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ABSTRACT

TITLE: National Identification Card System: a critique on the merits and

potential hindrance to its effectiveness.

AUTHOR: Mark Jenald A. Austria

DEGREE: Juris Doctor

YEAR: 2016

In broad terms, a national identification (ID) system is a mechanism used

by governments to assist public agencies in identifying and verifying the identities

of citizens who are availing of government services or making public

transactions. Usually, the citizen is assigned an identification number at birth or

when he or she reaches legal age. Depending on the purpose for which the ID

system was built, some countries include not only their citizens but also foreign

nationals who have become permanent residents.1

The Nationalized Identification System has brought a big convenience in

some other countries. The Philippines is only one of those few countries that do

not have this National Identification System. But, several proposals though varied

in scope and coverage, seeking to implement a national identification system has

been filed in the Senate and in the House of Representatives.

1
Senate Economic Planning office Policy insights dtd December 2005, the article entitled National
Identification System :Do we need one ,November 15, 2016,09:30PM.

1
Currently, in the Philippines Congress has proposed several House Bills

and Senate Bills on National Identification System that are still pending. The

study will focus on the assessment on the merits and potential hindrances of its

implementation of the National Identification System.

2
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The author would like to express her gratitude to the following persons

who helped, support and inspired in making this thesis: Judge Maricel

Magpantay-Ng, The authors professor in Legal Research for her patience and

continues support in making this research.

Dean Emeritus Hernando B Perez, Dean Hernando S Perez Jr., and all

the Professors and Faculty members of the University of Batangas College of law

for inspiring and motivating the author to strive harder to pursue this noble

profession.

To all my Classmates in JD1-A, for being a solid class and motivation and

perseverance to continue the Law School, to the Philippine Air Force, for allowing

the author to continue to study at the UBLC College of Law.

3
To my beloved Parents, brothers and sister, who were always to support

and love me. Most of all to my savior the, Almighty GOD for all this blessings in

my life.

4
TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
TABLE CONTENTS.
CHAPTER I: THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND1

1. Background of the study.1

2. Statement of the problem2

3. Significance of the study2

4. Scope and delimitation of the study.3

5. Definition of terms3

6. List of acronyms5

CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE...6

A. Related literature.6

B. Related Cases, Laws and Bills...17

CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY.23

A. Research Design23

CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA...25

CHAPTER V: FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS28

A. Findings...28

B. Conclusion..28

C. Recommendations.29

5
BIBLIOGRAPHY

6
Chapter I
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Background of the study

In 1996, then President Fidel Ramos issued Administrative Order No. 308

adopting a National Computerized Identification System. Unfortunately, the

orderwas declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court on the ground that

legislative approval is required for the scheme. Learning from this reversal, then

President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo issued Executive Order No. 420 requiring all

government agencies and government-owned and -controlled corporations to

harmonize their ID systems. This time, the program passed muster. The tribunal

upheld its validity because it applies only to government agencies that issue ID

cards as part of their functions and its issuance is within the power of the

president to promulgate. The order gave rise to the Unified Multi-Purpose ID

Card (UMID) that is issued to the members of SSS, GSIS, Philhealth and Pag-

ibig. This exclusivity feature has left out millions of Filipinos, i.e., the self-

employed, the unemployed, minors and those working abroad, from the

coverageof the government ID system.2 In relation to this there has been

proposal of Bills to the Senate and the Congress of the Philippines to

Nationalization of the ID system for the convenience not only by the government

agencies but also for the benefit of the people.

Based on the studies, existing laws and proposed bill the study will focus

2
National ID System by Raul J Pajabrica of Philippine Daily Inquirer,11:22PM dtd May 31, 2015.
http://business.inquirer.net/192804/national-id-system

7
on the merits and potential hindrances arising from the system of implementation

of this National Identification System.

1. Statement of the Problem:

The aim of the study is to explore the merits of the National Identification

Card system in the Philippines. The study also investigates obstacles or

hindrances facing its implementation. Especially this sought to answer the

following questions:

1. How can this ID system be implemented and be effective?

2. What are the advantages of having this ID System?

3. What are the hindrances to its effectiveness?

4. Based from the study what are the resources can be proposed?

2. Significance of the study

This study proceeds on the presumption that the merit of the

implementation of the National Identification Card System outweighs its potential

hindrances in consideration with the existing bills and related laws. This Study

will be identified to the following with the existing bills and related laws. This

Study will also specifically of significance to the public, legislators and future

researchers;

To the public, especially in interests of the people, for them to be informed

8
regarding the merits and hindrances that may arise in the implementation of the

National identification System.

