg 9.4 e 32.4 cde 824.6 bc 3.24 fg 0.30 fg 1.86 c
T2 246.7 f 11.1 c 33.2 bcd 934.4 b 3.26 ef 0.32 def 1.92 c
T3 269.6 cde 12.1 b 34.2 abc 975.5 b 3.31 bcde 0.33 bcde 2.12 ab
T4 299.3 ab 14.1 a 35.1 ab 1104.2 a 3.33 bcd 0.34 abc 2.19 ab
T5 228.9 fg 9.7 de 29.7 f 932.0 b 3.26 ef 0.31 ef 2.04 bc
T6 267.3 cde 11.1 c 32.0 de 937.5 b 3.28 def 0.33 abcde 2.18 ab
T7 295.2 ab 12.6 b 33.3 bcd 985.6 b 3.36 ab 0.35 ab 2.25 a
T8 312.6 a 14.6 a 35.6 a 1127.5 a 3.39 a 0.35 a 2.29 a
T9 270.8 cd 11.1 c 30.7 ef 909.8 b 3.30 cef 0.32 cdef 1.91 c
LSD 21.5 0.8 2.1 130.7 0.1 0.02 0.18
CV (%) 2.4 2.9 11.5 5.2 5.2 6.9 3.26
x
In a column means having similar letter(s) are statistically similar and those having dissimilar letter(s) differ
significantly as per 0.05 level of probability

T0; Control, T1; 10 tha-1 Cowdung (Recommended dose), T2; 10 tha-1 Cowdung + 25 % of recommended dose of
inorganic fertilizer, T3; 10 tha-1 Cowdung + 50 % of recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer, T4; 10 tha-1 + 75%
of recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer, T5; 10 tha-1 Vermicompost (Recommended dose), T6; 10 tha-1
Vermicompost + 25% of recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer, T7; 10 tha-1 Vermicompost + 50 % of
recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer, T8; 10 tha-1 Vermicompost + 75 % of recommended dose of inorganic
fertilizer, T9; 100 % Inorganic fertilizer

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Rupa et al. 110

Seed yield plant: Maximum seed yield/plant was recorded in T8 (14.6 g) that was statistically
similar with T4 (14.1 g) and closely followed by T7 (12.6 g) and T3 (12.1 g) whereas lowest in T0
(7.9 g) (Table 2).
1000-seed weight: Maximum 1000-seed weight was found in T8 (35.6 g) and minimum in T0
(29.45 g) (Table 2).
Seed yield/ha: Maximum seed yield/ha was found from T8 (1127.5 kg) that was statistically
identical with T4 (1104.2 kg) and followed by T7 (985.6 kg) and T3 (975.5 kg) while lowest seed
yield/ha in T0 (699.1 kg) (Table 2).
Nitrogen content in seeds (%): Highest N content in seed was observed in T8 (3.39 %) that was
followed by T4 (3.33 %), T7 (3.36 %) and T3 (3.31 %) while lowest in T0 (3.19 %) (Table 2).
Phosphorus content in seeds (%): Highest P content in seed was recorded in T8 (0.351 %) that was
closely followed by the application of T4 (0.345%) and T7 (0.339 %) while the lowest from T0
(0.287 %) (Table 2).
Potassium content in seeds (%): Maximum K content in seed was found in T8 (2.29 %) which was
statistically similar with T7 (2.25 %) whereas lowest fromT0 (1.06 %) (Table 2).
Discussion
The combination of organic and inorganic fertilizers increased plant height, number of
leaves/plant, number of branches/plant, days to 50% flowering, number of pods/plant, number of
seeds/pod, number of seeds/plant, seed yield plant, 1000-seed weight and seed yield/ha than use of
inorganic fertilizer alone. This may be due to the combination of organic and inorganic fertilizers
improves soil physical properties, also known to contain plant nutrients, growth promoting
substances and beneficial microflora which in combination with inorganic fertilizers provide health
and favorable soil conditions to enhance nutrient use efficiency. Similar results were reported by
Channaveerswami (2005) in groundnut and Rajkhowa et al. (2002) in green gram.
Channaveerswami (2005) reported that application of vermicompost @ 2.5 tha-1 + RDF (25:50:50
kg NPK/ha) + copper ore tailing recorded higher number of branches (6.9) in groundnut. Patil
(1998) reported that of vermicompost @ 2.5 tha-1 + fly ash @ 30 tha-1 + RDF provided the
maximum pod yield (30.0 q/ha) than RDF alone in groundnut. Abbas et al. (2011) found that
application of DAP at 124 kg along with 10 tha-1 of poultry litter yielded maximum number of
pods/plant. Patil (1998) also reported that of vermicompost @ 2.5 tha-1 + fly ash @ 30 tha-1 + RDF
provided the maximum number of pods/plant, number of seeds/pod, number of seeds/plant, seed
yield plant, 1000-seed weight and seed yield/ha than RDF alone in groundnut.
Conclusion
From the above results and discussion it can be concluded that combination of organic and
inorganic fertilizer is more productive compare to sole use of inorganic fertilizers. We may be able
to reduce the doses of inorganic fertilizers by combining the both. It is evident from the results that,
in case of BARI Mung 5, Vermicompost @ 4 tha-1 + 75 % of optimum dose of inorganic fertilizer
gave statistically same yield with Cowdung @ 6 tha-1 + 75% of optimum dose of inorganic
fertilizer. So, if we use these combinations, it will allow us to reduce the use of 25% inorganic
fertilizer at least.
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