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ADVANCED SPOKEN JAPANESE

TONARI NO SHIBAF U
VOLUME I

(LESSONS 1-9)

KATSUHIKO SAKUMA
FRANK T. MOTOFUJI

INSTITUTE OF EAST ASIAN STUDIES


UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY
ADVANCED SPOKEN JAPANESE

TONARI NO SHIB AFU


VOLUME I

(LESSONS 1-9)

KATSUHI KO SAKUMA
FRANK T. MOTOFUJ I

INSTITUTE OF EAST ASIAN STUDIES


UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA , BERKELEY
1980 by the Regents of the University of California
ISBN 0-912966-23-8
PREFACE
The Institute of East Asian Studies of the University of California, Berkeley, is pleased to announce the
availability of Advanced Spoken Japanese: Tonari no shibafu. Designed to improve the oral-aural skills at advanced
levels, this text is a welcome addition to the existing body of conversational materials available to the serious student
of Japanese.
The Institute wishes to thank the following individuals and organizations for their assistance in the compilation
of this text: Mrs. Julia A. Petrov, Chief, Research Program, International Studies Branch, U.S. Office of Education,
for the basic grant that made possible the compilation work itself; Mr. Maeda Yoichi, Director of the International
House of Japan and Professor John W. Hall of Yale University, for paving the way for a Hoso-Bunka Foundation
grant; Mr. Isao Sugiyama and Miss Teruko !hara of the Hoso-Bunka Foundation for making available a publication
subsidy grant and prepublication expenses; Messrs. Sadao Nakamichi, Shoichi Takashima, and Yasukazu
Tsukagoshi ofNHK International, NHK Service Center, Inc., for negotiating copyright matters with the various
parties involved and making available copies of the two NHK programs used in compiling the text, "Tonari no
shibafu" and "Okusan goissho ni: Chichioya no yakuwarz~ hahaoya no yakuwari," and to the Japan Foundation
for providing a generous publication grant.
Finally, the Institute wishes to thank the co-authors, Mr. Katsuhiko Sakuma, who was wholly responsible for
both the pedagogy and the work of directing a staff of many, and Professor Frank T. Motofuji, who initiated the
project and provided assistance throughout, for their respective contributions to the text.

Robert A. Scalapino, Director


Institute of East Asian Studies
U Diversity of California, Berkeley
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The project was developed and completed in two phases. Thanks are due the following staff members of the
earlier period:
Professor Makoto Ueda, Chairman, Department of Asian Languages, Stanford University; Mr. Gregory
Barrett; Dr. Yoshiko Dykstra, Lecturer, Department of Oriental Languages, University of California, Berkeley;
Mr. Hiroyasu Kubota, Lecturer, Department of Asian Languages, Stanford University; and Mr. Hiroshi
Sakamoto, Lecturer, Department of Asian Languages, Stanford University.
In the later period, the following staff members deserve our deepest gratitude:
Ms. Naoko Masuno; Mr. Yasuhiko Nagano, a graduate student in the Department of Linguistics, University of
California at Berkeley; Mr. Richard Okada, a graduate student in the Department of Oriental Languages,
University of California, Berkeley; Ms. Shigeko Okamoto, a graduate student in the Department of Linguistics,
University of California, Berkeley; Ms. Mayumi Sakuma, Research Associate, Department of Oriental Languages,
University of California, Berkeley; and Mr. Yasuo Watanabe, a student in the Department of English, University of
California, Berkeley.
Many individuals also gave freely of their time. Thanks are due to Professor Amin Sweeney of the Department of
South and Southeast Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley; Ms. Carla Atkins; and Mr. James Zumwalt
for viewing the TV tapes and offering invaluable suggestions. Ms. Lynne Miyake and Ms. Stephanie Harolde
provided much-needed assistance at the final stages in the preparation of the initial draft of the text submitted to the
U.S. Office of Education. They proofread, provided typing skills, and assembled the pages of the seven volumes.
Mr. Kevin Gregg, Mr. Henry Hayase, and Mr. James Hubbert were good enough to read through the English
sections of the text. Their welcome suggestions were incorporated in the text. Such infelicities as remain are entirely
the fault of the authors.
Last, but far from least, on our list of benefactors, is Mr. K. Anthony Namkung, Assistant Director, Institute of
East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley, without whose extraordinary interest in the project and
cooperation from its inception this text would not have seen the light of day.

ii
INTRODUCTION

The authors' aims, in preparing a text consisting of segments of a televised drama and accompanying lessons,
were twofold. The primary goal was to enable the advanced student in modern Japanese to attune his auditory
faculty to normal speech. The language-learning experience is all too often associated with memories of frustrating
and vanity-shattering encounters with native speakers outside of the classroom. A vast difference exists between the
speech of a professional language teacher speaking in textbook style under highly controlled conditions, and that of
the general population, who are not bound by such conditions. By listening to, comprehending and reproducing the
normal speech of the characters in the drama, the student will facilitate entry into colloquial speech.
For the student who has attained the desired level of fluency in advanced conversation, the tapes will serve as a
vehicle for maintaining his hard-earned facility in anon-Japanese environment. The tapes and text will benefit both
sexes.
The television play selected was Tonari no shibafu (The Grass is Greener), an extraordinarily successful drama
produced by Nihon Hoso Kyokai (Japan Broadcasting Corporation) in 1976. Ms. Rashida Sugako, the writer of the
scenario, has said that she wrote it to provoke arguments in the Japanese home where she felt extended discussions
on any topic had ceased, ironically, because of television itself. The subject of her play, the disruptions in the routine
of a middle-class family when the man's mother arrives uninvited and decides to stay permanently, is played against
the larger problem of who looks after parents with the gradual dissolution of the extended family.
The topic touched so many raw nerves throughout Japan that the rating of the program was extraordinary,
leading NHK to take the unprecedented step of rebroadcasting the series the same year. The problem is a universal
one, and for this reason the authors are convinced that the impact of the play will not be dulled by time.
The second aim of the authors was to enable the student to come vicariously into contact with a Japanese family,
to hear their speech and observe aspects of their life. The characters are to some extent stereotyped for dramatic
purposes - the overbearing yet insecure mother, the indecisive son, the suffering daughter-in-law, the unhappy
children - so they will be easily recognized by the student.
Even if he were living with such a family in Japan, the student would rarely have the opportunity to observe
closely every aspect of the daily lives and thoughts of each member of the family. It is highly unlikely, for instance,
that differences would be unself-consciously aired in front of an outsider. But the characters in our television play
bare their innermost thoughts (or withhold them in that peculiarly Japanese way, as noted in the text under
"Cultural Notes"). The student, will, in effect, be eavesdropping on exemplars of the singularities of the Japanese
personality as the characters interact among themselves.
In addition to the dramatic segments from The Grass is Greener, the authors have selected portions from a panel
discussion on a topic that was relevant to the play and that may, indeed, have been convened for the purpose of
discussing the implications of the play. This panel, which included the then Minister of Education Nagai Michio,
several writers (including the creator of The Grass is Greener), a film director, and a principal of a progressive school,
met to discuss, under the rubric Chichioya no yakuwari, hahaoya no yakuwari (The Role of the Father, the Role of the
Mother), the decreasing importance of the father in the Japanese family, and the alarming increase in the role of the
mother, to the point where there are many families in Japan in which the children are brought up almost exclusively
by their mothers. This program, also produced by NHK, was broadcast in 1976.
Now about methodology. Transcriptions of the sounds uttered by every person in the drama and the participants
in the panel discussion are provided, but translations of these sounds are not. It is the authors' belief that the student
places an obstacle between himself and the target language when he attempts to tackle the language through
translation. He must realize at the outset that this text is not the study of a scenario through a translation. He must
train himself to grasp the nuances of speech and the psychological state behind an utterance through the language
itself simply because this is the language that the Japanese think in. The student who feels that he needs a translation

iii
in order to understand the developments in the play is not ready for this text. For the student who is planning to
trade on the Japanese willingness to make concessions to non-native speakers and is satisfied with uttering pidgin or
broken Japanese ("so long as they understand me"), this text may be disappointing.
Information on the cultural background is also provided. This will enable the student to appreciate language in
relation to the rich array of values, sentiments, customs, and etiquette that the characters will impart. This part of the
text hopes to clarify some of the important points of language and the psychological reactions of the Japanese within
a cultural context that is not always understood by Europeans.
Through images, the student will find himself situated inside an ordinary Japanese home, whose inner workings,
all but impenetrable to the outsider, will gradually reveal themselves with careful study of the speech of the
characters within a given context. The student must analyze each utterance for intonation, word order, deletions,
abbreviations, speech level, and speech style. Satisfaction at comprehending the dialogue will be intensified with the
knowledge that the speech and context are close to real life, being the creations of a dramatist and not the products of
a language pedagogue concerned mainly with points of grammar.
It is the authors' conviction that the student who wishes to learn to speak Japanese correctly will sooner or later
have to undertake a course of study such as is recommended here. The student who masters this text will have
accustomed himself to ordinary discourse of ordinary Japanese and will have shed his fear of spoken Japanese.

iv
WEEKLY SCHEDULE OF ASSIGNMENTS

It may be convenient, in discussing the weekly schedule of assignments, to think in terms of one lesson per week;
and wi.th the assumption that the class will meet three times a week- on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. The
chart below illustrates the overall program.

Classroom

Lang. Lab.
(independent III(a) V(a)
study)
t----- - - - - - - - - 1 ......... . ............. .. .............. .. -----------1
Other
(independent I (a) III(b) V(b) VII
study) (b)

The weekly routine, as represented by the Roman numerals and letters in the chart, is as follows:

I. Assignment prior to the initial meeting on Mondays.


l(a). Monday (apart from the first Monday) will be partly given over to a quiz on the previous week's lesson.
Students are expected to review that assignment.
l(b). Prior to the Monday class (and before viewing the TV episode), students should go over the section on key
words and phrases that appears at the beginning of each lesson. This is all the preparation that the student needs to
make prior to the initial viewing of the tape each Monday. He should not look over the other portions of the lesson, e.g.,
vocabulary list, notes, or the transcription.
II. Monday classroom activities.
On this day, the student will view for the first time the tape assigned for that week. As noted in I(b) on the chart,
the student will have gone over, prior to this meeting, only a very limited number of key words and phrases. This
means that, for the student, the initial exposure to several minutes of the weekly tape will be a vivid experience; he is
thrust, with hardly any preparation, into a scene in which he hears a number of Japanese speaking colloquially in
their native tongue.
At this point a matter of some importance will occur to the student. He will realize that, in the process of training
himself to become thoroughly familiar with the natural speech of native speakers, he had been dependent almost
entirely on auditory acuity and a fund of grammar, but that now he is faced with the necessity to read "body
language" and facial expressions as well - elements which are not conveyable in written texts but which television is
eminently equipped to provide.
Thus, the student should not only concentrate on the sounds of the language but should also take advantage of
everything he sees on the screen that could provide clues to the content of the dialogues: the body language, gestures,
and the facial expressions of the actors in the drama and of the participants in the panel discussion.
Where conversations in real life can never be repeated verbatim, videotape allows the student to duplicate them
as often as necessary. The instructor will run the tape a number of times on Mondays. It is desirable that the instructor
avoid the temptation ofproviding the student with explanations or a narration of the contents. A repeat showing of the tape

v
would be preferable.
The goal in the first hour is to allow the student, by bringing his own resources into play, to obtain a
comprehensive impression of the Japanese language as it is used among native speakers, and to develop an analytical
attitude that will enable him to fuse phrase with context.
The role of the instructor, after the initial viewing of the tape, will be primarily to assist the student to consolidate
his own discoveries by providing brief verbal guidelines on how to "read" each scene most effectively.
III. Activities prior to the second meeting on Wednesdays (Independent Study).
III( a). After the Monday session, and prior to the second meeting on Wednesday, the student will go to the
language laboratory where he will borrow the soundtrack tape and the exercise tape for that week's lesson, and do the
Exercises (First Half). Each of the exercises is accompanied by simple directions . The following is an explanation of
the aims of these exercises.
1. Exercise I - Comprehension of Content
In the Monday (the first) hour, you, the student, were exposed, almost without preparation, to the Japanese
language as it is used in what is close to a real-life situation. You were able to view the same scenes repeatedly. Even
supposing that, after repeated viewings, you were still able to grasp only minimally the contents of the dialogue, you
should be able, when listening to the soundtrack tape in the language laboratory, to recollect clearly who was
speaking with whom, where, and with what kind of expression.
The main point in this section of the exercises is to get you to listen carefully to the soundtrack tape without
isolating the sound from the concrete images you saw on the TV screen.
The questions in sections (a), (b), and (c) will test your comprehension of the contents. Section (a) consists of
true-false questions. In this section, the most general outline of the segment of the drama will be checked. Section (b)
consists of multiple-choice questions. These questions will deal with the content in a little more detail. Section (c)
consists of questions posed in Japanese, to which you will be required to respond in Japanese.
In this part, feel free to listen to the soundtrack tape as often as necessary.
2. Exercise II - Aural Comprehension of Key Words and Phrases
This section of the exercises is a more detailed test of your aural comprehension. The goal here is to lead you
beyond the stage of a vague comprehension of the story line or even of what is being said, to the point where you will
grasp the nuances in the discourse.
The blanks in the transcription of the dialogue represent key points in contextual comprehension. These
exercises will require an enormous amount of concentration and time, but it is only by corning to grips with such
exercises that you are going to approach the native speaker's ability, when talking with other Japanese, to focus on
the important points in the discourse.
Once you have completed Exercise II, it is important that you test yourself again on Exercise I and check, on
your own, your earlier responses. Do not be surprised or discouraged by the number of errors you may have made.
3. Exercise III - Check-points for Difficult Sounds
In this section, we will examine phonetic problems common to English-speaking people who are exposed to
spoken Japanese.
Leaving aside those students who have lived in Japan and who thus possess privileged information, the majority
of the students who have reached the intermediate and advanced levels of Japanese have been exposed primarily to
written Japanese. They will undoubtedly find the first exposure to television drama and panel discussions produced for
the Japanese (and not for non-Japanese learning Japanese), in which the language is extremely colloquial, to be a
frustrating experience. This is quite natural: Japanese is a language in which the colloquial and the written styles are
quite different.
This section deals with forms that crop up only in colloquial speech and with elusive sounds. Each of the eighteen
lessons will take up one aspect of spoken Japanese, as partially listed below; but the student will soon note that every
segment of the drama contains several or all of the problems isolated.
Lessons 1-3 deal with some representative forms of contractions.
Lesson 4 will deal with those sounds in speech that shift readily to syllabic /NI .
Lessons 5, 9, and 14 will deal with space-fillers.
Lesson 6 deals with the presence or absence of vowels.
Lesson 10 deals with initial vowels.
Lesson 11 deals with long consonants.

vi
Lesson 12 deals with syllabic IN/.
(And so forth.)
Repeated viewing of the videotapes and listening to the soundtrack tapes are highly effective procedures in the
routine leading toward mastery of spoken Japanese; but the systematic strengthening of potential weak points in the
listener's comprehension is also crucial. These exercises were designed with just this aim in mind. As difficult as the
various forms may be initially, the student may take heart by recognizing that their concentration at this point will
save much valuable time.
III(b ). Upon completion of Exercises I, II, and III, the student is now ready to go over the various notes in Part
II.
In Notes on Grammar and Expressions I, you will consolidate the fund of grammatical information that you
absorbed in the first two years of Japanese. At those levels, you were exposed to controlled Japanese devised for
teaching non-natives and written with the aim of building a foundation for further study. You now have a unique
opportunity to test your knowledge of Japanese grammar by plunging into the area of spoken Japanese. The compilers
of this text strongly recommend that you pay particular attention to the way each of the grammatical structures is utilized
in the everyday speech of the Japanese.
Through the section, Notes on Grammar and Expressions II, you will quickly become accustomed to such
characteristics of spoken Japanese as contractions, deletions, variations in word order, speech levels, and speech
styles. In this section abstract elucidations have been avoided as much as possible; numerous concrete examples have
been taken from the dialogues of the play. Study each of these examples carefully.
A study of the section, Notes on Socio-cultural Background, will give you a fuller understanding of the drama
and of the views expressed by the participants in the segments of the panel discussion. Such information is generally
treated elsewhere in abstract generalizations. In your case, however, because you have access to concrete contexts, the notes
will be more than abstract elucidations. Situating yourselffiguratively inside a middle-class Japanese home, you will
be in a position to observeJapanese life closely, to understand the culture of theJapanese as you absorb their language.
IV. Wednesday Classroom Activities (Second Day)
IV(a). In the first half of the hour, the class will review the exercises based on the first half of the TV segment
viewed on Monday. The instructor will check the replies, respond to questions, and, if necessary, play the
soundtrack tape on a cassette recorder for content or elusive sounds.
IV(b). In the second half of the hour, the class will view the second half of the week's segment of the TV
program. The method to be followed is the same as that described in II above.
V. Assignments Prior to the Friday Meeting (Third Day). (Independent Study)
V(a). In the time between the end of the Wednesday (second day) session and before the Friday (third day)
session, the student will go to the language laboratory and do the Exercises (Second Half) while listening to the
exercise tape. The method to be followed is the same as that described in III( a) above.
V(b ). The student is then to go over the various notes for the second half of the lesson.
VI. Classroom Activities on Friday (Third Day)
VI( a). During the first half of the hour, the instructor will check your responses to the exercises you prepared on
your own and based on one or more viewings of the TV episode in class on Wednesday. The procedure is the same as
that described in IV( a) above.
Vl(b ). In the second half of the hour you will discuss in Japanese the contents of the TV episode that you have
seen. As mentioned earlier, concrete and meaningful discussions will be possible because the entire class shares concrete
events through the TV images. Numerous topics for discussion suggest themselves. Some are: relationships within the
family, especially those between husband and wife and between parents and children; behavior patterns; views on
life and values; the position of women within the family; the problem of women in general, etc.
The knowledge you have gained through the study of the socio-cultural notes should be helpful.
VII. Study after the Friday (Third Day) Session. (Independent Study)
The homework assigned for the weekend is designed to help the student to review, consolidate, and reinforce his
knowledge of the contents of the tape assigned that week.
The contents of each episode are summarized for you in written Japanese. You will be asked to select, from several
choices following each question, an appropriate entry with which to fill the blanks. One of the aims of this exercise is
to test your knowledge of the contents without the intermediary of the English language. Another is to maintain the

VII
student's familiarity with written style. This assignment will not be too difficult because you will be writing out what
you have fully understood in the spoken form. This practice will enable you ultimately to read Japanese rapidly.
With the completion of the homework, the assignments for the week (except for the quiz on Monday) are
concluded.
The quiz format is as follows: the student will listen to about thirty seconds of the soundtrack tape; then he will be
asked to reply in writing to written questions about that segment.

viii
A Brief History of the Videotape Materials Project
The genesis of the VTR project at the University of California at Berkeley arose in a modest experiment, initiated
in 1975 by Frank T. Motofuji, that utilized television dramas produced in Japan to supplement conversational
practice for students in intermediate and advanced Japanese.
When student response exceeded all expectations, the suggestion made by K. Anthony Namkung of submitting
a proposal to the Office of Education in the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, to develop a
conversational course consisting of videotapes and a text was immediately acted upon. The proposal, drawn up
mainly by Mr. Namkung, was accepted, and a grant was received in 1976. The contract period was fifteen months.
The staff at this period consisted of Frank Motofuji, Yoshiko Dykstra, Gregory Barrett, and Katsuhiko Sakuma
of Berkeley; Professor Makoto Ueda, Hiroyasu Kubota, and Hiroshi Sakamoto of Stanford.
In the summer of 1976, Motofuji and Barrett flew to Tokyo to select suir~ble programs and negotiate with
producers for copyright releases. Eight separate programs were obtained and brought back. Viewing of the tapes
began in the late summer and continued into the fall of 1976; transcription and translation of selected segments from
five of the programs were then undertaken by the staff.
When the complexity of the project and the Principal Investigator's ill health made it clear that the time period
would not suffice, N amkung interceded with the OE and obtained an extension of seven months.
In the fall of 1977, Katsuhiko Sakuma reorganized the basic concept of the program so that the lessons focused
mainly on Tonari no shibafu, and developed the methodology, pedagogical goals, and plan of action to be adopted. He
selected the eighteen segments to be used in eighteen lessons. Mayumi Sakuma assisted him in organizing the
already extant transcriptions and making additional transcriptions. K. Sakuma selected the items to be included in
the sections Notes on Grammar and Expressions and Notes on Socio-cultural Background, issuing directions to his
staff regarding content.
From December 1977 to February 1978, these staff members were engaged in their respective tasks in
accordance with the conceptions laid down by K. Sakuma: Yasuhiko Nagano prepared the original drafts of the
socio-cultural background notes and of the exercises (Exercise III) designed to serve as check-points for difficult
sounds. Shigeko Okamoto drew up the original drafts in English for the notes on grammar and expressions, and
those exercises (Exercise I) designed to test content comprehension. Mayumi Sakuma (a) worked on the arrange-
ments of the exercises and checked them; (b) selected the key words and phrases, and the words to be included in the
vocabulary list; and (c) prepared the original drafts of the review section (weekend assignments). Motofuji checked
the English of the notes on grammar and expressions, and translated the background notes, vocabulary, and the
instructions accompanying the exercises. K. Sakuma checked all of the exercises and notes, and made the necessary
revisions and additions. Naoko Masuno made the clean copy in Japanese script of the exercise volume. Yasuo
Watanabe made additional transcriptions and their clean copy. Richard Okada lent typing skills.
From February to May of 1978, Motofuji continued the tasks involving English. K. Sakuma continued to make
revisions in and additions to all of the other sections, and supervised the following activities: N aoko Masuno's clean
calligraphic copy and preparation of four separate indices, and Watanabe's preparation of those exercises (Exercise
II) designed to test aural comprehension of key words and phrases, as well as his assistance when K. Sakuma's
introduction was being prepared. Okada provided typing assistance. M . Sakuma went over several exercises.
When the text was being readied for printing, K. Sakuma was responsible for reviewing the text in its entirety.
The Japanese portion of the galley proofs was checked by K. Sakuma and M. Sakuma; the English portion was
checked by Motofuji and Hubbert.

ix
CONTENTS

Preface page i
Acknowledgments 11

Introduction m
Weekly Schedule of Assignments v
Brief History of Project ix

PART I: EXERCISES
Lesson 1 (Tonari no shibafu 1)
Key Words and Phrases
Exercises (First Half)
Exercise I Comprehension of Content 3
Exercise II Aural Comprehension of Key Words and Phrases 7
Exercise III Check-points for Difficult Sounds 11
Exercises (Second Half)
Exercise I Comprehension of Content 13
Exercise II Aural Comprehension of Key Words and Phrases 16
Exercise III Check-points for Difficult Sounds 20
Review (Weekend Assignments) 21
Lesson 2 (Tonari no shibafu 2)
Key Words and Phrases 23
Exercises (First Half)
Exercise I Comprehension of Content 24
Exercise II Aural Comprehension of Key Words and Phrases 27
Exercise III Check-points for Difficult Sounds 32
Exercises (Second Half)
Exercise I Comprehension of Content 35
Exercise II Aural Comprehension of Key Words and Phrases 38
Exercise III Check-points for Difficult Sounds 41
Review (Weekend Assignments) 43
Lesson 3 (Tonari no shibafu 3)
Key Words and Phrases 45
Exercises (First Half)
Exercise I Comprehension of Content 46
Exercise II Aural Comprehension of Key Words and Phrases 49
Exercise III Check-points for Difficult Sounds 53
Exercises (Second Half)
Exercise I Comprehension of Content 55
Exercise II Aural Comprehension of Key Words and Phrases 58
Exercise III Check-points for Difficult Sounds 61
Review (Weekend Assignments) 63
Lesson 4 (Tonari no shibafu 4)
Key Words and Phrases 65
Exercises (First Half)
Exercise I Comprehension of Content 66
Exercise II Aural Comprehension of Key Words and Phrases 69
Exercise III Check-points for Difficult Sounds 74
Exercises (Second Half)
Exercise I Comprehension of Content 76
Exercise II Aural Comprehension of Key Words and Phrases 79
Exercise III Check-points for Difficult Sounds 81
Review (Weekend Assignments) 83
Lesson 5 (Panel Discussion: Chichioya no yakuwari, hahaoya no yakuwari 1)
Key Words and Phrases 85
Exercises (First Half)
Exercise I Comprehension of Content 86
Exercise II Aural Comprehension of Key Words and Phrases 89
Exercise III Check-points for Difficult Sounds 93
Exercises (Second Half)
Exercise I Comprehension of Content 96
Exercise II Aural Comprehension of Key Words and Phrases 99
Exercise III Check-points for Difficult Sounds 101
Review (Weekend Assignments) 103
Lesson 6 (Tonari no shibafu 5)
Key Words and Phrases 105
Exercises
Exercise I Comprehension of Content 106
Exercise II Aural Comprehension of Key Words and Phrases 109
Exercise III Check-points for Difficult Sounds 114
Review (Weekend Assignments) 116
Lesson 7 (Tonari no shibafu 6)
Key Words and Phrases 117
Exercises (First Half)
Exercise I Comprehension of Content 118
Exercise II Aural Comprehension of Key Words and Phrases 121
Exercise III Check-points for Difficult Sounds 126
Exercises (Second Half)
Exercise I Comprehension of Content 128
Exercise II Aural Comprehension of Key Words and Phrases 131
Exercise III Check-points for Difficult Sounds 135
Review (Weekend Assignments) 136
Lesson 8 (Tonari no shibafu 7)
Key Words and Phrases 137
Exercises (First Half)
Exercise I Comprehension of Content 138
Exercise II Aural Comprehension of Key Words and Phrases 141
Exercise III Check-points for Difficult Sounds 146
Exercises (Second Half)
Exercise I Comprehension of Content 148
Exercise II Aural Comprehension of Key Words and Phrases 151
Exercise III Check-points for Difficult Sounds 155
Review (Weekend Assignments) 157
Lesson 9 (Panel Discussion: Chichioya no yakuwari, hahaoya no yakuwari 2)
Key Words and Phrases 159
Exercises (First Half)
Exercise I Comprehension of Content 160
Exercise II Aural Comprehension of Key Words and Phrases 163
Exercise III Check-points for Difficult Sounds 168
Exercises (Second Half)
Exercise I Comprehension of Content 170
Exercise II Aural Comprehension of Key Words and Phrases 173
Exercise III Check-points for Difficult Sounds 176
Review (Weekend Assignments) 178

PART II: VOCABULARY and NOTES

Lesson 1 ( T onari no shibafu 1)


Vocabulary 179
Notes on Grammar and Expressions I 183
Notes on Grammar and Expressions II 190
Notes on Socio-cultural Background 196

Lesson 2 (Tonari no shibafu 2)


Vocabulary 200
Notes on Grammar and Expressions I 204
Notes on Grammar and Expressions II 209
Notes on Socio-cultural Background 211

Lesson 3 (Tonari no shibafu 3)


Vocabulary 214
Notes on Grammar and Expressions I 217
Notes on Grammar and Expressions II 222
Notes on Socio-cultural Background 223

Lesson 4 (Tonari no shibafu 4)


Vocabulary 228
Notes on Grammar and Expressions I 231
Notes on Grammar and Expressions II 241
Notes on Socio-cultural Background 242

Lesson 5 (Panel Discussion: Chichioya no yakuwari, hahaoya no yakuwari 1)


Vocabulary 24 7
Notes on Grammar and Expressions I 250
Notes on Grammar and Expressions II 255
Notes on Socio-cultural Background 256

Lesson 6 (Tonari no shibafu 5)


Vocabulary 258
Notes on Grammar and Expressions I 261
Notes on Grammar and Expressions II 267
Notes on Socio-cultural Background 268

Lesson 7 (Tonari no shibafu 6)


Vocabulary 270
Notes on Grammar and Expressions I 273
Notes on Grammar and Expressions II 281
Notes on Socio-cultural Background 282

Lesson 8 (Tonan no shibafu 7)


Vocabulary 285
Notes on Grammar and Expressions I 288
Notes on Grammar and Expressions II 296
Notes on Socio-cultural Background 298

Lesson 9 (Panel Discussion: Chichioya no yakuwari, hahaoya no yakuwari 2)


Vocabulary 300
Notes on Grammar and Expressions I 305
Notes on Grammar and Expressions II 313
Notes on Socio-cultural Background 314
PART 1
-

l. ~ - @] OJ!'.l~ i -C' I;:-_ , =OJ I ~ <1;:-_ ,z,~tJ m11] J 1;:-_ ~Ji GfJ ~ v'a
2. =tui, 1:l~ -c,Ji!, Q .:r v 1::11Hi110J P'J ~ ~ :f!!M-t- Qt;:~ f=, t: 5 l_, -ct ,~tJ m11J~ 2 o
1-P G 3 O f;:-_ ~~ -:::i -C ~Iv tc' t OJ -C'T a L.Ju'.J> -:::i -C , =h Ii, ~ ~ 1!r f;:-_ ~ -:::i -C li L, -t 5 tJ m

11J~T~-C 1) Ar L,f;:Vocabulary List -C'lic!0 D iitlvo ( Vocabulary List Ii

Pa r t 2 OJ Ii t: ~ f;:-_ c!0 D i T ;6>, i:l ~ -C' -T v i:: ~ Jl Q i -c Ii ft -:::i l, -C Jl -C Ii v' ft i it Iv a)


3. ~~1\rO) s * m ~~ :tJ f= J:: -:::i -c 1i, ~gm ;0>, =r < 0) ~ f;:-_,z,~tJ
m11J J ~, i'.l~ -c.:r v 1::"

~ Jl Q ~ -C'li, W'Ci tJ v' J:: 5 i=:t~i.RT Q = ;0>c10 D i --9 o .:r v


~ iOO i:: O) rn1~ itl&;i* <~ -c,
A~ OJibf'i"~~ 1WtJ c~ ~~ 1= L.,tJ ;0; G, 9;o GtJ v' OJ !&; '-*~~ i -Cv' <~~~ -Jft
Q = ~ ;O> J;;:-l;IJtc' ;O~ G-C'T a ~ ~O)~~O)~@~ Vocabu 1ary List ;6>~ G tl,Q = ~ ~i,

iffJv'-C'L, J: 5o

1. Look over the list of essential vocabulary before the first session.

2. This list consists of a selected group of from 20 to 30 terms that


are indispensable to an understanding of the plot development of the
TV drama that you will see in class. As such, the list does not
constitute a vocabulary li st that includes all of the terms that might
prove difficult for the student . (The complete vocabulary list is
found at the be g inning of Part 2, but the student should not refer
to them until he has seen the TV segment in class.)

3. Depending on the proficiency of the class, the instructor will


occasi onally direct the student not to look at this list of
essential vocabulary until he has seen the TV program. This is
because it is imperative that the student acquire the habit of
studying the ima ges on the screen and then speculating on the
meaning of unfamiliar words on the basis of the movements and
expressions of the characters. Can you imagine a case where
vocabulary lists would be distributed to the participants in a
conversation in real life?
-1-
to overstay one's 15. ip Iv ~ 'rJ) canned food
welcome
16. ~-r Shizuko (personal name)
L.1' I:_

new construction

3. ~Dr Tomoko (personal name) one's own daughter


I: t I:_

4. ?:. hubby 18. PS. daughter-in-law

Tokie (personal name) 19. ]_, ~ 5~ mother-in-law

apartment in a block 20. to be sensitive to


6. '.Z:~ 7 /"~ - r-
1:.51u., built by the Public
Housing Corporation 21. O)t!t~l:'.JJ:.Q to be looked after

to crowd in, to swarm 22. ~~';lft~tc That lacks common sense.


0 LJ: ?L.~

comfort (the term it - 23. 0) <1" I= "though," "even if,"


self is neutral as to "even though"
the presence or lack
of comfort)
24. :tob cf'-9 .g to apologize, to beg
forgiveness
9. j'f )5 new house
L.A- ~J:

10. JI~ con ta ct 25. ~~@JL,l=-9-0 to delay, b e put off


ttA-G < 1b

11. 5~ dinner 26. I=! I= T .g to talk about


q,

12. Rx: Drr ~ through circumstance, 27. ::.::. l_, G i1_ .Q to prepare, make
" <9> in the course of
events to move (residences)

ingredients to spoil/indulge
(a child)
to feel bad

-2-
L .: c7)**~1:t, ~-~, -@I El c7):J:jl~t.i>~:b-:::i td&, =@El c7):J:jl~ 'i -cr= El ~-t 9 t;:~c7)
l: 1...9> 5

t c7)-z'T o

( =@ c7):J:jl~l::l:, ,:c7)**~r=t ~--5v'-CDfJ:bh'iTo )

2. ,:c7)**~1:t, :,f-itr/ '/ f r 7-;; ~ 7-7 ~1'if.!~tJt.i>GLtJ~v'o

C 7- 7 l:t, "t:.$(7) 7 7f O)::t 7 1 7' -c{fi IJ 9.: ~ t.i>-c~ 'iT o )


ii

1. The student is to use these exercises for self - study between the end
of the first session of Lesson 1 and the second session. (The class

work in the second session will be based on these exercises .)

2. Be sure to do these exercises while listening to the soundtrac k tape


for Lesson 1.
The soundtrac k tape may be borrowed from the Langua ge Laborator y tape
library

**~I
A

1. Listen to the first half (3-4 minutes) only of the soundtrac k tape for
Lesson 1. (You will have already seen the videotape at least twice
during the first session.)

2. In the questions below, if the statement describes accuratel y the events


1
in the episode, enter a circle in ( ) ; if the statement is erroneous ,

enter an X.
-3-
3. When you have completed Exercise II, return to these questions and enter
2
a circle or an X in ( ).

1. ( ) (
2
) 920-T
I:
0)
\. I:
*r.:. 1i. Jin>~ u r.:. * tc. 0) r:t iE JJ -e-t o
*
l: .. l!' b <!>-t-
2
2. ( ) ( ) 920 -T r:t ~ L- v' r.:. ti: Iv -c v' 'i -to
2
3. ( ) ( ) ~-T~~~~~OJ/:i.:iic~<~~l~l-~~D~l-'iTo
I: 51: 5 L: /!'It>
2
4. ( ) ( ) ~ J: 5 f;t, 920-TOJ7;:n>~~:ilhl*~ _:_ c f.:.tJ ~lv''i l-tc.o
:l>?I: ?
2
5. ( ) ( ) 7;:n>~ ~:iln l*tc.OJ-c, 920-T r:t3 lv-C'v' 'i -to
!-?I:

i. IPJ c:.-r - 7 0) IPJ t: ml 5t ~ t 5 - JJt lifl ~ tJ 2: v' o


2. r- 7 ""7 OJ f.J ~~~it., a, b, c OJ q:i-c:@: t :ii~H~3fJ t OJ~ ---Jfc'~t~uo~ --J~t tJ 2: v'o
~11> ! 5 ~~1:5

3. **~II n>7*1v-cn~ Gt 5 -)Jt ~tt l,,, ~--J~ttJ 2: v'o


T ~~1:5

1. Listen once more to the same section of the same tape.


2. Recalling the developments in the story, circle the correct statement
among the three given.
3. After you have completed Exercise II, go over these questions once more
and mark the correct one with a double circle.

a. ~-TOJff.l:f.:. ~ v'f.:. }
L 92o-TOJ1i.:iil:t b. ~-T OJ : A f.:.~v'f.:. * 'i L- tc.o
{
c. ~~Ylv' ~ t_, r.:.
L- ~b( V>b

-4-
4. ~DiO)UJ :: ==~~,<- c )r=fl:li-tr.v'c,Fi!J,-?-Cv'iTa
l c. 1}till 7
c 'Jfi_ A,
/~- r
a ilt> 'i ~ tt $ n'-C' ~ ft. n~ "?tr. (f) -c }

5. ~ -f (f) :=t: fi
{
be:_ tt $ n>:@: $ ~b "? -c L, 'i "? tr. (f) -C' !f. <mt "? -c ~ 'i L, tr. a

{ $ (f) ;t ~ ~ -t 9 tr. YJ f =
a. 9;D-f (f) 8.:Jifi}

6.
{
b. :=t: (f) [qi~ Ii
c5VL5
ff~m v' ~fit"?
l/,,b(~b
-c *'i L- tr.a
c. 9;o -f (f) fIJ: Ii

c
l. (X(f)j1H~~ 1=, B :$:~-c-~ fl ft.~ v'a

2. ~~ n.n>7* lv-C'n~ G~~ ~@: L-, ,~n>iJt>tifflJ lE L- tt. ~ v'a

1. Give answers in Japanese to the following questions.

2. After you have completed Exercise II, go over your reply in this section
and make corrections where necessary.

2. 9;D r(f) 8.:Jifi, El 51tc. ~ (f) B ~~ ffi ~ c' OJ ,fj!J,-? -Cv' 'i-t7'.l~a
~b l:L 5 1:!'~ 7i, ?

-5-
4. ~D--fO')N:ilnl. 1.:Z:-5v'5tO')J::, ~tJlv-CoJ ~-::i-Cv ' i:Tn~, .:Z:-n~ic'5v'5;'@';'*=-C'

Tn'o

-6-
l. ~ - ~ <7J -iT '7 :/ r" r 7 ';/ !I 7 - 7 CfiJ- ) tt llU ~ ft. -/J; G r 7 :/:A !I v 7 '/ 3 :/ tt 5G
iN'v

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-ltV>

2. :~~~-- --~~-l <7J$73-IJ:, fi@m-/J;~9J~HEU=.!fv'-C, =@l3<7J~*=<7Jc~1=-~ti\L,ft.~v'o


<tl x5 [, -CV>4?

3. Part JI <7) I-Vocabulary List, JI.Notes on Grammar and Expressions,

III.Notes on Socio-cultural Background ~~~~l,ft.i?;G, l.fc IJl.fc IJ<7J-:?


O!lv L-x 5

-Cv' 9 P'J ~ llM 1_, ft.~ v' c


~ llV>

1. Listen to the first half of the soundtrack tape of Lesson 1 and make a
complete transcription of it. (The underlined portions mark points that
are crucial to the understanding of the drama.)

2. Write out those parts that are surrounded by dotted lines on the sheet
that the instructor will distribute, and turn the sheet in at the second
session.

3. Make an attempt to grasp the substance of the statements made by each of


the characters by referrin g to the vocabulary lists, the notes on grammar
and expressions, and the notes on socio-cultural background.

( f:(J)-)

:b Ji; 1t \' J:-/J; '.? tc.' J: ;6> '.? tc. Ji; 0

}) s "' %'-C ~ s 0

-7- ( T - 1-1)
_ _ a: L-Co

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--- t 0) -:. c t -t -:::> ?J, 1J z n -c tc v o

v, ~ tc. o }~," \ t:l 6 tt t.n' -c o v' -:::i ~Iv 1= 1= 51~ ;x - - t ~ -:::i tc t. ~ t! v \ .. o

~ &00

-c' ---- 1v-c-t t 0)0

5 Iv, fl, t - -- J-J- tc v' 1= 6 i


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- - - - l-J-tc v':bo

ft ~ i10, filv c i'J> L Go


ft im ~:: c --f ~O) tc 6'J 1= i10 < -it< L -C:tf. c -:::it ~ 5 t! lv-C, fiiJ tc'?J,~ L < -:::i -c 6 o
ft - i10 i10, 'J0 f! tc , :f3 L ~ -"' I) b ~o

ft - -{-') J::o rrff0}.ff0-:::i-C -- --o


920-f-O)-I]: c. 5 t -:. 6'J 1v < tc. 6 v' 'i -it o
ft Ji -:_''6') Iv< tc. 6 v'o

( 5',: I*] a:- t:l 0 0 )

ft - i10 G. li~7J>-J7J>t!i'J'-:::itdt c., :bi10,

-it 6'J-C-:. n ('G v'O) ~ 6'Jm!i IJ ?J>fbL~ 5 5 t f=ft 'i tI v' c bo


'Ji'.Jf!/v-C -C'LJ: 'Jo ~~i'.J~'J:bo

&0tc Lfib, -:. lvf!~~t!v'lvtdt c'o


_ _ _ -cL J:o
:bi'J> 0 :bo 5 ti L v' t 0) f! 0) J:: o
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tc.?J, G, -:. Iv t! t O)mJi 0-:. ct t!i'J' -:::i tci'J' Go

ft Im c:. ~. -t-c~~Rm~~J::6L<o

-8- (T - 1 - 2)
.to t.=iJ>f,p;h,fJ:i!>-:::if.:C'), ~~tc':bbo

tJ: - J:: 0 L < bo


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( JI7J> fl'1J~~:ilh-C 1m-:::i -C <Go )
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_ _ _ _ _ C') _ _ _ _ o

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I

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!;: t.: i? 1t \ ft , t 5 ...... 0

9;o -f if> tJ t.: .... o

v'-Y'if>, ~~fii]-:::>-C .. o v'-Y'b, rWJ-'fttiJ>5 i?~ - - - -:: > -Ctlv-C'b, .Bt\Lv'i!,t.:


ii> t.: ~ Ji5 ~ tf ~ L J:: 5 L ~ fJ: 1t \ lJ> -:: > -c .:. c r.= ts IJ i. L -c ... ... 0

9;o -f i. if>, ~ -c 1t' t.: tc < J:: 5 tJ 5 i? -c 1 .:. ~v' i. it Iv ~t c o ~ if> , c. . 5 .f:.o

-9- (T-1-3)
:Jo:JQ, A-?-C<h, A-?-C<ho 5-Sf~l'ih, - - - - AisjfJ/v-Cv'fJv'lvfc'b'Go

'i' c' 5 :z:, c' 5 :f'o


-9: - ib tc. L tc. i? .= -t- ~b'-? tc. :bo
*.@ L i? -t> '? -c -- .. o .= YJ Iv tJ ~ v' o ~JL L 'i To
~ :Jo 1ffi D, ~ ~ --J vt -Co
9;o -T .=''Y) Iv tJ ~ v'h, * ~l~o

~ l:-t>;b, ~t L L 'iTo 'i tc., c 5 :z:, .=,-~ :> < Dv' G L-C <tc~v'o
"ktc. i? c 5 t , ~ :tL L 'i To

-9: - 9;0-T 1l !f- <...... 0

--
-9: -t"5J:o
9;o -T
-9:
9;o -T

ft 5 lvo
9;o -T .=''Y) Iv fJ ~ v'o
-9: - .='' i? -t- 5 ~ 'i 0

-9: !: -t> , ~ J: fJ Gho

-9: 1i ~ J: tJ Go

- 10- (T-1 - 4)
l. .: O)~~O) El 1HJ:, ~ L.: l: f'i'l=~I=~ <ffl.bnQ~O)%~=~nQ.: l: -C'To ~~ .: l:
t< <bG tr

f;f~ ${;'1=, $1v-C'~ t~$~~ 1= l: "? -Cl1fl ~ l: 9 1= <v' t 0) ~, 1-' L f--Jtlk "? -c v' ~ :t

3. 17UI= Ltoj>"? -C, ~ ~.: l: f;f8'9 tJM ~ [ J 0) 9=' 1= ~ ~A htJ ~ v'o


tLV>

1. The purpose of these exercises is to accus t om the student to certain


sounds that frequently occur in spoken Japanese. Thes e exercises and
s ubs equent exercises will take up, a few at a time, thos e sounds that
mi ght elude the student whose exposure to Japanese has emphasized reading.
2. List e n to the exercise tape (the first h alf of Lesson 1) , and then fill
in th e b lanks .
3. Using the example provided as a model, write in th e full form within
the brackets.