To the Legislators, as representative of the people they must consider not

only their own interest but also the interest of the people of the state and the

government.

To Future Researchers, to be used as their basis on their future research

and study in connection to this topic.

3. Scope and delimitation of the study

The scope of the study will be limited on the merits and potential

hindrances study assumed that the national ID system will be an effective tool on

its implementation in connection with the existing issues and proposed bills in by

the senate and the congress of the Philippines and international laws on national

identification system.

4. Definition of terms

Identification (ID) Card Every Filipino, whether residing in the Philippines or

abroad, is mandated to register personal information required by the ID System,

and upon application shall be issued non-transferrable Filipino ID Card with an ID

number that shall be valid for life, subject to replacement only under the following

circumstances:

9
(a) When a child reaches the legal age of eighteen (18) years old; (b) When there

is change in name and family name by virtue of court order or by application of

law, such as a married woman adopting the surname of the husband; (c) For lost

or destroyed ID card; (d) For other revisions that may be deemed necessary by

the cardholder such as changes in the facial features due to age or medical

intervention. Filipino cardholders upon reaching the age of sixty (60) years old

are required to renew their Filipino ID card, free of charge. The Filipino ID card

shall be made of tamper-proof security material. It shall have on its face the

imprinted photograph, name, birth date, gender, date of issue, signature of

owner, the corresponding individual serial number issued 3 by the Philippine

Statistics Authority (PSA), and such other data as may be deemed necessary.

The Filipino ID card shall also have the capability to store at least the biometric

data of the individual cardholder. The initial application and issuance of the

Filipino ID card shall be free of charge as part of the governments social service

responsibility. A replacement fee shall be paid by the cardholder. The pertinent

details for applicants with preexisting government issued identification card shall

be utilized and honored as reference in the issuance of the Filipino ID card.

Filipino Identification System referred to as the ID System is hereby

Established and instituted as a useful tool towards the attainment of a

progressive society through the provision of sufficient services to all Filipinos.

The identification system shall provide official identification system of all citizens

of the Republic of the Philippines through the issuance of the Filipino

Identification Card (Filipino ID card). It shall gradually concert and consolidate all

10
Government-initiated identification system into one integrated and efficient

identification system.

5. List of Acronyms

AO- Administrative Order

EO- Executive Order

GSIS- Government Service Insurance System

NEDA- National Economic Development Authority

NSO- National Statistics Office

PIN- Personal Identification Number

PSA- Philippine Statistics Authority

PSO- Philippine Statistics Office

SSA- Social Security Administration

SSS- Social Security System

11
Chapter II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter presents the review of related studies of other researchers

and on the merits and potential hindrances based on the implementation of the

National Identification Card System. The bills proposed by the Senate and the

House of Congress of the Philippines from the 14th Congress up to the present

17th Congress will be discussed also in this chapter. The studies are arranged In

order based on its making in order for the reader to have a view on this National

Identification Systems merit and usefulness of its implementation.

A. RELATED LITERATURE

1. The proposed national identification system as a security measure

or a tool to combat criminality and terrorism is not a bad idea at all especially at

this day and age. To be sure, the plan may also be useful in facilitating delivery

of basic services. In 1996, a similar plan was also adopted. It was denominated

as a "national computerized identification reference system" ostensibly for a

purpose that has nothing to do at all with the problems of national security and

criminality confronting the present government although they were already

existing. But such plan was shot down before taking off the ground. It

encountered a lot of objections because in reality it was likewise designed and

12
adopted as a security measure that gives the government the "power to compile

devastating dossier against unsuspecting citizens."3

But this time and at this stage, any objection to the present proposal is

premature. It is still on the drawing boards. The objections raised in the 1996 ID

system, that led to its being declared null and void by the Supreme Court, are

either non-existent or can still be avoided. The 1996 "National Computerized

Identification Reference System" was invalidated by the Supreme Court on two

main grounds: "one, it is a usurpation of the power of Congress to legislate, and

two ,it impermissibly intrudes on our citizenry and protected zone of

privacy."(Ople vs. Torres G.R.127685 July 23,1998). The Supreme Court (SC)