+- T-?i.J' 9~15L [ -CL;t "?f~ J :bo ( 17U)


2. v' "? ~ /v 1=m ~ 1= iJ 1 ~ tJ( ~ n ___ ____
vr1vv::i (} c j,
o

J 0

3. ~ l: "? tJlv-C' fiJJ tc'i.J, ;g L


tr tr
<"? -C ~ o
<-- ~l:"?[ J tJlv-C' fiJJ tc'i.J, ;g L < "? -C ~ o
4. ~ ;{_ :bo
<-- ~ ;{_ [ J Vo
5. v"~ Iv tJ "? 0

<-- v"~ Iv tJ "? c Jo


6. 1El !;('
~({)
L:.t
ts 0

<-- 1El !;( f'i t s[ J 0

7. 1El 0) .: l: l'i'
~ti.
ts 0

<-- 1El 0) .: l: f'i' ts [ J 0

- 11 -
A Note on Japanese Phonetics

Just as contractions exist in English ("gonna" for "going to," "'d"


for "would, should, had," "ain't" for "am not, are not, has not, had not"),
so they exist in Japanese. As in English, contractions in Japanese are
used mainly in informal conversation while the full forms are used in polite
or formal address and in writing. In the Japanese contractions, however,
there is a more systematic relationship between the elements fused than
in English, e.g., ~ ~ --::>fc_ from -Cl i. --::>fc_, and ~~ 5 from
-C L ~5 (cf. ,Grammar Notes 1-1), and C:. ~ (JiJ) from -e1:t. A palatali-
zation is involved in both cases: /t/ - /ty/, /d/ - /dy/.

- 12 -
-=. nv, m-~. =@El V')~~t.i>$1n-::J td~. =@I El V')~~~ -c-1= ~ ~-t 9 t;:61J V')~~r,,i~
;bl: I: L~ 5

The student who has difficulty reading the directions in Japanese is


referred to the directions in English in the first half of Lesson 1.

L m- ~ 0) -+t r/ :/ f r 7 ;; !/ -T - 7 ( {~
I:
- ) ~ li[J ~ fJ ~ v'
5 li/v
0

2. '(}( 0) Y:. "!Jl, F. 7 "'7 0) P'J ~ c lq] t. fJ G0 ~, Ji -::J -C v' 9 c ~ Ii >< ti: (
a~'' ~~

2
2. c )c )9;or0)Jli, rs~0w~t.i>-c-~t;:V')-C', 4-W9;0-TV')~1=rs~1Jt;:v'c}~,-::J
I: " ~

2
3. c ) c ) 9;0-T1i, 5\':"/J>it~tJLv=~~iln-c*r;:V')fi,
;,'?I: tt A, C,(
RX.IJff~tc t.i,GLt.i ,ktJv '
1, L!J>

B
L iq] C:. -T- 7 ~ 1l 5 -lf li[J ~ fJ ~ v'o
2. r" 7 "'7 0) P'J ~ ~ ~ ~, a ,b, c 0) 9=' -c+:ili t J&J ~ tJ t 0) ~ - --J tc vt ~ 7.l, O ~ --J vt tJ ~ v, o

- 13 -
3. ~~ II IJ>rfi 1v--cIJ, G, t 5 -1.t~W t..,, ~ ""J ~t ft~ v'o
'1/vl:: '

'.t ~=
{
a.
b.
IJ, Iv~ 69 ~ tl:l T
A /~ ;. T 1 - ~ tl:l T
l
""J t IJ --C'T 0

c. 'fiiJ ti tl:l ~ ft v\

a ~F~~t;::
Ol:.t5L~ }
2. 9;0-T 0) HJ:, 9;0-T 0) *c ~ ) IJ> ~~ft t.., f=:Jo'.:t ~ ~n --c ~ t;: 0) 1 b.
l c.
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;bfc_
IJ flJ t;::
1-'.

L, IJ> t;: IJ> ft v\


~

a. 9;0-f-O) J[. 0)%'( I=}


3. !l!Jf-<7J llnl, ~{ b. !la T ~;I~. !:t A.-"''>!' T"
C * l: _A -c

4. mr-r-1,
Li'i::
9;0-f-O){: ;~;l--cro
l:? <bt.>

c J[,O)~,

a. l='A.~{f-::>"Cv'~To

5. 9;0-f-0)JIJ:, Mt-T

l b-
C-
IJ>~v'--C'T o
~"'
IJ>-:. ;b v\ --C'T

*MVt
0

l
a. fc.Af:.19>A-

6. 9;a-T IJ:, ~ ~ L ~ 5 ~ 0) ~ 1* ~ b. 69 Iv c. 5 ft t 0) t;: ~ }~, -::i --c v' ~ To


iJ>/v'1V>

c. .tot t..,6v'

- 14 -
2. 9;0-T c7) :11: c ~ ) fi. fiJJ 77~~F-;t ~ tc' ~ -:::> -c v' 'i -t77~o
C>t.:x~L-~

3. *~~ -CG~. 9;0-T f-tm~ ~


k
<flp G .J: 5 f;:: :11: 1;:: WJi.77- 'i L fc.o
k~

- 15 -
L m - ~CT)-!T 1/ '/ f r 7 ;; ;; 7- 7 C1&~ ) :a: llfJ ~ tiii> G, r 7 '/ 7..;; ~ 7 Y 3 /:a:

7tRX: L- f! ~ v'o
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~1'iL <tr l' L cll>LJ9>?

3. Part2C7) I.Vocabulary List, II.Notes on Grammar and Expressions,

ill.Notes on Socio-cultural Background :a:*~' l.-f!ii> G, 7.J'c IJ 7.J'c IJ CT)-::>

1. Listen to the last half of the soundtrack tape of Lesson 1 and make a
complete transcription of it. (The underlined portions mark points that
are c rucial to the und erstanding of the drama.)

2. Write out those parts that are surrounded by dotted lines on the shee t
that the instructor will distribute, and turn the sheet in at the third
session.

3. Make an attempt to grasp the substance of the statements made by each of


the characters by referring to the vocabulary lists, the notes on grammar
and expressions, and th e not es on so cio-cultural background.

C: ~o 1!\Ti~J::, -r- At o t 57':~,~-c'ft-:fVt-c , -:?i?-"' - -- - - v' tc.tc'tpfI ~~o


%1 --T ti ~, :to _ _ ll -t C1) ii~ L- Go
~DrC7)3: tc' -::> -c ~ ~ Iv , -l- C1) "'J t IJ -c- L- J: 5 o M= isj ii>M= isj tc. t C1) o

~o --T ~Jt.> , -l-ntIG-l- n-c- , _ _ _ -et L- -c<nn r~fv 'v'CT) fZ:. a

~DrC7)3: RX:fJ ~ -c-l- 5 tI? tc. C1) J::o tc.? -c, L- J: ? -t:i \II> 5 tc. ? tc. b

- 16 - (T- 1- 5)
Ji> Ji>, _ _ _ _ o ~ J: 5 IJ: ~ :9: tc t 0) 51- L ;0, t5 ft .BI 0) ft fl- Iv tc. t 0) o

t n t -t- -:'.) ;0, 9 .. -- .. o i Ji>, t n t= L -c t , J: <ft ten b, ~ :9:

tc 'l?o

ft-" -C t G 5 tc 'rJ) t= ff' ? tc Iv -c L J: o ~~ n tc G _ __ _ _ _ _ J: o

-c t, vi Iv c t=~~? k f.t Ji> ...... o f.t Iv t= t f.t v\O) J: bo Ji> tc L tc t 0) t5 ~ft IJ: ;i._;~771-
0)--::> t 9 tc. -:'.) tc ;0, G, ~ - r 1 - ;z, 0) ft f4 ~ -:'.) -c t.t v \ L o
t Iv fJ.. t 0), t= fJ: f.t 9 ~ L fJ.. v \ b J: b ft o

~D-f-0)3: b ft, - - - - f.t v \ 0) ?

~D r ? i ~ ;6>, _ _ _ _ jQ~;j:ffef;::: o

ft ? , tc.? -C 3: ~Iv, _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ lv-C' L J: 5a


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- 17 - (T-1-6)
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t.rlvt-P c: 1" lb~ ~it lvJ::o c~ v' ) ,c,,~c LJ.r <tc -::i-Cv'
v\ 0) J:: 0 - - - f;t - - -- J:: 0 5 ~ <v\ "? -c G :1J J::, 5 't t.r Iv tp 0

920 -T 1 ~ Iv ta> _ _ _ _ _ L- -c G 'IJ~ G h o

~ J:: o 3~1'fi3:~ -e, _____ OCT*- -C Gt.riv-Co


920 T ~F~~f;J:, ~'-::i'tt,rO)J::o ~~;J:o;;g:)lf!,-C <Gt!lv -C 0

-18 - (T-I - 7)
_ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ fJ. Iv tc"IP Ga

9':DrO)ffJ: 9':D-Ta 5 lv .. a

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Iv G-t>fJ.v'n'ib o
bi, i::i J: -:::i c, ib fJ. tc tc i::i, .::C-: -c 5 6 5 6 L fJ. v'~i::i J: 5 tc'v' J::a 4-.::C-: -"-b, :to~

m~ ~ P'J L tJ. ~ -t' tJ. Iv tJ. v, /v tc. tJ> G a

~Ii ft:b b t::' ~ f~t"Si -:::i -c fJ. a Y5 Ii~ 0) -: c fJ. Iv :t. JJ !=. T 0 t Iv C: -t> fJ. v' Iv tc.o
J::.n>-:::i -CfJ. t::v', = ~-"- a

:A ~~ -9:0):f0~ t:: lvn>'iffi -:::i tc G, T <"-: LG i -C <h 0 -:::i -C -:::i tc G-t> fJ.v'n', ffJ:i::i -t> Iva

:re -T ~ tc :to~ t:: lvn>Jl i tclvtc. t Iv, Ln,tctJ. v'-c L J: 5 a b, ~ -:::i -c J:: 5 a

:A ~~ fJ.lvtc'J::, -:-:-"- n>G, B~t::1v1f-:::in>l'J G -t>fJ.v'n'o -:lvfJ.lvtc'-:::itc

filvcl=., ibv'-'Jli _ _ _ _ n>tJv'lvtc.n,Go BM, 1-'L _ _ _ __ _ G~

fJ'v\O)?j>o

- 19 - (T-1-8)
2. :if~~ c f;fEl9-c tJID ~ [
~

3. 'Ji> Iv tc. , c 5 L J:: 5 t tJ v' ~ L J: 5o


<- 'Ji> fJ tc. [ J E 5 L J:: 5 t fJ v' -c L J: 5o

6. tc' "? -c :kl tJ ii>~ v' ______ ti. t /v 0


-T

<- tc'--::> -C :kl fJ ii> ii:;~ v' [

7. ~!:ti& 0) ~
161..
c fJ lv.:Z::' ~ !~ T 0 _ __ _ _ _ _ Iv tc'o

J 0) tc' o

J 0

- 20-
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&:'~1-J>;:!t>fttf, m~~~~tJMIUI itJ2:v'o


tJ>

LESSON 1. REVIEW ( Weekend Assignment )

1. The purpose of this review is to allow the student to consolidate his


knowledge of the contents of the drama segment assigned for this
lesson, and to describe the story in written form.

2. One of the aims of the review is to accustom the student to the writing
style at the same time that he reviews the assignments for the entire
week. This assignment should not be difficult as it involves the
writing out of familiar material.

3. The other aim is to check the student's grasp of the meanings and u ses
of the key words. Fill in the blanks in the sentences with the correct
word selected from among those listed at the bottom of the page.
If necessary, alter the words to fit the sentence.

- 21-
'IJ>. c_''i?-{-5 2::f'F9 _ _ _ _ 1=*-c <nt.: o
.
~1l..A~7J> _ _ _ _ 2::~h.-Cltcfl=*t.:o fl~$:B'.i:~ _ __ 2:: L.,-Cv'9 ---~~*~ffl:
~

9;0-T 7J>, 5 i? "'-1ffl 91l..A~ 2:: to~-:::>-CF~~


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l: .:. 0 ~ -C'* 9 l:, tUJ 2::-!f!- 1316 1= ~ IJ &>;~ft.:~ 'IJ>. ~:t ~
A, tl~

Ff.!J~2::~AJlh-C;ffl-:::>-C*t.:o ~Ii, Ff.!J~~I= 2::5e.it-C-V-fv'i?\h-t.:v'l'. 5 ~-C'ib9o

. -T#t 13 5t~'f!. . ~:t -if- 7 ~-<"/ . ~ l ~-t D-< $:B'.i: . ~:ti . f}T~tfll,t\

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-It\/"> /::

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- 22 -
Look over the list of essential vocabulary before the first session.

guest 16. f.!f'.Cf. retirement

round and round 17. t41~ obsession


(here: [to show]
around) endurance

debt 19. !Y'ft dinner

4. JJRT to play off 20. ~tc_~ be sudden, unexpected


~~~

assets, estate, 21. l@;Bif f;:_ temporarily,


fortune ~A, l: in an emergency

canned food female parent


2 2. :9:"~
matter of course,
routine
23. -t':: 5 v' ft. f~f by t1'.e way

24. ~~fi filial piety


section chief
to change schools
9. :&:~ eldest son
26. ~;/)('B first day of school
10 . .:Mtt!:~lif:.fJ.9 be obligated to
be nervous, high-strung
to boast
2 8. ill! ft. meeting [ an arriving
eldest daughter person]
12. :&::9:"
13. .:};) c fJ. L- 1; \ well-mannered
29. last night
14. Jfill1: fJ. < to have no
Xiv ~l compunction 30. ~lj[;>j>tJ < fJ. 9 trains stop running
"C'v I,~

to stay overnight

- 23 -
L -::: O)ff~li. m=~-rm El O)~*;a>~n -::dd~ . =rm El O)~* *-C'f;:::. El ~-t -~dc~O) t
0)-C'To

1. ( ) (
2

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T
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3. ff~rr;O>?A=lv-C'iP~. t 5-JJt~W L. i--J~ttJ6v'o

- 24 -
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1. ~D-f-O)~v::t b. 3 0 ~ --C'To

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a:-f"i= "? t.: ~ "? -c v' ;g:: To

- 25 -
2. 9;DrOJll;:!: , f~f1iz:1tJ!tg(O) 5 -t?tc.'~ "'* Lh: ?J~ . .:thli E JV' 5 :l:*-c'TtPo
"' .;.

- 26 -
,- - - - - - - - -- - - - -,
2.
1_ - - - - - - - - - - -
1
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3. Part 20JI.Vocabulary List, II.Notes on Grammar and Expressions,

ill.Notes on Socio-cultural Background a:-~WH. JJ'/.J>G, Uc D-Uc t)OJ-:i

-Cv\ 917']~ a:-JJ.M L. tJ <:':' v\o

1. Listen to the first half of the soundtrack tape of Lesson 2 and make a
complete transcription of it. (The underlined portions mark points that
are crucial to the understanding of the drama.)

2. Write out those parts that are surrounded by dotted lines on the sheet
that the instructor will distribute, and turn the sheet in at the second
session.

3. Make an attempt to grasp the substance of the statements made by each of


the characters by referring to the vocabulary lists, the notes on grammar
and expressions, and the notes on socio-cultural background.

tJ Iv tf..' J:.., -:. -:. ""'- 5 I~ L. -c t.J> G, .to~ 2: Iv f;f -:i t.J> D C:. ~ tJ v\ t.J>o -:. Iv tJ Iv tc' -:i tc. G, mJ OJ
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- - - - - - 0) - - - - - 1= t.J> t) tl 6

- 27 - ( T- 2- 1 )
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~o ('9<"9@1-?-C2', .:_ ,:_-" *QlPGtJo

J[ it 6 fJ. fv -C :bhtc ""'.) -c, il':>h. 5-J'n~ 5[-Jttc v'O) ~ o

- - - - - :b~ il':>lvtc o

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_ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ tJ > Go

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- 28 - (T- 2 - 2)
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( ~f&~J:-:J-C = ~-"ff< 0 )

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---
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- 29 - (T - 2-3)
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Gbfl.o
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- 30 - (T-2 - 4)
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~ ~ tJ G fv1J:; ti. :to
515 !ill v'-'\' ~, v' --::i t.J c Iv tJ 5 -t:i ;O>ij!--::i c :b il" "') -c v' t.: G, c. Iv tJ c c t.:"') -c, ;6> 'i Iv -c ~ 'i
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515 :toht-~~~L-C. ~*~~~ba~~~o

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515 5t 5t "') 0

v'~ib. t.J>~;c ~/i5Gv't.: J::o - - - -- Cl), c Cl), - - - cl;\ 5 t.J>, t.: < * [_,
v' r;: Ii ti. 5t o
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- 31 - (T-2-5)
1. Listen to the exercise tap e (the firs t half of Lessen 2), and then fill
in the blanks.

2. Using the examples provided as a model, write in the full form within
the brackets.

1JU 1. C~H~ t.: ~ iJ; ) i?\ tr f!J 1::: $ ~ 0) i:p ~ -tt 0 "".) -c ~ tP t.t. v' Iv tc. J:: c
E5J> x ' ro " ~ [ (:( "':J-C) J
[My colleagues] insist that they be shown the room before they have
their drinks.

1JU 2. $:Iv$ iJ;lnr "".) -C 0) IJ:, v' v' ti *-o


0
' tJ ce:1r,5c0)1;;t) J
It's a good idea to have a hallway down the center of the house.

1JU3. C .to~~ ) ~ L, -c 't G *- 0 -=. C: tc. "".) -c, .lLi*t.t. EJ3 ~ttf.t.lv tc'tJ~ Go
tJ [ 't J J>? t.r -/J "' L.x 5

Don't forget that even getting a loan is proof of your integrit y .

1JU 4. Ir,--::> tJ~, -:. Iv t.t. * iJ; ~--::> C: :tdP "".) -C Ir' t.: G ,
c Iv t.t. -:. C: tc. "".) -c ,
[ '"T:''t J
~ t' -c
-/J' 1 Iv
~ $: -t J:: o
I could put up with anything if I knew that some day I'd build a
house like this.

Even though he brags about having built the house, it was built
almost entirely on borrowed money.

- 32 -
Note 1. At this point, let us go over the points introduced up to now.

a. [ [ -?-C] 17Ul

b. c ~ v' 5 c O)li) J [ -?-CJ 17U2

- 33-
II. [ C ) t~..'-? -c J
a. [ . t J c tc -? -c J ........ .. ............ 17u3
b. [ ( ) -C' t J C C ) tc-? -c J ...... .. .. WU 4

ill. [ tc. -? -c J

No te 2.
While tc.' -::i -C was not included in the exercises, it is used quite often
at the beginning of a sentence. Note the following dialogue from Lesson 1.

9;Dr(7)J : C il > /v ~ Y:l ;iJq ~ 0 Iv tc'-? tc. G. 3: 2: Iv r;::: ff L .'.:: ~ tJ 2: v', 1PJ .'.:: il>T 0 il> Go
~ 1

In this usage tc'-? -C closely r esembles -c 1), the difference being that
the former carries cer tain subjective and emotional nuances, as follows:
"[Logically that may be so, but ] 1) it's unreasonable of you to expect me
to agree, 2) it's beyond my comprehension, 3) I cannot agree, or 4) you're
putting me in a bind." Frequ ently the speaker presumes on the good nature
(amae again!) of the listener when he uses tc' -::i -C. In effect, he is
saying, "You do see it from my p o int of view, which is based on instinct i ve
fee ling and not reason, don't you?" This tc' -::i -C is used with great
frequency in free and easy relationships, so the student should learn to
use it as quickl y as possible.

Note 3.

In its form -? Lis similar to . -C , e.g.,


The -::i -C form is used in conversation with a sli ghtly
more emphatic tone. A similar r e lationship exists between ~;;t !) and

- 34 -
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T '9o

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h tJ 2: v'o

2
1. ) ( ) 9;or 1~~ ~:fl -c v' * -t- o
!ix 5 Ji J:.' l.

2. ) ) 9;o r Cl) 51<: Cl) flH, ~ I) 5[;~ Tl Jf> I) * i" lvo


<!>1 ~A, ~
2
3. ) ( ) :;t::~~ l: 7E r I JEt5(' L. * L. tc. o
"tA,<::'

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5. ) ( ) :J:o~l'i. 6' 11! .$: ;iJ> tJ
-CA, L. ~
< tJ G tJ v, 5 i? r=1ffi IJ * L. tc.o

2. F' 7 <"Cl) P'J ~ ~ :?5 fl, a , b , c Cl) i:f:i -C' ~ ti ~ ~ tJ ti Cl) ~ - -J t.:lt ~cl. 0 ~--=>Vt tJ 2: v'o

3. *'*~II 7)>7jt lv-C'tJ> G, ti 5 -jjt~g;J L- ~--::> IJ tJ 2: v'o

- 35 -
a.
v'"'.Jt )
1. %1Ti;J: : ~;ij>;b9ffij 3:1;:::.M~~~{~~-ct Gv'*Jo
{ -c ?ti.

iE J:l (/)
l.,x'''?
c ~ tdt

--e' (f c IJ --e
(/) $(!) ,!:: -: 01;:::.
;,-t: n

~) --e-to
a.

l
1'x'
ffi: >l:lv

3. %1 T"' ~ i;J: : : <X ~


i.; >l:lv

*~ -T
-t.t I:.

a. ,@,f-1;:::.~v'l=i
tr-t I:.

5. 9;0r(J)~(J)fE:f;t b. ~i=~v'i;:::. *~9o


1 c:
{
c. * ~JV;:.

a. -T~t.: i:)

6.

l
b.

c.
1';:

9;o -T
ti>. j:;: J11Z(J)fE:~Jm;t1;:::.f.f
tr;O
<-: c 1;:.tJ IJ * L-1.: o

1. c 5 L. -C~ft l: );\ 5 t
;,>"v>l:;,- ~
(/) l::J:. v'"'.J *- -C't.: ~ l t ib IJ ti>t.: v' t (/) tJ (J)--C:tiJ> o

- 36-
4. 9:Drf, c' 5 t..,-C1 rC7)$~--C'~f~(7:n:-tti"o
" -? t:l

- 37 -
( ~D -T c flJ iJ~ !7 ilt 0) $ iim ~ !__, -C v' Q o )

( ~f.: 'S lJ~A "".) -C < Qo

'!h ft. t.:' :t3 ~ \t \ J::. 0

ht ~ rr. t.: ft. \t \ -c: 0

,J@,(1)-fJ~tJ~ Q a c,

~D T c5 t $ L, :bvt '!h IJ *tt Iv, ~ <tt. IJ * L, -co !h(l), _ __ _ _ _ t !v-C'-ttJ~ G,


fiiJ t ~, *
2(v' tt /v vt c o

515 - v'*- v'A'..o


~D -T -C"t o

v' ;t , '!h O) 5 , ~ J: 5 Id:


* -C t G "".) -C :t3 IJ :t T (!) o flJ Id: _ _ _ _ ~

c~, ""::> v' -s J: 5 vi 5 f;:. ff "".) i? ~ ~ -c o

- 38 - (T-2-6)
~ - f:" 5 -C'9tP a fr tll-:::> -C GT.Hi, v '-J ~ -C' t.: -:: > -C t ib !J ti> t.: v' t Iv -c--9 J: h .ta f:" 5 v' .t l;f,
~~~~W~lvt, ~~~~lvk05a

~
0

'/ L.-Cv'9J:: o
0

')A_,, l::: '/l:::

~ - 4-, c'S G 1;::. ?


___ ~ ___ ~?JT1;::.v'9a

ib ib, ~~ Ii tc' -:: > t.: f! ib a L. tJ> L. h .t, ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ A.; t


~ L. __t If 6 J: a ::... ~ ') 'S ~ ::._" G A_, 1;::. fJ_ -: :> t.: G ' ~ -:: > c ~ g lj' 1;::. fJ_ 9 J: a

- -- - - -c-t- J: ho
5 Na

I~ Ta I

'SJ:-:::> c, ~X~A.;.,

') 5 Iva f!lvfc'v'o fJ.A..,fc'v', fJ.A..,fc'v'a


_ __ _ _ __ fJ- G f! v' J: ') 1;::. ho ib LJ.:tP G, _ _ _ _ c ___
f! A, -c-t-tP Go ;en t L. -C f]J~ -C ~ _ _ _ _ _ "(" L. J: ') u ~-:::>If !J

ib-:::>, ~Dr, ~ J: ') f! ;b, #ti-"' _ _ _ tJ> G ~~t ti>;b-:::> -Cf! ;b, ib L. t.:, _ _ __

---- --E 5 tc.'a

~D r

- 39 - (T-2-7)
- ------------------- -- -----------------------!

~0y(7)BJ: ti. it. -it 5 !J" (7) t '/ f.' E,...' - .?


~D T- 5 Iv ?
~O-f-0)} E. 5 L t.: (7) J: o

~D -T ;Yi ;Yi' :Jo}~ Iv t;>;Yi L tc _ _ _ _ __ _ Iv -z:-t ':) -co


~Or(l)BJ: it it ':) ' ~itQ(l)o

~D -T- -Jc~tc' :b o

C 13 Ji:* L ffiJH(7)17J>TQo )
n T- :Jo-Bt~!v. ~lv~~~6-Z:~tc(7)o

~o -T- 5 5 Iv o 11> 5 -""ti. it, 11 ll'! t;> fJ: < fJ: ':) -C, *61~Hf ~ Iv _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

(7) J: o -a ~ /v (7) ~ '/ r" 1:: t ti. it, ~ 7 (7))] 1:: ~ -c v' t.: tc_i,,' t.: tJ> Go

- 40 - (T -2-8 )
-WU 1. -t:- D ~ if> ti., ;g-, 4-ey:{, ~ ~ t~- J:: o
[ .:t-hJi J II> 1 c: -? t .r 5L ~

Well, when it comes t o that , fellows, it's the thin g to do nowadays .

Don't yo u have to go home today, morn?

Note: The Iv in 'lffllvfJ:~~fJ:lvfJ: v ' derives from the G in 'lffi/J:~~tJ:GfJ:v'.

This sound change will be dealt with in detail in Lesson 4 .

3.

5.
-----
*'5 m: tJ t /v -e-r- tJ il'J o
[ J 11? C. 5

- 41 -
8.
[ J

9. ~ 6 Iv OJ to 3: 2: Iv i?~-:. i? G --e-: -~ 1;::0


:b ( V>? L .t

[ J

Note: In a similar sound change, .:t:' 5 v' :iU;:f frequently becomes -{' 5 v'~.:10.

- 42 -
1. -:nri, ,:0) ~0)7 v e::fft.O)P'J?'.~~.flll.L., ~~ -= cril= L.tctO)TTa
-!tV> lJ

2. ~O)B"JO)-~fi, -~j13'J5J'O)P'J?'.~1l~L.tJ;Q~G. ~~ -= cf;f0)?-31-11vl=t~nQ


.<.(~5 ii:

,: c -C'Ta J:: <biP-:i -Cv'Q P'J?'.f=~v'-CO))Z:~TTiJ> G. ff L. < tJv'lif-c--ta


.S-:ALx ' trl'ti

a ~O)t5-~0)B"Jct. *~~~~0)~*~$~- ~TQ -:cT~o -~~~Qm


511, il ( 11:/v J:

LESSON 2. REVIEW ( Weekend Assignmen t )

l. The purpos e of this review is to allow the student to consolidate his


knowledge of the contents of the . drama segment assigned for this
lesson, and to describe the story in written form.

2. One of the aims of th e review is to accustom the student to the writing


style at the same time that he reviews th e assignments for the entire
week. This assignment should not be difficult as it involves the
writing out of familiar material.

3. The other aim is to check the student's grasp of the meanings and uses
of the key words. Fill in the blanks in the sentences with the correct
word selected from among those listed below.
If necessary, alter the words to fit the sentence.

_ _ _ __ _ T

~O)fPJf:f-tci?f:t, m3~~~it-Ct Gv'fJ;Q~G. ~O)t@H1:~fi<lDtc D. *O)TfiG L. 6~ 5 G~'*


H'V.il <-!tV>

- 43 -
~Ii, 9:0-f-O)a~ii> B:lv-C'v' 9 O)tp l: ,~, -:J t.:ii>. -t- 5 -C'tJv' .= e: ii>btP .g l:, 4-/Jt
Ii Ii f. 5 L. -C v' .Q 0) tJ> (: ~ 1.:. iJ8 v' t.:"

~l:Fii'.J{Jt.:i?l::t, ~-:JlfG-:J-CL.'.~~v', tJtJ>fJtJ>ffl}IJ-t-5 ttJv'o 9:0-f-li, ~~ii>~b-:J-C, JjB


i: ~lv ~ i: '

1JJ
r.t i.:.
11)-C - - - - - T 9 T-~t.: i? 0) .= c ~ 16,~ L.. i? J: 5 f -----
tJ> G tl:l-c ~ t.:~ 1.=., !f-

<~~ ffl}-9 J; 5 fJHJ'o f:-0) C: ~. ~Ii, ~ tI.:. ____ O) JC.tJ> G _ _ _ _ _ ii>~ -:J t.: .= C: ~

~~ ~ffi: flt~ ~~Iv ir?Jr fHf mJj t-.g ~~-99 ~~ '3' L.v'
25 ~ isi 5 n L. v, * Jl *;?; ~~ ~ 0) a *211' fHf 1JJ3 B -f: f~ 5
ft~ $M -~~v ~-f-O)a *~ ~~~~v~~+~ -~ -~~-99

boast console

Fa" )qj ii>> Q : enjoy credit 5 G~~ L.tJ~.Q: envy

~IJ<IJ management (here: of become drunk


family budget)
inform
situation

- 44-
Look over the list of essential vocabulary before the first session.

1. _,.)~ ~ fv!T) S?f' D < D adjustment of bedding 16. ~~* a loving husband

2. !J~/-f\ taxi fa:re 17. .tof;n~- if v' social intercourse,


tf.V> :::> ob associa tion with
3. %13-tt
!OL
;b;;
breakfast others

4. J.;. :t ft soybean paste soup 18. ~ C: ~ f.J:v' not easy


L .O C,(

5. Ji I}] (fij: rai commuting time 19. 4m 61) f G l- v' curious


::>5~A.C tiA. ~Q.)

6. 00!~ health 20. ?'ii?~< become normal,


f'jA,~' ~ :::> settle down
7. $1C,\ midtown,
I: LA.
the center of town
21. S??hS??h What a relief!

8. ~ 71- (T-1-1) to shut up in,


to lock up
9. ~5 to support, feed
.23. b 61) < to scream, clamor
1 o. T J LJ~ ~
tr 4 '\- t.t1: L
tc contradiction
24. if.il],@ff_' be satisfied
1 A.-t:'(
(T- 2-3)
11. ~* 25. C C.' ) J0 v' 6 ~ greeting
1 2. "7 -1 ;t - A !l -1 7 my-home type
26. tt Ii'. c ~ ) T 9 to make preparations for
dut y L *-< ge t ready
13. iU%
~ tr

14. J[ ~ 5 (T- 2-5) changing schools

1 5. :iii r'J ff_' top-drawer


;;i;.~5

- 45 -
L -:. O)~'J&i:t, m=:~ -@I !3 0)~~7J>~v ":) tdo& . =@I El O):J:i't~ *-C'f= El 'J&-9 -0 tc61)0) t
0)-z"T o

2. ,:O)**'J&IJ::, ~,f-if? :/ F. f. 5-;; ~ 'T - 7 2:'.-llF'l~tJ:7J>GL,tJ2:v' 0

2
1. ( ) ( ) 920-TO),...;: '/ F' f=. :Jo~7J>;rl* L- tc~
2
2. ) ( ) :'.120-TO)j;: c :Jo~iJ::, -l:::~f=il:9~ -C lji}!~~~-"'* L-tco
j; 1'.t ? l.,.t(
2
3. ) ( ) :'.120-TO)jT L- v'~fJ::, ~l 7-H= cb I) *9o
I: ':.jiV>
2
4. ) ( ) jT L- v' ~iJ:: .J:tv'O) -c-, fiiJ A -c t :Jo~ 7J> 78 * -0 -:.
~ )\,f()\, I::
c 7J>-C' ~ *To
2
5. ( ) ( ) 920-T0):1<(fj:, 5J7J>" --r
[;$)\,
*- .A ::;; -1 7"tc: c ti!J-? -c v' *-to

1. ll'U L: 7 - 7 0) IEJ L: {ITT 5J ~ t 5 - )!t ilF'! ~ fJ: 6 v 'o

2. F' 5 ""'<" 0) P'J~ ~ ~ j{_, a b c 0) 9=1 T:ili t ;i&i ~ fJ: t 0) ~ ---::itc'vt ~u, o~ --:>vt fJ: 6 v'o
I I

3. **'J&IT?J>rJfA;-CtpG, t:J-jjt~~-;J L,, ~ -J}j'tJ:6v' o

- 46 -
a . 8 * -.J -C J:: tP -.J tc. )

1. ?ET-Ii, :Jo~ti>

l b.

c.
>1~1fflhliJ::tJ>-.Jfc.C7)1;:

t -.Jc v'hliv' v'O) 1::

a . lf--ttt
c -.J-Cv '*To

)
2. ~O)~li, ~lf-:i&i~ '-c:JtW\i?>t! v'fey b. ::z - 1:: - ,;?> - :;:~~v' c -.J -C v' * -9 o
T L.t ( .t( IA~tf~ ~ !11l'ft
{
c. ~ ;i,, ti

a.
.::::-i-51'" ~~ }
3. ff L. v'*tP G5}:ti *-c: b. -feyfs9
~ ;O>A,
<'' G v'ti'ZP IJ *To
{
c. -feyFs9 '*-
~ ;il~t:I:~

a. <1:: ;It; I) * L. tc.


C7) ).fr 0 )

4. Jrue7) 7 /~ - r Ii, ~t b. tJ> G ~n -c v' L. tc. o


till:
*
{
c. C7) ~ I)
ell=
1:: ;It; I) * L. tc. 0

a. 8 feyC.~ 6-C'To )

1
5. 9;D T- C7) ~ C7) ~ t i?~ ktr * Q C7) Id:, tc. };~Iv b. 9 fey C.' 6 -c:-t- o
c. . 10 fey .:.-6 -c--t- o

l
a. if!.l
11~1:.' )
6. b . r~C7)~~ C7)fc.6f>l::ld:, ~S{,,J:: IJ ~j'j-C7)1 f7J~v'v'-z"To
ill .t ''-"( Ii 5 I: W\,

c. ~(7){~
L C:I:

1. ~j'j-(7) * C7) v' v',8,


-c~
~v' ,8 ~
bJ.>
JtJ ~ff! 2: v'o

- 47 -
3. 5ED-TOJ::*:ld:. fiiJn>::f~~tdlitc~ -::i-Cv\*TtPa
"t!~

4. ~D-TOJ::*:li, i;J:ffJ, -T~n>v \0tA_t, c5T0.:. ~n>~O)~J9Jtc ~~;t-Cv\*TiU ~a


IZ:.i: 5ff5 "" l:.t5 ~ "t!

- 48-
2. :- - - - - - - - - - - - - -; (J) $5J'"f;L ~Hffi i?~~ 0 J=IHJ.\: f;::.~v' -c. =@ El (J) ~~(J) .!:: ~ f;::. tlf: ll
1_ - - - - - - - - - - - - _J

3. Part 2(J)I.Vocabulary List. II.Notes on Grammar an Expressions,

1. Listen to the first half of the soundtrack tape of Lesson 3 and make a
complete transcription of it. (The underlined portions mark points that
are crucial to the understanding of the drama.)

2. Write out those parts that are surrounded by dotted lines on the sheet
that the instructor will distribute, and turn the sheet in at the second
session.

3. Make an attempt to grasp the substance of the statements made by each of


the characters by referring to the vocabulary lists, the notes on grammar
and expressions, and the notes on socio-cultural backgraound.

('"COJ-)

:to ffJ: 2: /v , -t- 1v t:. c -: 6 -e ~ t.: (J) o


5 5 Iv, f9l 5 ti. ;;t, ~ :iji i?> tt. <tt. -c, *5 JEJ ~ 2: Iv,
--=> :to iB ~ !J f;::_ tt. --=> t.: (J) J:: o ffJ: 2: Iv (J)

""'--:; Fr=tti.;;t, ~~<7)1.Jf;::.~-Cv'f.:tcv,t.:7'.J>Go Jf:i".), 1-T, -.ttc~-C-Cv'v'(J)J::o ti..

- 49 - ( T- 3- 1 )
tP Go Ctc 'd) ,@, )
JC Iv ft. t 0) -e ~ tc O)o *< ft. lJ' -:.i tco
5 fv, :toNB~iJ>~ -:.i tc '1 -:.i -Cv'fc7J' Gb ilo :iO~fffeO)b, - - - - -

-ex? tc-'-:.i tc 0)0


!J ~ :/--e~:h,Vfv'v'O)l.:o

5 5 Iv , C: Iv -C' t ft. It ' o .::. .::. ,


- - - - -e L J: o - -- - - - iJ>~f7J, Iv ft. Iv ft. 1t'

0) J::"

v, v ' t. ~ ft. v, !TJ o 4- 'i -e 0) :to 5 i? ft. G,


~Q C: .::. i:dt. lJ' ".) tdt c:-. JC 5 b ;;t '

h91vL::- 4> ft.1t'o b-:.io ~. ?ET-ttt 5:.JlL~-CG-:.i L 4>V'o Bij:Fs9iJ>~tcG~.::. L-C~~:f

97J' Gb"

J::v'L.J:o ~~o

I .- . : -:; F. Jv - A o J

C 1t'1 Laij: tO)ifiJ>99o )


Jff( 1: ti, aij: FsVc' J:: , aij: Fa9 o

5 Iv o fPJ tc', - - - - :h Bij: t. 4' ft. It' lJ'o


.::. .::. -t Bij: 1.= ll ft. It' C: b, - - - - - - - 1v tc J:: o

~-:.i, V'ltbilo fi?l'" r/ / L.,i?'i-:.itclvtco ~~. ff!J.v'ft.if>o _ __

- - 0) .--..:: -:; r" ~ i:5 ~Ji L i? '1 -:.i tc Iv tcft. ~ o


-'F <, .:.n, ~ -C o

- 50 - (T-3-2)
~ 1t~ /@[;Ro

~ 5 5 /v, ibibibo

9;0 -T ib -:i, C ib <cl~9Qo )

( ~tc i?il~A -:i -C* Qo )


9;0 T- ibib-:i. *-ib 101:1.J:: 5-:';!:(v'*-To

9;0 -T v'v'il, - - - - - - iJt:i(l),


--
~

~ 10 IJ: J:: 5 -:' ~--v, *-Ta

9;0 -T 10 v:t J:: 5 -:- ~--v' *- Ta ~ ib, tr ~ Iv.

~
-- c'5 t-tlf-~itlvo C:~o

~ ~ ~
(!')(?)".),
>--
'---
:(\,lj:
f 0 - -- - a : . .
17
-C' - - - - - " " ".l +- ") fv"'(" +-tJ~o
?a:.. ,

- $ L-b It tJ v'-c."'Tb :ta


~

~ Ii i1t:i -:i, lf-~tf--c"TtPo

C ~ii~ A -:i -C *Q )
~ ~ ;b, ~ ibo J1&ft -:i -C llitPvT fJ:v' Co C f;::;(p <~~-"tc c fJ ~ < *'"(',

~ - ~5v'~ib, ff!*;fl'tJlvtl -:Cl)Bij:fa9tc'-:itci?, *-fdl[;R(l)i:j=ifc'6?o

~ l2:Q """""" :t -:i, 1t < /v c =tJ 1v t1~ =--t5J' t ib n 1;f tc'v, c: .i: 5 .s~ -c-ttJ~ Gti :to

- 51 - (T-3-3)
----~
~---------------------------------------

I ~ I
I
I
I I
I I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I ~ lffi
I I
!---------------------------- --- ------------ -~

~ t.: i? ( ~ v\ )
~ -l-h C ~cf), :tohtJ/vt.J> - 1=_~1;::.litJh-i- 5 1t fJv'J::a
~ - cf) h-?, tJ Iv tc' J:: a -~3~ L, "C ~*~Ji!, i' 5 -? "C fi D ~ -? "Ct.: C ~ tJ v't.J>, ~ 5 -"a
~ t.: i? ( ~ v\ )
~ ~t.J, G C ~ 1!lf;Jl.tc'J::?

~ - fJ f;::_;>jO: ... a

~ - v'--::>t-l-:?tc'a

- 52 - CT-3-4)
1. ** ~ Jf! 0) 7 - 7 ( 5g =~ tr~ ) ~ lii'J ~ ft?)> G,
2. 17UI~ LJc ?)> -:i -C, ~ -: t f;fiJ tt % ~ [

17U 1. ~ -:i. TE-=f-, * tc~ -c-c v' v'O) ~ o


n [-CV'-C]
Oh, Hanako, you may stay in bed a while longer.

17U2. frf!J2'1vl~~%Lcv'tc ll:57)>v ' '<'hho


. '""'
6
[ L -C::Bv 'fd
It would b e better for me to call sister up to let her know, wouldn't it?

17U 3. ~ -:i, v'IJh ;to ~ *


5Ii17" t/ / L i0 -:i tclv tco
CL -CL~ -:itci
Oh, what a mess! I got completely bombed last ni gh t.

17U4. vf' <lvc-:ttlvtJ 3 05J"t~n1;f7\3t~-z"Tti~Gho


Ct-:'3] f<''-" Ci 5,;;

Take my apartment, for instance, there's plenty of time if I have


30 minutes.

Note: In example 3, the -CL- in 17 t/ / L -CL.* -:i tc has become 'f0 .


In Japanese when /s/ is followed b y /i/, it becomes IL/, so /ts/ is
prono un ced like [ts] or [ c ]. (See G2.5.)

L TErl::t. t 5 ~, L. ~ - - - -- o
[ J

- 53 -
8. i? J:: "'::) C:~< fJ..Q--:J -Ctl;ITb _ _ _ _ _ 0

c.C [
J

9. '1f~~tc'J::, ::9 i& Bif ;t -e, !J: (f)


~ AO L. I:"~
<-i-f= OC fJ..lv-C 0
5 L,!J [
J

10. t 59<''Jt#~;t9tJ>G, Jf. fJ..


ti'tc. -::5
2' Iv 1= J:: <.to b U" 0

[ J

12. :tmlJ: tc'v'.$~1W1= ~ tJ> G 'JitJ, "': ) tc. i__,


I: ~ ;a. [ J

14. 9 -:J ;()> I) fiFJJ~~ J:: 5 tc' tJ. ~ o


C: AOV>:b ( [
J

15. JfJ:*'I-~ ~~ t 1v-c--9tJ, G, ...


!J.i: 5 !i oH [
J

- 54 -
;: hli, m =~ =@ 13 Cl)rJt~ii>~:b --:i tc. 1~. -=.@! 13 Cl)rJt~ :t-c:-1:::. ~T 0 tc.~ CT)**~Fp~~

-c'To

1. m-=.~CT)-lf- '7 ::/ F" 1-- 7 '/ I/ 7 - 7 C ~~) ~ llf.16 tJ 6 v'o


2. iJ\ CT) Xii>, r- 7 < CT) rJ ~ t l'8'.J C: tJ G 0 ~, Ji --:i -C v, 0 t 6 Ii x ~ C

2
1. ) ( ) :Jo~li. *Dr(!);: t ~ ~ Dv' v'~ 6 Iv t.: t ,~, v' :t i-lv-c' L.Jc.o
<b 1 ::,- <
2
2. ) ( ):n:-r1t. *ii>$v' t :Jo# 6 '.'.)
ilv'ii':A~ t.: t ,~, --:i
<b
-Cv' :f To
2
3. ) :t:~~li. :Jo~ii>mt--:i -cot ii> --:i tc. t ,~, --:i -c v' :f To
2
4. ) :t:~~~i. ~ L, tJ> --:i tc. 51' CT) fffi~ ~ f'F --:i -c t G --:i -c l'f.ilJ,@ L, -c v' :f -to
Ii 1A,'!:'(
2
5. ) ) *Drli, ~ B r#t tc. i? CT)*-Bl:-"- v'
~ 1 5 '"'? 1::5
<-J t D -c:--t o

1. l'8'.l C: -T - 7 a: t 5- )i' llf.l 6 tJ 6 v'o


2. r" 7 <CT) P'J~ ~~ ;;t, a, b, c CT)r:j:i-e;: t ~~ tJ t CT) ~--Jt~:lt~V" . 0~ -Jvj tJ 6 v'o
3. **~rrii>~1v-c:-tJ>G, t".J-!i'~ttL,, a:-JvjtJ6v'o

- 55 -
1. 10~(7)-Af:t{ :. :rq): }(7):::_ C: ~:@:~t.:e:
<!V>I:'
v':'t LJ.:o
c. ~Dr (7) BJ

a. ~;{3('-"rr<$fiffl~
U,,lv u:
L--Cv ':'tL-r.:o }
2. 10~;6:;1ff}-? td~. IT, rtl b. :to ~(7) j~)j\:(7) ~tP t.:--:)lt ~ L. -CV' ;t LJ.: o
{
c. :! :::.. f;t Iv~ ft-"' -C v' ;t LJ.:o

3. 1E-TIJ: { :: :
c. *~~
~~
l LftP !') 3'.fi L -Cv' QC: tlJ "".:) -Cv'
< ~'
*9 0

l
l
a . j!tJ4 -:it.:
5. 4- ;t -c' (7) 7 r~ - r IJ: b. i1 tJ 4 -:i t.:
4-<>
(7) -c:to~ l;t * ;t tt Iv -c" L t.: o

c. )filtJ 4 "".:) t.:


a.

6. :t:~~IJ:, fi'Lv'~Bl:f:.rr< (7)~ b.


{
c.

1. :to~ (7)-- A IJ:, ~D r(7) :::_ C: ~ 'J. (7) fl: !YJ C. -c ~ ;6> i? ;a:; 5 C: v' ;t L r.:o -t-hl;t ~- 5 L -C -c."91-Po
'~

- 56 -
2. 9;0 -TOJ~ IJ: ~~*-C'Ttl"o -t O)~O)~E13 t ~ ~ tJ 2' v'o
<b V> ~ "' '' j) ~'

- 57-
1. ~ = ~ C0 -it r/ :/ r- r- 5 -:1 ?! 7 - 7 C ~ ~ ) a:- llfl ~ fJ': t;i> G, r- 5 :/ ;r.. ?! ~ 7 -/ 3 :/a:-
7(;ijlt L 1! ~ v'o

r - - - - - - - - - -- I

3. Part 2 0) I. Vocabulary List, II.Notes on Grammar and Expressions .,

111.Notes on Socio-cultural Background a:-~ft~LfJ':tJO:G, (.}(:_ D!.f'C:.. DO)~-:i

/ =~jgO)~ro /

51;0 r ::t: ~~. il:Q ~ fJ': ~ ;_,,\o

::t: .e~ J 5 fvo

51;0 r i? ~ Iv (:_ !fl. <. il:9 ~ Iv 0) J:: "


51;0 T- :fETo

1E r Id: v' o

_________ L *v' * L --C o


_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ o l:. 5 -f.* t.:. v' G L --C

<tc ~ v' *-tt o

-t 5 -c t" 7'.Po -t Iv 1! ::. c .to -:i L~ .Q C:. , ::5 v' i! '*1, :;t;: 'A 1;: L --c, * t.: :fEfl L 7'.J> vt *-t J:: "
C ~v')

v' -J -c t , l: 5 ..f.o -t 0) 7'.J> b D 1! Iv 1;: t -c ~ *-tt Iv vt l:. o

- 58 - (T- 3-5)
~ ( ~l;\) ~ ;J.;-, ~ 7-J-o

!J3 tel? c ~v' )


:'J3 !lQ -t."hl:~. c51Jo
~ IJ ;a; C: 5 c <~{v' :'.t LJ.: "

~ T- 1i -::i -C G -::i L. ~ v' :'.t it o :J:o ~ ~ ~ v) -Co


!J3t.:'1? /.iv', f ? 1to .i:::51t ~tLL.:'.t9 o
!J3 - :t:.e~tL TE-T '!? ~Iv 1=. t: 5 -r ot 6 L. <o
9:0 -T fd:v'o C~v') D -::i -c G -::i L. ~ v' o

( TE-Ti6;~jt(7)~Jlft~ L.-Cv'9o )
7 v i::O) NHK~{::~O).::. .:i-7'

:J:o liot 5 -:_--~-v':'.tTo -1:::~(7).::. .:i-7'-C'To

TE-To -t."lvtJC C:fd:v'v'tJ"G, !fl.< c"i&it-"fJ6 v' o


:t: ~ tc t.: n ti. ft .
-::i :J:o a 6 1v"

- - - - - - -- ;bot. ------- tc.t 0)0


4-:'.t Tfd:3% v' 7 /~- i- tct.i,. Gtcnt*tJtJ"-:i tdt .i:::. *i6;11\ v' -:i -Cv' 5 O)fi, _ __
_ _ 1J O)tJ.c

9:0 T-
TE -T tc' -::i -C fJ. 0) Id: :J:o J 6 Iv fi ' -::i tJ" IJ !.: ~ fJ. v' 0) o

9:0 T- 55/vo 1J:@:Lv'if'l'J fd)ot0 9<"/i'l?~< tJ "Go Uo 2:~o

:t: ft~ ti. ;t ' }) ~ 6 Iv ' 1ffi -::> t.: ?


9:0 -T

* ft~ -l\='hJ?ho
TE -T fJ.f=i6; I J?h .l? hJ oto ::kft~ fJ!v-CfiiJt L.tJv' <it f=o

* &~ -C' t , o j;fJ t j6 <Y:> G h t.: :'.t Iv :'.t T 2: o

- 59 - (T- 3 - 6)
1--------------------------------------------1
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I :( T I
I
I
I

I * M II

~------------------------------------ -- -----~

-----0

1E r l';J::lt'o

* ~~ ~~ ~ -c, ~fd"Jo 'J i'.J f,t. /v -C - - - - - - J:: 7'.J ~ ~ f;: J:: o

- 60 - (T-3-7)
With these exercises, the student will review the exercises from 1 to 3.

1. 5 ~ i.J>Jl\v' v' 5 (f)fJ:. :Joft~,g-v't~ fJ 1f\(f) b o


? <b <?<
[ J [ J

2. I El 5;'-(f)-~1.J>fl L v'o -A -c5t'}J~ Lt.: v'o J :b 61) 1t \ <it f;::_o


" 1" "'"' ~.t 5
J [ J

4. -'i~ v'~t.:'bo
-C/vC: 5 [
J

5. 5 ~ tJ/v-C, 91 J:: tJ> -:i tc J:: o


[ J

9. .:tti>fiJJv'-C, fr:JJJ, -T-~8:-31 _ _ _ _ (f)f;::_, ~(f):L$:A.1J~-=i=5Ji _ _ _ _ tt


t:lttl? f'C.t " " ' 1"lA [ J c5 ll/vf'C A, ( "'' [
J
G Iv (f) t-c..1J, G bo

- 61 -
12. - -- - - , :5 i? ""C"~ - - - - - -:. c I;:. ft. -::i -C ti. "
] [ J

13. it ;t v' -C' L J: :5 , cb :C -:. - - - - - o


[ J

17.

18. :-a.- c -::i t-: G tJ., ~~cv'-::i L


trl?b
J: 1=~GTO)i1>-=1=-i-
V>~t:rlv l.~
v' :5 b J:o
[ J

19. ,c,,~~
L.lvt:l:V> [
v'v'O)J:o flM'rT-ld:
v r c.
v' v' ~ J: o :5 ;t < Ii :5 J:, :) 'I? ft. fv tJ>o
J [ J

21.

~ D AA t. ~ tt. v' (/) o


Mc '1;<_

- 62 -
Fill in the blanks in the sentences with the correct word selected from
among those listed below.
If necessary, alter the words to fit the sentence.

_ _ _ _ __ ?";!: ,

?E! ~JI,
l ( ;b ~

"'
Ji:* L fey ~-r ;6>~~ D'
tr c Vji,r. ~
re r ;6> ~Ji:* L --c 1 L'~~ 9 9 ;6>,
l..!vttV>
~Dr f;t, I* t;:'!f!- v\ tJ> 1::iJ c

~ij'

fqJ 1* tc i? -Id:, _ _ _ _ _ _ 0) J1i < I.::. ft Iv -C: 1t' 9 0) -C:, ijiJI !f!- < ~ ~ 9 0) I.::. !;;t tft n --C 1t' fJ: 1t ' o
~

~ ;6>--c' ~O ri.::. ib v' ~ ~ ~ L' ~}lit~ ittJ: ;6; G' f'ilJf~Uc 'I? f;t, _ _ _ _ _ ;6> - Bijrsj #-1:;tJ>
~15L..1 (

1.J> 9-:. c -C', ~ !.::. [q] TI!J~ ~


e;5 i;.1: ' L.."'
L tco LtJ> L. ~ Ii . fiJ 0)
- - - ---
c J:t--C, ~ -j-7,Jq.::, #: !.::.
t1rott.
-:.

tc ~ 9 vt n c', :ii
?5
fb(ey rsj tJ> 11' tJ> 9 c -:. ;i!:d;:'tJ, G -:. 7c,
~Iv[;
-/Jlv
* ~ 91 --C 9 -:. c tJ;-c: ~ tc c 1/v-t'(
i\lilL@ 7c 5 -C' ib 9 o

- 63 -
_ _ _ _ _ _ l::l:. *ii' - - - - -- ts_

l::l:. I _ __

l=M t:-= ~ Gh00)-C', J-J-lv ts_ t v'~ t ______ v' Gnt.:f!JO) _ _ _ _ _ O):/JiJ;;~iJ,
I:

-::it.:~ ~Jl~ -::it.:~ 920-Tii;;, -T~t.: 'f?O)l!iiB(: LJ.: _ _ _ _ _ 0))'[;1:.f= _ __ _ 1=rr <
... 1 Iv -Clvt. 5 -lt/v<tV>

t.:~. -!l:Jz:jjt~ LI= 2 ~~"""-1T-::i r.: d0 t. -T~t.: i? ;>j;;=A -C'iji}jft~ t-::> -Cv' 0 ;6>, - - - - - - l::l:
,,. [; tr. <

~ ! 9 0 E< ~'.H5 9 0 ~~ IM ft ~m 1E -T 1': !1~ d0 v' 6 ~ ~& ~ti


tr41v Llvl..:::> ~ tr

7 /~- ~ !W ~ f G L v' 1-3 ~ ~ d0 v' 920 -T - ~ fJ 1E -T tIB ~ $ v' - ~ 1=

the entire group

floor 7F JJ : displeasure

sympathy -!lttJ5t~9 9 : dress oneself

look satisfied I h appy

- 64 -
Look over the list of essential vocabulary before the first session.

1. JtJ 0 C v'? is9f.=: in a trinkling to have expenses

2. ~-=f- (ti?.) ff? be thrown off co urse disgraceful

3. ?9 ~ l~fl;fJtJ picky old lady to call on, come visit


(humble)
4. <TJ/v(/r.J L.-Cv'9 be relaxed

5. v' Gv' G-t" 9 be nervous 18. (:Jo) ,@\. g bath

6. 1!\f;W (~) L.-Cv' 9 to force oneself 19. f1> 0 tc. r.J LJc. spacious
'U j)

7. ~ f;fi,J~ f .::-t" 9 to make a fool of 20. ~0- fee l i n g

sukiyaki restful, calm


:I ?

9. :Jo l, ~ 5 c 'tJ) ~Iv mother- in- law 22. i!~f.T filial piety

to expose one's faults, 23. ~il~ --::>~i.-1/v-C' I didn't realize/


betray one's ignorance I had no idea

the wife's own mother 24. )j!,i'.tt < (T- 2- 5)


to lounge about 25. NJJ, .::r- son

serious error (T- 1- 2)

14. D il~~Ht tc. 0 -C even though they


<b ~ apply hot t ongs, etc.

- 65 -
i. -=. G')**g;1J:, mim~-[9] El G')~~;a;~v-:> td~, =@El G')~~ :t-c-f:: El WI-r Q tc.~G') t
G')-c''T o

2
1. ( ) (

2
2. ( ) ( ) ~D-TIJ:, ~ :t -c- L ~ 5 c "tJJ c ;fl L tc. -:. c ;a; if> IJ :t it Iv o
2
3. ( ) ( ) ~D-TIJ:, ~ ~ ~-C Q tc. "tJJ f;: im~ L :t L tc. o
-It?~(
2
4. ( ) ( ) ~D-TIJ:, ~ ;a; rJ;,<fJ. IJ ' v' 0 v' 0B4:;6;;6,.7.P 0-=. c ~ 1()i1!j[. L -Cv' :t T o
2
5. ( ) ( ) ~-=fG7)J:fj:, ~D -T G') ~ ~t IJ: ,c_,,@c. fJ. 1t \ c ,![!;, -c 1t \ :t T
-:> 0

-/J HV>

1. IEJ L:> r - 7 G') IEJ C: fi~ ft- ~ t 5 - M 1lfJ ~ tJ. ~ 1t ' o

2. F7 -? G') P'J ~ ~ 15 ft, a , b , c G') i:p-c-i;: t : ~ fJ. t G') ~ - "':) t;:: ~t ~cf, 0 ~ "':) ~t fJ. ~ 1t' o

3. ** g; II ;a q~: lv-C' ;6 4 G' t 5 -M~~ L, ~ "':) ~t fJ. ~ v' 0

- 66 -
a. Tfi'ti Lv' }
L :t:ilBfd:, :i1! 0J$13lOJR :il~'.7t1=. ~ b. 5-02:v' ~}[S!, -::>-Cv'i.To
{
c. cit> i. f) J:: <tJ 1t \
a . :tHf cit> 2: A,; f.: tJ -::> tc .}
~-Til~ b. <tJ-'.) tc
5 .Q 2:
{
c. ~ 2: L <tJ -'.) tc

a. ::k~P:(7)J:}
3. ~o-T 0) ]: fi,
{
b . ~D -T 0) tc ~ f.:, ,;. a :/ ~ ~ -::> -C * i. L tc o

c. -T1tttc T?

:l!/\~~ }
~o-TOJffl:fi, tci\~~ ~ <.:Y5E-C'T
a
4. b: cit> L o

{
c. !Y jj

,,~ - r rt l
j
a. 7

5. ~ ~ @-C tc cit>~ fi, b. /IS!, v'ilqt tJ v' t!,~ J ;0~;0, 2: 7f. i. T o


c. ~-rt

a.

6. ~D-Tfd:,
j b.

c.

l. f.' 5 L -c ~-=f-(7)J:fi, ~~* ~N 0);!: ~ -~ f.: T


v. ::i L-x
'6m ~ ~ "'-C v\;6> tJ v' 0)-C'Til>
~~
0

- 67 -
2. '.'i::D-TfJ:, 51-iJ>v'fJ:;(P-:::it.:.G~ iJ>~t.:.fJ:tJ>-:::it.:~ i'-:::i-Cv''i.To
9:o-TO)J fJ:, -:: 0) ~ ;t ~ c 5 ,~, -:: i -c v' 'i. ""til~ o

- 68-
1. m12};1 ~ (7) -it r/ :/ F r 7 -;; ~ 7 - 7 ( 1W- ) ~ ilB ~ tJ ii> i'.:i, r 7 :/ 7- ~ ~ 7 '/ 3 :/ ~

'.:Yen!ZL..tJ ~v'o

2.

3. Part 2 (7) I. Vocabulary List, II. Notes on Grammar and Expressions ,

m. Notes on Socio-cultural Background ~$~ltJ7'.l~G. Cf~ IJlf~ IJO)-?

1. Listen to the first half of the .soundtrack tape of Lesson 4 and make a
complete transcription of it. (The underlined portions mark points that
are crucial to the understanding of the drama.)

2. Write out those parts that are surrounded by dotted lines on the sheet
that the instructor will distribute, and turn the sheet in at the second
session.

3. Make an attempt to grasp the substance of the statements made by each of


the characters by referring to the vocabulary lists, the notes on grarrunar
and expressions, and the notes on socio-cultural background.

- 69 -
1c H5 ~ ;j3(: -::i -C , -l\=' tc b o 5 i? tJ A_, -C !!t t~ tJ ~ ~ J: 7,p -::i t~ J: o
{ -=f- 1c H5 o
c 9ll.::r-;a;~f&(7)-i:? c:~ Lt~ 9, .,s~ ~ A,.,~f5( 9 :\6,4.,t.: 9, {~1=.vtt~ D L-Cv'Q o )

- - - - - - tJ A_,-C, - - - - - - -- tJ ,4., t.: ;a ~ G tJ &tJ o

jc H5 f;t v' o

9l1 -=f- fj: "'.)' t.: v' c: .1: 5 .s~ ? vl Go


( 1c H5 n~-':!= ~ l')t v' f;:_ tr <o )

;$1" 1 =- './ ;l . =f- '/ 7- :/


I
9l1 -=f- &tJ G. -:;t.H5o

* H5 tJ &tJf;: 0

9l1 -=f- -l\=' f;t c' 5 o


jc H5 J: <b;O~ G tJ v' J:, o -et $;j3(:(7)::1J;ij~ 0

$;j3(:t)t1:t~o

~D -=f- C ~v') i. -C' L ;0~ t~ tJ v'bho

- 70- ( T-4-1)
-------- L --C tr. (f) 1;: o

cl0G. -ffl:~ 'lv.f:lvti1;: - - - - - - - - --::Jt 9tiv':bJ::o cl0G0, 7-. 9 ::;-'{

~ fJ: ~ti ~ 1t o .f: lvfi (f) <"':) r--C Iv t, ~, t, ~ 5 tr..


Iv iJi tr. ;t -? tr.. t Iv t, ~ ti v\ :b 0

fi G. ;t tr. o

cl0-? ,. filv c tC. o ( 1Cv') v'v':b, v'v':bo ------ :t tr.. If)( 9 ~ ;t n fi'v' v'
Iv t~ t Iv ti. *- 0 ti

lv--C, fi' tJ~Jf.t.::v'tl.o

* fl~ " .*- *- , - - - - - -- - 0

~ -T ;t cl0 , -:::.. (f) -T -? tr. G , 3: ~ Iv ~---


L --C o

C %v' ) UG, fiG, .hlvtc., .:1fn0-c1_, .to 'Ch~0--C, fiG,, fJ:v'o

( ~-T (f)-ffJ:iJi~-? --c * 0 0 )

( ::: ~ (f) 7 oV 1 A iJi ~~ 0 o )

- - - - ti (f) ?

/\ ~ -:::.. 7j Iv ti 0 Iv t, ~ ti v, tJ~ L Go
i!0, .f:? 0

~~ti., -t~m~1;: Ltc.(f) o

~-T(f)-ffl: "*- 0

~ -T -ff1: ~Iv t -~ 1;: it -"'--C-? tr. G ? :*: ~JX(f) :to-ffl: ~Iv c t _ _ _ _ _ _ ti Iv tC. Lo

_ _ _ _ __ ~ ~ /v(f)to-ffl: ~lviJ~v' G0 L ~ 0(f)f;:,

.JJiJiv'v':b J:: o
- - - - - - - - - - - --

- 71- (T-4-2)
- - - - - - - - - - - bb?t'..o

~ -T .6~ 5 lvo
~-TO)ffl: -t-nn~ G _ _ _ _ _ _ fj:,

~ -T fl!l--::ii?~5(7)o

-:fib, 5 i?tJ.lvttn~Go
if'> G, f15l.-AO) 5 i? c:~ fJ.v'bJ::o -t-fJ ~ if'>f15l.tJ~l'Jv'tc:to~-em-cto~1>t L-htJ.v'bo
~t c, if'> tc L- t~ -::i -c, f v' .6~ Iv _ _ _ __ n~ G -: -t-, -e ~ tc 0) J:: o
-t-1v t.t.-: ~, ~~ JvO) :tore~ 1v1~ fJ:

- - - -- - -- t.t. Iv ttn~ Go
r-------------------------------------------1

:~ -T :
I I
I I
I I
I I
I .I
I I
I I
I I
I I
L------------------------ -------------------~

D iJ~~ ~t tc -::i -C _ _ _ _ Iv C: ~ if'> if'> fJ i. it Iv J:: o


bn~ "'.) -c .Q bJ:: o

- 72- (T- 4 - 3)
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ tJ. Iv tc:-tP Go tJ.,

~Iv tt:_, _ _ _ V1J 15, ti v' t- .1: 5 .<S~ ?


~ -T *-*-?
~-TV1J3: ~~~ -C t~~~l:t;O>;O> D ;0;~ 9 L.

9;o -T V1J 3: t;::;O>G 3: 2: Iv i3 -::if~ Id: f J:: o ~ ;O~ - - - - - - - l[it t;::-? -c ~ <fJ. Q 0 ff.let
I'. tc-? -C;O> 2: tJ l.,, 7 /~ - r- t!PJ -c lvV1J C: :it-? -c _____ tc-? -Cv' ::so i:i - :/

~:t.t.b tJ. <i? ~ tJ. G tJ. v' .;-c-:: C: t, i? ~~Iv C: ~-c tJ. ~ v'

J:: -? -c o t~ ti -R2 t~ G r:_ ~ -c t~ -? -c o i? ~ ~ Iv 2:: ~ -? -c ~t 9 Iv -c-L. .1: 5b *- o


_ _ _ _ _ fJ. v'-C' L. J:: 5 o ,~, v' ;0qt fJ. v' ll j'. f;f-? ;O> D ~ -? -C, t~ t;::-C' ~ *- __

fJ. V1) (;'.:...... 0

~ -T V1J 3: f:t v' o 4- it t;:: ~t J:: o :JQ 3: ~ Iv ;0; Ji *- -C t _ _ _ _ _ _ _ L. fJ. v' J:: 5 f;: o

~ -T 3:2:/vo

C: *. t ' 5 tr:. 0 5 ~t Et, *.. L.-? ;O> D il; !vf;f-? -C-R?::S V1Jb *- o ~ ~~-C t~iO, G-? -C,

____ v.: .,s, D @l 2: n ::s-:: e: V1J tJ. "' J:: 5 1;: o tJ.-? o
C 9;0-T il ~~ !Wi;O>G:JQ~~llT o )
~ -T 3:~/v o

( ~ il ~~ V1J3:~:it;h-C1ffl-? -C *::So )
~ t~ tiv' *. o

- 73- (T-4-4 )
It's the first time you're living under the same roof with your mother-
in-law, isn't it?

Tell me, dear, how are you fixed for money?

Oh, mother-- you've become a carping old woman ever since we came here!

~IJ 4. ~Iv tJ ~ -" , :bn~lv tJ v' 0) o


ti>lv \.:, CGJ
You mean to say you don't know these kanji.

~IJ 5. (b, Jo1'if} Iv tJ ~ v' o

[9J
Oh, Welcome home!

What are you saying ?

Note: With . regard to tJ 0) tc and tJ Iv t~..', the latter tends to be used

more often in spoken Japanese. When ft.O)ff_. is used at all among intimates,
it is employed in the spirit of levity.

- 74-
2. t:. 19> 5 tc.. Iv tJ~' tc.. ~ -0 tc.. it:.___ _ t:. ~ tJ v \ b 0

[ J

3. W 6t> -c :toJt 7L tJ Q C7Jf::, ~C7J3:~tJ~:Jt;f;:* -C !5Tb -0 l i? ~ii:>, ~:tL t~b J:, :tore~
t:l:L: --J
-[ .t!b tM j;~ v. l.,? flit>

Iv f;: 0

8. if.< ' :to~ . C7JJ:o


[ J

9. q- B, 1; tJ~ ~tJ . tJv'


' - - - -- -
-C-L .1:50
[ J [ ] [ J

out.

- 7 5-
.: n1J:. mim~. =@ 13 O) ~~ti~~:b-:> tr. ff. .=-..@] 13 O)~~ ~ -e1: Ei ~-t -0 tr.'dJO) ~~r,,~ im
-e-r-o

1. mim~O)-+J-1//F r 7':1~ 'T-7 (1i~) ~ ~ ~t!~v'o

2. {A 0) X.ti~. F7 ""? 0) fl'.@'.~ IE] tJJ: Go~, Ji-:> "(v ' .Q ~ ~ IJ: x~ (

1. ( ) (
2

2
) ~ 0) re: 1J:. ,~, -Tti~ "fl~ tI
t? Ii
* ~ m--c --c ~l-f.tr. v' tc. ~%Iv "ev' ~-to
19>li>

2. ( ) (
2
3. ( ) ( ) ffi -T IJ:. ::k ~.DZ O)ffl:tJ ~ ~ti ~~ G v' tr. ~ v' 5 .: ~ ~ ffi IJ ~ -tt lv--C l..Jr.o
Vt:(
2
4. ( ) ( ) tr.v'""Cv'O)AIJ:, .=:-t-11. n-C'*~?l:--C~To
2
5. ( ) ( ) ::f;J& OJiE:li. Ji>~ IJ ~ <v'""CIJ:~v';O~G. -~rl3i <"Gv'-C'1ffl-0"'Jt !J-C'
lr>-::>L'4>'xl"'-

1. l'ifJ l: T - 7 ~, t 5- )IJi~ ~ tI ~ v' o

2. F 7-< 0) fJ '.@'. ~ ~ ;t, a, b, c OJr:fl"e:Q t ~~ fJ: t 0) ~ -"'JtC.~t~Zf'. 0~ "'J~t f! ~v'o

3. ~~IIti~~lv-C'ti~G. t 5 -N'.~~L ~"'J~ttJ: ~v'o

- 76-
Y'it~it-"
a. Ill>' l-.t <
}
i. f !i
b . :to ~ f;: A 9 i. L tc o
{
c. 7vi::~Jt

a. rJ;..,q L-Cv'i.To }
00 Cf'?

2. :to Ii. 8 Ii b . ~ 'l?!v'-Cv' i. -to


{
c. ~ ~ 5 <--::i--e-t o

a. ~<7)3: }
3. *fi, ilJ:f;: b. ~ <7)fc60f;:'!f~!.~1'F-::>tcclt'!Ltco
{
c. 9Jl-T<7)J:

a . Ill It' 1t <7) iJ~ It' It' c ,I(!;, -::> -C }


4. 9:0-Tfi b. ;~J:;ij~:ff ~ t~ c "'.) t::.<7) '"(' T ~mf= Li. L tc 0

{
c. **<7)~iJ~:tov'Lv'il~G
K<
a. ~ ~ it-"' Q l 5 f;: tJ 9 i. L tc o }
f'C(

5. ::k ~liZ <7) J: Ii , ~ :iEt b. ~;ij~~lt'f;:tJ 9 i. Ltco


{
c. ~ il~ ::k :ff ~ -r:-t o

a. *~Jtf;: }
6. 7dJiZ <7) J:fi b. ! ~- ,~ T '%Jc <7) '"(', ifv'tc <fi il tJ v' c "'.)-Cit' i. To
{
c . tit lWi f.__ tJ 9 f.__

1. ::k~JiZ<7)J:fi, tJifl'J.R~VfEL-Cv'Q<7)-C'TiJ~o
"fi.)j.ff_ "fi.;Oi

- 77-
2. ~T-fd:, c' 5 L -C7::~N ([)}([) tFf ~~v' ~~ti tJ. 'IP-".) tc. (f) ...C'T'IP 0

-t H

3. ~fd:, ~.:r-1:::~~--::>vtQJ::?l:::~ ;'t L-Cv'*TiJ;;E5 L-C-C'-tiJ~o


~'"'

4. 7::.~N<TJ-ld:, :t:.El5~ftT-iJ~fiiJ~~~ L t.t. vthfi.-,vt t.t. v' t: "i3 -".) -Cv' * -tiJ~o
1LIC fJ,J,, l,~

- 78-
71:; $t LJJ: ~ v' o

2. [~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~; (!) $ ?t fd:, ~ ffill ~~ ~ Q JlH~ f;: ii= v' -C, =@l 13 (!) ~ ~ (!) c ~ f;: tJl te
LJJ: ~v'o

I ::{( ~o

- - -- - - - - f;: , - - - - -, ~ J:: L :t L tc J:: o

*lb, c: 5 16 o - - - - - - - f;: tJ IJ :t L tc -c L .1: 5o ~ lb ~, E 5 .:f' o 7-f. Iv fJ:

i 5 ?t Lhf;: to~ i? L-Ctclv-C'T(T) J:: o


~ (/) 3: .:t:"5 too

!f. < ltJ:v'c,


cGh-Cl:t5
( .:r:..1-\7-o )

3: ~Iv, _ _ _ _ o ( ~v' )
~ to ..s~ < 0 b ;;l, lb (/) $ ~ <n tc -{'' 0

~ (/) 3: mi?7l'v'fc, v'v'to~~~bo 3:6/v, fiiJJ:: I) i :bo ~~~3:6/v(T)

-:. c ~it -c' lb Iv fJ: ~~~~-c-c <ntc fJ: lv-C 0 ff Iv cf;:@:~~ te i? ~ 0 tc :bo

- 79 - CT-4-5)
~;b, - - - - - L-C0-C< tc~v'J:o ~~-C'IJ:78~0-Cii G?Ffitti<-c, _

- - t-C'~tJ'/J>0fclvtc~t f.', ~. ~m'. IJ: o :j:Ov', -t~m~'/J>o

LOJ - - - - - tJ/v'/J>, - - - - - - - - - - bJ:o

ho
-t 5 tc J: ti. o - - -- - '/J> *
G tc Iv t-c. .f:, :j:O .<)., <0 IJ: o

0)

1----- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1
I I
I ~O)ro I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I I
!__________ ___________ _ _ ____________ _________ ~

- 80- CT- 4-6)


1. ~~ ffl (7) 7 - 7 CmQ:QB*, ~~ ) ~ /lfJ ~ fJ. il~ G- - - - - (7) rul?t ~ 7tn!Z L.JJ. ~ v'o
2. -l- (7) 'ff~ 5t (7) :j: ~ -::: ~ ~-f 8-9 fJ. % ~ [

1. l-f.lv ti. t 5 ~ Lhf;: B~ i? -C'T(l) J:: o


1 [ J

3. :t ifJ, 1-9> -::> < I) <t~ ~ v\ J:: 0

[ J

[ J

9. /\Bif-:: 0 _ _ ti. .Q _ _ _ _ t;. v'il~ LG o


[ J [ J

10. re:~ Iv ti - ~ f;: ~ - -- - -


[ J

- 81 -
11. ffi: <-c t -~ isj <'' Gv' _ ____
~l4>'""" c J

~.fLtc:bJ: o

14. - - - - - - ' filv ~ - - - -


c J c J

f=A-n-C~ _ _ _ _ __
c J

19. i? ~ Iv~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ -C' L .1: 5 ti i o

c J

20. t 5, fJ.lvtUp, _ __ _ _ Ji _ _ _ _ ,c,,rui,-c- o


c J c J

Note: The more formal (or written) form for ;J.;..!vfJ. in e xample is ;J.;..tJ..

The Iv in this and other forms sometimes has an intensifying function, as in

- 82-
~Im~ 1!! M
( j1!} * <T.> ffl' ~ )

:If: 5 t- L tc t'J , .$~ c Iv ~ Ii L tc t'J , _ _ _ _ _ _ f;: ttdJ> ~t tc t') o

-"-/;$ 'dJ tc c ~, ~ -T l::l,


-----
~ J: (::'' ~ fJ: v\ -c:-, c i' ;t; L tc
t> ~5 l.n.
o :;;t e~ l::l, ~ L v' ~ ""5 I":) ~
r> t.

L -C * -C 1-1> G, ~ -T iJ i - - - - - f;: tJ "'.) -C L ~ "'.) tc c /G 7'ili'U ~ "'.) tc o

!rJJ _ _ _ _ _ (J) 3: iJi _ _ _ _ _ ~ M' "'.)


1!1>5 ~ tc
*
-c .!\" "'.) -c -c, ":) c 'dJ % (J) l>*'J:'!- ~l> $13'.C--C' _ _
~ ~ ~ ? 1:.5

- - - - = f;: A "'.) tclP G - - - - (/) 3: f;: d0 fj' -c l;l L v \ c


~
"'.) tc 0 ~ -T iJi, ~ IJ}B l::l
VvtV.,
----

_ _ f;:-t Q ":) t t'J tc. tJ~ G. ~-----5'i& ~ < J:: 5 f;: -t-t'dJtc.iJ~. ~-T(J)3:1::t,
it-"-Cfi

~ (J) 3: f;:: _ _ _ _ _ l::t d0 Gtc 'dJ -C L f;: * Q c "'.) tc o ~ -T (J) 3: l::t, f$ c -~ f;:
t.;g,51:AO

;fJ G L tc (:: c (J) tJ: v\~-T ~ - - - - - L. g ~~ f;: t (J)--C'l::t fJ v\ tJ~ c, ffl ;"t

i&f;: - - - - - ~ t:l
ti4,
LtciJ~. ~(J)3:iJ~
----
l::l - - - - -- c v\ 5 (J)"C', ~-Tl::l:IBI
Ci

a-CL~-?fc_o

- 83-
Look over the list of essential vocabulary before the first session.

i. 3l:~ti~u~ a society without the -~


16. V5 ~ l-i5
FJJ~ farming families and
t>t> ~ l,~;!)V> 1' 1' merchant families
father

2. fftt existence 17. -BJ~ !llOther

authority a PTA-mother

role 19. /\$~ entrance ceremonies


K<!J>5 ;!)'( L-~

Education Minister 20. ~4-u~ competitive society


~! 5-1:5 l,~ ;!)IA

be the talk of the town 21. AF~i f 1 !J multiphasic (lit.,


"man in (dry-)dock")
7. f'!=~ writer

8. 119(@~~ movie director 22. 1~~TQ to repair


-<-V> "' "v,, <:<
young people, youth mother and child as one
9. *~ 23. -BJ-=f--1*

lo. m<
hi'
to depict escort, chaperone

11. t5l ffi: principal 25. ~$ t:' :/ thermos

relationship, 26. m.~ race horse


connec tion f':)\n r.r
27. ~~~ civil servant

13. -lJ- 7 ~ - -< /fl;Jf\ the Age of the 28. J:l ~ salary
t.: t&> Whitecollar worker
29. ;fl]~&;;, v' er:, v' peace and harmony
:b ~

profession and shelter bicker, be at loggerheads

be separate

- 84-
- - - - - - 'Afiffe.o

~tc, ~<7)Hi, ~+/\-e, 5 i?~ - - - - - - .: c <7)-C'~tc~~~i~, ~.Y~.YW;tc "Sf:,

50~1;flf~ ~ !jW; ~ti ~{ilij


~.Y ~5$ :9'.ft ~ ~u
"'lvH'
:to~--::> .:PF9 C: ~ 5 tclv $;& -)Jp:j {t.Y fl-~T 0
;t,U_lv V>'S "?Iv """

-t--7JF9 r~m~ ~7JF9 ~ 'i!Lv' il,,!!ic--90 ,;( p :/

"?Iv""" ~

~.Y 'A~--::>;(p 5
. *""'tt
~ -~f= ~ !J fJ~tcv' ~"'~"':>
~0 Llf ~ < ~ I) fl~ tc 1t' . ?I t-C..'
b( ~?
~-f-<7)1 Wl ft~0

~<7)1 ,;( p :/
~ J:: 0 .: .<); 9,t-C 0 r~m ;iltl,0
i'C( ?

:b ~-- :b ~-' :et

~-?ft fJ: < dishearteningly (here: with little to show for the amount spent)

--::>c~!JG: place of work 'Afif: sensitivity, feelings

g~~f=: financially fi~0:


to praise

i'.t~ : envelope ,~, 5 ~~tf..: one should consider I feel

- 85-
i. :. 0)**1'r:t. m:n.~-@] El O)~~ti~~:b-':) td~. =@] El 0) ~~ ~ -c-r.: El 1'-t Qt.:~ 0) t
0)-C'To

2
1. ( ) (
2
2. ( ) ( )t,;.t,
ttr:t, ~
<7->? :l
Ji~,
L-x? i!
E!ffi~ti~?7<. 1riu::ttti~7t*L-Cv'Q~W!ti~9>~-c-L
L: l!l>' ~x 5 Lx ( Ci!>5 .s;tv !J L-x 5-:1"5

tr.. 0

2
3. ( ) (

4. ( ) ( ) UJUd::9'\-f:: tl:l-CfiJJ;ij>tJ v'O)-C', ~$:ti~~ ;ij>;ij>:b 9 tJ~cb D ~-it Iva.


~xH5 4tJ0
2
5. ( ) ( ) ~:ilifd:, :3(?lUi~J: <-T-1t!;O)A.$~,~f.:"Jv'-Ch~ ~Ta

1. f5I 1.:7 ~ 7 ' 0)[5) 1.:tt~i.t~. 1t 5 -)J'.~ ~ fJ 2:v'a


2. F7 "'0) P'.J'.g ~ 15 ;t, a, b,c 0) tj:if.:_ ~ t Ji~ tJ 1t 0) ~ - " J tdt ~cl, 0~ "Jvt tJ 2: v' a

3. **1' II ti~~ !v-C'tJ> G' t 5 -m'.~JM L. ~ "Jvt tJ 2: v' 0

- 86 -
a.
tMi EE ~ ~ -=f }
i. ~ 2:'.tt~(7)z1:~a:~v'i~(7)fi b. tt ti.' v' tt tf. -C'T o
L.tt ... {
c. fir.ii ~-=f

a.
8 O-%jj,r}
2. Jk:j:j: ~ lvf.: J: hf;f, )(~/ft(7)*~1i, B *(7)?Jiffj(7) b. 8 o %jj,J: -C'T o
... <!\!> L-.t frY>
{
c. 90%Jj,J:

a. tt<}
3. lW: :iii , 1 ~ 2:: -=f {ti< (7) *6 Zi "':l ~ 7'.l ~ , tc. 1v tc. 1v b. !,? < tt -".) -c v, ~ -r- o
trT
{
c. ~<
?.l:

~1Hi.
fiijjtm}
~ .1:5 1.A,

-=f {tl<(7)
~ .l:,V>(
{:: m:tm t.i~ L -Cv' .gt l.-".) -Cv' ~To
c.
)(tm
a. B *-C'f:t, }
5. b. E (7) ~ -C' t, 1~7'.l~-=f {tl<O) 7' $(7) A.$~ f.: "':lv' -c 11' <(7) 7'.l;~Ji-c''T o
t<Y> ~ 1-r~' n t.,~ .;. -:::i'
{
c. 3 - ':J /~-c''fj:,

a. )(~t-T1tl<t }
6. :7k* ~ 1v1.: J: n1J, b. -=f1tl<l:t ~$.t.4H: ~lv-C'v' ~T o
{
c. )( ~ t re:~ t -=f {tl< t

L -:. (7) @: ~ ~ (7) ffi5 Jill! f:t filJ -C'T t.i, o


~ 1fJv " "' ti f<Y.

- 87-
2. -Jt 7 9- ""<' :/ flif rt C: l:L
i.; fiY-.
c 5 v' 5 -::: C: -c-t tr o

3. ~ C: -T OJ tP tP :b IJ OJ tJ. tJ~ -C', Ji :ili-11 ~ :b -:i "C ~ "C v Q OJ IJ:, c AJ tJ. ;m ~ -c-t tJ~ o
Ir>"\, Wv ti VJ'lv l .t 5

4. c 5 L "C 3:~iJ~-T~OJA$J:\f;:: ~ -c - ~r;::* Q OJ-C'-ttJ~o


lr>-::>l .I:

- 88-
1. m.li~ OJ -it 1/ Y f t- 7 -;; ~ 7 - 7 ' CAA ) ~ llf1 ~ tJ iJ~ G, t- 7 Y 7- ~ ~ 7 ' ..;,, 3 Y ~

%nt LJJ ~ v' o

,--- --- --- - - - ~ -- --- - -- --- --- -,


2. ;___ ___ ___ _________ ___ _____ _J OJ'lm?Hd:, :ffilit.i~1!ic.Qffl#ff;::.~v'--C, =@J El OJ~~OJ~ ~1=~/:Jj

LtJ ~v'o

3. Part 20) I. Vocabulary List, II. Notes on Grammar and Expressions,

ill. Notes on Socio~cultural Background ~~~LtJil~G, V'c IJV'c IJOJ-:>

1. Listen to the first half of the soundtrack tape of Lesson 5 and make a
complete transcription of it. (The underlined portions mark points that
are crucial to the understanding of the drama.)

2. Write out those parts that are surrounded by dotted lines on the sheet
that the instructor will distribute, and turn the sheet in a t the second
session.

3. Make an attempt to grasp the substance of the statements made by each of


the characters by referring to the vocabulary lists, the notes on grammar
and expressions, and the notes on socio-cultural background.

- 89-
~iii. 3l:~tJ: ~:ti~ -=-cv' 5 lv--C'Tt1>, 3l:~(l) - - - - - - - :t~--C'~Q,

fJ:lv--Civ':JJt~n*To -t:-5v'5, )(~Cl) --C'~Qc;O>, )(~Cl), -'t(l),

---
0 --c Cl) Ii ~f*. c 5 tJ: 0 --c v' Q Cl) ;0 4 , ~ Q v' Ii t' 5 tJ: 0 --c L * 0 tr. Cl) 1,) 4 ,
-t:- 5 v' 5 :. c --C' ~ .1: 5 Ii :JO ~ :&t 60 --c v' ~tr. v' c ,i~, 5 Iv -c:-tn~. il il,
1'. A Cl) ;0, tr. n~ tr. v::.. v' tr. t.:: v' --c :JO IJ * T o 1ilJ ~fl' v' tr. L * T o
* f, Jt=g:~j;::g:I(l)l)<#-~Mt ~ lv--C' :.,, ~,v, *-to
-'tfl,;04 G. NH K (l)~tiiJ f 7 "--C', * ~. j\:~ _ __ 1::... fJ: I) *l..Jc. r c fJ: I) (l)z

1: J ~ :JO:i= ~ 1.: tJ: IJ * L tr., m83 ~HFf ~ lv--C'T o


-t:- h ;0, G, f1= * Cl) tJ: tc. v' tJ: tc. ~ Iv --C'T o
lliJ t: <f1=*(l)flc~~-T ~ lv--C'T o
-t:-h;O>G, ~@ii&~--C', *~ -JtL--C;:e:~~ -----:. Gh* Ltc.. 00
wWil~ ~ 1v--c-t o
-t:- L "'(' ;f;OJ't$ ritlffi: Cl) 1L*i& gf ~ lv--C' .:: ~--v, * T 0 E 5 -t=' J:: 0 L <:JOmv' v'tc. L

*"to
:7k:tt-~1v. ~ill-c:-ttJ.,_c_(l) (1)$1:, ~c~~--c-~

_ _ _ __ Cl) Ii c 5 v' 5 :. c tc-' c , -t:- Cl), *, :m ~ lJ 1.: --C'T tJ, :JO ,\!H' 1.: tJ:
I') *"t;O>o
Ii~. )(~;6~*1.: _ _ _ _ --C'L.1: 5o :.nn~~;bl') *Ltc.bo *~ ~i1 4 GtC.