declared the said 1996 ID system as a usurpation of legislative power because it

was adopted only by means of an Administrative Order issued by the President

( A.O. 308).According to the SC, the President can issue administrative orders,

rules and regulations only in the exercise of administrative power and

administrative power is only concerned with the work of applying policies and

enforcing orders as determined by proper governmental organs to enable the

President to fix a uniform standard of administrative efficiency and check the

official conduct of its agents. An administrative order is an ordinance which

relates to specific aspects in the administrative operation of the government. The

national ID system established byA.O.308 redefines the parameters of some

basic rights of the citizenry vis-a-vis the State; it imposes a duty on a citizen to

get an ID before he can be given the right to deal with government agencies

3
National ID System by Jose C Sison dated October 21,
2002,http://www.philstar.com/opinion/180739/national-id-system

13
delivering basic services. So it deals with a subject of general concern or

common interest that should be covered by law enacted by Congress. It cannot

be covered by a mere administrative order. With respect to the present national

ID system being proposed, the President has already announced in no uncertain

terms that its adoption needs the act of Congress, not a mere administrative

order. So it will not certainly go the way of the 1996 ID system because the first

constitutional objection has been properly addressed and eliminated. Its adoption

will no longer be a usurpation of the Congressional power to legislate. The

second and more important constitutional objection is the violation of the right to

privacy. This is the main concern of Congress as it proceeds in the enactment of

the law. According to the SC in the same case of Ople vs. Torres supra, although

a law may have been impelled by a worthy purpose, it must "satisfactorily show

the presence of compelling state interest and it must be narrowly drawn to

preclude abuses The compelling state interest in the proposed ID system has

been openly disclosed. The government has been honest enough to say that it is

designed in the interest of national security, or to put it more bluntly, as a tool to

"crackdown" on crime and terrorism. The government did not conceal its intention

despite being aware that the proposal may encounter objections precisely

because of the dangerous tendency to indiscriminately invoke "national security"

to justify abuses. Such openness is therefore a clear sign of its sincere desire to

preclude any abuse; or at least its assurance that the danger of abuse will be

properly addressed and minimized.4

4
National ID System by Raul J Pajabrica of Philippine Daily Inquirer,11:22PM dtd May 31, 2015.
http://business.inquirer.net/192804/national-id-system

14
In the defunct 1996 ID system, the goal was sugarcoated apparently to

forestall possible objections. A.O. 308 was promulgated purportedly (1) to

provide our citizens and foreigners with the facility to conveniently transact

business with basic service and social security providers and other government

instrumentalities and (2) to reduce, if not totally eradicate fraudulent transactions

and misrepresentations by persons seeking basic services. Whether these

interests are compelling enough is still open to question, according to the SC. But

what is not doubtful is the " broadness, the vagueness, the over breath of A.O.

308 which if implemented will put our peoples right to privacy in clear and present

danger".5

The proposed bill for the planned national ID system must therefore

carefully steer clear of the objectionable features of the previous administrative

order on the same subject that was invalidated by the Supreme Court. And more

importantly, it must not breach the inviolable boundaries around the zones of

privacy accessible to every citizen.6

2. Issues and Problems: The Debate

A host of issues and concerns relative to the implementation of an ID

system makes it a contentious measure. The following are some of the issues

raised and the debate between those who support its implementation and those

who are against it.

2.1 Human Rights and Privacy Issue

5
Ibid
6
Ibid

15
Civil libertarians and human rights activists reject the idea of a national ID

card based on three reasons: functionality creep, the potential for misuse due to

identity fraud, and the privacy issue. The common denominator that runs through

these arguments is the extent through which the government would hold power

vis-vis its citizens.

According to human rights activists, an ID system can be a double-edged

sword because it can suffer from functionality creep which means it can serve

purposes other than its original intent. Thus, even if the original rationale for an

ID system is simply to cut government red tape, a government may eventually

use it as a mechanism for repression against political opponents or to

discriminate on the basis of race or ethnicity. For instance, as mentioned earlier,

the Rwanda genocide in 1995 was facilitated by the use of ID cards. Newspaper

reports recounted that Rwandans who presented ID cards bearing a Tutsi

identification were hacked to death by the Hutu militia.