0 --c, -'t (l), -tt 7 ~ - ..,, /Ii -t:- 5 --C'T ~t n t'. 4'~ r -tr 7 ~ - " /lfi f\:J ~--cv' 5:. t
--C'Ti1 4 G, - c _ ;6~ L"'"Cv'Q 5 i?n~~v\--C'L J: 5 0 --C'-t;O>G, ~Cl)

5, *~ %!HJ:*~~ c 1.:~:t1.:rr~. 15tPJT1.:rr~. 1i1v--c'*tc. _ __ __


;O> G11ff Q c, tc-' ;O> G ~ Iv * IJ c ~ :b tJ: v' o :. h n~ -5\" 0 It IJ ~~ 1lt 1.: ::.k:: ~ tJ: _

_ t: 1" tJ v' -c:-t t1> tJ o ~ t Ii~ -:i tr. ~t c -c: ~ 0 tr. o


tr. c il l;f, !!:* . lffi* -t:"fl,;0 4 G v' 0 Iv fJ: El EE~ bo :. h IJ:~l 'llt 1.: it 5 c I~' v' '* T
bo li;O>l.:tJ';,Q--C'L J: 5 ~tht'o
7 7 1/ /-tt - J;J;-t:- 5 --C'Ti1>o '*&;, -t:-h;O> G J:: <:m~ c L --C i3 ;bf\,Q(l)fJ:, -T{tU.: c --c, 0 f?U

- 90- CT-5 - 1)
fUJ, ffl:~cOJ, 7cOJ, - - - - - - ii~5S:l<tJ0tc, -:>-Cv'5::.c-C'-9b:Zo

;t ;t, -C'TiP G ~il~v' tJ v'-C' T;Q~ G b :t, - - - - Mi !i--J


<;Q~-:> -c v'~ ibffl: L;Q~
tJ v'lv-C'T;Q~ Go -C'-t ;Q ~ G ~F';<tn: re:~;a ~~ w .W.~ Jf.tc v'f.:. tJ-:> -ct! tco

~WW~""'.!:: v' 5::. .!:: -C'T;Q~o C ~"' )

:Z;t, :Z:Z o -C', ;tilt; , ~ W"'"'0-Cv'0-C, ~F*'f,:. :to ffl:2:1v - -- bh:'tT

lv-C'T.to 7cnii~, ;tilt;, c'5-C'T;Q~ti.. B :<f>: OJ ~W! , titm1-PG0-C, 80 %.tl

J:. l: ~ ib tJ v' -C'T ;Q ~ b :t, :t ib, i? J: -:> .!:: WE ~t Ii Ii -:> ~ IJ L :t it Iv o 7c OJ <'' Gv' Ii
7c 5 v' 5 ::. .!:: Iv tJ 9 .!:: ,~, v' :t Tb :t o

----- 7c 5 v' 5 Mic.l--J t! il ~f -:> .!:: ib 91P G, -:k$OJ A.$j\ :t-C':toffl: 2: Iv

Iv -C'T o t 5 , 5 i? "'""1w -:> -c t! tc .!:: t! r.:. Ii r.:. tJ -:> -c 9 o -C', V' .!::

f* elf. o A iai i- '/ ;; f.:. Ii v' -:> -C 9 elf. tc v' f.:. b o ( ~ v' ) F ';! ;; f.:. IJ: v' -:> -C, 7c fl, -C'

:t ib ~ B :t -c - - - L -C :t tc tfJ -C n -:> -Co -c, to ffl: 2: Iv OJ kf 5 IJ:, ~ l~Ui, ~

0)~ $:f~O) - -- -- -C', filIT ::/J il~:fm$ L-C 9, lv-C' L J: 5 bo ;t

:Zo f:nil~:tib, ~T 9f-=. 7\.$0J c-:.0:t-c, ~ 0fi1J:toffl:~lvfJ:ffl:-T--1*ctJ0

-C:fm$L-Cb, f:L-C, ilt;OJ, v'< cv'5 ::.ct-c.05 .!:: ,~,v':'tTbo

:t ib, 7c OJ, -:k $ r.:., 'WU ;t f;f* -:k 1-=. An tc .!:: v' 5 ::. .!:: ~~ G L ff r.:. A$ j\ f.:. n <Iv

--- - -- -- - --- --- --- --- -- - - -- --- - - - -- - --- --- -- - - -- --- - -- - - - --- --- --- - - - --- --- --- - -- --- --- --- -- - --- -- - ----- - -- -- - - - - - - - - - -- - - - -- - -t
+--
I

--- --- --- -- - - -- - -- --- - -- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---- --- --- - - - -- - --- --- --- --- -- - --- --
I

- 91- CT- 5-2)


R -::> -C Q A.;--C'9 o -t:" h "('', i!tJ Q ~.~ 0) F0~ ~;ij>~ :b Q C tb -C ~ -C tJ., 2: 9 "'.) tc I) tJ.,
~ ;t L tc IJ L -c, -t-OJ ??zti> A.;IJ:'h -::i -c, i? .1: "'.) c fm,~77-tc~ l: C ~v' ) ti>-t .Q o L

/p L-thl'i --C" -tnti> - - - - -


1;:,t!-::i-C, -th('Gv '-~~frl--C'97J ~G, A$#.O) c~f;:,fj: ~~. i!tJO), #,0)

c ~ f;:, IJ:-~ f;:, fi <~ c f;:, t! .Q A.;--C'T ti. o fl fl o --C'9 7J~ G, ;t i!tJ, i? .1: "'.) c Wl;l ""-c
77-tc A.;--C'9tJ>. Ii 7J~ 0) ~ --C'IJ: ti., * $ 0) A$"#. f;:, i!tJ h tc' It ~ 5 ' 3:-T-'(;$:--C'* Q ~
l'J::t!v' J::. 5 --C' -t~th ~- 1t, :bti>~IJ:::k~, -t 5 --C'i!tJ .Q, c v' 5 ~ c --C'Ttl. o

- 92 - CT-5-3)
Note: The t~xt of this lesson is in the form of a roundtable discussion.
This lesson will deal with that category of speech that crops up with great
frequency in this kind of situation-- the verbal space-fillers (asobikotoba)
or utterances that are used by the speaker as he collects his thoughts or
gains time as he selects the right word.
There are several classes of such asobikotoba:

1. ;l-, ;l- t. '.t;b.


2. ib C1)' ib C1) - ' 7c C1)' 7c C1) - ' ::.. C1)' ::.. C1) -

3. 7c 5 -e-r ti., tJ. Iv t v' v' :t T tJ~.


There are fine nuances among these forms, but at this stage it will be enough
for the student to be aware of the following differences:
1. In the first category, ;l - t is slightly more informal than ;l -,
so it would not be advisable to use a string of ;l - t with one's superiors.
2. The second category consists of words that are basically pronouns,
and because of their nature a non-Japanese is apt to ponder over what these
pronouns have replaced. The student should learn that in this context the
words do not function as pronouns; they are used simply to allow the speaker
time to gather his thoughts.

i,bC') is used as a space -filler, but as it is also used to communicate


a sense of hesitation on the part of the speaker, a string of these will give
th~ impression that he is being apologetic or, worse, overly defensive about
the point he is about to make.
3. 7c 5 -e-rti. in the third category basically indicates a situation
in which the speake~ seeks the concurrence of the listener, but it also used
constantly as a space-filler. fJ.lvt v'v'~9tJ~ is, in the main, an expression
used to allow the speaker time to collect his thoughts or to select the
proper word, but it is also used with great frequency as a verbal space-filler.

Points to bear in mind when the student hears verbal space-fillers:


We have thus seen that these verbal space-fillers do not carry any
special significance in themselves, so when the student learns to recognize
them and their function, he will also learn to relax and lesson the strain
during the conversation. The Japanese will often come to the point in a

- 93-
discourse after the y have mumbled two or three of these space-fillers. For
example, a succinctly expressed sentence (no.l) may be broken up by space-
fillers in th e following way (no.2):

2. -i:"5-C'-ttl.. J'J(l)5, ;iJ'J, -~. -{"(!), ::k~tJ~ fUi, C.(1)5, tJlv--C


v'v';i-f;j ~. -{"(!), X~ti~. ~~. ~a:v'fJv' cv'5 c_ e: c:.~tJv'l''TtP o

It is therefore imperative that the student internalize the conversational


rhythm so that he will concentrate on the key parts of the sentence (those
parts underlined in sentence 2 above), and relax during the space-fillers.

Points to bear in mind when the student speaks Japanese:


When some Americans speak Japanes, they will use such American
language space-fillers like "umm," "uhh," or some such. These sounds will
strike the ear of the ordinary Japanese as perplex ing and quite foolish, so
it is advisable for the student to master the correct Japanese verbal space-
fillers as soon as possible. Apropos of this, the student should also
realize that the impression he will make on the Japanese when he utters "Oh!"
as a result of surprise or discovery during a conversation in Japanese is one
of extreme rudeness. The student should learn to say ~ as soon as
possible.

Note: In contrast to previous lessons, these blanks are not quite as important
with respect to content. The aim of the exercises in this lesson is to get the
student to pay particular attention to verbal space-fillers, to become ac quainted
with their forms, and to learn at which points in a sentence the student can take
a breather, so to speak.

- 94-
L :7J<1f2:1v. ~:iIT-c-tti.. ----~c-TOJil~t.i~b9 OJtj:i-z::-, trc.1t-"-C-:l=Jl-?-c~tc0Jf'i,

c 5 v' 5 -:: c tc.' c m ~Et%: -c-t ti.. :to,~. v' f;: tJ 9 * 'Til~ o

3. &;&;, -t-5-C''Til~o _ _ _ _ -t:hiJ~GJ:: < _ _ _ _ !ll.~c l,-C b:h00Jf'i, -T-{tl;f::c


-?-c. ~IJ ;Ui', J~cOJ, ----~(f' "':>~tJo;5Si< tJ:-?tc. -?-c-::c-c-tti.X.o

4. -c:. We w" " "'.) -c v' "'.) -c. ~1= 1i5 f;: :toa 2: 1v~ < i3 nn *-t ft cti. x.. J:: CrJtf!J 2: n
0 ft c t, * ~ f'i , :X: tJo; i,-, tJ: v' 1v-c-t J:: o -t:htJo; c 5 -c-tiJ~ ti., B *
OJ * W!. t!t mt,J~ G i3 "'.) -c 8 o %.1:J J:: t. ~ tJ v' -c-t ii~ ti. X. . ti .1: "'.) c KVt ~t f'i f'i "'.) ~ 9

L, *it Iv 0

6. , ::k: $ f;:, ~IJ *- fi', * ::k: f;: fi v' :h tc c v' 5 -:: c ~~ G

L, ff f;:A$;x;\;f;: fi <Iv t. ~ tJ: L,f;:, ~~ OJ c ~ tJ~ G -~ f;: "':>v'-Cfi < b~t-c-tti.o

1. -ttt<" Gv'-1=Jtlv~v''1?TtJ~G. A#J;\; OJc~r=ri . ~~ . ;x;\; OJc

~ f;: fj:, -~ f;: fi<-::c f;:tJ0/v-C' Ttl.o X.X.o -C:'T ii~G , 'l?.1: -? C ~-"-C.17-tclv

-c:-ttJo;, :$1. 0J ~-c rJ:ti. , ::k:#OJA#;x;\; f::.:bttt.: ~t _ _ __ , re:-T--1*'1?*0~f'itJ:v'J:: 5-C:


T ~t :h c t ..

- 95 -
.: t'Hi, m:n.~. =@ 13 OJ~~iJ~ ~ b-:i tc. ~, -=.@! 13 OJ ~ ~ 'i -cf;: . ~T G tc.~ OJ~~F"'~~
-c-to

1. m:n.~OJ-+tl/ / F ~ 7 '/ !l 7- 7 ( ~- ) ~ ~ ~tJ 6v'o


2. 'tT.. OJX.iJ~. F 7 "OJP'J ~ C: IEJ C:tJ G O ~, :! -:i -Cv' G C: ~~i x ~ C

2
1. ( ) ( ) C: tJ ~ OJz1:.f.: ili-C <G 3Ctll. C ~ ) fi, Ff-1*-C'W
w I: ~ ltlt> :f::fC
-:i -C * tc. ~~~ tJA
-t:A.,rjlt>-C!

-c-to
~~ ~ : typical
"(A, rjlt> -r!

2
2. ( ) ( ) ~ tc. i? fi, 3C t!!. iJ ~:9'1- -c
~c
~ /v tJ .: e: ~ L. -Cv' Q OJ?j~, J:. <~ M L. -Cv' 'i L. tc. o
~ h0
2
3. ( ) ( ) ~ OJ 5Vi, ~ ;j ~ G tt *li ~ f.: er:, tc. tc. ;j ~ v' A
tr:iH , -!tV> h< -rll;
-c L. tc. o
2
4. ( ) ( ) tJ t;: 6 lvfi, ~ e: -=.r~m ~~ f= L.;j ~~ cF:'v' -Cv' tJ v' e: 13 -:i -Cv' 'i -t o
11\/> [,~ -Cl); trt
2
5. ( ) (

1. IE] C:7 - 7 ~ 1fJ 5-)f~ ~ fJ ~v' a

2. F7 -zO)pj~~~~. a,b,c O)tj:t-C~lfJJl~tJ 1/JO)~-":>tc~t~cf, O~"='~ttJ 6v'a


3. ~~IIiJ~~lv-C';j~G, 1fJ 5-!f ~ ~L ~"='~ttJ 6v'o

- 96-
~' Elifi}
a. h I.,

1. ~V'JilHUi, b. ~:ft~ V'Jlt-C'Lt.:


;60 4'Wv ~
{
c. 0f9J~
t.' tr Wv

a. 3:i31. }
2. ~f;:, -~ ~t /v 6tJ "'~ -c ~ t.:J C: ~ v' ~ 1-1~-itt.: V'J Ii,
r :to'! ~ V') t.: 60 f;: v.::>L-.1: -:i b. 3i:i31. -C'T o
~
{
c.

a. ~ ~ L 1-1~ -:i t.: }

3. ~V'J Ii, 3:i31. f;: b. --:> 60 tc.1-1~ -:i t.: -C'T o


{
c. ~ u L 1-1 ~ tc. -:i

a. <tJ G
ill L
~:11.
}
4. r :to MV'J t.: 6tJ f;: ~ -Cv' Q J e:
-:i ~ vn Q t, +1tt:li b. filJ C: t I~' :b tJ "' t V') -C'T 0

{
c. "'~f;: tJ Q

a. ;fU~;O~il~L-Cv'G~}
b H :6'-? ~

5. iJl.C:-Tli, b. -~f;:{:EJv-C' l.t'G C: ~ ;f03'<\.JfJv'JfJv'C'. L-Cv'!To


~ L-.1: :b ~
{
c. ~ n -c i:Elv-C'v' Q e: ~
till:

)(C:~-T)
3: C: ,~, -T t.:--::> v' -c ffi5 L -c v' '! T o

t~

- 97 -
2. :~Hi, fe: ~ fi El :B- 0) tOb K. f v'~~ 1V~ '.tt L --C
< M
<ht.: A.dt 2:: }~, -::i --C v' ~ To t' 5 L --C -z"T :0~ o

3. ~ 0) a~ fi' 5L -e tJ <!jef
/: <
f;: ~ 2:: ""' t.: rJ L --c 1.r \ ~ Lt.:
-::> c' 5 0 L --C-C' T:O~ 0

4. ~ ;0 ;;'.ff.~ t _,., --c, ~ -::i ;Q ~ v' t O)f;: tJ Qt, ~-T!*l1Wdi c' 5 tJ rJ ~ -9;Q ~o
/:: I., ~C.:O>'vt-)1,'>

- 98-
~1i~(f)-it'7:,; f r 7-:;;; .::;-- 7 C ~~) ~lif:l~t,co~G. r 7 :/7' I/ 9 7 y 3 :,; ~jefiX:

1_, tor~ v' o

~ EE ~ /v (f), ~u (f) * *
r t tor IJ (f) z: ~ J (f) i:p --C' tl -c v' IJ -t-. ib (f) :jO 3<: ~ Iv (f) ~1 5 --C'
-J-ti., ib(f) , ibn~ Ji -c 'i Tc, ~ 5 v' 5 re:-T--1*--C'f 5 0 cW
0 -c ~-c1_, * 0 tc.. (f)'/J~ - - - -- :jO c tor f:.tor 0-c1_, *0 tc.J..J-tc.v'torfJft.. C:.'/J~
!_, *Tbo

EE ~ 5 -C:Tbo ;b(f) f 7 ""7l (f) ~'.;\E(f):l$!;iHi, (b(7):j0.}: ~ fv, tRtt ~ fv(f)~'/J~--C'Tb.

;t=v'-:6f:. (f) --C', ~h--C';t, 'icb, ~7k1t~~'/J~:j00 0

~ v' * t_, tdth t:: t, fLW'/J~~~ tl-C-~~ i!Jf~v' -Cv' Q ::bft --C'T J: bo tdt E,
* ~ !lffl 0 -c ~ tc. G, *ib, 1- ':/ t1 ~ fiv' 0 -c Q J: 5 tor fJft.. c:. --C' 1_, .1: 5 ft n c, t f;: tp
<re: 8 Ii , ib (f) , ~ ~ it (f) --C' :jO AA ~ t5c Wt_, -C Q Iv tc, t_, -C Q Iv

~0-c, -~~iil c~5!v-C:-9J:bo~5T0c3<:8(f)

_ _ (f)fiJt ;ttorv'tl> G. tctl> Gre:81i, ibib:j0f1(f)tc.19')f:.ibntc' ft~51t 0-c, t


5c 5 * tlll -C rorv'-C:itff~:j0f1f;: --:i~':i6!v--C' <ntc., 0 -Cv' 5 ...... 0 t 5u t --:i(f)

~~Ii, ib (f), :jO 5C. ~ Iv, ib (f) :l$!;-B" Ii '/J~ ib (f) :l$!;-B" Ii re: 8 f;: ~!:: '*' f;: f'!P tc. ti> 0 tc. o
ib (f) M ~ 0 -C (f) t , ~ 0 Ii IJ , ~ (f) a 5 ~ Iv --C' t_, .1: 5 ti. o

:jO 5C. ~Iv ti~7c 1* ~ 5 v' 5 11:~ iJ f;: ;t=v' 0 -Cv' 5 ti>, f'!Ptc. ti> 0 tc. lv--C' t_, .1: 5 fth t:' o

cf;: i6> <ib (f) :l$!;-B"-~ tc v' c:.ror (f) Ii, :j0.}: ~ lvtl~ ~ 0 l'i IJ ~:lk #~~'/J ~:jO 0 1_, ~ 0

tc. J: 5 f;:, 5 i? f;: v' -C, t_, .1: 0 i? 19> 5 t 5 :jO AA (f) tc. 19') f;: b tc. t_, Ii~ 0 -C Iv tc, :jO AA

(f) rot> f;: v tc. 1_, Ii~ 0 -c /v tc: 0 -c, i3 0 -c ~ tc. *


tc"t ,i~, v' -9 ti. o ~ n --C' *
;b, -~~iil~ 0 -c ~ tc. lv--C' l_, .l: 5 l_, 0

tor tc ~Iv, ~ 5 v' 5 ..s, 5 f;:, r :jOAA(f)fc.IJt)f;:, :jOAA(f)tc.IJt)f;: J 0 -c i3 vntc. G, -T

~ Ii, --C' Iv c:. ~tor v'--C'T i6> o C ~ v' )


tor tc: ~l~H:.li*h-Cv'0-CQ/v--C'L,.1: 5ft~-bo 'iif;, n-cv'0 -CQfthf'% 5'\;!Jf;:

- 99- (T-5-4)
5 ti, 'i., tc..tJ,. G, [- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
*8lf'-Jv'-Cv'g, !v-C'L- J: -1
1----------------------------
1

1- - - - - - - - - - - - ~

I, .fJi'.~tJ~:-~l:0-C~-C,
l- - - - - - - _-_--_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-
_-_-_-_ -_-_-_-_-_-_--- -1

- 100- ( T-5- 5)
3.

-C'Tn"
J

- 101-
1o. cb (7) ~ 1:Hi ffi: ti~, cb (7) ~~fire:~ h: ~I"~ f;: ~ tc. tJ:. -:i tc. o cb (7) M1* _ _ _ _ _t ,
[ J

- - - - ' cb (7)' ~ (7) fi 5 ""- ...-..'..-:> tc. I) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ -c- L, J: 5b 0

[ J [ J

11. t.J. tc. ~ 1v, .f:" 5 v' 5 .<S~ 5 1;:, r :Jo M(7) tc. 601;:, :JoM(7) tc.601;: J _ _ _ _ i3 nntc. G,
[ J

_ _ _ _ tDt fi~l"~f;:*1J3Kcb v'ib v' c v' 5 -:: c __t.J. -c, 4-J.f,


-:i ~ti~~~ c -c ~
-:i

[ J [ J

- 102-
~Ji~ 1~ ~

<~ * (/) ffl'm>


1& -3 f;:: cb G ~ 1lJ (7) 9=t ti> G , : ~ fJ. ct (7) ~ ~ Iv -C' )( ~ (7) 9=t (7) _ __ __ f;:: :t: ~A

:h,tJ: ~v'o

NH Kr v t::'(l) iWl (7) l'f f,_ -C', r x~ (7) &~rn ffl: ~ (7) &iUJ t v' 5 ~~~ n>cb -0 tc. o
tr ff.Iv :60

tf:lmt::&r:L :7k1t~tt.ta c ~ 8'i=(7)x:g~*), 11rn~~+a c r 7 "f'F*


4~ 4 ~ :6'11> ;,.-i;, :i., IS C Vv .s: t<Y> Liv ti l- tc -T :6' t. ;;-:::> :6
we: tJ. tJ (7)z1: JJ (l)f'J=::&)
tJ. tcv'tt- tca c .), fft!Ii~+
-,; I: 5 ~IA I:.
a cf'F* ), oow#i!Jfl5a
5 ~~1 ~
Ji
c
:t'
~~),
:O>'v I: (
::n:;t
1:;, ~

~a;(~~$~~*)(7)~A~cb-0ko
1-;;:t')J. b I:. 5 :6' ( Vv

w6b f;::, 'i'l1~::&(7)7


L, :00 4
:r r/ /-tt - ti> r 3l ~ tt- ~ tt ~ J tt- t' t :bn 0 n>, :mtt a *

tt~r= j:O vt Q 3l~ (7) fJ: fiiJtJ> t v' 5 r,,,~~ ~ IB LJc. o

_____ ttttti~0-7'.J>h-Cv'0tc.6b . _ _ _ _ _ ti> _ _ __ _


~? b

r= v' 0 ~ t ti>:J> tt- <u -0 tc. t m~


l -r: ~
Ltc. o --:i "* tJ, 3l~fJ:, iWJ, """'IB 7'.i>vt-c~

:7k1t ar= J:: 0 t, 4--C'fJ:, a *(7)*~(7) s o %JJ_J::n' ~ (7) J:: 5 tt- M ~ t -0 -c j:O tJ, t <r=~4Jttt~r=
~ . J: 5-t: 5 L,~ ,)Ir>

7':$f;::/\ 0 "*-C'fJ:, ffJ:-T-1*-C' ~4JtT 0 tc.6bf;:, - - - - - ' -=f{Jl;(l) j;::$(7) - - - --


r;: ffl:~ti> IB ht-90:m~ti>13 :sL--:i J:: 5 f;: tt- .,. ., tc. t ti i3 -0 -Cv' 0 o
Vf!v l .1:? lb tc
ffJ: +-1* (7) Ml~ (7) ---:i (7) _ _ _ _ _ t L -C, _ _ _ _ __ ti>, Wt z
tJ. tJ (7) 1: j] (7) r'5J f
~~T~~tf tc. t ~ ;s, fp;:&(l);ji EB~ ~ T an>. r'5Jf~fj:, - - - - - (7)~-C'cb -0 tc.ffl:~ti'.
~

- 103-
______ ~ li"".) ~ --C' i!t> "'.'.) --C, 51HJ:,
trt
:iO 1Lv, V') ------ _ _ _ _ _ _ ti ~ ~~l,--Cv'G~tdt5 ~
~? ~

~~rn 1!9C@i 771/' /-ij- - ~:ili 1'F * )(jl $~ :I!! 1;' Jl.1; '
.;V> M, :1.-1:"
~
~W }:jl . x iJ1. }..$'A, Xiffi-t Q !lft~ ~4t-TG Mf{f' "".)~
trY> :I>' ~ c: trt

~ *W 5fU fu't {$ % "A 8"J tc. 0~~ ~'JfTG IDt f#3


L~< ll "-~ Hit> L~ -c:~
c.' tr Wv
.:c.. ::l 'f?U Aisj l'l'.I ~::&
tut>

Im.~~: panel discussion tl Jg;& : participant s

~ ~V') : at that time l'\'.I~;&: moderator

mm-tG: point out &:,~fJ v~ : inevitably

m~: phenomenon "j[_"':): be noticeable

~ ~j" Q : bring up, mention

- 104-
Look over the list of essential vocabulary before the first session.

1. l3~~tlkv' be treated as a guest 15. 5 n l_, v'i@ drink in a pleasant


~~<;;1~
~~ frame of mind (as opposed
feel uncomfortable to drowning one's sorrow)

3. ff~ company-built housing


16. ~~D G L, v'-:: ~ anything like
things go smoothly, :IM' I:.~ I:. ~
filial duty
get along

fine, excellent 17. ~,jg_l_, repayment of a debt of


gratitude
be worried/uneasy about

hous e-wa rmin g for a new lP. Wlil-Tt.i~v'v' get carried away
~J: ~ L
house
19. ~"* tf. be unnecessary

be nothing like 20. ~j/f,X'<JT Q be dead set against

be looked after (T-1-7) 21. ~~T Q be grateful

10. ~'liaTG to regret 22. ,~Ji~TG take a rest, relax


Ir>~ "'
11. l'.'-:: 07.J~ far from bein g ... 23. ~ ~' tc.. !7:
-T
m
K .i: ~ I"!
a wife much too good for ..
what nonsense! You
24. ~~ a couple
can't mean it, etc.
25. tf~ (~) TQ to reminisce
ti:OUttL
13. J::-t"-"~-0td~ a daughter given away

14. (/)Iv (j' I) TQ to feel at home, make


oneself at home, feel
at ease, relax

- 105-
m/\~t.J~4- *--C'(7) ~ J: 9 filv'(7) IJ:, ~ (7) ~ ~~5ST 9 ~ (7) IJ: t.~f=, ~ raj~~t.;~Jt,, 9 ii~ G-C
T o ~~ t AA-', ~-: f= 5t ~t t!v'--C" -!El 5tf= L-C i!t> 9 *To m/\~, -!El El (7)~~t.J~~:b
0 tr. ~ --c El ~ L t! ~ v' o

Lesson 6 is shorter than the previous lessons because there will be


a midterm at the be ginning of the week. The exercises have also not been
divided into two parts. After you have completed the first session of
Lesson 6, go on to study on your own.

2
1. ( ) ( ) ::k~ffi:(7)}fj:, ~t.J~v'tdl 5 t.J~ J: ii~ 0 tr. e:. ~ 0 -Cv' *To
;...;;.,;!). trt1D
2
2. ( ) ( ) ::k llR (7) re: IJ: , El 5t (7) ,~, -T (7) ~ f! (7) --C', ~-Tf= & Lt ~t.J~tl. L-Cv' *it Iva
~.WV t.rt I:
2
3. ( ) ( ) ~IJ:, ~0$~;6~~0(7)--C',
:I> " .,. ::k~N (7)J:t.J~v'--::> * --cre * -ct v' v' e:. ,!f!!, -c
I:
0 0

v'*To
2
4. ( ) ( ) ~fj:, J: ~%Iii- 0 tr. YJ f.:, }(7) tr. YJ f= -~~~$.R 5t f= i'!= 0 tr. C:. v' v' * Ltc o
01: " .,.
2
5. ( ) ( ) ~fj:, ~ -T f= Ji JE L -c v' *Ta
1.lv-l'(

- 106-
1. lliJ l.:>r - 7 ~, t 5 -M ~ '! tI ts:"' o
2. 1- 7 " (7) P'l $ ~ ~ :l, a , b , c (7) $ -C' 15: t Ji~ t! t (7) ~ - "J tdt ~ Z.l, 0 ~ "J ~t t! ts: v' o
3. **~ Il :6~~ lv-C' ;O~ G. t 5 -)Jt".~[;J L ~ "J~t t! ts: v' o

a. 1:. '!;lg
:6R
-:i tc J:: :> ti}
"'* ""* -C { b.
V>

1. :7'J& '7Jffl: IJ:. :t: '7J~ D'7JT .Q if L V9J 5 5 "Jf;::. t! -:i tc ~ ~ -:i -Cv' ~To
:6<1>'

c. fi'liaL--Cv'-0

V9l 5 5 "J f! : melancholy

a. 7 /~ - I- }

2. ::k ~& '7J 5VJ: b. Jj-(7)* f::.{/v-C' v'~To


{
c. {:!: ~
4 tr..(

a. j(t@~ 5 ~ <v'-::i-Cv't!v''7J-C' }
3. 5EG-T '7J B.HJ: b . v'6v'6~:6~;0~ Dt!'7J-C' J:: <5EG-T'7J* ""*~To
{
c. '7J Iv 7.l D-C' '! .Q '7J -C'

4. ::k~&'7Jffl:'7J~tc.i?'7J~ < ~ffiJIJ: IJ:,


H?t.1:<
{:: la~:C }l'fG L-Cv'~To
c. ,@, -T7ct@ ~

a. ~~fBl :6 ;:;it- -,.,~--t-0'7J-C' }


ltlv ~< 1}

5. ~IJ: b. :to~ti~J:: <*.Q'7J-C- -$!i #dH::.fF Dtc


.I:~
<c!tJ D ~-ltlv-C-Ltco
{
c. re: ti~* .Q (7) -c-
a . .fi 11iaL'"Cv'~To

6. ~IJ:, -$!i#<7H::. fl= -:i tc-: ~ ~


{
b. ~IJ: D tt tc: tc ~ }~, -C v' ~T o
-:i -:i

c. J:: tp -:i tc ~ ,~, -:i -Cv' ~-t o

- 107-
L ~ 5 L -c ~(7)Hi . ~.:ri= :to~tlkv' ~
~~<~
n -c li!i'I 9 c ~ -:;, tr.. (7)--C'T'IJ" o
t:t

3. ~ (7)-Sfi, Jti'J~:;k: ~ tJ ml L -C-: 5 L -C ~1Ur.. ~ L -C, ~-T(7)J:f;::: $ L~tJ v' c ~ v' ~ Ltr..o
i' :tl1

4. ~ Ii, ~5 L-C. 5hLv'mi~~!v-c."v'9(7)-c."T7J"o


~ ID

- 108 -
!-------------------------,
2. :-------------------------~- 0)$7HJ:, ~ffifitJ~~-Q)fjAff:il=v'-C, =@ O)~~O) C: ~f:~tl L
tJ.2:v'o
3. Part 20) I. Vocabulary List, ll. Notes on Grammar and Expressions,

m. Notes on Socio-cultural Background ~$~L,fJ;O~G. l.fC: rJl.fC: rJO)-:::i

1. Listen to the soundtrack tape of Lesson 6 and make a complete transcription


of it. (The underlined portions mark points that are crucial to the under-
standing of the drama.)

2. Write out those parts that are surrounded by dotted lines on the sheet
that the instructor will distribute, and turn the sheet in at the second
session.

3. Make an attempt to grasp the substance of the statements made by each of


the characters by referring to the vocabulary lists, the notes on grammar
and expressions, and the notes on socio-cultural background.

- 109 -
~ <1) 3: fi Iv t f.:, ~. J:: <~-'.'.) tc :b o .lz:i* ti,~, -T ~-'.'.) -C, 3: ~Iv L cf:> :bit J:: o tJ: 1.1~ fJ: t,p =:. + .li
:A -c- 5 'S ~ 91 -c Gn Q _JJ:IH* ti Iv -c, -f: 5 v' ti v' :b J:: o 1E -T ti -'.'.) -c, :::t: .&B ti -'.'.) -c, v' v'

:to~ ~Iv~ -'.'.) -c, cf:> D ti~ tc v' t ,~, :b tJ: <'S ~ cf:> o td:. o
:::t: .&B 5 Iv, 5 5 lvo
c ~v'fE)

I~ ~o I
C 9dl-T ti~.<), t Iv~~ v' -c v' Q " )

~ <!) 3: cf:> G, 'i JtJ, :to.<), t Iv ti G, E! ?t -c- ~ <<1) f.: o rn Q :b, _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ fJ: o

)55 G <ti Q c:. ~ti v'(]) o

'icf:>, .:n< Gv'o ~Jt>. c:- 5.:f.:_'' ~-'.'.)< D:tofth-f.:tJ:-'.'.)-C<ti~v'o cf:><!), -f:"n~~G.

r1 vti~r tJ: lv-C', 'S .1: -'.'.) t -C' L .1: 5 ft c' o


~ <1) 3: v "~cf:> ti. *-, ti~ _Iv tJ: Q J:: 5 ti :90- C:. ~ cf:> D 'i it Iv J:: , 'i ti o

cf:> cf:> cf:>, f{JT L v' 5 'S <1) * <1) ti~ :to D -'.'.) -C , v' v' :b ti. *- o : kJ& <1) _ _ <1) 5 'S fJ:, _ __

_ _ -C' L .1: 5, _____ <-'. ) -Co .: .: ""- *-C tJ: Iv tc.1.1~ ~ ~ ~ -'.'.) tc h-tc v' o

-C' t :to t, :to - - t, :to - - "'t"fiiJ J:: D -c'T :b o


9dl-T ~Iv t .: ' :to _ _ ' :to _ _ _ _ _ _ __ t ~ f9Trliij f.: ?

*- *- o :t &t>, ti 1v t 1P _ _ 1.: ~ -'.'.) -c Q J:: 5 -C'T o

-f: D ~cf:> ft-'.'.) .: 5 ti.*- o fJ:, cf:> <1) 5 , :to.Ji*- Iv ti D 'i T ?


*- *- * ~ 91-Ctd'f-'.'.) ti~ D fJ: <1)-C', v' 6 v' 0 t 'Ati~;(p D G L <-c 0 -f:hf.:, - - - -
- - 1.: Jt *- -c <tc. ~ Q :to ti Iv 1P t :g, v' t Iv -C'T 1.1~ G, _ _ _ f.: *-c <n
tc D ...... o

:to3:f*, :to L JtJ :bittl. *- ~ tJ: tct.J~ _ _ _ _ _ f.: v'-C o -T~fJ:~-'.'.) f:f D_ _ 1.:

~.& Q :b o cf:> tc <L <1) :to R ti i? tc. -'.'.) -c ti. *-, *5 ;sj fJ: Iv t .: ;:, f.: tit~ f.: tJ:
-'.'.) -C G-'.'.l -CAti~ $ v'lvtit(J)o Jt>tc LtJ:lviJ~, =A-c'L .1: 5 o -A <''G v'~~
1v c' <Iv tc. -'.'.) tc -c ~ire L -c Iv (/) o
"?

- 110- CT-6-1)
c ~v' ) L cb:bit ~,-:: 01?~, - - 1:: f:t-5'.1je7)fi G L < c - - - - f'f-:::i t?~ 9
___-c ~ -tt?~ Go
tc. -:: i -c, -:: Iv tJ. "51... W-JJ. 5 i? ;0; 9t -:: i tr. Iv tc. L t 5 v'"::re 1t t!r ~ tJ .!:: ~ 1:: -:: -:: ""'v' G -:: i L
~hG!vtctO)o t L, !?; t:-~f::WGLtc.v'-:::i-C,~,-:::i-CG

-:: i L ~ G Iv tc -:: i tc. G, :b tc. L tJ. Iv t?~ L -c -:: 5 J\=' -:: i -C * tc. 9 L -c , tJ. Iv

ttt?~ $ L :b vt tJ. v' J: 5 tJ. 'Ati; Li? ~ -:: i -c ti o


~ 2: 1-1~ o cit> 0), re: f:t ~Iv tJ. .. .. o v' J\='-C'T :b o cit> tc. L f:t 1:: 1:: * tc. ~ -C'
-to re: tc. -:: i -c, cit> tc. L f:t t 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ tc. .!:: ,~, -:: i -c Q !v-C'-tt?~ Go
C ~v')

C ~v') fPJ:to -:: i L~GA/C'TI? :toiE=2:1vo -::-::1:t - - -- 0):[05 i?tJ!v-C'TO)

J: 0 fij 1t Jill fJ. 2: Q -:: .!:: l:t .. .. .. 0

ib9tJ"co L:~(b, *'L' L-C :to f::tJ9~Ttlo ~'5-f:', J:6L<:tolMv'v'tc.L~

To
~(it;,, ( ~v') -:: i?G-::~o ( ~v')

cit> 0), fi /v c 1:: tr~ JlI3 ~ ~it /v vt ~,, ______ O) _ _ _ _ 1:: :to 1ffi' 9 1:: tJ.
"'.) tc. "'J t 9 -e, - - - - - tJ. 2: -c < tt 2: v' -:::> o

It Ito c ~v' )
i.: ~cit>, :to{t.lf-1:: tJ. -:: i -c <tc. 2: v' ~it o
:to~'"t.lf.o

C ~;a:.v:. .!:: 9 -e 7 1 ;z, :f- - ~i1\lv-C'v' Go )


~ -T 2: cit>, cit> tJ. tc. t, t 5 :to{t.lf-1:: tJ. G tJ. v' .!:: o
~ fi1Z ~ L -C <n J: o ~ J: 5 f:t rJ , ~ tJ. Iv tt t?~ Go
~ C ~v')

~ :ton tJ. cit>, :ro..s. < 0;0:. cit> /v rJ @:Jttc. 0)0- L ..s: 9 tJ.1v tc. J: o
~ C ~v')

- 111- CT- 6-2)


fill - "'..) G 1.., v'-:: t i:t-c- ~ti 1-1 ~ tdth ~- t, -:: n -r i? .1:
-:i --:i lf rJ _ __
O') 'i b -:::: ~ il ~ -C- ~ t.:~ '.M' tJ Iv t~ o ~-T, :to~~< 0 il~v' Q isj, ~Iv t~ ~-o ~ ~ I..,<
I_, -c ~ -c <h
-? J:: tJ if> 0

1 - ---- ---- --- - --- -------- - ----- --- - ----


- -- - - - ~

9;0

n~G-:>-C, ibtit.:IJ: ltl't~-tco J -:>-Cv'50'J, ~!\O~f;::.if>f.: l., il~ o ibtJfc.., if>h,


_____ il~-t: -i-:75* - /~ -'t' Q-:> -C, ti~ -:i tc..lv-C-Tn~ Gbo
v' v' t: ~ ti v' 1-1~, :to~~ <0 ii~ if> 1v ri '= % 1v -r < n -c /v t~ J:: o :ton t b, J::
n~ -? t.:c l'tJ,-? -c Q J:: o ~.hf;::. IJ:, ~~ 1.., -C 'i To
if> t.: L, IJ: b, 5 i? O'J -e f;::. t * -C t G -? -C, ~ -:i <9 c ~, tt ~ ~ it-C ~ 9 tr. v' c ,~, -? tr. n~

if> if>, .:th t ~t-? -:: 5 0 :ton t b, _ _ _ __ tc J:: 0 ~ 7-/-0') ;Bfij ~ !vf= IJ: D -C-IJ: "
it ti v' <"G v', :tottt~f= ti -:i -c -:in ~ G ri o

- 112- CT-6-3)
v' ~, --'t A.; tJ f;: * v' rf3i t: -'('> tJ v' J: o :to~~ <0 V') ~ Ii - - V') FJf tJ. A.; tf.tp G, --'t 5 --'t 5

- - - - - ::. ::. f;: - - - - - - - - - -


tf. 7j 5 0

f. <, f. <, ~ J.;. If) Y J..,iJ\J.J-fJ ~ v', tl.o


9JJ 5 A.; o
~ * T' jO ~ ;Ui tJ ' 1t' 1t' 3:( m tf. J: 0 jO ti f;: Ii~ ~ tc. R- mt;: 0

* ~ ib ( ~"' ) 0 fiiJ ~ i3 -::> -c A.;-C'-t;04 0 ( ~ "' )

~ v'v' L::J(' fJ.v';0 4 o ::. -::i i'.J"'"'-*-C, -~f;:iJ\J.;.~ l, J: 5o ~ J: 5 Ii, tl.o


v' ~, tf. -::i -C , i'.J .1: -::i .!:: ib tJ. tc., ----
, i'.J .1: -::i .!:: , - - - - -- i@ ~ -C A.;

V') J: 0

~ v'v' t:-'('> tJ v';0 4 , :;Rt@tJ. A.; tf.;0 4 G, rJ o

( ~V')-BJ;ij?>,A-::> -c * Q 0 )

9JJ -T if> G, i'.J .1: -::i .!:: ...... 0

~ s s s, 4- tJ , c~"' ) a ~ A.; V') ff~ 1_, -c tc. A.; tc J: tJ o

9JJ -T ftfto

J'>, --'t'Jo
ft ~-' ib V') 5 tJ f;: ;04 ...... 0

- 113 - CT - 6 - 4)
2. ?X r.:, ..:c 0) ff~ ?1- ~, J:: IJ :i= ~ ~ ~ J3'9 tJ % r.: Il[ L.,, ..:c n ~ C
iJ 1::.1: ~ -r!

1. Listen carefully to the exercise tape (Lesson 6), then fill in t he blanks
below. Use hiragana.

2. After having filled in the blanks, change what you have written into more
colloquial Japanese, and write that in the bracketed spaces.

1.