While supporters claim that ID systems can be legislated to specifically

state the purpose of its implementation, critics believe that this is not a

guarantee. The context or political environment within which ID systems are

implemented is not static, hence the potential for abuse is very great.

The advent of biometrics and microchips technology also has profound

implications. Critics argue that the potential for abuse and invasion of privacy is

even greater with the use of biometrics since it is vulnerable to identity fraud. The

citizen is no longer in control of his personal information. For instance, the

research claims that facial recognition and iris scanning can sometimes be

16
defeated by presenting a picture of someone elses face or iris (CRS,2005).

Activists on the other hand, are more concerned with information security such

as unauthorized changes to or disclosure of biometric data stored in a central

database or on an identity document (ibid.).

Proponents of ID systems on the other hand contend that the use of a

Personal Identification Number (PIN) such as that found in automatic 6 teller

machines enhances data security and enables citizens to have control of the

data they wish to reveal. In addition, they claim that identity fraud and disclosure

can be prevented by investing in technology that will ensure the integrity of the

system and minimize the potential for misuse. They also argue that laws can be

enacted that can establish the rules on access, data storage and disclosure

pertaining to the national database.

Aside from the issue of misuse, ID system opponents believe that the idea

of a government tracking the activities of its citizens violates a citizens intrinsic

right to privacy. They say that a government intruding in the affairs of citizens is

dangerous and has dire consequences for social order. Moreover, the extent of

personal information that will be collected by the government and whether it

really serves a legitimate aim is a cause of alarm to rights activists. Supporters

of an ID system, on the other hand, contend that people who do not violate laws

have nothing to hide and should therefor have no reason to fear a government

monitoring their activities.7

7
Senate Economic Planning office Policy insights dtd December 2005, the article entitled National
Identification System :Do we need one .

17
3. Fighting Terrorism

In the aftermath of September 11, states scrambled to revise and update

their internal security policies so as to cope with the changing security

framework. Because the perpetrators were non-state actors and non-

combatants, states realized that new measures must be employed to counter the

dangers posed by terrorism. Homeland defense as opposed to national

defense is now the name of the game

4. The United States Experience

Interestingly, the most recent addition to countries that are implementing

ID systems is the United States. For so long, according to the Electronic Privacy

Information Center, efforts to install an ID system in the US have been staunchly

opposed by privacy groups. In fact, moves to expand the use of the Social

Security Number was consistently rejected in the 1970s and 80s. The Social

Security Number (SSN) which was established in 1936 was created specifically

to serve as a nine-digit account number to facilitate the implementation of the

Social Security System. It is used to monitor benefits availment and the

contribution of individual members of the US Social Security Administration.

In the succeeding years of its implementation, the government found other

purposes for the SSN. For instance, in 1961 the Civil Service Commission

started to use Social Security numbers to identify all federal employees. In 1962

the Internal Revenue Service started requiring taxpayers Social Security

numbers to appear on all completed tax returns. The Social Security

18
Administration (SSA) disclosed Social Security numbers to the private sector until

public outrage halted the practice in 1989.

The advent of the information technology revolution paved the way for the

many uses of the Social Security number. According to a 1995 study by the Cato

Institute, despite a provision in the 1974 Privacy Act prohibiting other uses of the

number without congressional approval, the number is now required in availing of

insurance, employment and drivers licenses that it has technically become a sort

of a national identifier (Miller and Moore, 1995). During the Clinton

administration, a health security card was proposed but was also shelved even

if the government assured full protection for privacy and confidentiality.

However, in the wake of September 11, there was a growing consensus in

the US that the security environment has changed. In fact the survey group Pew

Research Center showed that the ID system has gained the support of majority

of Americans (Jones, 2001). Nonetheless, for them, surveillance of phone calls

and e-mails still remains a ticklish issue. Likewise, The Oracle Chair, days after

the 911 incidents, urged the US government to install an ID system and offered

his companys software services free of charge. But even then, the Bush

administration, at least in public, was opposed to an ID system (ibid.).

Meanwhile, the USA Patriot Act of 2001, an anti-terrorism measure

approved by the US Congress in the aftermath of September 11, sought for the

development of biometric technology that can scan visa applicants. It was in May

2005 that a de-facto ID system was signed into law by President Bush. The

REAL ID Act mandates the creation of an electronically readable and federally

19
approved card to people living and working in the US. Under the law, people

living and working in the US will have to apply, through their state motor vehicle

agency, for an electronically readable and federally approved ID card, which in

effect replaces the old drivers license. In essence, it aims to re-issue the drivers

license according to the standards of the Department of Homeland Security, a

federal agency. Data to be contained in the card include name, birth date, sex,

ID number, digital photograph, address. The Department of Homeland Security is

allowed under the measure to add other features of the ID such as retinal scan or

fingerprints. Mechanisms to prevent fraud and tampering will be inputted in the

card.

What makes the ID unique from the previous drivers license is its

standardization. At present, state drivers licenses in the US vary from state to

state. Some states employ bar codes while others have magnetic strips. Some

do not have both. This discourages enterprises such as banks and airlines from

using this in their client transactions since this will not contribute to efficiency.

However, with a uniform ID, Barry Steinhardt, director of the American Civil

Liberties Unions technology and liberty program, says: Its going to result in

everyone, from the 7-Eleven store to the bank and airlines, demanding to see the

ID card. Theyre going to scan it in. Theyre going to have all the data on it from

the front of the card...Its going to be not just a national ID card but a national

database.8

8
Senate Economic Planning office Policy insights dtd December 2005, the article entitled National
Identification System :Do we need one .

20
5. Crime Prevention

ID system advocates hail its benefits in combating terrorism, illegal

immigration, crime and tax fraud. Because of the technology and data-driven

nature of todays society, a national ID system could easily track offenders. ID

supporters claim that the notion that citizens are being observed will enhance

public order and as such decrease opportunities for crime (LSE, 2005). However,

opponents belie this claim. The London School of Economics study on the

viability of the proposed ID system in the United Kingdom points out that the

police in developed countries believe that the lack of identification procedures

does not pose a problem in investigation. It is evidence gathering and

prosecution that remain as big obstacles for the resolution of crimes.

Nonetheless, using crime trends across Europe from 1995-1999, the LSE

observed that there are fewer crimes in countries without ID cards (LSE,

2005:36). However, it argues that it is hard to conclude from the data if ID

systems do affect crime trends.9

6. The House of Representatives recently approved on third and final

reading House Bill No. 5060 (or the proposed Filipino Identification System Act)

which requires all Filipinos, whether residing in the Philippines or abroad, to

apply for registration and issuance of a national identification card. The

opposition to the proposed national ID revolves principally on the perceived

threat to security and violation of privacy by the governments collection of

personal information. The bill addresses these issues by imposing penal

9
Ibid p.6

21
sanctions on the unlawful disclosure of information and records obtained in

relation to the application for the ID card.10

Admittedly, the proposed ID card is susceptible to abuse or misuse by

corrupt government officials or the cardholder himself. And so are many other

government licenses, permits or similar documentary issuances. Even developed

countries suffer from the same problem. The only difference is they are able to

catch the guilty parties faster and make them pay for their crimes.11

There will always be an evil genius who can come up with ways and

means to game a government program for selfish purposes. But this fact of life

should not paralyze the government to inaction.To address this issue, the bill

provides for sanctions for the misuse or abuse of the ID card system.

Although the security and privacy concerns are valid, we should not lose

sight, however, of the benefits or advantages of having a uniform computerized

system of identification of Filipino citizens wherever they may be.12

The proposed national ID card is aimed at consolidating all government-

issued IDs into an integrated and credible identification system. Properly used

and bearing the security features to make it tamper proof, this ID card will go a

long way in facilitating commercial and government transactions in our country.

With the Lower Houses approval of the bill, the ball is now in the court of the

10
National ID System by Raul J Pajabrica of Philippine Daily Inquirer,11:22PM dtd May 31, 2015.
http://business.inquirer.net/192804/national-id-system
11
Ibid
12
Ibid

22
Senate. It can come up with its own version or adopt the bill in all respects to

expedite its enactment into law.13

B. RELATED CASES ,STATUTES AND BILLS

1. Presidential Decree No. 278 August 24, 1973 President

FERDINAND E. MARCOS - Instituting a National Reference Card System and

Creating Therefor The National Registration Coordinating Committee. To ensure

national security and convenience in the transaction of official business with

government and private offices and agencies14

2. Administrative Order No. 308- the adoption of national

Computerized Identification Reference System for a need to provide Filipino

citizens and foreign residents with the facility to conveniently transact business

with basic services and social security providers and other government

instrumentalities. This will require a computerized system to properly and

efficiently identify persons seeking basic services and social security and reduce,

if not totally eradicate, fraudulent transactions and misrepresentations. a

concerted and collaborative effort among the various basic services and social

security providing agencies and other government instrumentalities is required to

achieve such a system.15

13
Ibid
14
Senate Economic Planning office Policy insights dtd December 2005, the article entitled National
Identification System :Do we need one .
15
E.O. No. 408 dated 12 December 1996 by President Fidel V Ramos