2. ::k:~.&O)f(O) 5 i?fitiv':ti~-C' L, .1: 5 o 5 "'.) ~ 5 L, _ _ _ __ 0

c J

4. - - - - - - - ft "'.) ,:_ 5 ti. 0 ,:_ ,:_ ""f'i'


c J

5. ~ ~:m-ctc tJ O) '"('', v'0 v'0 ~ 'A"/J~"/J, IJ G L, <-co


c J

6. -=:F-{tt; fJ: ~f.: ~.&0 :bo 'Ji> tc <l, 0) Jo~ ti i? ti.~. *tI ffiJ l'i
c J
iJ!'
c J H'?~.1: <

~:Kt$ r.: ttt~r.: A"/J~~ tc. t 0) 0

c J c J c J

- 114-
7. - A <"~"'~Bl ~ _ _ __ tc. tc. _ _ _ _ ~'Ire ____ <l) o
-:i

[ J [ f ' ;JV.[ J

____ t~G,

[ J

5 (!), ~~ f;: cb tc. L, ti ~ .. .... 0

tr b

- 115-
~ (f) lv-C'v' tc o - - - Ii, - - - - - G L v'.: C:. tJ>-c- ~ fJ. 7P -0 tcl.J>, ~~Ii AL ..5: ~ 1:: 1~

(/) - - - - - Wl ~ Jt-!:> .: C:. tJ>-c- ~, - - - - - - (f) ~ti..:-- C:. tJ> -c- ~ tc J: 5 tr.: C:. v' 5 (f)-C'&;-!:> o

tJ> .f: Iv tJ 1:: ffi:: < :5t (f) * 1:: v'-!:> Ii f tJ> rJ. v' t ,~, -0 -c v,-!:> (/) -c-, fiiJ t 11) !!ic L -c v' rJ. v' o ::!> L WF -0 tc ~ tJ>
.I:

.:LG*-.-!:> ~ ~ :g: '.ti $2 ,L, rJ.-!:> %]-=f-(!)1 ~<


-W-'6 < M [.,

~ (/)]: ~,jg L L (f) %1-T- fJltJ ~u ~-C-!:> ~<


i>'lv ;O~ M> ~

@ L v' -~~h %..5:


M I. 5 n L "'' '71 .:7- 4'--
.l:<:>I:
~2: Lv' ~

TrfilJ JE .f: 5 tf. : look happy i"lffttT-!:> : to stay

tr m --r: contradict, negate WF 5 : be drunk

- 116-
annoyance, nuisance 15. !!WA. 9 needs, necessities
to transfer to another 16. Ji l "/J~v' ,'5 need to be circumspect
office / city M, !1.t

17. {Ji'. C:a::)T-5 to get ready


l fc.(

a person brought up in
Tokyo
19. ~ f=~ 5 to lose one's way
;,.17 ~.t

4. -C-~ "/J~ i?"/J~ 5 to be in a different 20. :b"/J; '! '! tf. self-cen teredness,
class/category selfishness

5. r.: =- tJ; -c- tJ: v, not be able to 21. fij (7) fl~ ~JJ: v' to be without a skill
-c afford 1z1v v~ or talent

6. fit,pf.:,tJ: GtJ: v' not insignif icant 22. .S~ G .S~ GT -5 (T-5-2)

~ rt transportation costs 23. ]4-~5 < to be cleared off (here:


tJfc. to marry [one 's daughter]
8. ,:: --J/p v' spending money off)

9. ~El El3 T -5 b e short of 24. i!t> <-tt <T -5 ( T-1-2)

10. ~~ pension, annuity

11. ~Jl)'@:.l-;.tc.v' b e like a drop in a 26. llJz 9 each in his own turn
-H"iD.,,,,_"If. bucket ~;,-(

27. - A !W r.: T ,'5 to see to a dulthood


V-1> f'C.;\,H _

12. ~LHX milk lotion 28. 'd") Iv ~- 5 ~ ~ ,'5 to look after one 's
~ ~H ,,. needs
13. W~J <~ v' bothersome

14. ft.*28& makeup, cosmetics 29. :B- $11) self-centeredness


'1 l.t %\Iv c ~~'Liv

- 117 -
1. ~ O)~~vi. m-1:::~ - @] O)~~iJi~;b-'.) td~. =@ O)~~ '! "t"IC El ~T Q f[_~O) t
0)-et" o

2
1. ( ) ( ) J!i:O)Hi. '! tr:~ dt> '! D~ <tJ v' 0) -C:, D_ tc' i? IC 1!r [6 L -C v' '!To
~ "Clv b

2. ( ) (
2

2
) J!i: 0) re: vi, *
:i,~..
~.& iJi iff ~ -C'T o
'i!ll

3. ( ) ( ) J!i: 0) re: vi, *El:~ '!h-C'9iJi, 7': ll&-C'W i? '! LJ[_ o


2 I:' ~J:'' -b'I::

4. ( ) ( ) :~ 0)J:vi. +Xiv' O)i[,,@C tJ ~- L -Cv' '! -tt Iv o


1:. ?n UvltV>
2
5. ( ) ( ) J!i: 0) re: vi. 1t.*1t& ~ ~-'.) -C :~!UJ v'-C', ~-TO)~ue-'.)-Cv''!To
f't lJ:'"" ~ ?ll

1. l'6J C>r - 7 0) l'6J C>ff~ 5-t ~ , t 5 -11'. llfJ ~ tJ ~ v' o

2. f 7 ~O)P'J~~~~. a,b,c 0)4i"t"~t~~tJ 1)0)~, -"'Jtdt~u, O~ "'J~ttJ ~v'o

3. ~~ Il iJi~lv-C'iJ~ G. t 5-11'.~~ L, @~ "'J~t fJ ~v'o

- 118-
% Iv -C' "".:> v' -C fJ ~
{ a . .1:-?t. '* L.Jc o
1. ~~HJ::, M: ( ~~Jl)
cPJ.>
iJ ~:*JlH:~IJLJc~-C'
-rA, "@Iv
b. l.,,1,J>tctJ: <"":>v-Cfi~'* L,,tco
c . ~~if L, v @a: ** L, tc o

a.
1':.~.&1::. }
2. ~~.HJ::,
{
b. * Jil: 1::. 1i. tc. i? iJ; 1':. ~ v' 9
:l,ooj,' -1!\1>
'* o

c. 1':.11,&1;: t **';: t
~
a.
-T }
3. ~~HJ::,
{
b. W~ ~
.1:16
~, v' v'~ tc 2:: i3 -:i -c v' '* 9 o

c. ~-T-~3:

a. ~~~tl.~tJ:v' * }
4. ~ ~3: fi,
{
b. .llZ*tJ:
9? tl
* tc'IP G, 1i. tc t 1::. J&i r.n::.
~
* Q J:: 5 1::. i3 v' * L, tc o

c. l'ii?>fJ: '.i(
L:f

a.
3 o % ('G v'}
5. ** ~ -lj- 7 9- ""'7 './ ~ b. 8 0 % ( ' Gv' fi, JifJJB~HajiJ ~ *
?5 "@Iv t: iJ>lv ;?:f)i
<,
{
c. 5 o % ( ' G v'
a.
7(~1f-3?i
;:v,, }"@Iv

6. ~~;f:f;: fi, b. WiJ~ <fl,Q :to+itv' iJ~cb I) ~To


{
c. Jj ~
H'? !ljl>5

- 119-
3. ~fj: , c' 5 L, -c JifJJf;: -~rsi~ t t.i~t.i~ Qt -: 0 f;: 5 i? ~~-ctr. o:re-tt.i~o
?~ ~Iv V>"to, t '"" l'ilv

4. ~ fJ:, c'5L,-C, BJ:f;::f3+iiv'~~ffQ~5 ~:Y f: "i3 -:itc.(7)-C'-tt.i~o


I:. ? ;0

- 120 -
.--- -- --- --- -- -- -- --- .,.
2. ;__ _____ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ J 0)$7HJ:, ~gmti>~.Qffl~f::wv'-c, =@ O)~;f:O)c ~'=mll L

3. Part 2 0) I. Vocabulary List, II. Notes on Grammar and Expression,

m. Notes on Socio-cultural Background ~ ~~ L-tin >G, 7.fc IJ!.fc IJO)-::::>

1. Listen to the first half of the soundtrack tape of 1sson 7 and make a
complete transcription of it. (The underlined portions mark points that
are crucial to the understanding of the drama.)

2. Write out those parts that are surrounded by dotted lines on the sheet
that the instructor will distribute, and turn the sheet in at the second
session.

3. Make an attempt to grasp the substance of the statements made by each of


the characters by referring to the vacabulary lists, the notes on grammar
and expressions, and the notes on socio-cultural background.

- 121-
( ~ (7)1;6; .A-::> -c <0 0 )

~ -T ibG, i?.1:-::iC: .... o

~ ib ib ib, .ff tJ , C ~ v' ) 1 ~ Iv (7) tr ffi5 L -C tc Iv ti JJJ o

~ (7) 1 5/v, v';lb, (fi>(7)5, i?.1: -::iC:~ffi!i~;ij~fttcv'C:C.ii>(b-:i-Cbo :j;QL;ztii?tJ(l)o

}f[ :i: ""'* tc G 9 0 -::i -C *9 5R L C: v' -c, vt 0 9 C: ;E; :h i? ~ -::i tc t Iv tf.. ;6~ G o
~ c. Iv tJ Bi3' rai f;::: 0 {iiJ Bi3' ff._' C: }~, "'.) -c Iv ff._' J:: 0 ti J:: 0 0 tJ 0

~ (7) 1 5 5 Iv, ti v' t. .i: 5 .,)~ tJ (7) tJ (7) J:: o -t:- (7) A ti., AA ~ Iv C: =A~ G L -C'
tJ., -t:- (7) AA ~ Iv, 13(, :j;0 !iJ ~ L -c 0 Iv -C'T -::i -c o ti ii, G tJ., (7) J:: o

( ~ (7)1;6 >'f[ffi5(7).?1'1-\'Jv ~ @To )

~ (7) 1 ib -:i , t L t L, 1E EE ~ Iv o ib tc \..,, ib tc L J:: o 5 Iv, -t:- 5 o _ _ _ _ _ (7) o C:

-"'1ffl "'.) -c ----- ** *


tcil~ -::i tc;6~ o _ _ ii>b;l, il!iifJJ Ltcil>G, _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ <-:i'0v'

-C -::i tdt E, ::k ~,&: tJ Iv -C _ __ _ _ _ C: C. o ~ -::i -C 0 A fJ:- A t v' TJ v' Lo -t:-


5 J:: o ib tc L fJ: _ _ _ _ _ (7) _ _ _ __ tJ lv-C'T;6, G ti. ;l, ::k ~,&: (7) _ _

1J/v;6 > f:=i5'5 3:~J'l!UJ:1Jv'-C'L.1: 5o 51vo 51vo fi/vC:f;:J::tJ~-::itCbo 5/v, _ __

5 i? t. ~ tJ v' ft ~-ti. , ~ -::i tc G ti., 1 ~ Iv (7) ff~~ t-1.. -::i -c, i? ~ ib Iv C: .. o 5 Iv o -t:- 5 o

(7) J::, trtJ~ Go

~ C ~v')

~ (7) 1 ~tf..'-:i-Cb;l, fj(7)C:C.0 _ _ C:fJ: (l)J::o ;l;l-::io (~v') 5/v,

(b(l), {iiJ(l) ttJv'5 'tti;O>Gb, ibtJtc?f:J;\Qlcf'f:=v'GL-Co -t:-5, -t:-5


J::o t.~(bb, 'itc:j;Ql::H::t.i,;6>-::i-Cv'0v'0bo ~LJf.f::L -C0bJ::o 5/v, c:.~sti.,

:j;Q.J\=>T Jf.tJ ~ v' o

C ~ (7) 1, flt ffi5 ~ -wJ 9 , tc ~ ~, ~ 0 <o )

- 122- CT-7-1)
~ . . . . .

l. . .

' --- --- -- --- --- --- --- -- - --- --- --- --- - - - -- --- - -- -- - - -- --- --- --- --- -- --- --- - -- . -- - - --- -- --- -- - --- --- --- --- -- --- --- ~ -- --- - -- --- --.
---

~J: "' 0

i?> Gr.to :to.4-, <'3f;:. fJ:, _ _ _ _ (J) _ _ _ ii~if> Q G L v'fv tc.;a~. fij C: ~ "? tc "?-Cit

(J)~;J.;..tc v'fJ 1t Iv tc.i?, Gr.to


:bf,)> D ~ Ltc o

- 123 - CT- 7-2)


920 T l';tv'o
~ 1L~ -:i "t Wtcv, o

5 Iv , _ _ _ _ i? J: -:i c isj tc t '7J , ~ tc L _ _ -C' _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ --:> t

fJ tJ lv-C' L J: 5 o oo{3;1J <2: v' t Iv tJ '7J J: , - - - - - f.iJ -:i "t ~ <'7J -:i "to b , :fJ

~ 5 lvo
920 7- ~ ~ --:> ft "( b o

~ ~~ o

C92o-f- 7-J~~~n,Gto~~llL"t , Wl:~ "t~0 o)

~ r:: :/ !f 1v - A o I

-t:- 5 -C'"t b 0

-t:- 5 -C'"t b ~ 0

.:_ fl,fj:~ ~Jtl-C'9bo


~~.~(7) ...... 0

mrn, b ~ , .:. (7) -"-Iv 1:i: o * ~R (7) s -s 1:i: , 1i G , l8I fJ ti~J!t "t .:.1v-c, 0 --C' L J: 5o r (7)-f-t.J~
b~ , -t:-n1:: , 'i. tc---:>tcn> G , t 5 5 0 ~ < -:i "t o

C ~v' )

_ _ _ _ _ '7) _ _ f;::.

_ _ __ _ __ _ :b J: o ~ Iv tc tc i? , .:. 5 ~ -:i " ( 5 i? ~ 9t "( "( IW A fJ tJ '7J , J:


5 <:b;O> -:i "t Iv t-C.;O> Go 7'.f<~t tJ _ _ , ft 5 .:. c tJ v' '7J J: o
* ~ C~ v' ) o -.:C Iv tJ 1;::. to -:i L ~ 0 II: c' A -:i "t l:l: v' iJ v' Iv -C'9 '7J J: o ~ tc L tc i? '7J

- 124 - CT-7-3)
- - - - ---c-t7J
4 Go B <1) C:. ~ <1) JE fU:: --c t tJ. ~ -'.) -c <tc_ 6 v' o
-t 5 jQ 0
------- 0 -: -: <1) 5 t"' tdt--C'-t-71- tJ <1)

~ <1) -a c:~, -tt-:>7J 4 <tf...7J 4 G, Jili'.tJ. Lf::o


( ~<1)-ff}: ;0;;~<1) :$7t ~ Jl Q 0 )

7t 7t , ~ J: 5 f;t:$"!- , C:. 0 -ct ib-::> tc.fp v'--C'T Lo


-t:'".JtJ.o

( ~ ~ <1)......;: ;!; ;0;;~~ Q 0 )

~ -T t Lt L, r'J:iJZ-"Z"-:'' c': v,~To fJ:-:> o &>,&>,, J',<1), t J:-::> C:. B~t <tf...6v'~i'o B-ffl:

6/vo
5 Iv o &>, tc. L f;:: o

t Lt L , ~ :b D ~ L tc. o &>, &>, G , &>, tJ. tc. o 5 Iv , 5 Iv o -: ti 7J G ti. , _ _ __ _ 4

(:_ ,'{!;, -'.) -c tc. (:_ -: tJ <1) J:: 0 7t 7t ' 7t 7t ' v \ v \ :b J:: 0 tc. v \ c: J: 5 .cS~ J:: -t Iv tJ Ji. <1) v \ Q
0 J::

5 tJ. 5 t C: ~ tJ. v , Iv tc_7J G o t 4 J: -'.) C:. ~ -::> -C ti. o &>, oJ ti 7t , ~ -T 6 Iv , &>, <1) 5 , ~ J: 5
_ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ ;0;; , -: -'.) t "'* tc. v' Iv tc.-'.) -co 5 t Jl tc. v'
<1) J:: ti. , ~ 0 C:. o v'v' 7J4 L Go

7t 7t , ft 7t , t ' 5 .f:'o tJ. /vf.:: t Bmv'"Z"~ ~-ttlv~t t'o

- 125- CT- 7-4)


_ _ _ _ __ tf.1P Go
J

4. 5 Iv, .:t 5 0 ~. *-- c ~ 0 0

c J

_ _ _ _ _ rJ:v'_ _ _ __ o %1 _ _ _ _ Ald::-Atv ' fJ:v' L o


c J c J c J

6. *-::i t~GtJ., ffl:~/vO)f~~----- ' i?~lvc o


c J

7. ~ ti~, fl&O)c~C:JO)cld::, -c-~;O~:il50)J:o


c J

8. t-::i c :iliv' fJ:iJ~-::it~O)o


c J
- 126 -
9. -:j:ft)J ;O> - - - - - - - - - - A ;0 ~-:j: -J G v' ,I!,!, v' ~ L - - - - - - -
11'~ 1:1'/v c J c J

10. mJt ____ 1f;0, _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _-C' L.1: 5o


~~Iv e
-clv J c J

- 127-
.:tJAd:, ~--t~. =@]El O)~*ti~~:b-? td~. =@J El O)~*~ -cf= Ei ~-9.Qt;:.YJO)$f~r,,im
-C'To

1. ~{:;~0)-ttt/ Y F r 7 '/ ~ 7- 7 ( ~:) ~ll{l~iJ: ~v'o

2. 'l!Jz 0) Xii~, F7 " 0) pq ~ c lliJ L iJ: G 0 ~, Jt 0 -C v' .Q c ~ Id: x ~ (

2
1. ( ) ( ) ~0)-BJ:ld:, :k~&-C'ld:, ~ !J 0) Iv V" !J -c ~ iJ: /p 0 t;: c i3 0 -Cv' ~To
~"t
2
2. ( ) ( ) ~ 0) -BJ: Id:, ~ B Rfci?il~* GhiJ:v'O)""('', lli 7,p It .Q .: c f;: L ~ LJ;: o
~ .t ~
2
3. ( ) ( ) '.ko-T-ld:, .to~ 0) 6T :flt 0) Jf.! ;"t ~ L iJ:
<9>' L.t < B V>
<-c t v \ v \ c I~ -'.) -c v \ ~ T
0

2
4. ( ) ( ) ~ 0)1 Id:, ~ v ' A t;: "!? f;: IJ: Ji J,li L t;: ::1J ii~ v, v' c i3 -c v, ~ T o
m Vv !J.t 11, 0

1. lliJ L: T - 7 ~ t 5- )!t /l{l ~ iJ: ~ v' o


2. f7'70)17q~~~;;l, a,b,c 0)$-C'~t~~iJ:t,O)~-"':)fdt~cf', o~"':)~tiJ:~v'o

3. $f~IIii~81rfv-C'7J~G. t5-J!t~t-JL, @~"':)~)iJ:6v'o

1. ~ 0)-BJ:ld:,
a. ~f= .tov'-C t G 5 tdt-cv'v'

b. .t31Hf v'ii~ j.> L Ii L v'


1 c l-'.) -Cv' ~ 9 0

{
c. t 5 & L ~ ~ 1 0 -C t G v' t;: v'

- 128-
a. v'~IJ~".)-c }
2. IT,-T Ii, ~ ~ 3: ti~~~ fil f;: A .,., -C
lil: I:. " ~
*-C, :Jo L ~ ...-z 9 T 0 ~ -C'
{
b. f!Lv'c}~,".)-c v'~To

c. ~tJ~b L -C

a. t 5 ~~L-Cv'~To
11-:::> CA

3. ~-T~!t*li, b. ~~ L ~ Lt.:o
~ ~.!: { j) CA

c. ~ t~ ~ ~ L -C v' ~ -1:Uv o

4. ~ -T~ffl:f:;t, ~~3: c ffi5 L -Cv' 0 c -e:, ~-T~:. c ~

a. ~~ -e: /ptJ. v' }


b . J: <~ ~ --J < f!t~ c ~ v' ~ L t.: o
{
c. ~~Lv'o

a . L -".) tp 9 Lt.: f7: }


f:3 7.t Id:~ -T ~ 3: c Ji -".) -c
~
i b.

c.
fPJ ~ ~ t
1Vv
~~
''
~;
i!. v

-e:tptJ.v'fJ::

a.
tc_ c ~

~Iv
-".) -c v' ~-to

c. 5 fJ.
6. ~~3:1;:J:0c. ~~c".)-Ctl!.tJ~-T~~-tltffi51;:tJ.0~1:;1: ;1.~ 1:. n -1t v {
b. J:<tI.v' }:.c-C'To
c. ~9M"~
"ibfc '.i A_

L ~~:Hi, f.' 5 L -c :to+ilv' a:- t ~ 5 ~ ti~~v' c ~ -'.) t.:~ -C'-ttJ~ o


VJ.,

- 129-
2. c' 5 L, --c w-T<7JHi, ~ti .to ft~~!Q <7J '.lt~ ~ L, --c f~v' --Cv' Q <7J-C-t;0~ o
91, 9 '"'-:::><'..~ <!/v-ltV> tlfc.<>

3. ~ <7J 3: l:t, w-T <7J 3: f;:::., -{-Iv ti f;:::. iltJ <it <9 Q ~ ~ Ii tJ v, ~ 0 --c v' ~ To
c' 5 t., --c -c-r ;0~ o

4. ~<7)J:li, :ili~<7J*v'At;: i?<7J~il:/J~


"\:!O C:~ bl ~>IJJ' Mc
c' 5 I~'"'.) --Cv'~i"";O ~o

- 130 -
,-- - --- --- -- - --- --- - - ---r
2. : :~ 15~ :5Hi , !Ecffiliti >~c g ffl~ f;::>i= v'-C, -=. @J ~ ~~ ~2:: ~f;::m:lli L.JJ
1--- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --+

3. Part 2~ I. Vocabulary List. II. Notes on Grammar and Expressions.

ill. Notes on Socio-cultural Background ~ ~ P.~ LtJiJ > G, 7.l'c fJ7.l'c fJ~-:i

1. Listen to the last half of the soundtrack tape of Lesson 7 and make a
complete transcription of it. (The underlined portions make points that
are crucial to the understanding of the drama.)

2. Write out those parts that are surrounded by dotted lines on the sheet
that the instructor will distribute, and turn the she et in at the second
session.

3.. Make an attempt to grasp the substance of the statements made by each of
the characters by referring to the vocabulary lists, the notes on grammar
and e xpressions, and the notes on socio-cultural background.

- 131-
~D .:r- J:v L, J: o
1E T :to~ tffe "'.) -c tchftO)o

~D T 5 Iv, :tort' ~ i? ~ * 0) :to ti tc. i? o


1E T :to ' 1lt -"' -c ff <0) 0

~ T 5 5 Iv. .:t 5 td:.. -------~


r.: Jt ::t ft v' 1v t. ~ , - - - - - L, ~ v' tc.
fi 5 il~v'v'-C'l, J: 5o ~0, ~tJtdd:vvti~~= :@fll!;6~~01v-C'l,J: 5o
tc. "'.) -c, :torJ:' ~ '!? ~ * ti~ A "'.) -c :e.- -c, :to - - -- 9 0 Iv tc. t 0) o :to~~~ r.: ti~ ~ti~ vt

-C:to <:bvtr;:::f::nti~ftv'-C'l, J: 5 o
~D T 1ETo
( ~O)ffl:iJ~A "'.) -C <0 o )

~ 0) J; :i!!v':btl::lo - - - - - - - - t. ~ft vti~ L, Go


f'd:~ .:Z:-5-C'Ttlo -C't, t L,:to - -- !vftGftvthfi', :to~~-C'tti~vt-CG0 L,

~ v'*T-C'L, J: 5 o
~ 0) 1 5 fvo

I }',: ~o

liiv'$L * 't"o
~ 0) J: v'v' ;t, ~ tc. <L 0) ff 5 -:. .:t, t 5 :to t!t~ r= ft IJ "'.) fi ft L, -C'o ~ tc. <L, ft lvti~. :to

- 132 - CT- 7- 5)
~~ ~ ;O> ~t Q ff-'.) ;O> 9 -C' ...... 0

~-=.F-0)3: C ~v')

~ 0) re: f.' 5 :f'o

~-=.F-0)3: dt:> 9 ti~ c 5 -:_' gi,,, :t To

~ 0) re: ;it;>O), -th,"(", j03:~, 4-tdf:>OJjO - - - - - 0) - - --


~o

~-=.F-0)3:

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ c,FE', v':tL"Co -thf::, _ _ _ _ ;a; _ _ _ _ _ __

____ t Iv -C'T ;O> G, :t tc :t t;: !WA 9 -C' o

lO~v' :b o ;it;> tc. <L fJ Iv ;O>, c -'.) "C t - - - - - - -- o -J 6l'J OJ ;it;> 1-P-C' tit A.;

t. "Cv'tc t;:;0, rJ <1-:> ~ o

:tdt:> c ~v') o

-C' t b ;l, {-Iv {J f:: - -- - - - - - -:. c {J v' Iv t. ~ -:_'' ~- i,,' :tit Iv 0 -t 0 -t 0

0) Iv rI 9 fJ ~ v' :tit J:: o fJ:, a Iv c f:: L -'.) /p 9 L "C G -'.) L~0

_ _ OJ, lO _ _ _ t. t 5 lO _ _ fJ/v"Z"L .t 5 o

r- - ---------------------------------- --- -----~

I I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

- 133 - CT-7-6)
13 ft tc t t.J~ - - - - - - - - f.: v' tc v',
-:i
- - - - -Iv -C' L, J: 5 ti. ?\'.. o Vil":

Iv c 1-: iii ,:'' 00)15 v' ti~ tc tc t Ii ti. ?\'.., - - - - - 0) - - - - L, ti~ -C' ~ r.t. v' Iv

-C'T t 0) ti. ?\'.. o


'.m + 0) 1 Ii(!::, o

~ 0) 1 :tore~tti.. 15v'Atctf.: r.t.Jvti~r.t.~i5.:c&::i9 *it!v.J:o t.J~

--- f:_ l..JcA~J+~lv-c'TtO)o C~v') ti., '.m-T~lv. c!::itc <l..,0)15?\'..::;IJ, * t


t.J~ -:i -c i5 ti~ L, G o

'.m + Id:(!::,, v' v' ?\'.. o

~ 0) 1 * (!::,, v' ti. o (!::, tc < l, Id:, t _ _ _ _ _ _ t J: 5 <:b ti~ -:i -C fl l, < L, -C
<tt ~ v' * 9 ti~ Gti. ?\'.., *iC-" L, -c *9 ~t n t't ti. o C~ v' )

- 134 - CT-7-7)
2. oz 1::, ~ <7) 'fr~ 7t ~, J:: !J w~ JUl'J fJ m1:::: 00: L,, ~h ~ C
~AhfJ ~v'o

7. ~-T ~ /v, 'Jf> tc. <L <7) ~ ;l :J5, _ _ __ _ _ 1P L Go


c J

- 135 -
~ 1'1~0. :iQ'Hif:*-Cli0v't i 0-Cv'tco
t: 1A, <!>-t

~lllfj, ~7'.l~~t-"fiC. 5t 0-Cv'G~. 00)1d:, Jm.tb~isj7'.l~-~isj~1t7J~t.PGC. tf: ji~, 'i'.'.it


< "'"
.I: ,,..,., ~ -:::>? ~"' t: """ $.-;:;:, "Clv ~ ~

-Lt; - - - - - - - 7'.l~,
v.-s:1d ~lmld:'.3t!{ll.
f7?~.t < ?f'.l 1: "'.) -c, ________
-t ".J~ f:.'';: 0
t;Co :kl4E~lli,~
,

9;0-J-lj: , l _ _ _ _ _ __ J t i ') O)~;G;ti,fJtP0 fCo


bT

't .1: 5 E, 0 0) 7'.J~ - - - - - -- t 0 -C v' G t C. 0 "", 7E ffi 1-1~ G t Bi 7'.l~ 1-P 1-1~ IJ ,
~A,b
-t 0) B 0) Cf
c:

~. i'EIJ-Sf-~-"~ 0 -C <QC. t f;: fJ-::> tc o 9;D-T7'.i~ _ _ _ _ _ _ O)T;:'&)O)ty~O) _ _ _ __


c:
~Ml~J: 5t 0-Cv't;: ~. ~~. ~~0)1:7'.J~, 00)f;: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ f;:~0-C*tco =AfJ:,
/:"?~ t:-::> ,,.

01 G <titisjBi~ 0-Cv'fc ii~. 00)7'.J ~ . 9;Q-J-0)Jf:, _ _ __ ~ t 0 tc G, El :71-0) _ _ __


<t l'J'Ali;l;:L

-t7JPi
' ~

boast small talk

~v'-t<,-Q press someone for suggest , broach [a matter]

Ji "*- :b l._,f: : indirectly,


circuitiously

- 136 -
1. ,!itO)@]!'.JO)tO)
;,.
belongings 16. itv' ~ ~t-0 to appear soft/lenient
1:b >b 1 ;0.;,-

2. fJ:lv:. 5 seal , chop 17. 5 G~ ;tLv' envious


3. < tf. G ft. v' t 0) worthless program 18. *~~ lucky /fortunate person
;O> f1 ' ;,<0

4. rm
tdr>
M
c attitude 19. ;t t: ~ -:;IJ
\/"Oil" '
s ob er s id e d
5. f 7 ~ - tC. be glamorous 20. 0~~ (T-5-4)
t. ' tr~

6. L .t 5 ii ~ ft. v' (T-1-7) 21. 'le J.l ~ meag e r sal.;i.ry


-ttVJ':::> i! L9>~

7. ffl ~11:ii ~ ~ Q capable, resourceful 22. "':) ~- :i6 tJ (T-5-4)


tJ 11' L...i:' t.

8. Ji\. f;:.., Q to choose to have 23. ~ ~ hardships


~ '' a bath
< M

24. ~bh 0 be repaid


tr<
9. !f.v'C::. ( T-1- 3) 25. ~~O)~j:;J sense of gratitude
ti~ :Oilv L~ i! ;, "b

10. jO J: L ft. ~ v' Don't! 26. :1C~19:1 relations between husband


~ ' ~ ~
and wife
11. Mt=f' tc: [someone does] as he
ti ':::> -c
pleases
27. ft@\ t.J ~ ft. v \ (T-3-3)

12. D ii ~ ~vt-C
<"b ~
t (T-4-3) 28. fiJ
L...i:<

-<':?
*1,
.I: (

~(
Q (T-4-3)

13. L :j:O GLv' gentle, meek 29. .f;J:; 5 "'.:) -c jO < to leave alone, pay no
attention to
14. fJ: "'.:) ~ D ~ it 0 make clear

15. .:.t"'.JC:L-C:j:O< to leave matters as


they are

- 137 -
1. -: c7J!*~ IJ:, m/\~ - [81 El c7)~t.J :;~ b-:> td~ . =[81 El c7) ~ ~ -C'f.: El ~-t Q tc c)1)c7) t

c7J-C'T o

2
1. ( ) ( ) ~c7JHi, .$fc7J~b9 c7Jtc7J~. d.> L-t.:: ~t J2S 9 ~ L tc a
;,. :I.' (
2
2. ) ( ) *-=f-c7JHi. :k~,&c7)7f;::' v'-J~-C'v'Q-Jt 9 n~llfJv'-C.l7-tc:::15t.J"v'v'
115
e: ~

v' 'i Lt;: a


2
3. ( ) ( ) :iW:fJJtd:, ~ c7J7t.J:>:(t 83 2: Iv f.: ~v'f.: 1i <-: C: f.: rJ 0 -c v' 'i L tc o
l-.t ltt f<'.
2
"i;V>
"' Ir>

4. ( ) ( ) ~Id:, 7f.: .fof 1Wc7J-: C: Id: fiiJ t llfJ t.i~ rJ v':::15 t.J:;v' v' e: ,i~,-:> -Cv' ~To
2
vc i?

5. ( ) ( ) ~Id:. 7 ~ ~ 4 L v' ~ t.:: C: ,~, 0 -c v, 'i To


-f5 -r'

~4 L v' : shameless
-r' -r'

1. IE] t>r - 7"c7)['Eij c.g:~5}-~. t 5 -m'.lifJ2: fJ 2:v'o


2. f 7 "'c7) F9?&~1- k.' a. b. c c7) $-C':iW t :ii'M ~ fJ t c7) ~ -":) tdt~ cl. o~ -J~t [J 2: v' 0

3. !*~Ilil'~lv-C'7J~~. t 5-g~~L. ~-J~trJ 2:v'a

- 138-
a.

1. :t: ~3 IJ: , b .
"- "'' {
c.

a.

2. :t: ~3 IJ:, b .
{
c.

a. 1;: ~-::> tc.:. c 7.J::; ib 9 ~it Iv o

3. ~-=f(l)lll!il;: J: hlf, ~IJ::(E 83 ~ fv(l)~ ~Iv b. il::;t!t ~ --e L tc o


{
c. il::;~Gv'-C'Ltco

a. {,,@crJv' }
5. ~T-IJ:. for 1W (7) .:.
I'!: ~?
c ~a 1;: fif.l ;0, rJ <--c t b. ~; c i3 ""'.) --c v' ~-to
{
c. f:(7)5'f?:b;O>-!J

a. ib Iv rJ 1;: % !v-C'v'-!> (7) t;::;0, G }


.i:;:,c.

6. ~ .:r 1:t. ~ (7) a tJ:> b . ib 1v rJ 1;: ~


.gj
L "' ,~,"' ~ L --c "' -!> (7) tc ;0, G
;1,-~
{
c. L:toG Lv'AfciO>G

1. ~Id:, fS:iJ:> t:b ;O> ~t fJ v' -C':tz tc i? ~ 5 i?I: llf Iv tc.:.


.t
c ~ ~ " '.) --C v' ~To c' 5 L --C"C'TiO'o
;l,'i:

- 139 -
2. 9al-TIJ:, 3:t.J~1t tc T? ~ 5 T?f::: !!Iv tc-: ~ ~, Iv' v' t.: ~ ib fJ *-it lvti~J ~ -::> --Cv' *-'to

E 5 L --C -C'-t ti~ o

3. ~ IJ:' fiiJ ~ IJ: -::>


>l:f'C
~ fJ ~ it ~ ti~ rent :tLl'f fJ G fJ v \ ~ -::> --c v \ *- -r ti~ 0

4. 9al-Tl'i, 3:f:::?Jf!W(7)-:
f'( ~>?
~ l'ifiiJ t
:~f'(
liflti~tJv'7Jt.J~v'v' ~ -::> --Cv' *-'to c' 5 L--C-C'-tti~ o

- 140 -
._ __ --- --- --- --- --- --- --- -~

2. ! ! V'Y~HHi, ~ ffiljil~@?. -Q ffl Kaf-: il v'-C, =@ O)~~ ~ -C-f-: :tf /:Jj LJJ
~-- - - --- --- --- --- --- - .......... ~ -

3. Part 2 0) I. Vocabulary List. II. Notes on Grammar and Expressions.

ill. Notes on Socio-cultural Background

1. Listen to the first half of the soundtrack tape of Lesson 8 and make a
complete transcription of it. (The underlined portions mark points that
are crucial to the understanding of the drama.)

2. Write out those parts that are surrounded by dotted lines on the sheet
that the instructor will distribute, and turn the sheet in at the second
session.

3. Make an attempt to grasp the substance of the statements made by each of


the characters by referring to the vocabulary lists, the notes on grammar
and expressions , and the notes on socio-cultural background.

- 141 -
~ (/) 3: :tom #fPt b, ;:e: v' A tc i?f= Ji,: iJ Iv t,/> iJ ~ Q -:. c cb IJ *it Iv J: 0 fiNJ 7t tJ~- A AA i= L tc

~, T- ~ Iv -c--r ti (J) o C ~ v' ) b, ~ T- ~ Iv, cb tc < L (J) ~ i 7J, *i? tJ~ "'.) "C Q tJ> L G o
~ T- f:t.cb, v' v' i o

;t(b, v'b, cbtc <LLL ~ti~T-~lvti J: 5 <;bt,/>"'.) "CtfL <L"C <t~~v'~9tJ>


Gbi, *'l,'L"Ci:tiGh~9~tht'tibo C ~v')
( 5',: ~ (/) 7- -v 1 A tJ~ ~~ Q o )
~ (J) 3: cb 0 , :to Jl i Iv iJ 0 tc (J) tP L G o cb (J), i? .i: "'.) c ~ ;f Lv ' tc L ~ T o
~D T- (J) 3: cb 0 , E 5 .;c o

C :IJJ25filtJ~:*: ~ iJ ?ilf l!o/J ~ :iJ l/A.h 'Cv' Q o )


:iJ JZ5 & cb -';) ' ri'J 312- ;t; 7J ~ Iv (/) :to st -C' -r b 0

~ (/) 3: cb cb G. ti 5 lliv'tc (J) o fv'.cS~lv.Ef!.7J> "'.) tcbb i o

~ T- (b(J)5 ...... o

~ (/) 3: 5 Iv, :*:~R7J> G b, cbtc L(J) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ , 7-J-lviJ)Z5 "'.) tc(J)o


:iJ JZ5 & cb ;b, :to!Mv' L ~ -r o
~ (/) 3: ----- 0

~ T-

c ~oT-tJ~~u= A."'.) "C * Q o )


~T-(!)3: ~DT-o

~ T- cb (J), -r -:.-v, ...... o

~D T- (J) 3: b i, :to 3: ~ Iv i= f:t. iJ Iv i= ti _ _ _ _ _ tc: ~ J: o b. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ o

- - - - - - - ~-? "( /v(J) J: o b7J> 0 tcbbo


( 5',:~"'("~(J)flJ:tJ~:iJJZ5filcf=-:.~7J>f=~~ L'Cv'Qo )

- 142 - (T-8-1)
I mB To

::rE :ro1-m- tJ tJ. 2: v' o

~ cb cb ' ~- .: : . "'"' f.;f 0 -c 1i < Iv tr.: v\' .f: Iv fJ. ti Iv 0

::rE :to f;f cb '!:) ~ * <7) ff~~ 0

~ fd'L;O>*-C /v<7);0>o

::rE -T :to f; f cb i:J ~ 'i <7) :to R t~ i:J o

c ~ ;0:; ff~~ <7) m~ ~ --=> vt Q o )

~ (b(b_,.,o

C ~<7)1:(:.f: O)RAO)~v'FS/'J :;~.:::_ ft Go )

9 ~- / ~f /V - ]:,, 0 I
:to 1ffl t) fJ. 2: 1,t\ 0

cb cb, 'i tc .: : . Iv tJ _____ ti Iv Jl -CG o _ __ L tc <7) 7'.J> o

1;( .e~ -e ~ tJ. v' 1v tc J: , :to f:t cb i:J ~ 1v <7) F5 7J:; 5 Q 2: <-c o

~ C 3-:fJ i:J ) vi Iv C: f;:: :to tiHi o


~ :to 1-m- 1v tJ. 2: v' o
~ cb0 0

.::::. fl,, :tof:tcb i:J ~ 'i Iv C: .::::. f.if 0 -C 0 -Co 1;(H~o

:to f:t cb i:J ~ Iv 7J:; .Eli( tJ f;:: * n f:tv' v' t~ 0 5 , :to f:t'cb i:J ~ 1v <7) _ __ _ _ tJ. Iv tUP Go

~ fiv', ~~--=> vt-Cbo

~ :to..s~ <0<7)Rf~'l:J -c. tc'ntc'v'o 0

~ 5 Iv o ::rE EB 2: Iv o 1r. cb tJ tc..7J:;*E~ L -c ti v' v' C: :to}(!;, v'f= tJ 0 tc.. ~f 7 ...,, - tJ. ~ 2: fv<l) v'

G0 L~G1Pfco

~ 1* fJ. v\ t~ 0 5 0

- 143 - (T- 8 - 2)
!------------ - - -- - - - - ------------------------,
I I
I %1 T I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I~ I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I '.l:D T I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I~ I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I 9;o T I
I I
L----------- - - - --- - ------------------ - ------~

- - - - - - - lv-C'L J: 5, toJ~lvo

~ 9:DTo
9;o to}$.\, g f;:Jt ~ 0' .:Z:-:h t t' )le; f;:: to 1t$ 0

_ _ __ _ (/) _ _ _ _ fd:, fiiJ rt Iv tc.o

cttJ n ii~~ v' -c, -r <''TE rn ~ Iv ii~ to Jt *-. Iv rt 0 tclP G, _ _ _ _ _ _ _ fd: f<J 5 V' ~
t rt /p 0 tdt E, to J ~ Iv (!) !t (!) [] IJ (!) t Iv G L v, :b J:: o

- 144 - (T-8-3)
~' ----~ _ _ _ fJ~J:o

A "'? -C tr_ G , lf!- v' C: .:. !#Ht tJ v' C: o

~ :!f ~ !El fJ ~ t Iv tt. "'? -C , .to "'? L "('> "'? -C tr_ :b J: o

0:bJ:o
~ ~ tp, .toJ, <0 .:. .:. 1:: _ _ _ _ _ _---:> t fJ t.: "('> tJ v' tt. 0 tJ ~ o

JL~ c:, "('> tJ v' J: o -t:-1v tJ _ _ tJ , .:. "'? i? ~ _ _ _ t 1g ft. f 1:: ~ o

_ _ _ _ 1:: t~L <13:b:h,tr_~J:, v'


0 ~ -C'v' Q 0 t fJ tc. tJ 1v-c, o ;0~~ ~t-c t ~ v' tr_ fJ -r Q Iv t.: "('> tJ v' "'? -co ~tr_ L 1:: Id: J:
<:b/'J~Q~o -t:"fvfJ ,:_ C: "i3b;h,fr_G, ~ "'? C: ~ fJ ~ g;bJ:, :Jo3:~fvo

-t:- Iv fJ L .to G L "' ~ t.: "('> fJ v' J:' ~~.to J, < 0 Id: 0 ( 15-tT i? ) .:. 5 v' 5 .:. C: Id: b, ;fJJ
~f;: ______________ o

- - - - - - - - - J: 0 -t:- ~ 5 i?' .to 3: ~ Iv~ .to~ fif tt. -c :b ?J~ Q :b J: "'? 0

-t:" lvtJ ~- mJl L -Ctr_ Gb, f g f g C: -t:- 5 v' 5 AtJ Iv tt.7C'o


~ fJ fr_~ .to J ~ Iv fJ ~ J: 0

- 145 - CT - 8-4)
Note: This lesson deals with those vowels that non-Japanese tend not to
catch. In everyday conversation, vowels tend to be elided or, in some
cases, not pronounced at all, e.g., th~ name of the city Osaka which will
be given its four syllables by an announcer or a careful speaker [o o sa ka]
but which, in ordinary conversation, may be pronounced in three [o sa ka].
It will be asking the impossible to insist that students catch the
sounds of those vowels that are not pronounced, but it is important that
students of Japanese keep the above facts in mind and to compensate for
difficult-to-catch vowels from context and intuit what the written form
(i.e., their dictionary forms) are. Since the presence or absence of a
vowel is crucial (e.g., in such words like }:Hf'2:1v "aunt", and :kllf'ch2:1v
"grandmother," and -~ "together," and -1:_ "one's entire life,")
V.'.?[, .t V.'.?L.,t5
the student should make careful note of the difference.

1. ~~J=ID'-- 7 (mi\~ M~) ~fi\'J~. _ _ _ _ _ _ (7)$Jt~%$:LJJ 2:v'o

2. fPJ ti fi\'J-:. ;~J..c vttui, x ~ ~ :t= ~ i6Jr.r..c ~ v' o

1. Listen to the exercise tape (the first half of Lesson 8); then fill in the
blank spaces .

2. When you hear nothing, fill in the blank with an "X."

1.