23
3. EXECUTIVE ORDER No. 420 dated April 13, 2005 issued by

President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo - Requiring all government agencies and

government-owned and controlled corporations to streamline and harmonize

their ID systems, and authorizing for such purpose the Director General National

Economic and Development Authority to implement the same and for other

purposes.

4. Ople v Torres G.R. No. 127685 July 23, 1998 the case is a

petition filed by Senator Blas F. Ople on the constitutionality of Administrative

Order No. 308 entitled "Adoption of a National Computerized Identification

Reference System" on two grounds, that one it is a usurpation of the power of

Congress to legislate, and two, it violates the right to privacy. The Supreme Court

decided in favor of Senator Oples petition declaring A.O. No. 308

unconstitutional.

5. KMU v Director General NEDA G.R. No. 167798 dated April 19,

2006.- On the Alleged Infringement of the Right to Privacy All these years, the

GSIS, SSS, LTO, Philhealth and other government entities have been issuing ID

cards in the performance of their governmental functions. There have been no

complaints from citizens that the ID cards of these government entities violate

their right to privacy. There have also been no complaints of abuse by these

government entities in the collection and recording of personal identification

data.16

16
KMU V Director General NEDA, G.R. No. 167798, dated April 19, 2006

24
The existing multiple identification systems in government have created

unnecessary and costly redundancies and higher costs to government, while

making it inconvenient for individuals to be holding several identification cards.

There is urgent need to streamline and integrate the processes and issuance of

identification cards in government to reduce costs and to provide greater

convenience for those transacting business with government.17

A unified identification system will facilitate private businesses, enhance

the integrity and reliability of government-issued identification cards in private

transactions, and prevent violations of laws involving false names and

identities.18

6. H.B. No. 5060 AN ACT ESTABLISHING THE FILIPINO

IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM 16th Congress Second Regular Session dated 25

Sept 2014 by Rep. Marlyn L Primicias- Agabas and Rep.Al Francis Bichara

(Filipino Identification System Act). SEC. 2. Declaration of Policy. It is the

policy of the State to promote a just and dynamic social order that shall ensure

the prosperity and independence of the nation and free the people from poverty

through policies that provide adequate social services and improved quality of life

for all. Towards this end, an effective identification system is hereby established

to 2 facilitate transactions with the government and to simplify the processes

relative to public and private services.

17
Ibid
18
Ibid

25
7. S.B. No. 1163- (National Identification system Act of 2007).

SECTION 2. Duty of the National Statistics Of$ce. - Within six (6) months from

the approval of this Act, the National Statistics Office shall administer the national

identification system specified in this Act. This bill proposes the national

identification card which will serve as the official identification of a Filipino citizen

or alien permanent resident dealing with department, bureau, agency, or office of

the government or any government-owned or controlled corporation, firm or

establishment, including, but not limited to government financial institutions. The

national identification card will do away with the need to present other documents

required for identification purposes. It intends to facilitate, for instance, the

issuance of passports and other official documents required by our citizens from

the Government. It will make the payment of fees and the collection of taxes

much easier and efficient. Election fraud, which is national scourge, can be

eliminated with the use of a national identification card.

8. S.B. No. 95 (AN ACT ESTABLISHING THE FILIPINO

IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM, AND APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR)

This bill seeks to consolidate all other government identification system

into one integrated identification system in order to sufficiently provide efficient

services to all Filipinos. The new identification system will be issuing a Filipino

Identification Card that would serve as the official identification for all citizens of

the Republic of the Philippines. This Filipino ID Card will be provided to all

Filipinos whether residing in the Philippines or abroad.

26
The Filipino ID system aims to reduce the red tape in government

bureaucracy that hinders the provision of services by eliminating redundancies

and simplifying the processes involved in public and private services. Among

other uses, it will be honored in all transactions with the government requiring the

identity of the person.

9. S.B. No. 917- AN ACT ESTABLISHING THE FILIPINO

IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM, PROVIDING FUNDS THEREFOR, AND FOR

OTHER PURPOSES -A list of of valid IDs in the Philippines enumerates 33

different forms of identification that are obtained from various government

agencies. Often, a different form of identification will be required of a Filipino

citizen depending on the service or government agency involved. The

bureaucracy, red tape, and wasted time involved in procuring and releasing each

different form of identification is economically inefficient for both the government

and its citizens. This also hinders the timely delivery of public services to ordinary

Filipinos who bear the opportunity cost of applying and waiting for their IDs.

The proliferation of various forms of government identification obtained

separately from different agencies also makes the government identification

systems vulnerable to discrepancies and identity fraud.If we are to continue our

pursuit to provide high quality social services to all Filipinos in an effective and

timely manner, we must take the necessary steps in unifying the identification

system which will allow us to have better control and more efficient interaction

between citizens and the government.This bill seeks to establish a unified Filipino

27
Identification System, to be implemented by the Philippine Statistics Authority

(PSA). The PSA will manage the Filipino Citizen Registry - a master database of

all registered Filipinos. Every Filipino citizen, including those born or residing

overseas, will be assigned a unique Common Reference Number at birth and will

only be required to renew this ID upon reaching the age of majority and again

upon reaching the age of 60. This ID shall be used as the sole required

identification in any government transaction and will be provided free of charge

as part of the government's social responsibility.

In pursuing a national identification system, Filipinos will have a more

efficient experience with government transactions and the government will

benefit from a thorough database of information on Filipino citizens. This will also

pave the way to more effective ways of delivering government services such as

anti-poverty programs and other social services to improve the quality of life for

all.19

19
S.B.No 917 by Senator Benigno Bam Aquino IV. 17 th Congress of the Philippines First Regular session.

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Chapter III
METHODOLOGY

This chapter provides the methodology of the study. It aims to describe

the Data and reference sources, collection techniques and analytical statement

of data.

Research Design

This study was conducted in order to assess the merits and potential

hindrances of the National Identification System. To be able to gather the

necessary data, the researcher utilized the descriptive method, using qualitative

approach. Herein, the information were gathered from the relevant literatures,

cases, proposed bills and existing local national and international laws. were also

used to support the gathered findings.

The credibility of findings and conclusions extensively depend on the

quality of the research design, data collection, data management, and data

analysis. This chapter will be dedicated to the description of the methods and

procedures done in order to obtain the data, how they will be analysed,

interpreted, and how the conclusion will be met. This section is to justify the

means in which the study was obtained and will help in giving it purpose and

strength as it will then be truthful and analytical. All these will help in the

processing of the data and the formulation of conclusions.

This study utilized the descriptive method of research. As widely accepted,

the descriptive method of research is a fact-finding study that involves adequate


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and accurate interpretation of findings. Descriptive research describes a certain

present condition. Relatively, the method is appropriate to this study since it aims

to describe the present situation.

The researcher opted to use this kind of research considering the desire to

acquire first hand data from the bills, cases and existing laws which are sources

formulate rational and sound conclusions and recommendations for the study.

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Chapter IV
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

The national ID system be implemented and be effective

The National Identification System can be implemented by the act of

congress notwithstanding the rights of every person to privacy and based on the

constitutional provisions. It should be funded based on the General

appropriations act in accordance with our existing laws and the constitution.

Upon implementation of the said law the proper government agency which shall

be responsible for the implementing rules and regulations as well as its issuance.

limits the data to be collected and recorded under the uniform ID system to only

14 specific items, namely: (1) Name; (2) Home Address; (3) Sex; (4) Picture; (5)

Signature; (6) Date of Birth; (7) Place of Birth; (8) Marital Status; (9) Name of

Parents; (10) Height; (11) Weight; (12) Two index fingers and two thumbmarks;

(13) Any prominent distinguishing features like moles or others; and (14) Tax

Identification Number. These limited and specific data are the usual data required

for personal identification by government entities, and even by the private sector

The advantages of having this ID System

The national Identification system can reduced costs and thereby lessen

the financial burden on both the government and the public brought about by the

use of multiple ID cards and the maintenance of redundant database containing

the same or related information. It also ensure greaters convenience for those
31
transacting business with the government and those availing of government

services and enhance the integrity and reliability of government-issued ID cards.