4. l;l Iv~ ~.::. :kl ~Hi a

5. :kllf' i? -? Iv ti~ :&iZ IJ ~= * hlf' v'

- 146 -
9. "'

11. I~ J 0 -c, ::k ~ffi:tP G, :to .<S~ < ;s ~ f;:


'1>-C
* _ _-c Q Iv t(. .:z:o lifJ _ _ -c 1J. v' ~ t.J-:. o

vt rJ v' c o

17. -t- __ !v1J.;: c __ :bhtc G, :e: _ _ 0 c~ L- _ _ ,~, _ _ 2::1J. ~ Q:b J: , _ _


w

19. -{-~

- 147 -
c. hli, mi\~, =@El O)~*ii~,J\%b 0 tdL - @J El O)~* i:-c1= El ~-r Q tc lll')O)**~F"'~~
-c-r0

1. m/\~0)-ij- t/ / r:. r 7 ';I I/ 7- 7 ' ( ~-) ~llf.!~fJ: 2:v'o


2. tA 0) xii~, F 7 " 0) P'3 ~ c f'6l t- ri: G0 ~, :it 0 '"( v' Q c ~ Ii x ~ C

2
1. ( ) ( ) *0)3:fi, LJ;f G < LJc G::f\:J& ""1ffl Q 0 t 9 t:: C: 7 EB 2: Iv 1= i3 v' i: L tc o
v;t Ii~ ft.
2
2. ( ) ( ) 7 EB 2: A.,,fi, *O) c. C: ~~~ii t:: c i3 '(v' i: To
0
~I:' I:'
2
3. ( ) ( ) *0)3:fi, *ii~ 5 i? ~ ~ '"( '"( <n '"(, -Y' 0 c =f51j ii~ Jg,
< M v>-t
0 '"( :~Uc
~
J:: 5 tf. C: i3
0 '"(v' i:-t o
2
4. ( ) ( ) *0)3:0)~1=
~t,
J:: hf'f, *tc '!?Ii, 3: ii~ c' !v fJ: 1= ={51j L Tc 1P b /p 0 '"( v' i: it
Iv 0

2
5. ( ) ( ) *0)3:fi, *o-r-1= :Jo+:ilv' ~ t G 0 '"(, ~ i: 9 5 n L <~ 9 i: it Iv -c> L tc o
I: ?.o

1. fEJX 7 - 7 ' ~, t 5 -)!tllf.! ~ fJ: 2: v'o


2. r 7 "O)P'3 ~ ~15 ft, a. b, c 0) tj:i-C~ t :~ fJ: t 0) ~-0tOt~ cf, Q~0~t fJ: ~v'o

3. ** ~ Il ii~~ !v-C"IP G, t 5 -)!t~fi;J L ~0 ~t ri: 2: v' o

- 148-
a. J:<-C''f!tc.. }
1. 1EEB2:!vf;t, ~o-T-<7)-: c~ b. <7)/v7.lD !..Jc. Jo!2: lv tc c i30 -Cv''iTo
{
c. ~<7)5$1.t'

L-il'Jbit1J: fortunate, lucky

a . -T 1tt <7) ~(ift f;: , :1( <7) ~ ~ ~ ~ -J ~, J6 Iv tc<7) -C' }


I:. Ci, ]); .t '"'< ;l;S.!: ti" H'? ~.,., ~

3. ~ <7) flHi, b . :sL i* 1J. i@: f;: 13: Iv -r::- v' tc <7) -C' i@: ~ ~ -c 'i it Iv -C' L- tc.. o
{ !1? I;!'. -t
c. ~<7)ti~Uil~J~h-C<hQ<7)-C'
IM, c'

4. 1E EB 2: lvf'i, -: <7) * f'i {:: : 'f}ti~~ -c tc.. J: 5 1J. t <7) tc c i3 0 -Cv' 'i '9 o
c. ~ <7)1

a . Jo~ <7) '.'.7i&<7){11'.-C'/t L-


09>' ti/,, I., ft.( lr>b)i
<-c i:t-" Gh 1J.1-P 0 tc.. <7) -C' l
5. ~ -T f;t b. 'i tc.. Jo 1J. ?J~ ti~ '91.t' tc.. <7) -C'
{
c . 77- Iv 1J. ti~ 1:t-" Q c 'ff , if> 'i D 1:ti'.lX ti~ 1J. 7J~
l-.t <.t <
0 tc.. <7) -C' J

a jp ~ !_, J: 5 C I~' -'.) -c }


6. ~ -T fi, b. ;-~ti~ 1J. ;0~ 0 tc.. <7) -C' 7t <7) 7t <7) :R
~ Vv
..S~ G ~ f'!= Gri 7J~
? (
0 tc.., c i3 v' 'i !_, tc.. o

{
c . tt ;jSj. ti~ fE D 1J. 7J~ 0 tc.. <7) -C'
~,.. !1.t'

- 149 -
i. &EB~lv1J:, ~OJJ:OJ.:e:~. c' 'GG""-fJ-0-Ct r:rom~1v. :rom~lvJ -e, tc5t:i:n-e~
l};'<j) ( ?

2. c' .5 l, -C :ff: EB ~ Iv IJ:, ~ j:( ~ IJ: -& OJ '5' 11 ii~ J:: <:b i'J~ 0 -C v' 0 C: i 0 tc. OJ -C'91P o
"~~';,.

3. ~OJ J: IJ:, +ii v' ~ ~ i'J~ G t G 0 tc. OJ f:'.: , :ff: EB ~ Iv v:: IJ:, %1-T 7J~ G t G 0 tc. C: ~ v' ~ L, tc. o
~hlJ: E5 l,-C-C'Tt.i~o

- 150 -
:--- --- - -- - -- --- --- --- -- - -+
2. !(7)ff~7H;J:, ~mti>@?.~fflK~U:::.:j:v'-C, =@ <7)~~~-c-1:::.~IH LJ.i'.
--- --- --- --- . -- --- --- -- --~

3. Part2(7) I. Vocabulary List. II. Notes on Grammar and Expressions,

ill. Notes on Socio-cultural Background ~~~J..,,tJ:iJ>th (}(: fJ (Jc r.J<l)

1. Listen to the last half of the soundtrack tape of Lesson 8 and make a
complete transcription of it. (The underlined portions mark points that
are crucial to the understanding of the drama.)

2. Write out those parts that are surrounded by dotted lines on the sheet
that the instructor will distribute, and turn the sheet in at the second
session.

3. Make an attempt to grasp the substance of the statements made by each of


the characters by referring to the vocabulary lists, the notes on grammar
and expressions, and the notes on socio-cultural background.

- 151 -
1~
* ~ a -t:"51-1>l,Go ( ~v')

:ft EB -t:-h-C', v--::i~-c-vG--::it tJ fJ.~. -: -:f;:::.o


*~ a 5/v, ~(btJ.fto *~lffiJt, 0-Ci30-C<hfv~J:o

:ft EB

*~ a
:ft EB

J: o 5 G~~ t._, v'o C ~v') iblvte, a1v cf;:::. - - - - - - - tcbJ: o


~ibbo -lfvte < i3 ft vi~ t) iJ~fJ.vvt c'o
EB -t- 5 J: 5 o * ~ff~ 1ff!l ffi: !15 tc 0 -c, * ~ u ~ :t ~ - - -~ Iv tUP G, ib r.r te ~ '(!) 1v c' 5
Ji G < G v' ~ f;:::. rJ G r.r v' tc 0 5 t._, o t 5 , c- "".) i? ""ii "".) -c t r :Jo a ~ 1v, :Jo a 6 1v J -c-,
1r.. 5 i? b-C';fit G Iv tc' t ~a

_ _ 7f.v1vr.r --::i ~-~Iv t. ~ 0 -Cb ft o ib te L,te i?~f\f;:::. f::t 5 i? ~~ -c G t


fJ.tP0telvtct~bfto *n~5 i?2:'~-C-C < n-c, ~~0 l:, ibte t._,~~'.11n~;Jg0 -C ~

EB -t:- 5 J: 5 o ib r.r te ~ ~ '.11 ti~~ 0 l: _ _ _ _ _ 0 -c :b vt J: b ft o -: ~ 5 i? fd:, ~ 7J

~Iv, ib r.r ten~~ -c te t :Jo Iv r.r t.-: l: tc'b J: o


ib G, -t:- Iv r.r -: t i3 0 -C < h G ~, ib r.r te tdt J: o * te i? f;::: fd: b i'.J> 0 i? ~ v' fJ. v' tc 6 5
vt c'bo
EB :b tP 0 -c Q :b J: 5 o :b tP 0 -c Q 1P G -: -t:-, -: 1v r.r ~~ fil tc 0 -c ib r.r re ~ re '(!) f;:::. o -: ~
:Jo*+ r.1 t , ib re t._, ~ -c- _ _ __ 6 t._, -c t G 0 -c -:-- i? -t:- 5 Iv r.r n Q Iv tc 0 -c, ~ v' A
te i? f;:::. ib r.r re""~ _ _ ~ __ ti~ _ _ _ _ _ J: o

~ ib bo C~v' ) :il!H/f;:::. ii< ~ f;::: t JE 1\n~7J>i'.J>G tC: 6 5 1-1> G 0 -C, :Jo-: -5;0> v' ~ -C' i?
~iblvt, ~n~o

EB ~ ;b, :Jolffij ~ lvn~ ...... o

- 152 - ( T-8 - 5 )
~ n fd: b ;t, * 2: Adi~ L, "'.) ;Q~ 'J V-C G "'.) t__, ~ Q t,p G J: o ___ ii~ 1t' v' 0) J: , _ __

-- 0) o ti. ;Q~ G .. o C~ v' )


C ~v' )

~--------------------------------- -- ---------

!
I
I
*
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I ~ -T
I

~---------------------------------- -- ----- - --

- 153 - (T-8-6)
I9 i:: / ;l . JV - A 0 c~ J
c ~(7)J 7'J~7J - =r /~~FHtrc. 9, p~ijfj~trc. 9 L--Cv'-00 )

~':I f Jv - Ao

~ fij ti: J:::' Cb (7) 1l'i, :jQ\;\ 0

~ -=f- it it o
~ Cbebo
~ -=T- Cb Cb "'.) , * ~o :jQ re: ~ /v t 5 rJ. "'.) re. (7) J::: o i? .i: "'.) e: , Cb rJ. re. o .Rf> tc Cb o

~ ~ .i: 5 l:;t, E3 Hi E3 tc~-, :jQv'o '* tc/\BiJ L: ~ fJ. v't,J'o o :jQ,$~ <07'.J~;@ ~
rc. t,J, G "'.) -c tJ f:::: t ~ o it it "'.) o
~ J::: v' L- .i: o

~ :jQv', ~To

9 i:: / ;;l JV - A 0 I
(~-=f-7'.J~A"'.)-C*.Qo)

~ -=f- Cb "'.), :jQ Id: J::: 5 .: 2:'\' '* 9 o

~ (7) J :jQ Id: J::: 5 o !Y ~Id: :ii <'* ::k-C ~ tc "'.) ic. :b b it o
~ -=f- v'v' ito

- 154 - CT- 8 - 7)
3.

1. dt> -? , J:o Jl _ __ rJ. -? tc. rJ) 1P L G o


c J

3. td'L?J~* rJ) ?J~ o

c J

4. J:o1ffl rJ. ~ v',


c J

6. Jo .,s~ < 7:J rJ) 1i. tf. t:;; - -' tc.' n tf. v \ 0

c J

7. .: 't:> G"""Jl ft -0 .: t: _ _ _ rJ -? re. rJ) J:: o


c J

*~rt. ~li.r]) ffilffi: ~ /v tc. ;0 ~ G,


~ ~ .1: 5

- 155 -
13. :bi0~ _ __ ;0~ G.:. ;;c, .:. Iv 1! ~~~ --- iY> 1! rc.!J)fc_ (!)I::. o
c J c J

16. 1J: 1:::. t, :jQf1 ~ ~ _ _ .:. l: 1J: v' __ tt J:: o


c J c J

17. :jQ t ~ Iv. t 5 :jQ I@ _ _ 1J: -? re. (/) J:: o


c J

20. ~ ~ ;0~-if. t =if- t v' 0 _ _ :b ft t- ~ 1J: v' __ tt:f::, iY> !vtJ: * ~ 1J: miw~ o

c J c J

22. 1! 1:::. t ~ ;0~ 1! <- - -- - ' fiiJ 'IP iY> h Ii :jQ }: ~ Iv(/) f;I 5 ;0~ G' :jQ ffi5 L, _ _ 1! Q :b J:: 0

c J c J

- 1 56 -
- lSl -

:ij'.cf ~~ ~
'? <;JI<::.

<QR -=rr v\ -:2J.#i < _f- "])~ QR;'~~,. G01 < +H1 ~!&.
?JC- )_ ) .:t-'Y>. 'Yl~ C:::-1 >'"" ~

~ ~ 211 ''J' 4G&t. ~~4 ~flll!J.. ''J'~ .?+Y$~. ~:i;


:?'? ~ 'Y.i>
G01 < .f.1 ~ ~ ~:1;1:~. :et < _j__ 'J' ~ < >-- :ij'. ~
c.~ :;j V\ ~'i. ._,,. <i-.:?-'f
~!&. ~f. < _f- ~ :ff. < lfi "{yk..f:o 1 <f/ l[!ji >

0-:2.f..C-~ "]J-f-~+I~ ,
~

~ GOv'I. fJ ~f 1 -0 GO -0 l~hrf Si ~S"~ GOJ-~Y!~ < v'l)... c- =1' ~:ij'. cf v'l..:Z, ~;Cf~::;'~ ':t:J.)..l._
0

'Yi- ~
0
< v\)... 1 u -:21. 1 iHl ~ ::r :' -:2J. 'L >~ v'l
~ ~ )IJ.
GO -0 ~ .,)_. =1' :' -:2J.~ >)...)...ill~ ~;Cf~ -:2J. c-
0

lf+::rf~ 'v'l ~+I GO 1 =1' -:2J.'lcnJ~;rf fj

~ ~ <tl'it ,.., '"'


"]J{Y~v'lv'l +I GO 1 '.,)..GO< ;Cf 1 l'. cy Si ~)... c- ~ ::f .?.f ~~lt{~f ~GO 1 <~GO -:2J. ~ .,)_. >::f
ti C. fj
'cy~ -:2J.-f-~' .)..~:l;S: ;Cf EB 3l
0
< v\)... 1 ~Si ;Cf fJ >-- :ij'. ~~cf ;Cf EB 3l ::f GO 1 ':t:J.)..~=

0 -:2J. ~ )... c- fj "]) =1' ~cf v'\. fJ +.!.).. u t:p c,. < v'I. "]J ~ GO -0 ~ =1' c- ~ J- Si ~CL 'L -:' ;t;L GO 1 '+.!
0
~~.:Z;rf ' ::f < _f- ::f ~ -:' Y "]J ~ IMJ "]J GO 1 ;t;L ~ 0
-:2J.
.Pl
c- tcf fJ 1 u~ c- +.! '.,).. .f.1.?.f ~ ~ ::f v'l 1 Si GO ~GO uq l'. GO% GO +!~ ';(f-:2J.~~=J
<i-.'1-'l' .. C..j!- i; 'f
~ '.,)..GO -:2J. v'\.. "]J fJ~JJ.G-~=J~J~21 '+!~ O"')J.\'t ~GO;ri!=~
':2 "'"" ) >/- v
Ellf 1:*"' 6EIJ j; 'cp ~l;T ~~at 0
-:2J. ~)... 1'. IMJ ;Cf~ \'t~ GO EB 3l ::r GO 1 'Si t/f ~= ~ -:2J. 1 ~~hrf ~ '[;(.cf

0 -:2J. \ 't
:re.
\'tfJ.f.1\'t:t:J)...\'t~t:pfuij
0
'.)..GO >W2=1' I ;Cf ';Cf
)4 1
-:2J.c-l'.1)...1 Ci> c-_{2 ')...\'t~::f-:2J.c-* ~lf5lGOCiC{'.l'.GO-f\fSlt/f ;Cf

'+.!~ O"')j. C- ~.,)..G0-:2J.* ::::.'J ~ fj ~ "]JG01 ;Cf


~~ ~ ~ "1'0: 'Yk!
~*ii!= '+!~
0
-:2J. c- Y)... \:fl)... c- ~' ::f ~If G0-:2..L *;Cf EB 31'+1GO1 '.,).. G0-:2J. c- ~u;rf GO~~

( 1- GO .:Z ) ~ ~ GO Ci fJ ::f

<~ m (L) * fW!'.l

~ ~b ~y~

~ ~ ~vm
side dish,
"rice-pusher"
delivery man

- 158 -
the sense of its
existence life ought to be this way

sense of responsibility riots on campus

writer loss of authority

good-for-nithing 19. s tt farmer


5. -*'7) if> .Q t.
09 :O
the master of the house 20. 4!\li$)('@
tr ;6'( i>!v <!.'
uneducated and illiterate

6. tk:l*JT~r--r pronounce judgement,


&::> ffJv <:'<"
arbitrate
21. V-tJ.~ microcosm
-/Jift

7. tJ. ~ vt~ idler, loafer 22. ~~1.J;Jtj.G traditional authority

to abandon, surrender 23. #..1."t.Q grant, bestow, confer

camera object, 24. high rate of growth


photographic object
25. Et3 ~~ C7) if> Q ~
ii V> J.., , , i>-/::1:

10. it-? re.tire. sweet a capable, resourceful man

(people who) grew up 26. ~ ~ C7) tit :?f-


c5 1n -lt ;0.0
during the war the world as it should be

to survive 27. ~:m.V')tit:?f- the ideal world

13. ~ { rendering of a service 28. ;f ~ inconsistencies

to deprive, to strip to look at something


away directly

15. i;*tE~ national will the good, the ideal


1:9;6 V> 1..:1!

- 159-
1. -: (7) **~Id:, m:fL~ -@] El (7) ~~ ii~ ~ ;b -::i tc. tf, =@J El (7) ~ ~ '* -z''f.: El ~-r .Q ic. 6b (7) t
(7) -Z-''"9 0

2. -: (7)**~1J:, ,f-if- t/ :/ F r 7 ';/ ~ 7 - 7 ~ ~ ~ tJ ii~ G l.JJ 6v'o

1. m:fL ~ (7) -it t/ :/ F r 7 ';/ ~ 7 - 7 ~ AA tc ~t ~ ~ tJ 6 v' a


2. 'l!Jz(l)Xii~. F7"(7)P'3~t[1f]L.:tJG0~. :il-::i -Cv'i!>t~ld:X~(

tl,tJ 6v'o
2

2
1. ( ) ( ) tJ tc a;; IJ:, 3CI. ii~~ tt -c', X ~ (7) #ti:~ ii~ tJ v' (7) Id:, 4- (7) X ~ii~~ :t:U.: fJJ
~ ~&~ ~4
'&J -c v' -c, ~ii~~ ~ tJ v' tp G tc t -::i
Tllc
-c v' '* -r o
2
2. ( ) ( ) ftr:Hi'.!f:-T61vf.:J:Qt, tf(7)X~fd:, ~tE(7)J:5f=~~-ct. v'6,.tv'5
<! 1:5 ~I: tr.ol,

2
t ~ f.: Id:, ~ -::i Ii !J J::f.: fil: L-Cv' Qt v' 5 -: t ~ff; L
5~ <"*' lJ6
'* L tc.o
3. ( ) (
2
4. ( ) ( ) 00 LlJ a;; Id:, ffl. f\ (7) ;;e :1l-ld:, 111 ij: iJ tct
"" t i I., 1-j'A, t8r> :bll i><D I: -1!\t> -Cil;
-::i -c v' '*Ta
2
5. ( ) ( ) 00 LlJ a;;f.: J: Qt, ~i*(7) A r.c Id:, ~tf. i!!J<:~~l'5 tdt Id: L -::i 7J~ !J ~ 0 5
Vv ~<)ti l'.>C l'.fl: ~ I: ti 'l\l>-t!lt'> tio H

- 160 -
1. l'fiJ 1:7 - 7"(7)1'fi] l:~~:B-~. 1t 5 -11'.~~ fJ. ~v'o

2. f 7"'(7)17'3 ~ a:-1- ~. a. b. c (7)$-C'l& t ~~4VJ. t (7) a:- -"':Jtdt~(/, Oa: "':J ~t fJ. ~ v'o

3. **~IIiJ~elAJ-C';O~Gt 5-11'.~~L,, @ a:-"':J~trJ.~v'o

a. ~th c t '.J> !._, ld:ff::tfl~di~


tJ>'v
lb D * !._, t.: o

*
-t:I., <!Ir>

i. tr (7) ::R~ Id:,


tr.H.. -v<., M
~a: Jt it rJ ?J~-? r.: b. ~t n c t u 1._, u 1._, c 1f t~1~?di~ lb D 1._, 1.: o
{
c. ;a~ G;ff:tE~ iJ~ lb D *it AJ-C' t_, 1.: o
2. fJ. tr: .EI;; Id:, )( ~;O~ 5 f? fC v' -C, -T -#l<fC Jt ~ G ~ ~,
);!'.~
-T-#1< IJ: )(~a:
a. 7'F D ~~ !._, fJ. v' }
~"i -t:i.,l'j\r>

b. r.: v' ""-AJ~~-r 9 c~ -? -Cv' *9 o


{
c. J: <J][:Wf9 Q
a. 'lr. -C 9 J: 5 f;: I._, -Cv' * I._, 1.:o

3. tr (7) HfUJ:, )(ii a:- b. ~~ t_, -c v' *it AJ -C' L.J.: o


{
c . ~ Ilic 1._, -c v' * 1._, r.: o

4. fti:ifi ~ -T ~ AJ f;: J: 9 c, ttf ~a:- tiJ: ~


ttlv Ir> 1"15 !
!._, -C El :B- iJ~ ~ <fJ. -? i.: c ~Ill') G (7) Id:
~ 0v'
a.
}
b. !Gf;a~ t_, v' -: c -C-9 o
{
c. ~ fJ.

*
0(

a. N "':J J: 5 f;: fJ. D !._, t.: o

5. '*1 ~ (7) A k Id:, ff ti~ fC


L~ ~Ir>
*ti: !._, i.: v' c v' 5 l!L~ a:- { b . " M9 9 J: 5 f;: fJ. D * !._, 1.:
115 L . ~lv t.> lv
l][ o

c. ~ -c -c
-t
1._, *v' * 1._, r.: o

a.

~ -$~(7)Ak~, ff El:B-(7).Jta:- b.
"' 11/v {
c.

- 161-
2. ffl:~il~-T~OJ i!5cW f;: :;k: ~-~~ifif;: rJ
ti; x' V> < ttW--A-V>-::>l-x 51-tA- ltY>
G l]l EE f;: -Jv'-C, rJ
!1 ~'
t~ .a:;1J: fPJ c 13 0 -C v ' 'i TXPo

3. ftr:~ ~-T~ A.ild::, ~ O)~~~. c 5ff1iffiL-Cv''i9;0~o


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- 162 -
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0) fi~ ?Hd:, ~ ffili ti~ @r. 9 Jtl ~ f;: :i= 1t' -C, =@l 0) ~ ~ 0) .1:: ~ f;: m1l L
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3. Part20) I. Vocabulary List. II. Notes on Grammar and Expressions,

ill. Notes on Socio-cultural Background ~t:~ LJJtJ ~ G. 7.f"t:: YJ7.ft: YJO)~"'.)

1. Listen to the first half of the soundtrack tape of Lesson 9 and make a
complete transcription of it. (The underlined portions mark points that
are crucial to the understanding of the drama.)

2. Write out those parts that are surrounded by dotted lines on the sheet
that the instructor will distribute, and turn the sheet in at the second
session.

3, Make an attempt to grasp the substance of the statements made by each of


the characters by referring to the vocabulary lists, the notes on grarrunar
and expressions, and the notes on socio-cultural background.

- 163 -
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- 164- CT-9-1)
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- 165- ( T-9-2)
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(7), ib 0 ic:lv t. ~ fJv''/J' to ff-'/J> G, ~. f:(7), JJIJf;:, f:(7), it 0 renrc:-T~t.i>-c'

- 166- CT-9-3)
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- 167 - CT-9-4)
Listen to the exercise tape (the first half of Lesson 9), then fill in the
blanks below. Use hiragana.

Note: As in the lesson 5, these blanks are not quite as important with
respect to content. The aim of the exercises is to get the student to pay
particular attention to verbal space-fillers, to become acquainted with their
forms, and to learn at which points in a sentence the student can take a
breather, so to speak.

_ _ _ El 7t~-T-{Jt~-~~t /v~v'$f5lf;:_ ..... .

-Ctl _ ,

- 168 -
tr. LJd: ;t tc., _ _ , ~ tfl Iv fJ: 0 -c .:::: ~ < G v, -c-t 7J G, ;t tc ~ ~ Id: fJ: v, Iv -c-t It c: ti ,
4

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Tithe t

- 169 -
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- 170 -
1. lff] 1:>7- - 7 ~ ~ 5-ll~~1J 2: v'o
2. F7"C')P'J~~~;l, a, b, c C')tj:i-C' ~ t~~tJiiC')~--'Jtdt~lf, 0~-'J~ttJ2:v'o

3. **~II t.i~ttf lv-C' 7J~ G, t 5 -It~W l, ~ -'J~t tJ 2: v' o

a. 5$7J~ "".) ic.-C'T o

~ MCl) :5C ~H-J: b. ~ ;0~ "".) 1~ -C'T o


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- 171 -
1. 1L*,5;;f: J:hfi, ~M'7Yt~-C', Ar139li t '(7).J: 5 iJ1=.~:JJ~M~2:h-Cv''i L,t~T.Po
4~ M I~

( M~T .Q : count on, expect )


I t&>

3. 1L*.EI;;fi, ~(7))(:~(7);ftm\G~~~ . -f--fjl;(7){Jl.UtPGT.Qc t'5 tf.c ~ "'.)-Cv''iT7'.Po


ftlv v. '!:5 L::::> :6<1?

- 172-
1. mnB*O)-tt-t/ / F r 7-;; ~ 7 - 7 C~~) ~ ~ ~rJtJ~G. r 7 '/7-. ~ ~ 7 -Y 3 /~

%.ltZ LJJ ~v'o

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2. C~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~J 0) ~HH:t, tUffi ti~ @c ~ JfH~H= ~ v' -C, =:@l 0) ~ ~ 0) C: ~ 1.: ~ lli L
fJ~V'o

3. Part 20) I. Vocabulary List, II. Notes on Grammar and Express i ons,

m. Notes on Socio - cultural Background ~ ~JW\ L-fJiJ ~ G. (}>(: IJ(f(:IJO)-?


't"v'Q P'J~~:IIM L-fJ ~ v'o

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- - - - -- - ' ;jDO),

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- 173- (T- 9-5 )


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0 -c v' v' ~ T'IJ 0 -c tJ. t (7)/J> S IJ -t ~, ~ L -CtJ., -t(J)f~~ (7)~

f4 it hr.: v \ fJ. - - - - 1.: J:L "' Q t ' c' (7) J:HJj)f,: !._, r.: -".) -c' J? -".) Ii I) .:::. h Ii,
t 5, , <"5 tcGtJOOL'/J>JtitGhtJv':bvt'"Z"T J::tl.;'{.o
:b r.: L fi -t 5 v' 5 g '/J> GT 0 t tJ., S (7), ~~ 0 -C (7) Id: ;:'{. G <______
vt Et' -t (7) ~ ~ 1.: ti' ~ ~1llU7P G ti., :br.: L Id:, s (7)' - - -hr.: v' fJ. t (J);fif

-".) -c 0 !v-C'T o C ~v')

Id: S Id: S, F"~ fl. 1.: 2: h 0 .:::. t TJ v' C: ~ tJ. v' '/J> t v' 5 ..
F"~ fl. 1::: L -c v' v' t ,'El, 5 Iv '"Z"T o A Fa1 0 -c (7) t:t ti. ,

- 174 - (T-9-6)
-------- -- ---------- - --- --- -- ---- --- -- --- --~-
\

~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~
t l.t \ 5 .:: t L: -'(> 1J l.t \ tt 0
L- - ---- --- -- -------- --- ----------- -- --------~

- 175 - ( T-9-7)
3.

tJv':O~ GX:tll.;O~/G:ft.:O~ _____ -t 5 t-~ tJ <-c, ~1-=~~ JtittJv'fi fti., JtittJ


c J

s. 'Ji> (/). /J':ft. (/) J: 5 1.: Jt ?L _ _ _t , ", ~- e: "' 5 e: ~ 1.: fd:, 'Ji> (/), ~ -? e: m:t> n -c ~ ~ ~
c J

[ J

- 176-
6. it, :brc L fJ: i: t;:', 7c (f), x~ r.t '? "t, ::::~ < Gv' "C'-9~~ G, i: tc:~~ fJ: r.r v' _ _
c J c J
-c--r~tnEt

8. -c-, v':bl:f, ~(f)~$1;:f'?~fi _ _ _ _ , ~L"C, i:, 1:.~~'?rc, Ji;,(f), x~-c-.:b


c J

- - - - - -' ~hid: t 5 ..... .


c J

11. A rai _ _ _ ti, "Jt;if;: Y!~ld:~ !~ '21" !v-C'v' Q Iv t;:~~ G .... ..


[ J

- 177 -
~~f;: 1L*i:l:;il~. ~*30)3l~ld:, O)WJ vt ~~-C, f.frWCB-:lti~ ~ ~~B-:Jfc~ k Gh-C
"- ""Clv <:5 -r:~ '7"- v.. c? 11 -r:~

v'ic.rc.~fc, 5.iv'*i~~f.;f0-Cv'ic.il~. , :tnti~-9'"'-CrJ <rJ. IJ, i.rc.~f!BJJ%1mt~


M 1:'5f7\r>ttlr>

:Ji:ff ~*T-5 &vt~ . tt /1"~ ~W!i: 15 ~ )(~ r,,,i~


t. "!:>.,1:? M>
~1 trJ)>l,, -t:A,f7\r>

-T~ tt~ M~-9-5 ~~ -~~ ::R~ (}' (: vt TC. El E8


.
~ tor> -riv V?

(J9( [ ff -()~ -T~ I_, ~ :b it tc: ~'*'i* *I~


z)i ;b -!!A,-;;~ f7V> f7A,

- 178 -
PART 2
LESSON 1

LESSON 1 VOCABULARY LIST

1. ~ ~IJ:, i.. 7 Y:AIJ ~ 7 " '/ s Y O) ~ -:; ~~ L* To


-t' \; ;f, C,b

2. IJ:, C: <1= =*: -J;1J tJ~c: 1:iJ< '"Z" To ~F~l=J::


o t x'
< if::b h Q 't OJ f;fiP D-C'TtJ>G, 7Ciikl=Jt~
vlv-l!'lv :1. t!

-C if~ Q J:: 5 1= L tJ ~ v' o


3. <t7':-J;1JtJ ~ {iJ'"Z"T o if:? .:C:tJ~ -C' ~tJ< -C<t. llfJv'-C3'.M-C-~tJvthl;f tJ D *1-!vo

4. fPJ <t ~P OJ-Jv'-Cv' tJ v' ~ 1:iJIJ:. F' 7 "OJ P'J ~ ~ J:J.M T Q t.:601= ~ ~T Q tdt-c-. -1::-hil~
t,.;, 1..- ;;1v 1..- x '

~ :b ~ t.: GT <'';E;h-C L * ~ -C v' v' <t OJ -z"To

1. The numerals indicate the pages in the transcription.

2. Double asterisks ** mark key words. As these will include only those
words that are very commonly used, the students must commit them to
memory and be able to use them in conversations.

3. A single asterisk * also marks important words. These are words the
student must be able to comprehend on hearing, even though he
may not be able to use them in conversation .

4. The vocabulary items without asterisks are to be used only as guides


in the comprehension of the development of the drama and may be for-
gotten soon after the viewing.

1. * * 5$ 7'1(-> suburbs 'A~ btJ ~ tJv' unreserved, free and open


I: ,,,,\ ~ ,,,
* {:E '.:t:t'I!!. residential area 2. ** :Jo L ~~ D C~ ) TQ
~' *-< ~ to chat, gossip,
;% ~ Takahira (family name) tattle
11:.vo c,
T ~ tJ>D full y , utterly, totally Tomoko (personal name!

:IStJ5'TQ to overstay one's welcome * 'fiiJ if. ..S~ D1J> '1." after an interval of
;'J: l)! \(> ;'J: /vt.llv
several years
Jr~ new construction
L-lv ~ <

* (;Jo) 5'1? (your) home * * ~1=_1Kf K; high school ~ys


l)'(-i!tlr> \; ti.Ir>

* .:"i?-1::- 5 hospitality, treat, feast, to return to


etc.

- 179 -
LESSON 1

~. hubby * * :b ~-- :n ~-- expressly, especially,


-CV> L ij!>
to go out of one's way
v'~tC.' Awful! Stop it! etc. (to do something)

* v' -::i ~ Iv!::::. instantly, all at once * * ( Jo ) {fllq: (your) absence

reality * ::*::~ a large number

to pull back into tlfll._,;O > ~J.Q to crowd in, to swarm


lf.-;J;._-::i'Sv' mean, stingy comfort (the term itself
is neutral as to the
presence or lack of
comfort)
* * ;JG L life, existence
politeness
* :lO~ disillusion
* fi Iv V') ~{if tC.U-C- 0 It's merely a token.
~ i "f;,
Tokie (personal name,
female) everywhere, all over

cleanly, with no regrets New Year's[spiced sake~


mood
to run a rat race
fr*!::::.
L C:I:
fJ: G fJ: v' no setting down
* ::Cf. ( ~ ) C: .Q to grow old, to age to work
1:1.,
early, before
* ?]?_ L v' meaningless, worthless
closing time
You are a chatterbox. t .o knock off, wind up,
cut short
New Year's decoration
**gig~ unexpectedly
I:?{!~
suits, fit, become
* ;O> t.:. '/;~ t.:. at the same time
~~ 7 .. ~ - r apartment in a block
~' ~~ built by the Public new house
Housing Corporation
4. ** Ji!IT 9 to feel constrained,
* ~9* taste ~~ !J.t
to feel diffident
residence in contact
an apartment
to bring along
marvelous
5. for the time being
(someone else's) husband
livin~ room
3. * Jo;O> '* v' t L fJ:v''"C'
to fail to offer much cramped
hospitality
** ~~tc_
* Jo C: ~ '* L '* Lr.:. 0 We've taken so much tr !J
It's impossible.
of your time. **::kt@~-'"(" with all haste
house-warming for a
new house to clean up,
clear away
- 180 -
LESSON 1

to move, shift daughter-in-law

dinner * 1_,~5 ~ mother-in-law

through circumstance, * fl~ ( ~ ) if 5 to be sensitive to


in the course of events l..A,171'> ?-/J

7.**~GT to live
<
all the time, always * "".) Gv' difficult, unbearable

6. ingredients an emergency,
a contingency
to leave
!DC
plan, design (here
3.5J C t.;~) Jl!!;v' to feel bad .architectural)
! ~A, b

be caught in a bind,
be stumped extra, in addition

* il~lvl;fG to insist on,


* mi V') ~ ti~ fJ. accompaniment for drinks to hold out for
<!It

* * tJ ~ lv~~ canned food '.IL~ C:, ~ fJ.v' No time for joking.


L:.t ,~A,

leave/ entrust *"' )', ( ~ ) if 5 be scrupulously correct


(a matter) to... ~ ? -/J

one's own daughter

* * !_, J:: 5 t.;~tJ.v' there's no help for it *i!t~l.=tJ.G to be looked after


-It b

* ~ 51_,J:: 5 ttJ.v' helpless !$}.tv' illogical, unreasonable


i"L:~-/Jl

to stay overnight ** l.,c!tJ:b-ittc One is happy.

to notify a person * i'f.J:: D an old person


Cc
to build to be concerned, to worry

the first thing 5~ <v' < to make a go of it

Shizuko (personal name) 1Efl !_, }:6~ G to herd into, to coop up

~V')~ one's own daughter There's no help for it.


l:? trt'6 Nothing can be done.
:j;3 t !_, 0 <fJ. v' unpleasant, .disagreeable

be glad, be delighted ~i::m-~tc That lacks conunon sence.


u. L:.t,. !

one night dinnertime


annoying, fussy

to liberate from
ULC~)TiG
l.. !J

...... V')
,,. f=fJ. Q
Ji'
to settle down

to put yourself in
.,
someone else's place
* * ~*4:tc It's simple.
ttfv~A,

- 181-
LESSON 1

* ft-:)'< to to be cleared away to talk about


iJ"lt

to apologize, ** = ~ upstairs, second floor


to beg forgiveness
to talk about

8. ** J;:,~*Q to apologize to move (residences)

n.:r-c.
t.1~
Hanako ( personal name) the old apartment

::t:~~ Taro ( personal name) better, preferable


"It~ '
.to tJ tP c ;0~ ) 'T < to be hungry that kid/brat

Ji:,~ @l 0 f~T 9 to delay, be put off .= G;;{.~;O~tJv' He's got no patience.


L..1:'
hang about, dawdle to spoil/indulge (a child)

to bring into, show into


to keep someone on the run
~fJ:iltbb ~-~ m,~
_.: L. < tt;O.t ' ~

The warrior glories in honorable


poverty. (Literally :"Though the
samurai hasn't eaten, jaunty the
toothpick (in his month) . ")

- 182 -
LESSON 1

LESSON 1 NOTES ON GRAMMAR AND EXPRESSIONS I

1. .. I . . . 'I? ~ 5 . 'I? ~ -'.) tc. 'I? ~ -'.) -c p.1


-
There are the abbreviated forms of -CL 'i 5, -C L 'i -::i fc., and
-CL'i-::i-C, verbal suffixes that impart the aspect of finality to
an act. These abbreviated forms are frequently used in informal
conversation.
E.g.,
Abbreviated Form Full Form

a. J;)<l"< L-C~C:-::i'1?~5f!lv-Co
Running a rat race and
turning gray ....

b. ~ /l 'I? ~ 5 :bo
I've ended up having second
thoughts.

c. T -::i 1.P Dffi: @- L i? ~ -::i tc. :b o


I've certainly ended up over-
staying my welcome!

d. m~ f;: V' ~ m6 n 'I? ~ -::i tc. o

I've been brought back to


cold reality.

Men frequently use another set of abbreviated forms: 'I? 'i 5,


'I? * -'.) re. and 'I? * -'.) -c.
E.g.,

I've ended up having second thoughts.

I've been brought back to cold reality.

- 183-
LESSON 1

2. p.2
"Don't remind me. "
A negative request, literally, "don't cause me to remember."
is the causative form of ,~-11 ' ll T, "to remember," "to recall."

3. p.2

Besides its meanings of "only" and "as much as," felt sometimes
means "enough" or "worth."
Eg ' ~ -:> -c 1t \ Q A tJ ;; 1t \ Q tDt' 1t \ 1t \ I..:: ~ fJ: 1t \ (7) 0
Isn't it enough that you have someone waiting for you?

4. .. I . . fJ: 1v -c p.2

(al X fJ. lv -C means "such a person I thing I matter like X,"and


implies a downgrading by the speaker of his X when compared to the
X of others.
E. g ' cfJ tr. L,, fJ: Iv -c * """"mi: -:> tr. -:> -c ~
~ ~ :O~ ton
ti 1t) fJ: 1t \Iv -c'T t (7) 0
Take me, even if I go home, there's no one there [as compared
to you ladies who do].

i? ~ ? fJ: Iv -c {PJ tC.' tJ~ ~ L,, < -:> -c ~


'.tf. C: -:> 0
tr~
Take ending up old--it' s s.o dreary somehow ....

Take where I live--it's a city- built housing block, don't you


see [as compared to one-family dwellings].

That's the nature of men [as compared to women].

(bl X fJ. Iv -C is also used when the speaker thinks that X is shocking or
unbelievable.
E.g.'
I just can't believe you'd do such a thing.
ffl: ii> Jt.i l- Tc. * .Q fJ: Iv -C ,~, -:> -C 1J 1t' fJ: tJ ~ -:> tr. o
I never dreamed mother would be coming tomorrow.

- 184 -
LESSON 1

5. *. ... . . t IT)' t Iv p.2


t IT) and t Iv approximate the function of the conjunction
'fp G , "because." TP G seems to express a more obj,ective,
logical relationship between two clauses, while t IT) or t Iv
expresses a more subjective or emotional judgement about the causal
relationship. The latter are used in colloquial conversation. Women
mainly use while children mainly use t Iv , Both
forms occur as sentence finals. The speaker expresses only the cause
or reason and omits mentioning the consequence which, however, is
implied. t ITJ and t Iv act more iLike sentence final parti-
cles rather than conjunctions, and provide a strong assertion of a
cause or reason.

v.. fe. tJ fe. fi_ fl


Take me--even if I went home, there's nobody there, so [don't
complain about your husbands].

713 ~ n -0 fffim ti>-e~ tc. Iv tc' t rJJO


.c " ~ --
We've built a room where guests can stay, so [why don't you stay
overnight?]

tc' -:? -c jO tt. tP ~ v' -t ~


-:? tc. Iv tc' t /v o
-t-
But I'm hungry, so [I can't help it].

6. I . . . 7-J- tc. v, f-:.. p.2


7-J- tc. v' f-:._ means "like X" and is close in meaning to X IT) J: 5 f-:._
but is rather more colloquial.

I wish I could get a divorce with no regrets like you, and try living by
myself, doing what I want to do.

7. 1 . . . t IT) ti. t /v ti I p.2


t ITJti or t lvtc' are used when the speaker wishes to make
a general rather than a specific statement.
Eg , 5 h ]_, v' <f:i IT) ft. IT) .l o
All in all, it's gratifying [to build a house].

( p. 4 )
That's the nature of the beast--1 mean men.

- 185 -
LESSON 1

( p. 8 )

As a rule, men shouldn't talk about meals.

8. p.3
..:Chl::l:..:C:hA;:t is used to emphasize the antecedent to ..:Ch.
Eg ,..:c hl;:t ..:Ch Ii *1 tc_ -:J t~ --c> l, J: 5 6
My! It must have been quite a task!

It is sometimes used alone as an idiomatic expression of thanks or


appreciation. In such a case, the deleted predicate is something like

They've come out all this way!


;Jh;Jh, -t:"hl::J:-t:"hl::J:o
Oh, how nice of them!

9. ** I . . . -= t f.::. ft. D * L -c p. 3
-= (: t.=.f.t. D * L-C means "the upshot of the matter was that we would ... II

E.g. -~Ji5~JfJi!.LJ:
' ' !A,~.t
5 C:~tt.v'tP--:J-C-:.C:l;:,f,t_ D * L-Ca
The upshot of the matter was that we decided go see the new house.

1o. * I . . . tc. -c I-:J p. s


As a conjunction, tc_ -:i -C mean.Si "but I whatever you may say" and is close
in meaning 120 -C'ici It also means "also" or "even" when it follows a noun,
when its function resembles t .
E g , tc. -:J -CJ!: 2>: Iv ..:C Cl) --::> t f) -c' L .t a
iJ;/'z.lb
But isn't that what Kaname has 1n mind?

( P 8 )

But I'm hungry, so [I can't help it].

%0 Y:. 2>: 1v tc.-:J -c L .1: -:J 't ~ 5 tc. -:i rcb J:.. -::. 1v ft. -::. t o

Father also did such a thing all the time.

( P 6 )
My house also has a room where guests can stay, so [you can stay overnight].

- 186-
11. * p.5

This means "Xis a particular kind of X, so .. " What kind of Xis


implied and is predictable from the discourse.
E.g., ffiFs9i1 ~ ffiFs9fc' trG, ~~lv-f:-0)--:>t D'"'C'L J: 5o
The hour being what it is, isn't that what Kaname has is mind?
~mi1~~m
-
t.:;0, G,
---
-fg f&~-C'v' v'b J:: o
... tc.lv~'

The place being what it is [not fancy], casual wear will be all right.

12. p.5
This means "if so, then; if that is the case, then ... "
E.g., -f:"htJ G-f:"h '"'('- ~lli!i L -C < hhli'v'v'O) f=o
[} I: I:. I:
If that's the case, then I wish he'd at least call me.

p. 5

To wish that someone would do something he hasn't done involves this


construction. It is often used for making accusations. (See Gla.11.)
E.g., -f:"htJG-f:"h'"'C'-~lli!i'"'C't L-C < hhf;fv'v'O)f=o
If that's the case, then I wish he'd at least call me.

14. p.6

This means "intend I have in mind [to do] . "with the 0) substituting
for a verb. The substituted verb is understood from the context. (See G6.13.)
E.g., 7',,~ y 7 1 -0)--:>t D fc"?tCo ( 7'-'~y :y- 1 -f=T~--:>t D fc?fCo)
I intended [to make] spaghetti.

15. .. I* ~ I ;()> p.6


"Not likely," "surely not," an emphatic expression of the speaker's
incredulity . (See G6.9.)
E.g. , tl>lv fJi ~ ? :?t ~ ti> 1JJ ~ -C 0) :to~ t~H= 0
? - - - f'J: i:.
Food from cans? Oh, surely not to our first guests!