The National identification System facilitates private businesses and

promotes the wider use of the unified ID card It also facilitate access to and

delivery of quality and effective government service.

Because of the technology and data-driven nature of todays society, a

national ID system could easily track offenders. ID system advocates hail its

benefits in combating terrorism, illegal immigration, crime and tax fraud.

National ID system is that reduces government red tape and makes the

delivery of public services more efficient. An ID system is particularly useful in

public transactions involving a huge segment of the population such as voting.

The hindrances to its effectiveness

The implementation of the National ID card is susceptible to abuse or

misuse by corrupt government officials or the cardholder himself. The lack of

proper safeguards in this regard to the implementation of the National ID System

may abuse individual lacks control over what can be read or placed on his ID,

much less verify the correctness of the data encoded

Neglect of authorities to safety measures may also enable corrupt persons

and to track down persons movement and access confidential information. If the

information leaked the possibilities of abuse and misuse of the may result to

individual lacks control over what can be read or placed on his ID, much less

32
verify the correctness of the data encoded. In the Philippines the 1987

Constitutions concept of privacy leans more on the citizens right to privacy in

ones abode than privacy of ones personal information.

Proposal for the Effectivity of the National ID System

The main issuing authority of the official or implementing government

agency shall promulgate such rules or regulations as may be necessary in

pursuance of the objectives of this National Identification System as may be

necessary and adequate to ensure efficiency and effectiveness of its

implementation.

Making the data collection and recording of government entities unified,

and making their ID formats uniform, will admittedly achieve substantial benefits.

These benefits are savings in terms of procurement of equipment and supplies,

compatibility in systems as to hardware and software, ease of verification and

thus increased reliability of data, and the user-friendliness of a single ID format

for all government entities.

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Chapter V
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

A. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

Based on the study, what has been established in this study are as the

implementation of this National Identification System shall not only consider the

benefit of the government but must also consider the rights of the citizens of the

state. It shall not violate the constitutional provisions and the constitutional rights

of the people. advocates hail its benefits in combating terrorism, illegal

immigration, crime and tax fraud. Because of the technology and data-driven

nature of todays society, a national ID system could easily track offenders. ID

supporters claim that the notion that citizens are being observed will enhance

public order and as such decrease opportunities for crim

A more Comprehensive study must be conducted to implement this

National Identification System.

A. CONCLUSION

Therefore based on the gathered facts clearly, a National ID system has

its advantages as well as disadvantages. However, as the study has shown, it is

not a solution to the problems that pursue the country. Efforts to curb criminality

should still be focused on huge budgetary investments in the training, values

education and capacity-building of the law enforcement. This should be

complemented by resolving the perennial problems in the other pillars of the

justice system. Because the government plays a significant role in instituting in


34
the bureaucracy the central tenets of good governance: transparency,

predictability, participation and accountability.20

B. RECOMMENDATIONS

The country should adopt a systematic and progressive processing of

National Identification System. Competent professional who are capable making

a secure systematic database system to this National Identification that are

confidentially kept and are not easily accessible to hackers. Laws shall be

passed based on the unauthorized access to data gathered from the National

Identification System corresponding penalties shall be imposed to offenders in

violation of said laws. This is to secure and to prevent hackers in disposal of

important and confidential information.

20
Ibid

35
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Senate Economic Planning office Policy insights dtd December 2005, the article
entitled National Identification System :Do we need one .

National ID System by Raul J Pajabrica of Philippine Daily Inquirer,11:22PM dtd


May 31, 2015. http://business.inquirer.net/192804/national-id-system

National ID System by Jose C Sison dated October 21,


2002,http://www.philstar.com/opinion/180739/national-id-system

Senate Economic Planning office Policy insights dtd December 2005, the article
entitled National Identification System :Do we need one .

Senate Economic Planning office Policy insights dtd December 2005, the article
entitled National Identification System :Do we need one .

E.O. No. 408 dated 12 December 1996 by President Fidel V Ramos

KMU V Director General NEDA, G.R. No. 167798, dated April 19, 2006

S.B.No 917 by Senator Benigno Bam Aquino IV. 17 th Congress of the Philippines
First Regular session.

http://business.inquirer.net/192804/national-id-system

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