16. * .. I . . ;()> G -::> -c I p.6

An abbreviation of ~PG c -=> -C, and is more :colloquial


It means "even if [you say] .... "

- 187 -
LESSON 1

E.g., *~Jil-Ct.:t.PG-:i-Cbo
Look, even if [you say] you've built a house .... " More colloquially:
"So you've built a house .... "

17. P 6
A polite form of 7-J.. -Cr 2: v', which usually means "try (doing
something) and see .... "
E g , t, 5 - Ii".~ -:i -C .:_'' G Iv tJ 2: 1t 'o
Try once more and see.

p.6
This is the same as ~vd:: D, ~-:id D occurs more often in colloquial
conversation. It means "also," "after all," "as expected."
( p. 2 )
After all, men should at least live in a house this nice.
~ "? vi D' 5 t J: Dv'i ~ O') ~ O') C:
.:. Jj~ tr\ 1t \ O') iP tJ ib 0
t.? t,-:tlt>
After all's said and done, I wonder if her own daughter's place
would be preferable to my house.

p. 7
X tJ Iv "/J>. means "a thing like X."

E.g. , ~ 2: Iv'* t-:'.Cf. J: DtJ Iv "/J>. C: ~ ib D 1" Iv J: o '*


Your mother an old woman?--no such thing!

'*
5 <v' -:i -Clt' 9 fi: 5 J:, 5 t tJ/v"/J>.o
Take our family--we're getting along rather well.

( p. 8 )
There's no need to go apologizing.

X tJ/v"/J>. and X tJ!v-C are very similar in meaning, but unlike


X tJ!v-C, X tJ/v"/J>. does not a always have a negative implication
regarding X.
X tJ/v"/J>. is used only after a noun. When it is used after a verb,
a nominalizer ( O') or .:_ ('. ) is inserted, as in Jf:,~'* .Q .:_ C: tJ/v"/J>.

- 188-
LESSON 1

20. P 7
"Rather (more than less)"
E.g., 5~<v'-?-Cl.t' ;~:dl')J:, 5i?fJ.lv1J~o

Take our family--we're getting along rather well.

He's on the studious side.

21. * I <it f= p. 7
"Though," "even if," "even though." When used after a noun, (!)

inserted, as in 95 (]) <it f:_ ( p. 8. 11 ) . This is used when the speaker is


making an accusation. In the construction " X (])<it f:_ Y," there is the
presupposition that "if X, then not Y."
Eg ' 9 ~~ ;t -c~ (])
~5.,1,1:~
<it f:_ oc T *- -c ;;:dJ. Iv -c
- - 1,9
0

The nerve of them--women yet! --making themselves comfortable until


dinner time!
<
fJ. Iv ti !J5 (]) it f:_ ft 5 -:. ~ f:f '? f.p I) 0
What's all this talk about food--remember you're a boy!

In the second sentence, there is the speaker's presupposition that males


should not talk about food.
<it~= is also used after a verb as in '? tc. <it f:_ (though you said
so [you've gone back on your word]). This pattern will be discussed
further in Lesson 3.

- 189-
LESSON 1

LESSON 1 NOTES ON GRAMMAR AND EXPRESSIONS II

DELETIONS

Not long after the student of Japanese has learned to read, write, and
speak textbook Japanese, in which subject, object, and verb, with their
modifying clauses~lare all in their expected places, he learns that in
colloquial speech the Japanese, when speaking among themselves, delete so
much as to make a conversation sound cryptic if not like a series of non
sequiturs. "That's not the way I was taught to speak Japanese!" is the
instinctive, anguished cry of the student, forgetful for the moment of the
necessity of acquiring ground rules first.

Given time, a motivated student will, of course, eventually learn to


speak like a native, but the initial shock is there, and it is one of the
aims of this text to provide the advanced student of Japanese with exposure
to colloquial speech in a coherent context in preparation for the day when he
will be able to comprehend easily and respond naturally. But he cannot ignore
a potential pitfall along the way: the instructor must streess the importance
of the degrees of politeness in the different speech levels employed by the
characters in the drama-variances that are dictated by differences in sex and
age.

At the risk of courting tedium, a brief review of this characteristic


might not be amiss. Almost any element in a Japanese sentence may be deleted
provided the speaker is certain the listener will not be confused or misled
by being provided only with necessary information. Sentences are truncated
for conversational efficiency or for a softening effect, explicitness not
being a virtue to the Japanese. The subject or predicate of a sentence may
be omitted; particles are particularly susceptible to omission. Personal
pronouns are almost always deleted, and it will repay the student in untold
goodwill if he will drop the second person pronoun forever from his
vocabulary.

Another common deletion is the omission of the predicate after a clause


ending with the verb in the form. This particular withholding is
really a form of courtesy extended to the listener, allowing him to arrive at
his own conclusions.

The listener recovers the deletions through his knowledge of the


situation, preceding discourse, and the particular lexical items present,
e.g., honorifics, verbs of giving and receiving, and so on.

Each of the eighteen lessons in this text contains examples of deletions;


it is the one constant throughout. With the examples and their analyses, the
student will hopefully train himself sufficiently in making the necessary
recoveries so that exposure to colloquial conversation will be a less
frustrating experience than it usually is.

-190-
LESSON 1

Examples:
a. bif'>v', 1:7'.i>-::::>t.:, 1:7'.J>-::::>t.:o Whee! It is up! It's up!
~

( !i :J 7'.1> I J:: 7'.1> -:::;> t.:, 1:7'.i~ -:::;> t.:o ) (The kite's) up! (The
kite's) up!
The .!J ::i "kite," is predictable from the situation.

b. v'~fC., ,~,v'l\~itf.t..v'-C' 0 How awful! Don't remind me.


( if'> t.r t.:IJ:) -
f.l.1:
-
~ . ~--T ~ 0)
-rv.1,,-.,,
c 2::: ~ ,~, v' 1\ 2: it t.r v' -rr 2: v' o
(Please) don't remind me (of hubby .and the children).
Jf>t.r t.: and f.l. are predictable from the situation -- the
participation in a conversation, while .~r~O) C 2::: ii:;
predictable on the basis of the preceding utterance ~. ~-}~O)
C2:::1bT-::::>7'.J~DZh-Cv'f.:bo "I'd forgotten all about hubby and my
children!"

(We've descended on you in a swarm ... )

( f.l. t.: i? IJ:*~ -C' if'> t.r t.: 0) * l:fltl L ;O~ vt ~ L -C $ L~ if'> D ~it A.; o
~ 5 bvt
)

(We apologize for having descended on you in a swarm.) The

situation and common sense predict if'> t.r t.: 0) * and $ L~if'> D ~it A.;.

d. J::<v'GL-CT2:v'~Lt.:o (I'm so glad to yo u've come.)


CJf>t.rt.:7'.i~t.:IJ: J:: < v'G L-CT2:v'~ lt.:o )
The honorific v' G l -C ' from helps *-c ' to predict the
subject of the varb.

e. Ci?G, ~DrO)? (Is this person Tomoko's ... ?)


( Ci? GIJ:~DrO) C''.A -Z--97'.J~o ) (Is this person Tomoko' s [husband]?)

f. *
Ji -c v' t.: tc' < J:: 5 t.r -z: IJ: c'' ~,v, ~ it A.; vt ~, o
Cif'> t.r t.: 7'.i~ t.: I: Ji -C v' t.: tc' < J:: 5 t.r -c IJ: ) *
(It isn't a house you'd care to be taken through, though.)
The honorific v'f.:tc< predicts Jf>t.rt.:7'.i~t.:.

- 191-
LESSON 1

(You've had to put up with such poor fare ... )

c f.LJi .:h tt r.: i!~ r.:t= :t-3 ti, * v' t 1_., tt v' -c" $ 1_., ~ .i'> IJ ;tit h.; o )
(I'm atiraid you've had to put up with such poor fare! ... [I'm
sorry].) The situation and common sense predict f1Jicbftt.:i!~1t.I;:.

h. fiiJ 0) :ii~ t tt
ti.Iv"<
!_., 1;: :ilh -c < 7;J h.; tf..'b> Go
(After all, he brings them home with not a word to me.)
C-
:;;i:;:l:tU
- - 1;: -fiiJ 0) .ii~ t tt !_., 1;: :t-3 ~ ~ :ilh -c < 7;J h.; tcti' Go )
(After all, [my husband] brings [guests] home with not a word to me.)

1 tc "':) -c. A, 7f. r.: v' 1= v' 0 v' 0 ~ ~ ~ 5 t. ~ tt v' 0) 0


(But aren't you being scrupulously correct in every respect as
you were just now?)

( tc_ "':) -c' A, 7f. t.: v' 1= :t-3 -BJ ~ h,; l:t ~ h,; .l\=' ftITT ~ h,; 1= v' 6 v' 0 ~~~ 5 t. ~ ft v' 0) 0 )
/CV> t:>!L
(But aren't you being scrupulously correct in every respect
[when it comes to my brother and my sister-in-law] as you were
just now?)
The deleted elements are understood on the basis of the preceding
discourse.

(Oh, no need to worry.)

(Oh, you needn't worry about me!)


The situation predicts the deleted elements.

k. *~1;:97f.;tith.;bilo ttl.,v',~-11'l;fi()> 1J ~it'!:>~ --:> -Co


Ii/v i: ' V>'f:-v:

(I'm terribly sorry . I've kept you on the go.)


C * ~ 1= 9 7f. ;tit h.; b-il o f.l l:t cb tt r.: f~ rt 1_., v\~, v'l;ftJ>IJ ~it t ~ "':)-co )
From the situation and the use of the causative verb ~it .Q,
it is possible to recover the deleted elements.
Note that the two utterances have been reversed with the
second clause, which has assumed greater importance to the
speaker, coming first. The normal order is rt !_., v',~' v'lfb> IJ ~it 'f:) ~ --:; -c,
(See Word Order below.)

- 192 -
LESSON 1

There are numerous other examples of deletions in the text.


Identi fy them and recover the deleted elements.

WORD ORDER

In Japanese, the normal (but not absolute) word order is: subject,
object, verb. The order in noun phrases especially (i.e., subject,
object, and other noun phrases) is extremely flexible. This is because
in Japanese the role of the case in a noun phrase is determined not by
word order but by the particle with which it is marked.
Compared to flexibility in noun phrases, the verb usually has a
fixed place as a sentence final. Occasionally, however, especially in
colloquial conversation, the verb occurs before the subject, object, or
other noun phrase.
This deviation from the normal word order (i.e., inversion) occurs
when the speaker intends to create an effect by withholding important
information until the end. It also occurs when the speaker believes he
has not provided sufficient information and feels he has to add more.
This occurs frequentl y in the spoken language since the speaker will
tend to utter first the point he wishes to emphasize or is most interested
in.

Examples:

Deviant Word Order Normal Word Order

'3 fJ. Iv -c -'t 5 v\ 5 ti (J) fJ. (J) J: 0

(That's the way they are--men.) (Men--that's the way they are.)

~ v' vt c', v' v' , c c -c- ? ~ v' vt c', c c -C' , v' v' ?
(Sorry, is it all right here?) (Sorry, is this place all right?)

(That room is impossible, with (With six, that room is impossi-


six.) ble.)

~lv~~~~lv~~-c lJ::~~~5 ~ /v t.: ~ ~ ~ /v t.: ~ -c c /v tJ c ~


t.: ~ tcb J: , c Iv tJ c ~ o l J:: ~ i:J ~ 5 ti~ f;: b J: 0

(Even your late father constant- (When it came to this sort of


ly did it--this sort of thing.) thing, your late father always
did it.)
- 193 -
LESSON 1

~a;, .:z:-n r= L-ct J: <ft -"' t.::bb. ~a;, .:Z:-h~L-Ct1et-Y:ki?J:<ft-"'k


1J5l -9: tc. i? 0 Vbo
(Well, in any case, they cer- (Well, those women certainly
tainly ate a lot, didn't they, ate a lot in any case, didn't
those women?) they?)

SPEECH LEVELS

In Japanese, the speaker employs different levels of speech, depending


on his judgement of the social relationships among the participants in the
conversation and of the degree of formality of the occasion.
Speech levels are indicated by the use or absence of honorifics, varying
terms of address, and by the sentence particles.
The following examples from Lesson 1 illustrate different speech levels.
(The translations in English, a language which is relatively f~ee of speech
levels, will not always succeed in conveying the differences.)

a. ~ l:-t> a; *-c."i1Z
5~ --
t 5 i'J>-:::> -c =c r= ft-:::> -Cbo
(Then let's drink at my house--that was the consensus, don't you see.)

9;o -t- : it; it; , ~ it; , ff Iv c r= ih OJ 5 , J: <v' ~ L -C r 2: v' ~ L tc. o


(Uh, oh! I'm, uh, happy that you came.)

~ : v'-Y' a;, ~~fiiJ-:::> -co


I: 1:-t!'A- 57lv
(Sorry, calling on you unexpectedly ... )

b. 9:o-t- : :,L-' L r::t -ti: OJ:!\r


,,. r= t tt -:::> -c i? .t 5 tc'v' J: o

(I wish you'd put yourself in a woman's place for a minute!)

(To Kaname) $ L~ih !J ~itlvbo

(Tomoko! [To Kaname] I must apologize. We'll clear up in just a


minute, so .. . )

~:(To Tomoko) j:O~ft_, ~'Lit-Y'7J>LT~L: -t> ftv'0Ji'J , o

:to 3: 2: Iv ri Iv c 5 r= T 7-J.. ~it Iv b ft. o


([To Tomoko] Don't you think you're spoiling them a little too much?
[To Namie] Mother, I really must thank you.)

Speech levels will be taken up in detail as they occur in the lessons.

- 194 -
LESSON 1

SPEECH STYLES
The speaker will adopt different speech styles depending on his
sex, age, and personality, but there are lexical items and particles
that are used typically by men, women, or children.

Examples:
a. ~ *tc7J 4
, v'"'.J *-z: ib Iv tJ .!::: -:. 0 f;:::JIJl t., J.6 60-C :to
i >' t.
<"'.J ti D tJ Iv tc J:. o
(Not ready yet? How long do you intend to keep [our
guests] herded in that room?)

'.i;D-=f : {:)]ti ~ tJ v' 1:' L, J: o


L- -/Jtr.

(What am I supposed to do?)

b :::t: ~~ : tc -? -c :B tJ 7J ~ v' -s ~ -? re. 1v tc ~ 1v


4 o

(But I'm hungry, so [I can't help it].)

c. :::t:~~: ft< rc.'GO):J:35~c 5


~ ; Iii\.,
tJ91vtcJ:.o
(What's going to happen to our dinner anyway?)

~ : {iiJ tc . ~ 0) <it f;::: 1lt 5 -:. .!::: f~f-? 7J


Do 4

(Look at you. A boy--and all you think about is eating.)

Speech styles will be taken up in detail in Lesson 2 and 3.

- 195 -
LESSON 1

LESSON 1 NOTES ON SOCIO-CULTURAL BACKGROUND

1. Kigane
The basic meaning of kigane is "being sensitive to the
feelings of other," but in the contex t of the family , it refers
mainly to the sense of constraint members of a family living
under the same roof feel toward the head of the household.

2. Koraesho (ga nai)


A display of patient fortitude and detachment in the face of
personal discomfort , pain, or irritating trifles is expected of the
Japanese male. This dualit y is called koraesho (lit., :stoical nature").

3. Osandon no Kurashi ga matte iru (The life of a penny-pinching


servant girl awaits me at home.)
Teishu to kodomo no tame ni akuseku shite toshi o totchau nante
munashii (To grow old working myself to death for hubby and
children -- it's all so meaningless.)

When the Japanese woman marries and has children, she is almost
completely tied to the home and cuts herself off from society. She
is free to indulge her whims only through college, after which the
walls close in on her. The unhappiness felt by some women over their
role is brought out in this dialogue.

4. Shimekazari
A decoration composed of sacred rope, paper, leaves, and fruit
that is displayed outside the entrance on New Year's (strictly
speaking, from New Year's eve to the evening of January 7). It was
originally a symbol of the descent of Shinto gods to the house and
the bestowal of good fortune on its members.

- 196 -
LESSON 1

5. Toso-kibun

Toso refers to the herbs and spices that are used to make a
fortified rice wine that is drunk on New Year's day . The herbs,
stuffed in a crimson cloth bag, are steeped in the wine which,
in modern Japan, is also called toso. The belief was that, by
drinking toso, one extended one's life for ano ther year.

6. Ojama shimashita (Sorry to have taken up your time.)

Okamai mo shinaide (you've had to put up with such poor fare .... )

Goteinei ni (arigatogozaimasu) (It was so thoughtful of you.


[Thank you.]) (le,) honno kimochidake de ... ([Oh, don't.] Jus t
a little something .... )

These are examples of fixed or stereotypical phrases expressing


humility that abound in Japanese. Literally, ojama shimashita implies
that the visitor has been a nuisance, but its use at the time of
departure is mandatory even at the end of the most amiable of visits.
The hostess must counter with okamai mo shinaide even if she has
presented her guests with the rarest items from the Japanese equivalent
of Fortnum and Mason's or Fauchon's. When the departing guest has
brought a gift (and he invariably has), the host or hostess thanks
him on his departure. The guest, in this game of one-upsmanship in
humility, must counter with an appropriate self-abasing phrase.

7. Kodan Apa to

When Takahira Kaname, the leading male character in the drama,


comes home with six of his subordinates in Lesson 1, the younger
married men, who live in kodan apato {low-rent apartments in
multiple-unit blocks built by the Japanese equivalents of the Public
\Housing Authority) express envy of their chief who lives in a single-
family dwelling, and a new one at that.
The story of the average white-collar worker in Japan as seen
through his shelter shows some interesting differences from his

- 197 -
LESSON 1

American counterp a rt. When the Japanese university graduate obtains


a position in a large firm, he lives, if he doesn't live at home,
in the company-built bachelor's dormitory where rooms are shared.
Later, he might move into an apartment elsewhere in order to be
able to live by himself. When he marries, the couple may, if the
husband is the oldest son, move in with his parents; or the couple
Bight rent, be set up in their own hous e or apartment by wealthy
parents, or apply for a kodan. _a pato whose rent or purchase price
is comparatively modest. (Applicants are chosen by lottery.)
The couple who moves into a kodan apato will save toward the
realization of their ultimate dream -- a single-family dwelling
in the suburbs.
The Takahiras are now the proud owners of such a house. But
while their friends envy them (hence the title The Grass is Greener),
new problems plague them: the commuting distance, the children's
difficulty in adjusting to their new school, the pressure to keep
up with the Joneses, and, above all, the arrival of the mother~in-law .

8. The Married Woman (Yome) and her Mother-in- law (Sh~to(me))


In kinship terms a woman's father-in-law is called sh~to
and her mother-in-law shuto or shutome. A man refers to his wife's
parents with the same terms. (In direct address, otosan, and okasan
are used.) The kinship terms are usually connected only with the
wife because the universal problem of the relations between a woman
and her mother-in-law who, until recently, alwaya lived with her
eldest son, rises, if not exactly to operatic heights, at least to
the controlled frenzy of the noh in Japan.
In the e x tended family system that existed prior to World War II , all
the daugbters-in-law obeyed the oldest woman until she voluntarily
relinquished her role as controller of domestic matters in a
ceremony in which she symbolically handed over a ladle to her oldest
son's wife who then assumed her predecessor's prerogatives.

- 198 -
LESSON 1

The gradual breakdown of the traditional family system after


the war and the transition to the nuclear family has exacerbated
the relations between wives and their mother-in-law. The parents'
expectations of living with their eldest son and having their
welfare looked after in their old age are still strong and, unreason-
ably or not, the blame for thwarting these expectations is placed
in large measure upon the daughter-in-law .

- 199-
LESSON 2

LESSON 2 VOCABULARY LIST

~m~~0~~~ocr7Y~~~~~3/17)~-~~0~~L ~~~~To kci


1-f, ( T- 1 - 1 o ) Ii , ~ - OJ r 7 Y ~ ~ ~ 7 ~ 3 Y, 1O ~ - ~ c v' S Jlf. '-*-C"T o

2. JN:ti~jj*lJtJ::JJt!li, ~f-tOJ~-~~~v'~lf-~. r7 '/~~ ~ 7~ 3 Y~wclf., -t


OJJt~t; ~ G ;E;nt~m'i:lJOJJif.'*~ ,~, v'll Tc.
~_,,_~<
c -c'T o c. s Thl'f, *m~m;~ 1= LtJv'-c',
'*
l:i'.\Al)lr>

m'i:lJ 17) Jlf. ~ ii1H~ T 9 c. c ii> -c ~ ~To E S L~ ti ,~, v' ll ~ tJ v' c ~ti It , -t 17) OJ~
m~~ ~ 9 J:: S 1= Ltdi S ii>v'v'-C' L J: So

1. No English equivalents will be provided for those words, marked with


an* or**, which were introduced in the previous lesson (Lesson 1).
Only the lesson and the page of the transcription will be indicated,
i.e., T-1-10 means Lesson 1, page 10 of the transcription.

2. The most effective way of recalling the meaning of a word you have
forgotten is to turn to that page and to read the transcription.
This method will enable you to grasp the meaning without the medium
of English. You may refer to the vocabulary list only when this method
fails.

3. The significance of * and 'b~ is explained at the beginning of the


vocabulary list for Lesson 1 .

1. guest (T-1-6)
* -=f&v' assistance, help happy, glad
t;~ I) ll T to rope in, round up natural, right, proper

2. * ~tPtJv' to insist on (lit., they will * =:-t*-l;f in one's mid-thirties


not listen to what I say) ;;1v i;19> ,~l)
speak boastfully

* <" 9 (" 9 round and round (here: [to debt


show] around)
loan

youth to continue paying


- 200 -
LESSON 2

pay off * *Ei:mt;: it's fine, splendid


11?~'

assets, estate, fortune ~


** ..,,.., couple, husband and wife
worth, merit * ;ii~ bedroom
L!vL-:>

set to work, begin, section chief


start * ~*
-ti ~.t'

* * ;(p,4_;~61) (T-1-6) 4.
* *~
~.t 'Vv
eldest son

bathroom * tJ~~tt elementary school


L.t~S~'
* * i$t Jiij ?Jr washroom be obligated to
i$ttc. <~ laundry room Welcome.
<!-Iv L-:>

...... ~*h.9 to serve as, do double :fjj~ lad


duty as f"['

spacious * * Elt~-t9 to boast


t. "i/v

Ml:&?JT dressing room ** ~tJ~-:";s recently


i\:?lt>l:..t

**Ml(' to remove (articles of * N:J1i:M period of rebellion


Ill r.tlv ~ ' ~
clothing and shoes)
* ~~ Q (T-1-6)
.t;b

*. m wall v' G --Ji_,~ v'~i" Welcome.

eldest daughter
3. * ~ -ttJ~ that IS OUr ! ; there IS -= V\"'J this kid
a . for you! ; as might be
expected of. . ! ,etc. * rJ).::f < to peek in

very son(masc.)
nowadays * * C: it--J -C to differ from

.. ~~
l:..t'L~
matter of course, routine * * to C: fJ. L 1t'
~"I!'

well-mannered

frir corridor ;0~61)--:Jv' pushy, assertive


<>'-ti
I} t:. :/ ~ Iv - A living room * fJ. f;:: l, 0 as you know,

middle, center make no mistake

It's deluxe. chidlen's world

floor covering, rug * ~tf~4Jt competition for survival


<!-ir>-1:'/v~.t '""'
* totflv' ( ~) T9 to celebrate, ~l,v' fierce, intense
V>v commemorate lil'J'

the world, society


.t "fril

stairs guest room

- 201-
LESSON 2

m"':) liG 5
.t
to get drunk endurance

5. *. JilltJ
.<_Iv ll .t
< to have no compunction 6. dinner

rs* 0 (T-1-6) to prepare


I:

* tJtPtJ/p very to be caught offguard,


to be taken by surprise
7:. L tc. t rJ) tr_ It's wonderful
11:.V>
...... I~ ( iJW) )~ C ~) tHt 0
~cDrJ)iltJ0 roomy, spacious c ll>V>b <
to cause someone else
* ~t (T-1-7) troupl.e
-It? H'V>
to put oneself out for
M~ one's own room others
c [,?

...... ~c 0 to hold in reserve, to have guests


to include
:tt ~ we (masc.) temporarily
b/1.b/1.

...... ~*bT0 to imitate conveniently

* :tm
I: ~
land, property 7. Y:m female parent, mother

A.fT0 enter a business firm (It; D tJ~rc.v' valuable, be a treasure


f'C~54

* -{-rJ)tP:b D but in order to do that -{- 5 v' ;:t.f;f that reminds me,
(lit.' in exchange (for by the way
our dream house) 1:: :/ 1:: :/ L -C C v\ ) 0
be alive and kicking
ratty apartment
* 7:. ll&
:f,i>-<!;0
Osaka
to put up with
*ft older brother (masc.
retirement
<!>K ~ famillar)
(j,: !J3 t15 second son
c 1J:lvlt 5
lill'i5 i\ '5'9 0 to run oneself ragged
[., < t;t < Pf~~ to call over, invite
.t
to suffer anxiety,
have something hanging -~~
* * .toe (T-1-6)
over one
m*=rr
:lo~C 5C 5
filial piety
-~96~T 0 to reform and be obsessed
V>~~1vm?~ with a single goal Tb0 to sit down

~<:f,>.tc
tJ0 to be late
~ J! g;1 5 to take as an example
~t3'tT 0 to change schools
-Clv c '
to go as planned
~elB first day of school
1:5c5U:

:tEJiKi!~tc.
l,/vH'lr> [.,?
(they're) nervous,
~~ obsession high-strung
~5M-

tt < * L v\ resolute, dogged tJ~ ~ I~ ~ .: T


(someone will) .send
(someone or something)
over to
- 202-
LESSON 2

~{t;O~U>~t Q the off ice closes -tj- 7 ~ ~ -'r:!.. '/ I- salad set
;011>~

* ~:t~ time ** Jt'* L~~t alarm clock


t; 1:( lb E 1111>
<!1

* ill! ;t going to meet a person **t1l5-" " last night


tt:O

8. re. ti~ tc.J.J~ at the most * ~1J;O;tt < ft Q trains stop running
~A, [, ~

~<-C at the longes t * *5 rnJ in the end, finally


JI:;>)! 17? ~.t <

- 203 -
LESSON 2

LESSON 2 NOTES ON GRAMMAR AND EXPRESSIONS I

1. p. 2
J>in refers to the preceding discourse .
E g. , 5! it 0 tJ 1v -c n n re. -c,
":> J>i n El 5J '/J ~ 5! it tc. "' (/) J:: o
He tells us he was asked to show it [i.e.,the house] to them,
but I'm sure he wants to show it to them.

2. p. 2
"Natural," "a matter of course," etc.
Eg , * ~ ~ -c re. 1v t.:t (/),
5 n L, < ":> -c J>i re. D ~ *- t.: ~ tJ " ' (/) o
After all, he did build a house--of course he's happy!

3. p.2
"As expected," "indeed , " etc. Often exclamatory in nature.

Trust our chief to do things right!

4. p.3
From the Kansai dialect, this term has a meaning close to
7:.~ (very much) .
E. g. , ~g ~ t *- G v' .::: .::: i'i 0P tc. D L, C: Q Iv -c'T ti. *-
":> o

Your bathroom is very spacious too.

s. ** I ~ '"(" I p.3
In addition to the meanings of "until" of "as far as,"
sometimes has the meaning of "even."

There is even a shower.

71-00-c'f'i~ttr&(J) ~~ ~ '"(";j:O 5! it9 Q (J) '/J~~~ tc "=> -Cv' 5 tJ ~ G ho


In foreign countries I understand it's the proper thing to show
people even the couple's bedroom.

( p. 5 )
Wow--to include a guestroom on top of that!

- 204-
LESSON 2

6. I . b vt I p. 3
b v} usually means "reason," but it often comes at the end of
a sentence where it imparts an elucidatory tone.
E.g., .:..:.ti~b .....;:-:; F' 1v-.A"?-Cbvttc.o
This is the bedroom, you see.

7. ** tifJ. t1vl p.3


t if) or t Iv literally mean "a thing'' or "matter." In Lesson 1
We encountered two usages f :or t if) and tlv: a causal relationship
(because), and a general statement (i.e., in general). Its third
use is interjectionary. The following examples occur in Lesson 2.
Gl.5. , Gl.7

a. Causal ("because," "since," "as," "so")

( p. 2 )
Of course he's happy because he built a new house!

( p. 6 )

We had some guests today, so I've had mother come and help me.

H;J:fl:@.~~ *. -c Q ti 1v-r-tt1" G. -Jv' t J: 5 vJ: 5 f;:~ "".) t ~ "".) --c 0 ( p. 6 )


Mother teaches cooking, so I'm taking advantage of her.

b. General statement

( p. 5)

As a rule, things don't go according to plan.

( p. 7)
Mothers are worth their weight in gold forever, aren't they?

c. Interjection
;Y;;b .:. D ~. *EimtJtlv-c>TtJibo
Oh, I say, this is a fine layout!

tc. v ' L tc. ti Iv tc. tJ if> o ( p, 5 )


This is super!

- 205-
LESSON 2

8. p.4
*
"What you might call ... " (lit., "a thing of the type called ... ")

E.g. , =
=ii'>, *
;b, ~~ C: v' -::d~ J:: 5 fJ. 1fJ Iv tf..'o
This is what you might call the guestroom.

9. I . <nt~ *ft P 5
A request form like -C <ff..'t!:v', this expression is usually used
by a man who is socially higher than his listener. Women do not
employ this form.
E.g. , Jill fJ. <fB * -:i -C -:i -C <ht~* ft o
Don't give it a second thought--stay overnight why don't you.

10. p.5

"That. .. is .... " The predicate "is .. " is often deleted.


~~ * l" ~
-C Jti Q t' l::J: bo
-:J

That you've even included a guestroom[is simply super].


(In its full form, this sentence would read ~~*-el: -:i -C &ti .Q l: Ii,

11. * I e: v' 5 b ~t f;:::. c f;t ) v'ti~ tt. v' p. 5

"One can't very well [do something] . " This ph2rn.se expresses the
impossibility of carrying out an act owing to certain restrictions.
The phrase =C: ii>-r:: ~ -0 also expresses the idea of not being able
to do something, but this expresses inability as the result of
the speaker's shortcomings.

As for the children, you can't very well put a boy and ginl in the
same room indefinitely, don't you see.

12. P 5
"Even that," "that" referring to the previous discourse.
E. g. , Jig 1::i: tc -v' .s~iH;:::. Jt -c ~ 1t' t~ ii~ t/!i. ii~
-:i -:i tc. L. .:t n tc -:i -c, t -s -5 Iv.
P- / tcJ:..o
Since I bought the lot long ago, it was cheap, but even that was
[with] a loan of course.

- 206-
LESSON 2

13. p. 5
A contraction of -t 5 v' it f:f, "speaking of that," "that" referring to
the previous discourse.
E.g., -t 5 v'~ ~. ~ J;.tt.A:t LJ.: C: ~ tP G 5 i'.J ~~-C Q Hifili L- -Ct.: fJ. ~o
Speaking of that (i.e., of building a house), you were planning to
build a house ever since you entered the company, weren't you?

14. ** I . . . fJ. ~ ~ ( ~ ) fJ. G tJ l.t' p. 5

Have to, "::i. contraction of fJ. ~)h,ff tJ. G fJ. v', which is used
in colloquial conversation. tJ. ~ ~ ~ fJ. G fJ. v' belongs to
the same speech style as i'.) ~ ~- fJ. G./v is used mostly by men.
E.g.' P - :,;~:fl 5 V')~.:@3i\3l-tJ. ~ ~ fJ. GlvtJ~h.o
Of course I have to work my fingers to the bone to repay the
loan, don't you see.

15. ** e: ", s tJ> I P 5


"Something like ... or ... "

I take my hat off to Takahira's--what' ll I call it--obsession or


unbreakable resolution.

16. I . . i'.) * -:> t.: I p. 6


Like i'.) ~-:> t.:. i'.) *-:> t.: is an abbreviated form of -CL-*-:> t.:,
the verbal suffix that imparts the aspect of finality to an action.

Looks like we've caused you no end of trouble.

17. P 6

An old form of *it. Women sometimes use * L- in place of *it


nowadays.
E.g., v'G -:> l- ~ v'*l-o
How nice to see you.

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LESSON 2

18. ** tc. ~ tc. I P 7

"I recall that. .. ," "if I'm not mistaken ... " The speaker is
recalling a fact.
Eg , ~ J-;. ~j: {1.: ~ :!;O tc_~ tc. fJ. iJt.> o
As I recall, you were the second son, weren't you?

Let's see, tomorrow was a holiday, wasn't it?

19. * P 7
"for the first time since ... "

Don't you see, it's their first day at school since they
transferred.

20. * t.J~ LG P 8

" I wonder ... " Women tend to use ... t;~ LG more often, while men
use t;~ fJ. and
E.g., .!::'"h< Gv' v'G~ L ~9C7) 7.J~L Go
I wonder how long she's going to stay.

- 208-
LESSON 2

LESSON 2 NOTES ON GRAMMAR AND EXPRESSIONS II

DELETIONS

Besides the subject and predicate deletion which was introduced


in L.l, particles are often deleted especially in. rapid and informal
speech. Usually the deleted particle is recoverable from the contex t.
Examples from this lesson:
$~0)tj:i, J!i-0--:i -C ~1J 4 tt.v' lvtCJ:.. $~0)tj:i~
tJ 4 /v"'5~. llL-Ci?J: 5tc.-v' ......... tJ 4 /v-'"5-~~
......... -t -;; r Ii
The following are some more e xamples of noun phrase and predicate
deletion.

Examples from this lesson:

1. 4- El Ii .to~m0).to=J:{~v'l=1J 4 !J ll ~nt~lv-c'T1J4 Go p. l

( 4- El Ii, f.lli 9:D-TI= .to~mO) )

2. <,, -0 <'' -0 *:b --:i -c cc """* -01J 4 G bo p. 2

C flt~ i? Ii. <'' Q <'' Q *:b --:i -C )

3. ilt.i O)E ~ -c-. en t;:l:t O)~~~-ct~1v t;: t 0)0 P. 2


( Wlli. Jt.i0);5~--c" )

4. Jti:C''0N31LW:l-c>b ;;t, ~ --:i -C -0 J:o p. 4

C C v'-Jli, Jti:C'' -3 f.lli--:i -C Q J:o )

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LESSON 2

SPEECH LEVELS (Forms of a ddr e ss)

In the drama , Takahira Kaname's guests (most of whom are his


subordinates) refer to their host by his position in the firm, e.g.,
(literally) "That's just like Section Chief!" "We'll have to take
Section Chief as our model." When addressing a person who is superior
to the speaker by reason of age or position, the use of the second
person pronoun "Jt->tJ tc is awkward if not downright offensive.
Students addressing their teachers must alway s use )'(;~

When, for some reason, the student uses 'JiJtJ tc , this pronoun then
becomes the instrument of a deliberate e xpression of hostility and is
tantamount to a severing of all relations with that teacher. (This was
used frequently during the late 1960s when some militant students, knowing
full well the effect that its use carried, used the pronoun 'JiJfJ..tc in
confrontations with their teachers. Throughout their lives Japanese will
refer to former teachers as JIG ~ no matter how close they might become once
the student leaves school.
Students are advised to refer to all Japanese friends and acquain-
tances by family name + ~ Iv and their teachers by name + JIG~

Guard against the use of '&0 fJ tc

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LESSON 2

. LESSON 2 NOTES ON SOCIO-CULTURAL BACKGROUND

1. The Layout of a Modern Japanese Horne

The setting of The Grass Is Greener is an average middle-class


house measuring about 1200 square feet set on 1740 square feet of land
(real estate prices are extraordinarily high in Japan). Architecturally the
house differs little from a western (non-ranch style) house: two stories
(without basement), living room, a number of bedrooms, and a dining roorn-
kitchen combination (referred to as "DK"). The children's individual rooms
(koshitsu) in this play are a new trend. The term koshitsu has a modern ring
to it, contrasting as it does with traditional architecture which conformed
with the arrangrnent in which living was done in one room.
The only feature that is typically Japanese is the bathroom (which
does not contain a toilet or washstand; these are in separate rooms) with
its raised box-like tub measuring about 3'x 4 x 3' and set on a tile floor
with drain. (the bather first soaks in the tub, gets out, scrubs and rinses,
and then takes a long soak.) There is usually no shower, but the Takahira
bathroom has one.
Even in a western-style home, the area of the rooms is measured in
~(tatami, or mats that always measure 3' x 6'). Traditional rooms were fit-
ted with 8, 6, or 4 1/2 mats, and were called hachijo(no) rna, rokujo (no) rna,
or yo johan. In the Takahira house, the bedrooms probably measure about 100
to 139 square feet, and the living room and the dining room consist of about
200 square feet. The rooms are separated by walls, but the traditional fusurn~,
or room divider with lintels, are sometimes fitted between the corridor and
rooms other than the bedroom. There may also be a guestroorn, as in this drama.

2. Chonan (eldest son)

To indicate hierarchy of birth, children are referred to by their given

- 211-
LESSON 2

names which are prefixed by a compound indicating the order, e.g., chonan,
jinan, sannan, etc. This custom is very likely a carryover into modern times
(where the custom has not entirely died out) of the eldest son inheriting the
family property. The other sons left the house when they married. Takahira
Kaname is a second son; his elder brother Toru lives in Osaka, and their
mother lives with him .

3. Chojo (eldest daughter~

Although there is no crucial need to designate the order of birth among


daughters as there is among sons, the eldest is sometimes singled out as
dhojd. This is important in families without sons. A man (muko) is then
adopted into the family to marry the eldest daughter and carry on the family
name, a custom that is prevalent even today .

4. Introducing Members of One's Family

When a member of a family refers to or introduces members of his


family to others, he does so in a deprecatory fashion. Recall tle scene
in which Takahira Kaname introduced his children to his colleagues. Objec-
tively speaking, neither child is guilty of reprehensible behavior, but
their father is constrained to complain about Tar; in this fashion: "He's
in his rebellious phase right now, and we've got our hands full," and about
the sweet and gentle Hanako with " I wish she had a little more chu-tzpah."
It is de rigueur in Japan to take a critical attitude toward one's children
with those outside the family.

5. Retirement

The so-called "lifetime employment" system in Japan means only that an


employee cannot be fired once he is hired, and not that he will be kept on the

- 212-
LESSON 2

payroll until he dies. The retirement age differs with the institution--
SS by custom (not contract) in large corporations, 55 for upper-echelon
bureaucrats, 70 for lower-echelon civil servants, 60 at Tokyo Univeristy,
63 at Kyoto and Tohoku universities, 65 at other national universities, and
70 at most private universities. Employees who retire in their fifties ar7
hired for less demanding posts in other firms.

6. The Music on TV

The music is presumably coming from the TV set in the Takahira


home is the type of pop music called enka, a peculiar blending of the
western pop style with naniwabushi (or rokyoku), a traditional ballad form
which began in Osaka around 1800 and had its heyday between 1900-1945.
The enka is tinged with a modern world-weary angst and has a huge public.

7. Filial Piety

One of the dicta of Confucianism regulated a child's relationship


with his parents, whom he had to revere, serve, and look after in their old
age. Confucianism entered Japan early in its history, but it was in the
Tokugawa period (1600-1868) that it was made a state religion.

8. Itsumo Takahira ga osewa ni narimashite.

This is a fixed expression which Takahira Tomoko used with her hus-
b~nd 1 s colleagues. Note the absence of the -san after her husband's name.
If Kaname were sddressing his wife's qolleagues or his children's teachers
(with whom his wife would have had more contac t than he), he would say
Itsumo kanai ga osewa ni narimashite.

- 213 -
LESSON 3

LESSON 3 VOCABULARY LIST

1. -::: 0) ~ U Jru 0) ~ ~ ~ -C:, * C: * * 8::- --::> ~t -C ;%B fr L t;: ~ 'i:iJ f;:. Id:, * ~ 8::- --::> ~t * -tt Iv o ~ C:
t- 7 '/7' f/ 1J 7 " -y 3 Y(7) "'"' -:/t~~t8::-~L-Cto~*T 0 t;:C: *-i:f. C T-1-1 0) Id:,

2. mt t :tJJ !* iJ fJ h J!Jdd:, * f ~ 0) "'"' - :/a:- 00 v' -C lf. -C, I- 7 './ 7' f/ 1J 7 '/ 3 './ 8::- lifelf., ~

O))(~tJ :. G;5htc~'i:iJ0) ~ 9;f\:8::"}~, v't:lT-=: C:-C:9o -::: 5 Thl:f. * ~ a:-m:frf;: LtJv'-C:,


~'i:iJ(7)~9;f\:8::-fi1Hi(T 9-::: C: ti ~ -c:~ *To c 5 L-C t ,~,v't:l-t!-tJ v' C: ~ tDt, ~O)~O) ~
~ ~ ~ ~ 9 J: 5 f;: L tdi 5 ti~ v'v' -C: L J:: 5o

to see person off (verbal accompaniment to


some physical exertion,
* * --t5J sufficiency , plenitude such as lifting an object
~'~"" off the ground or when
** Fim;:.-g- 5 to be in time for standing up)
'1 ~

2. * t;: 'd) ,@, sigh **!Mi: breakfast


'bx' L.x <
i1t:i-::> t;: *-::> -Cv'9 (vi) be warmed up * Ltc. < preparation
(contraction for atata-
matteiru) Kaname is the hero's
personal name; it
* ,6., C: Iv bedding symbolizes his role in the
family, kaname meaning 1.
-l\=' D <D adjustment, distribution the rivet in a fan that
keeps the ribs together,
* * C: Iv -C: ?/::, tJ v' Oh dear no! Not on your and 2. the main point,
life! etc. the essential thing

* 3' f/ '/ - f\; tax i fare Aso is a family name; -kun


fc'V.
is the familliar masculine
* 1J tJ:.lvfJlvfJ:v' not be exactly a bargain;
form of -san; it is used
not to be sneezed at
only with~man's peers
(contraction for baka ni
or younger males.
naranai )
Oh don't tell me . ! Oh no!
ffi Fi::ii ii~ ~ t;: G when it ' s time etc. (a self-reciminatory
t '/!Iv express~on; contraction
of ikenai)

- 214-
LESSON 3

* !J" '7 :/T Q down + suru = a verb * -:: ? "'\" -:i -C like this, in this way
meaning~ be laid (contraction of koshite)
out (by drink or fatigue)"
* if 1r \ t.: <( ~ ) ?
to take over, to occupy to want the moon
(as an army)
4. ** 00!1* health
rtA.c'

3. ~~!@.BR All hands rise and shine! * * 'lm11) midtown, the center of
~A.1t>A.! L.1:' I: LA.
(An expression used in the town
military or in training
camps.) (T-1-1)

to get the short end


* ~<cf~TG to yawn of the stick

** T-:i '/J~ D totally, completely, quite (T-1-2)

to the contrary wife (speaker's own)

** ~2:1v you(all) to support, feed

** ( ;jQ ) ft the meal, food in question, the very


(T-1-7) the person

soybean paste soup to suffer hardships


< ~'
to drink too much * ~}Lt.: contradictory
tr l:\g.A.

** ft@\t;~ fJ.
L.1:< .1: <
v' not be hungry, not have an
appetite
* ~* (T-2-3)

'71 ;f;-A !117


my-home type ("my home" is a
ft? to eat (masc.) current expression meaning
< home ownership; as an adjective,
** l:tl '!J~ ~t Q to set out it means home-centered, etc.)
-r:
* t.: c' D~ < finally get to; make aJ9J duty
one's way to
one's whole life

* * ~'A air live up to the male role


o~

* Ji fJJ aey: fi;i, commuting time (T-2-5)


? '~,\,]; iJ./v

!Ti* Nohara (family name) (T-2-5)


C1.l li b

~.BR bed
be all for, show enthusiasm
n cc
for
2: -tt;q~ the plain fact is,
at all events
(T-1-5)

to take it out of one 5. punctually

- 215-
LESSON 3

entrance hall, vestibule getting saddled with


everything
to take advantage of
(an offer)
curious (here: to be the
object of curiosity)
proper, staisfactory
(negative: not worth
mentioning) soon, right away

* :ii 9=1 group, crowd become normal, settle down


~'
* ::if>:~f;::_-fQ to take comeone * ~h~h what a relief!
lilv @
seriously
(T-1-6)
(T-1-3)
(T-1-7)
top-drawer
to shut up in,
v'~ tJ:ffli:~--:> Ji!, it tJ: v' to lock up
iM ';-
not show an iota of annoyance
*(Iv)* all this time
-e~ tJ~it 5 be of a different class,
"\,;<
be no comparison, etc. 7. :b.YJ < scream, clamor

* i$JJEtc be satisfied
6. * ~~* a loving husband "ilv-'r <
~V.<!11> ;

* fJ: Iv tC.."t.J~ in some ways


* ~~tJ:v' no blaming (someone)
tr !J
* fiJ(7)7_,{_ f. (T-1-7)
* * ( :to ) ~ ~ --::> ~t -c to be careful j~
@
=i 3l =l ~ ~ Q higgledy-piggledy,
* * f;::_ t 5 7C.J:: ~ L < mess about
to give one's regards to
;]i(:Lv' lonesome
<!U:

* * $:;13(' school (elementary,


;'?1:'
secondary)
* NHK ~~ronym for Nihon Roso Kyokai
(Japan Broadcasting
Corporation) * ( ::_') cb v' 2:--::> f;:fi <
It>
to pay one's respects to
** LtPt.:tJ~tJ:v' (T-1-7)

( :to ) --::> ~ (b v' social intercourse, changing schools


association with others

(T-1-5)

- 216-
LESSON 3

LESSON 3 NOTES ON GRAMMAR AND EXPRESSIONS I

p. 2
I wish someone would do/ had done [something]" The phrase presupposes
that the opposite of the act described in the clause actually happened,
or a strong wish or desire for the consummation of the act is expressed.
(See Gl0.11)
E.g., ~fill"t L-C <hJ'L~;fv'v'O)f;:o
I wish you '-d .at leas t ca11 me on tJhe phone (but ; you don't) . 1

!J ~ -/- -e~hl:fv'v'O)f;:o
I wish they'd gone home by taxi (but they didn't).

2. P 2
"If it is," " in the case of ... "

In the case of the old house, there was no place [for the guests]
to sleep, but ...

3. * I. . . -:> tc_ -:> -c , P 2


-:i fc_ -:i '"( and -:> '"( are emphatic equivalents of tr. -:i "( and
'"( respectively, and are used in colloquial conversation. (See p.34)
As we have seen in Exercise III (p.32) in Lesson 2, fc_-:i-C is a more
colloquial form of '"( 1t;i.

(T-2-2)
... of course he's happy.
78 '*
-:> '"( v \ fc_ tc.. f-5 fc_ < "2 fc_ -:> '"(. ~ Q t -::: t fJ.1J> -:> tdt l:'

Even if we had wanted to put them up, there was no place for them
to sleep.

4. p. 2
A vulgar form for v'~J fJ.v'. The diphthong ai often becomes ee in vulgar
speech. Usually v'~)tJ.v' means "wrong," "bad," or "must not."
It is sometimes used alone as an exclamatmry expression.
Eg , iY> -:i , v' ~) b ;t o
Oh no!

- 217 -
LESSON 3

5. P 2
As noted G2 .16, both t ~ --:> tc and t ~ --:> tc are used in the
colloquial, with women using t~--:> tc more often, and men usin-g t~

--:> tc. though not exclusively. Those who use t :t--:>tc are looked upon
, as being affected.
E.g., Y'f'i If t/ /'Lt~--:> tc lvt-C.o
I went under the table last night.

~1v~~7~~~mLt~--:>klv~~~o
It seems I ended up occupying your wife's bed.

'fjlJ~~'/J,~tt ;t "?-Ca
T--:> '/J> !J P 3
We've caused you no end of trouble ....

Are we going to put you to the trouble of breakfast too?

6. p. 3
The predicate after,: hl'i is often deleted but is implied.
It is predictable th~ough the context, e.g.,

Oh, say, are we going to put you to the trouble of breakfast too?

7. P 3
"Anyway," "in any case"
E.g. t l;::'/J> <,
:%:l"'-tc ~- !J "J < ;t-c."-IeyFai~fJ:'/J>'/J>-0/vt-C.'/J, Gho
In any case, it will take us at least an hour and a half to get to
the office.

8. * p. 3
"At least."

It will take at least an hour.

9. p. 3
"Only/precisely because .... " This emphasizes the causal clause .

It's precisely because of the commuting time involved from our place
that we built here.

- 218-
LESSON 3

10. p.4

" ... should not. . " A colloquial form for -Cttv'Ghtiv'


E.g., 1fv'f.: < ~ i? ~ ibv' Gntiv'o
"We shouldn't be asking for too much."

11. I . . ~ -c v' 5 ~ f= I P 4
A colloquial form for .!:- v' 5 ~ lz=.. The meaning is the same as
in ~f;:. ("although," "in spite of,") but is intensified
by. ~-cv'5.

E.g., ~ .tJ>ffJJv'-C ~m. r~ ~w~ -c Q ~ -Cv' 5 ~1=, ~~*AtJ~-:i='i5'% LJi ~~ti


C::>lv~ti.iJ> Gbo
Even though the husband works to supp@rt his wife and children, he
himself has to bear the brunt of all the problems, don't you see?

12. I .. ti~~ibtiG1vl
I
p.4
See G2.14. An expression used in colloquial men's speech. Since it
connotes a certain affe ~ ted sense of manliness, students are advised to
avoid using this pattern unless absolutely sure it is appropriate to the
situation .

... he has to bear most of the preblems, don't you see.

13. I LlJ: I P 4
"So long as," "as far as," etc.

So long as he has a wife and children, it's a man's duty [to provide
for them].

14. p.4

"It's unlikely [for someone] to become .. ," "no chance of becoming .. "
E. g ,.ton ti !vtJ,-:1:. ~f= 1:t tin-t 5 ~ti v' J:: 0

Then there's no chance in the world that a person like me will become
a man [of consequence].

- 219-
LESSON 3

15. I. . . rJ) J: tc_ J: p. 5


rJ) J:
is used mostly by women in the colloquial as a sentence
final particle in a declarative sentence, but it is sometimes used
in a command without resorting to the usual imperative form.
By using r])J:, the speaker issues an indirect order.
E.g., !f!<~~Qr])J:o
Get up quickly.

16. p. 5
"But," "instead," "in exchange for"
E. g. t \t'-'.) l" ~ !:' 5 --F'' ~ rJ) ;0~ :b ~ fiiJ ~ l" ~ ~ -1- Iv ~t E 0

Please drop by anytime. But I won't be able to offer much hospitality.


(The speaker in this example does not really mean fiiJ ~ l"~ ~ -1- Iv ;
she has simply used a formulaic expression used in greetings.)

17. p. 6
"It is natural that ... ," "it's no wonder that ... "

It's no wonder you're such a loving husband.

18. *. p.6
"Give my regards/best to ... "

Our regards to Taro and Hanako.

19. p.6
In addition f:tl meanig "good," v'v' can also mean "not necessary,"
"never mind," etc.

E.g. ' ~Iv ft.::. ~ l::l:\t' \t' ;0~ Gif. < ::_''IJ: Iv ft-"( fJ. ~ v'o
Never mind that and eat your breakfast.

20. I <-it r~ I p.6


See Gl. 21 for <1-~~ used after noun.
E.g.,
What are you talking about--you're nothing but a child.

- 220-
LESSON 3

<-itf;:
is also used after verbs, adjectives, and adjectival
nouns with the meaning of "though," "even if," "and yet," etc.

Oh, you, Taro--wha t did you do . Nothing!


El :S (7) $~ti~ ll: J..., v' -:i -C :b 61) v' -C tc <it f;: o
Here he's been screaming for his own room, and look at him now
[--complaining].

21. p. 6

What do you mean by "what a relief!"?

22. p. 6
The emphatic form for **it is usually used in the colloquial.
"To leave as is," "to remain."

It's no fun staying shut up upstairs.

p. 7
"Somehow," "for some reason."
E.g. , fPJtc7J::.lliJ (7) 7 ,,~ - r (7) ~l: 5 tl~v' v' fJ: cbo
Somehow I liked the old apartment better .

24. ~Gh-C I p.7


A gramatical error, the correct form being ~n -C . This type of
error often occurs in children's language when the child aims to be
hyper-correct.
E. g. , J-;.. Iv tJ c. v' '.? l .1: 1;: -=i !J -=i !J ~ G n -c ~ o

We could all live higgledy-piggledy, remember.

25. p. 7
An abbreviated form for fJ:V:Thl;f~ 7J::.-=> tc ("it would have been better
if.~"). Like l~fv'\.:'t:.. it presupposes that the opposite
of the event described in the fJ:~+ clause actually happened.
E. g. , 5 i:J fJ: Iv -C ~ tc fJ: ~ + ~ 7J::. -:i tc ~ o
It would have been better if we hadn't built the house.

- 221 -
LESSON 3

LESSON 3 NOTES ON GRAMMAR AND EXPRESSION II

SPEECH STYLES (Male speech and female speech)

Differences in speech styles according to sex are much more


pronounced in Japanese than in English, these differences being
especially striking in informal speech. One of the characteristics
in women's speech is the preponderance of polite forms. The contrastive
examples below were taken from the drama (the examples marked by asterisks
do not occur in the play, but are included for illustrative purposes).

1J: tt ~ tt
1. .to rs '* IJ IZ::. tJ "".) tc 0) J:: o 1. *.to rs '* IJ IZ::. tJ "".) tc Iv tc.J:: o

2. 7:. N. tc."".) tc O)o 2. * 7:. N. tc "".) re Iv tc.o

3. v'v' t.: ~ tJv'(/')o 3. lt'v' t.: ~ tJlt'tJ ~ o

4. * j13j IZ::. if :b tJ It' 0) J:: o 4. j13j IZ::. 15-:b tJ v' Iv tc.J:: o

5. * .5 iJi L, i? 1' -? tc O) b o 5. .5 iJi L, i? '* " .) tc Iv tc.tJ ~ o

6. -=I=~ I) ti::tcv':bo 6. -=m: ~ I) tJitc v' tJ ~o


7. It' G t_, -c <tc -2!: It' C '* -1 ) o 7. It' G L, -C <tc-2!: v'o
8. v'-? -c G "".) t_, ~ v' ( *-i ) o 8. lt'-?-Cb-? l, ~ lt'o

9. {:JJti> tJ v':b J::, .to ft ~ ir 1t ' tc. t 0) o 9. {:IJtJO: tJlt' J::' ( .to ) #~iflt'fc' tJ~tSo

10. .td1t l,6 <fJlt':bJ:: 0 10. rot L,6 <fJlt'J:: o

- 222-
LESSON 3

LESSON 3 NOTES ON SOCIO-CULTURAL BACKGROUND

1. Mass Transit

The chief means of public transportation are suburban trains, subways,


and buses , the first linking the downtown areas with the suburbs, the others
being used within the cities. Since they operate so efficiently (in Tokyo
during peak hours the trains run every 90 seconds, the subway every 120
seconds), the use of private vehicles in Tokyo verges on the absurd. The
trains connecting the suburbs with downtown Tokyo or Shinjuku takes an
average of 60 to 90 minutes to cover the distance of from 40 to 50 km. All
public transportation begins operations at 4 :30a. m. and runs until 12:30a.m.
When one misses misses the last train, subway, or bus, one takes a taxi,
which is expensive.

2. Futon no yar ikuri (Arranging I Assigning the Bedding)

Most Japanese families who don't live in apartments will have a couple
of sets of bedding for guests. As there usually is no western-style bed
in the guest room, this involves unfolding segmented foam rubber mattresses
and laying quilt s or blankets over them. When a number of guests are anti-
cipated, bedd ~ng can be rented; unexpected guests, as in our drama, have to
make do with available family bedding.

3. Misoshiru (Soybean Paste Soup)

Shiru or -jiru means "soup" or predominantly liquid dishes of all


types. A soup always comes with a Japanese dinner. Misoshiru is made with
soybean paste dissol~ed in a stock containing small cubes of tofu (soybean
curd) and sliced scallions. A clear soup made only of stock is called
sumashi. Misoshiru tends to be served only at breakfast or family dinners,
while sumashi is served at more formal dinners.

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LESSON 3

4. My-home type

A current example of Japanized English. This term refers to the


married man, usually a middle-ranking executive, who puts the welfare of
his family above ambitions of rising in the company. He tends to spend
more time with his wife and children than in dancing attendance on his
superiors.
In our drama, a colleague of Kaname refers to him as a "my-home
type," but whether he is or not is a moot question. We'll see what he's
like as the drama progresses.

5. Nani mo dekimasen kedo. (Don't expect much.)

Another example of a deprecatory expression along the lines of Nani mo


gozaimasen ga sa dozo and Nani mo itashimasen ga dozo oide kudasai.

6. Shikata ga nai yo ne (There's nothing to be done about it, is there?)

Like the related expression sho ga nai, this implies a resignation


and an uncomplaining acceptance of an unfavorable situation.

7. Otsukiai (Social Obligations)

The importance in Japanese society (in business and univeristy circles)


of connections (kone ga aru) and a wide circle of acquaintances for smoothing
the way in time of need cannot be understimated. Even when an individual
has no direct bearing on a person's present affairs, it doesn't hurt to
invite him for a drink to get to know him (kao o shiriau, kao-tsunagi o suru);
he might be helpful in the future.

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LESSON 3

8. Gakko ni aisatsu ni i ku (Going to Make a Formal Call at School)

The involvement of the teacher in the life of his pupils and their
parents is comparatively closer in Japan that in the West, especially at
the elementary school level. Parents of transfer students are expected to
pay a formal call on the teachers at school to establish a relationship
(otsukiai).

9. The Life of the Salaried Man

A breakdown in percentages of the white collar work force probably


would yield the following figures: first echelon positions: 20%; lower
first echelon and shading into second echelon positions: 12 %; second
echelon: 25%; lower second echelon and shading into upper third echelon:
28%; and third echelon: 15 %. The 68% comprising the last three groups
makes up the salaried labor force, the so-called "salaried man." (This term
also includes civil servants.)
Education plays a crucial role in the career advancement of a salaried
man. A graduate of a prestigious university is automatically a candidate
for the topmost positions, while a graduate of lesser universities or high
school can expect to climb no further than middle-level managerial positions,
and middle-school graduates will end at best among the lower-ra nking managers.
Takahira Kaname is a section chief at 36 and may move up to department chief.
He is at the top of the second level, which constitutes about 80% of the
entire white collar work force. But he is referred to by a man who works
under him as the "my-home t ype," meaning that Takahira has concentrated
his time and energy on the welfare of his family, a family-centered man not
aiming for the top echelon of his company.
Among all the position~ in a business corporat ion, that of section
chief is considered to be the most onerous. He must have a thorough know-

- 225-
LESSON 3

ledge of the operat ions of the firm, and, in effect, a department head
functions most eff i ciently through interactions with the section chiefs
below him. The efficient section chief can expect to be promoted to depart-
ment head in a top-rated firm at approximately 30, 32-33, or 45, depending
on the three levels of education me u tioned earlier.
The hours in a business firm and government office are from 9 to 5 on
weekdays and from 9 to 12:30 on Saturdays. But this does not mean that the
workers leave at quitting time. Most will remain at their desks to do
overtime, for which all workers but those at the top levels are paid. Workers
are entitled to 20 paid holidays a year, and the rule is that they may accumu-
late 40 such days. But it is a rare worker who will take any one vacation
of more than 10 consecutive day s. In fact, the six-day New Year's holiday
may be the longest that most workers will ever take. The main reason behind
this relinquishing of a right is the desire to avoid the intolerable psycho-
logical burden of knowing he is foisting his own work on his colleagues.
For the salaried man, his "connections" and acquaintances within t he
firm and outside it (e.g., business clients) are as important as his work.
He will not only have his "company gang" with whom he will share after-work
horirs, but also clients with whom he will have meals or drinking bouts--all for
the sake of business and at company expense. The expense account crowd (made
up of section heads and their superiors ) has dwindled in number since the oil
crisis and the dollar shocks.
Takahira Kaname gets up at 5, leaves home at 7, gets to the office at
9, and most likely returns home late at night; so it's quite possible that
under this regimen, he scarcely sees his children awake during the week.
Thus, the raising and educating of the children falls entirely to the mother,
a situation that has led to a growing concern recently about the roles of the
father and mother in the family and in society, a concern that is aired in one
of our lessons, which is taken from a TV program entitled Chichioya no Yakuwari,

- 226-
LESSON 3

hahaoya no yakuwari (The Role of the Father, the Role of the Mother).
For a detailed study of the life of the salaried man, see Ezra F.
Vogel's Japan's New Middle Class: The Salary Man and His Family in a
Tokyo Suburb, Univerist y of California Press, 1971.

- 227 -
LESSON 4

LESSON 4 VOCABULARY LIST

1. _:O)~t,.AUO)~ ffiTF~-C, * C: * * 2::--:>ft-C*Bfl'Lt.:Mri~~=li*Mri~--:>ft~itlvo ~C:

~5~~19 ~y3~0)~-~ ~~~~L-C:to~~Tokt~~CT-1-1o)~M-

1. to take in the * ~tc_ G v) muddy


c t. bedding c<>
arrange flowers socks

* * .. . ~t bill (paper money), note * t 19> 5 t.:lv rug

* &; ':J e: v' 5 Fa9 1=


1
in a twinklL1g k;t':Jt.:tO)C:~tJv' not last long

* ~,,5~ J: 5 1= disappear like magic * * fl)h 9 to become dirty


c i c:

** t.: tc."v' ~ (cf.yogosu: to get dirty)


I'm home!

** jQffil'IJ tJ~l;\ Welcome back. to change, replace


~!\.

* PfctJ cupboard, pantry to go to all the trouble


c
* * l=t~h9 to get used to ** v' G v' GT 9 be nervous
t,

2. -c lv-C' completely, all * ~~ ( ~ ) L -C 9 to for ce oneself


tr j)

* IDiilr ct/>) rr 5 b e thrown off course to make a fool of


~i' l <~

to soil, get dirty to drop crumbs


i c:
tonight to come calling

grandma, granny sukiyaki

5 9 ~ l;ff;fil; picky old lady the first time in a


long while
* O)fv(j>' !J L -Cv' 9 be relaxe d

to be fuss y 3. 9i:;;6;,'i!7,v'J\'>Gh9 to be concerned


~~ ~~ about the future
carpet/bedroom slippers

* * Id: < to wear * :to L f9> 5 C: ~~Iv mother-in-law

- 228-
LESSON 4

(T-1-7) electricity
<
to expose one's faults, heating cost
betray one's ignorance
to increase, mount

at the longest maintenance cost

to procur e , ge t * p - :/ (T-2-2)
itt> G tc. 'Y) -C another time/ occasion to include in the
cost
* itt>tc. Di: it ff_ (T-2-2)
.f<?tc. G f.: blindly, recklessly
* tS (J) ffl: Ml, the wife's own mothe r
J: at> li lii>~
* :J:3 ~- il ~-T to frighten, scare
before, ahead of
* ,~, 1r' ;0 ~ vt tJ: 1r' (adj.) unexpected
:1.-~
to lounge about

to coopera te
tc. tc-r: 2: it even normally
f.=fiJiGfJ:v' not set well with,
c5 not go down well * ~ 5 5 --:J tc be depressed

(adj.) disgraceful
* --Jc i:. 1:) ;O~v' serious error
to be new to (a habit)
economize
to be at a loss
household affairs
manage , run steadfastly
to stick it out, hold on
** :I@. (T-2-5)
* f.: .,,5, D @l 2: h G to be thrown
down payment 1b
anvelope
accumulate, save
5. ** jQ -= t l;f f.: it it -c .. ....
;b1
other persons
I've taken advantage of your
* r::i ;0 ~ ~vttc. -.:i -c even though - they apply kind offer. (a fixed expression)
q, " hot tongs , etc.
to call on, come visit
(humble)
4. * <n<''ht all (my best)
* * :J:3 j hf.: f! D i: LJ;:-C: L J: 5
**11tG to stop by ?fJ
J: You must be exhausted.
~~ at the time , moment (a fixed expression)
c 5 t{
tv!J> D i6 ~ itt> G to h av e expenses it's a pleasure; it's
inadequate something that's
looked forward to

- 229-
LESSON 4

* * 10~ bath tif ~ ~ G v' likes and dislikes


... 6

~ -$;b tub the home, center


\!)>

ffiEL washing area ** ( 9;J.;..~-ti:"/v) ~;>j~-J~~ii:"/v-C'o


~,, ,
~

(T-2-2) (I'm sorry), I had no


idea/I didn't realize.
feeling (a fixed expression)

* * rr~tc.
ll-:::dt
it's splendid * * Ji l\IJJ.
:<.A- !i J:
< (T-2-5)

* * -W.;J.;..tc_ v'fc like a dream * it/9)-C at least


** ~i? ~ v'fc_ restful, calm * * ~ ~ -JtJ>5 (T-1-7)
~

fiiJ J:: D <t, more than any thing

t ears well up ** ffl~T Q prepare, arrange


.t 5 "'
6. ~-:i < DTQ take one's ease ** T <'' (T-3-6)

* ~~:(]- (T-2-7) * ~iJ~TtJ be satisfied


~

** ~tc_fc_tJ>v' hot (lit., "warm," as the * ,fIJ, T son


antonym for tsumetai,
" chilled," atatakai in (T-1-7)
this context means
something heated.) * fJ.'IJ>fJ.tJ> (T-2-5)

beef, meat * _JJ=J31* (T-1-2)


ti.A,~ ~1

(T-2-7)

-230-
LESSON 4

LESSON 4 NOTES ON GRAMMAR AND EXPRESSIONS I

1. * I . J:: 5 tc_ p. l

"As if," like,'.' "as," etc. Basically J:: 5 means "manner," "aspect, ri
"appearance," "way." Verbs preceding it are in the plain form, while
nouns preceding it are follo wing by (/) .
Eg , E' 5 l -c -:. /v tJ r= :to~ ".'.) -c ~ J; J:: 5 r= tl -c v, ".'.) -J:J -t> 5 /v tc_' 0 o
It's as if we had holes in our pockets, the way our money goes!
(Lit., Why do you suppose our money disappears as if it had wings?)

ci':>(7) = A IJ:, 'i G ~ ~(f) J:: 5 r=19=i 7'.l ~ v' v'o


It's as if those two were brothers, the way they're so close.
J:: 5 ti A IJ: cl':> 'i IJ v' tJ v' J:: o
cf. ~ (/)
There aren't too many people like him.

2. p. l

"Look," "you see," "hey," "remember," etc. An interjection used to provoke


the listener's attention, or to jog his memory.
Eg , vi G, 'i tc "
See, there you go again!

Watch it! Watch it! You're going to spill it.

Remenber? You said so yesterday, didn't you?

P l
"It can't be helped," "there's nothing to be done about it"
Eg . , tit h Q 'i -C' l i(p fc tJ v' b tl o
Until you get used to [your school], there's nothing to be done about it.
A similar expression is lJ:: 5 n>tJv'. Bo th L- ;iJ> t.: and L- J:: 5 mean
"way," method."
E. g. , ,c,, mv' vt f.' ~ ~ -c ti l J:: 5 n> tJ v'-c- l J:: 5 o
I have no confidence, but it's no use thinking abou t it. (Lit., ... even
if I think about it, nothing will come of it.)

- 231-
LESSON 4

4. p.2
"Entirely," "utterly," "[not] at all." -c lv-C' is close in meaning
to *0tc.<, but while the latter is used both in written and
spoken Japanese, -C Iv<: is used mainly in the colloquial.
E.g., Wl1'-Hltc: 0 -c Jt 5 L ~, -c lv-C'Wlil-TH 0 i? ~ 5 J:: o
Even the textbooks are different, see, so I've been thrown completely
off course.

5. P 2
7\:ruz(7)}3f;fil0~/v does not mean "the Osaka grandmother," but 1'the
grandmother who lives in Osaka." It is an abbreviation for :kruzf~ff:/v-C:v'.Q
jQ f;f il0 i? ~ Iv. When place + (7) is used as a noun modifier. as in
this case. it functions to specify the location of the modified noun.

6. * I ... c 0 ) tc. G I p. 2
A noun+ --[t]tara is the abbreviation for noun c~tc.G or noun cv''.?fc_G,
meaning "in the case of N," "when it .come to N, "
The noun+ --[t]tara construction is used in colloquial conversation to
emphasize the topical noun.
E.g.
When it comes to you. mother. you've turned into an old dragon ever
since you came here.
~ (7) r
tc. G, BJ~ /vf;f1J~ f~ L -Co
0

Just listen to this child. will you. making a fool of her mother!

7. * I . . -':) t D fj: fJ.. v' p.2


"Have no intention of ... " "do not mean to ... "
E.g.
I did not mean to annoy you.
-f::lvfJ..--:Jt D ld:tJ..1J~0tc.lv<:--t1J;, X~i5~ Git-C L*v'* Ltc.o
It wasn't my intenti.on, but I made my father angry .
--:Jt D fd:fJ..v' and fJ..v'--:Jt D are almost identical in meaning .
-':J t D Id: tJ.. v'
is used when the speaker is talking about his intentions,
that is when the intention is the topic of his utterance:

-232-
LESSON 4

E.g.'
I have no intention of going to the office today.

4- B, ~7-"f.f iJ~ tJ v'-J t D -C'T o


I intend notto go to the office today.

8. [ tc G vt J
P 2
"Be covered with," "be full of"
E. g . , .f:: 1v tJ ~ t;: G vt 0) <-Jr -C' .1
With those mud-covered socks.
~i' ~ tc G vt 0) lllJ
A city littered everywhere.

9. P 2
Where in English only transitive verbs (i.e., those which take a direct
object) may take a passive form, in Japanese, both transitive and intransi-
tive verbs (those which do not take a direct object)may form passives.
In the case of transitive verbs, the subject of the passive sentence is
the object of the active sentence.
E.g.'
John hit Mary.
,;. O-Ii:/ 3 :/f;:tJ ('Ght.:"
Mary was hit by John.
In the case of the intransitive verbs, however, there is no such
relationship since the intransitive verbs have no active counterpart.
E.g.'
John suffered the loss of his wife. (John's wife died on him.)

Vs :/fj:,J. .-!J -f;:lz:iJ~h-CBSJ-:>fC.o


John was pained at having Mary weep on him.
In the last two examples, John, the subject of the intransitive passives is
only indirectly related as the affected experiencer of the event. Thus
intransitive passives are used when the speaker perceives someone being
affected by an event. These passive expressions are sometimes called
"affective passives, " "indirect passives," or "adversity passives." The
last is used because the experiencer in usually affected adversely.

-233-
LESSON 4

If I let you walk on it with you mud-covered socks, the rug will be
ruined.
It should be noted that the indirect passives are used not only with
intransitive verbs but also wi th transitive verbs, as long as the
subject (i.e., the experiencer of the event) is indirectly affected
by the event.

I had my car stolen by a thief.

f.Mi :/ 3 :/ f= IiJl ~ft <" Gnt.: o

I got hit on the head by John.

10. P 2
1t-::::>tP < emphasizes a special event or thing: "do something especially /
with much trouble," "(e)specially long-awaited / valuable /made. "
E.g. , 1t-::> iP <~ L v'*-"-A-::> t.: (7) f=. "' G v' G L -C 9 f.J: A,. "(l;ftp.lf.f.: v'fJo
It seems ridiculous to be on edge when we've gone to all this trouble
to move into our new home.

Kaname's mother is coming all the way out here especially. I'd better
not be present.

<v' G L -Cr 2: ""'.) t.: A,. --C'T t (7), 1t ~ -C :t- (7) iaitdt ~ t :to tif ~ f.J: t (7) ~ o C p. 6 )
1t ""'.) tJ>
Since you made a special effort to come visit us, at least for the time
that you will be with us, [please treat yourself] to whatever you please.

1t-::> ;O>< (7)*1-.!ll!.ii~tJ' k.f= f.J:-::> -CL* -::>tea


The dishes you went to all the trouble to prepare went to waste.

11. * ~I__.lf._t:__
~ "-' t.:~'I P 2
"Be like," "seems," "as if."

E.g., v'G.v'GL-C0f.J:A..,.-C. f;f;O>.lf.tcv'bo


It seems ridiculous to be on edge ...

~ii~ c A,. t.J:1LVK f.J:* ~~-ct.: f.J:A..,.-C, J 2: A..,.W..lf.t.: v'o


It's like a dream to me that Kaname has built such a splendid house .
.lf.t.:v'fc anti J:: 5 tc are almost identical in meaning. J:: 5 tc_ d.escribes a
similarity based on the speaker's objective judgement, while .lf.t.: v'fc',

-234-
LESSON 4

which is more colloquial, is used to describe a similarity based on the


speaker's subjective or emotional judgement.

12. P 2
An interjection expressing suprise or wonder. It is so informal in
nature, it is advisable for students to avoid using it.
E.g., -"ft., ~~l.,-C.Qo

Oh, come now, you're pushing things too far.

13. P 2
~(f) + person usually refers to a third person, but in exclamatory
expressions, it is used to refer to the listener.

Just listen to this child, will yo u, making a fool of her mother!

14. P 2
" I wonder if," "I'm not sure, but I think ... " '"/p l G is used primarily
by women.

I'm not sure, but I think it's going to be around 8 o'clock.

-
I wonder if that child isn't Taro.
(In this last example, it should be noted that the meaning is not
"I am not sure, but I don't think that child is Taro.")

15. p. 2

"To decide on."

I've decided on sukiyaki tonight. (i.e., I've decided to make sukiyaki


tonight.)
(The differences between f;: T .Q and f;:f,r .Q will be explained
in Lesson 5.)

16. * [ fc_ G I P 2
"why don It you ... II This is . an abbreviation for fc_ GvtpiJ~--c--ttJ~.
(How about ... / why don't you ... ?)
-235 -
LESSON 4

Mother, why don't you stay and have dinner with us?
The use of fcG here seems to have originated in the regular use
of fc G , which expresses a condition (i.e., how would it be if)
as a conjunction. -c~tc.G in the above example is used in
colloquial speech; it is an abbreviation for . . -Cv'~tc.G. (See p.53)

17. Ct:>t] P 2
The t here means "also," "too."
(t:5)
You can say that too, but ....
(t:4-5)
It's also been a long time since you last saw his mother who lives in
Osaka.
In the last example t: t ~ L,,,5: D is an abbreviation for t: ~ 5

18. ifiilc~ ) (7)(~) I p.2


"What are you -ing?"
t1Re fiiJiJ> ~ (Lesson 3), fiiJ ( ~ ) (7) ( ~ ) is not really a
question but an indirect accusation couched as a question. Note that
this expression is used only by women. The equivalent in men's speech
would be fiiJ ( ~ ) tc_ ( ~ ) o

E.g., fii}, ~-C,4.;(l)~o

What did you say?

1:"1hat are you doing?

19. * I . . . t: ~ ( -c' Ii ) I P 3
These forms are used to specify condition (if, when).
E.g., 7ch.JfJ.(7)h.Jf5tt.::... t l:~JciJ>,~,v'-\='GhQ:btd:.o
If you're going to be so lackadaisical, I worry about your future!

20. ** p. 3

This is the colloquial form of t or t v' 5, and is


,us.ed to 's:et-off a quotation (see Lesson 2, Exercise III,p.32).

-236 -
LESSON 4

It would be about a week at most, he said.

[Tell her] that I'll come by again to say hello to her.

2 i. ** I . . . Cl) vi 5 I P 3
a. C0vi5 is usually used in a comparative expression.
E.p;., :/ s :/C0vi 5 tJ~/- ~ -J:: 0 'WtJ~~v'o
John is taller than Mary.

b. Cl) vi 5 is also used to make a vague reference to a direction


or source.

E.g. ' $~Cl) vi 5 -C-:Jd., ';. <-' f;::: A


tc.'IJ> G., -:i

I got this cheaply at school, so ...

c. Cl) ~i 5 may also mean "as for."


E.g., .to:-&C0vi 5, tf..'v' t, J:: 5 .<):o C p. 4)
As for money-- how are you fixed for it?
The use of Cl) vi 5 to ref er vaguely to a place, thing (as in b
and c above) or person is frequent in colloquial speech.

22. 1-l" o ~ c &0 ) tJ~ t LhtJ v' I P 3


"It may be that." -{" O ~ ( ;i0 ) is the colloquial form for
and is used for emphasis.

E.g., -l" D ~ ( &0 ) , 1EttJ~f~vt.:.to~-C-~-Ct.:tJ~t LhtJvbo


It may be that he built [his house] with the money he earned, but ...

23. ** I . . . <" G1t \ p.4

a. <"Gv' usually means "about," "approximately."


E.g.' 1 0 !-" 11; <'' G v' -c L J:: 5o
It's probably about ten dollars.

may also mean "as .. as." "like ... "


<"
E g , :t: a~ Gv' J:: <:i! .<): -T #H;;t *D 0 *it Iv a
I don't know any child who plays like Taro I who plays as much as
Taro does.
-237-
LESSON 4

c. <'' G v' sometimes means "at least," when it is often used with
it'd) -C (Lesson 1.) X <" G v' presupposes that X is not a serious
matt"er.

A similar expression is it'dJ-C X tdt ( -Z:'t ) (at least X), but where in
x <" G v', the presupposition is that x is not important, in X tdt C -e ct ),
the X is important.
E.g.'
Why don't you have at least a cup of tea.

24. I . . . tc_ vt I p. 4
a. "only," "merely"

I was the only person dressed like that.

Just at a glance, yo u can't tell if it's a man or woman, can you?

b. "as much as," "so far as"

Eg , -C' ~ 0 t~ vt GTJ .:.


I'll do as much as I can but ....
e: Ii L *-t ti~

v' 0
tdt Id:: v' 0 Iv t~ L
We'll need every cent to cover all our expenses,so ...

c 5 ~-,~ tt tdt j:3 ~ 9 r 2: v'o


Please take as much as yo u need .

25. ** . . . ( t~ ) L I p. 4

"Because." It is similar in usage to ( tc) 1P G but is used more


often in the spoken language. Very often the though t following the
( tc_ ) L clause will be omitted.
E. g , v' 0 tdt Ii 1t' 0 Iv t~ L

We'll need every cent to cover our expenses, so [let's keep our costs
down].

-238-
LES SON 4

( p. 2)
Because it's been such a long time since you saw his mother last [why
can't you welcome her with open arms? ]

rmt~-::> -Cv'Q L-
It's raining, so [let's not go].

26. **
. . . fd::f I p. 4
"Ought to, II "should," "must." This expresses certitude or expection
that a thing is so.

tDiJ> G-1# ~Iv -::> tdd:: f J::"


E g
I warned you this would happen.

7c lvfJ. ~ C:' Ji> fJ.k t ~ "".) -c Q fd::f-C' L, J.: 0

You should know that.

Wlfd:: t '5 ~v'-C Q fd::ft~bo


He must have arrived by now.

The negative of fj:f is fd::f( 'IJ~) fJ.v'. and means " cannot, "
"must not," "unlikely."
E.g. , > tc. L- OJ tif ~ ~ v'fJ. Iv tJ>:b tJ> Q fd::f tJ v':b J:: o ( p. 6 )
How should she know my likes and dislikes.

7c Iv tJ. tl:f tJ. v' J::"


It just can't be!

27. p. 5
"To avail oneself of," "to take advantage of someone's kindness." An
idiomatic expression.
E.g.'
I've accepted your kind invitation and have come.

28. * I . . . J:: 5 f=fJ. Q p. 6


"To come / get to do something."

I've come to eat [beef while living] in Osaka.

In this example, the presupposition is that the subject did not eat
beef before moving to Osaka; there has been a change in her diet.

-239-
LESSON 4

29. p. 6
"[I'm sorry that] I was so negligent." After 'A;()~"'J~'iitfv-c" the
expression T 7f. 'i it Iv or $ Lb ~t ilti 9 'i it fv is deleted, but it is implied.
'A means "feeling," "mind." Japanese is full of expressions in which
'A is a component:
CT - 1- 1)
We had an unbuttoned I off-the-record chat.

You'll be carefull from tomorrow, won't you.

~lfv t f.:.'A~"'JtJ>bfJ:v'-ei? J: 5 t;:v'J:bo


Please don't concern yourself about it.

'A O)'ttJ 'i -C'v' -c r ~ v' J: o


Please stay here until you feel satisfied.

30, * I .. i?~Cilti) p. 6
A colloquial form for . -c ~'i .. it expresses condition, "if."
E g. , 1ffl "".) tc !J L i? ~ ilti ~ v'b J: b it a
I t won't be nice of me if I leave~ will it?

31. * I ~5 p. 6
"So," "so much." The meaning is identical with ~fvtJf.:_ .

E.g., =-T liJ\=' h -C- 5 i? ~ ~ -C Gn .Q_JJ{S~tJfv-C, ~ 5 v' fJ:v 'b J:o


There aren't so many husbands who are capable of building a house at
age thirty-five or six.

- 240 -
LESSON 4

LESSON 4 NOTES ON GRAMMAR AND EXPRESSIONS II

SPEECH LEVELS (Forms of address)


Let us study the conversation between Tomoko and Taro that
takes place at the beginning of the lesson:

7:::. ~~ : :to3: ~ lvt;: G, .:. .:. -"-*-CtJ~ G 5 9 ~ ld:fiJ'J I.: tJ -:ii? ~ -:i -c ~ o
~ T- : J'JG. 3:~/v .f:"lvtJf.:.5 9~ < -:i-C9--::>i Dfd:tJv':bJ::o

T- : ( p. 2)

It is obvious that the :to3: ~Iv in Tar;' s line means "you," while Tomoko' s
3: ~ Iv means "I. "

Now let us focus on the line of dialogue delivered by Tomoko's mother


in a scene that comes shortly after.

~=f-0)3:: ld:v', /. P Yo ~;jXO)}J-C-tL 3C< =Fl.=:.fiv'-:if;:tJ~Go

:to 3: ~ Iv 1.:. B L- J'J ii~ -:i -c v' t;: tc v' -co C p. 3 )


In this case, the :to3:~/v refers to Kaname's mother. In a later scence (Lesson 7),
we will see the two mothers-- Tomoko's and Kaname's--refer to each other as j0j:f*.

-241 -
LESSON 4

LESSON 4 NOTES ON SOCIO-CULTURAL BACKGROUND

1. 10,000-yen Bill

The highest denomination among the bills issued by the Japanese


Government is one for 10, 000 (approx. $50 in 1979). When it was first issued
twenty years ago, one of these bills could have kept a family of four in
groceries for a week. With inflation and the rise in prices, this amount
would now melt away if guests had to be entertained or if the housewife
gave in to impulse buying.

2. Sukiyaki

The one Japanese dish known universially, it is the one that is most
often served to guests. It is considered a special dish, but as its ingre-
dients consist of beef, a green called shungiku, and other vegetables cooked
in a stock of soy sauce, rice wine, and water, it is a "safe" dish to offer,
and expensive. The thin slices of well-marbled beef cost about nine dollars
a pound!

3. Melons

The bringing of seasonal fruits as gifts when visiting a home or


hospital is as common in Japan as it is rare in the West. This in fact makes
the problem of choosing gifts easy for the visitor. Students going to Japan
should keep this in mind. The melon mentioned in the play is the luxury,
hothouse variety, and costs five times as much as it would in California.

4. Kondo dake yo. (Only this one time.)

In this segment of the play, Tomoko's mother gives her daughter

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LESSON 4

100,000 (less than $500) to tide her over a financially difficult per i od ,
saying, "kondo dake yo." It is not unconunon in Japan for parents t o offer
money to financially strapped married offspring. When t his involves a ma rried
daughter, the gift is kept secret from the son-in-law to prevent his l os i n g
face. This monetary gift involves considerable sums, from fifty - to a
hundred-thousand yen. (In this play, pay close attention to where Tomoko
conceals the money which, of course, has been slipped inside an envelope.)

5. Ganbaru (To hang in there)

Probably a sound change (onbin) from ga o haru, this verb has t hree
meanings: a) to display a mulish stubbornness, b) to throw every ounce of
strength \ and will into something, and c) to come to a dead end. Tomoko
uses it in the second meaning. The term can be taken as describing a kind
of mental attitude under which a Japanese will spare no effort reg ardles s
of the outcome.

6. Okotoba ni amaete (Taking advantage of your kindness)

Basically amaeru means to give free reign to one's desires by dis-


missing one's sense of propriety as one accepts the goodwill of other s .
This means the acceptance of an offer knowing that this might inconveni ence
the person making the offer. (Of course, the game of offer, ref usal, and
final acceptance of the third offer is pro-forma in most cases. The non-
Japanese must acquaint himself with the scenario.)
For more amae, see Doi (1962), Lebra and Lebra (1974), and Leb ra
and Lebra (19 76, "Dependency", 50-66).

7. Bathing
Additional notes on the bathing habits of the Japanese, who have a
reput ation for being compulsive bathers. For the Japanese, who l i ve in a

- 243 -
LESSON 4

land of humid summers and freezing winters, the daily bath is a necessity for
cleanliness and warmth. The Japanese returns from work, bathes, and then
sits down to dinner. The term "feel refreshed" and "having just taken a
bath" are almost synonymous. The same bath water is shared by all members
of the family or customers of public baths as the rule (described in Lesson
2) is that one washes and rinses outside the tub. The water theoretically
should remain clean to the end.
Age and sex determine the order in which members of a family bathe,
but always excepting the housewife, who bathes last. If there is a guest,
he is offered first place, and since no amount of nay-saying will prevail,
it behooves the guest to accept gracefully with "Okotoba ni amaete .... 11
Non-Japanese need not be offended when offered a bath; it isn't that the
Japanese host thinks it is needed, he is simply offering to share a simple
and pleasant interlude in the routine of living.
The term~ (lit., "hot water") found in late Edo period literature
refers to public bathhouses,which are called sento in modern Japanese
(the to is the Sino-Japanese reading for~). A public bathhouse was and is
a kind of social cent e r for a given area where the local inhabitants who
don't have private baths, like apartment dwellers, gather to exchange news
and to gossip while they bathe and relax. A fixture in Japanese cultural
history for centuries, the public bathhouse is becoming smaller in size and
fewer in number. For the experience, students study:lng in Japan ought to
try a public bathhouse even if they have access to a private bath. Bring
soap, a basin, and towels. Don't expect mixed bathing as in the larger hot-
spring pools. You enter through the main door, go left or right to the men's
or women's section (which are clearly marked by characters) where you remove
your footgear, step behind the partition to pay 155 to an attendant sitting
atop a kind of dais, disrobe, put your clothing inside a flat basket, proceed

- 244-
LESSON 4

to the bathing area (covering yourself modestly with your towel),


slip into the water with care as it will probably be much hotter than you're
used to, (but this gives you the chance to strike up a conversation on an
impersonal level with someone nearby), climb out to scrub yourself with
soap and towel, rinse yourself off by filling your own plastic basin with
water from a number of faucets along the walls of the bathing area, get in
to soak, and settle down for some good gossip.

8. Niku no honba (The home of beef)

Meats of all kinds became part of the Japanese diet only from the
Meiji era (1868-1911) on when the need to adopt foreign ways gained precedence
over the Buddhist prohibition against eating meat (which requires the takin g
of life). Most Japanese now eat meat, with the result that, grazing land
being scarce in Japan, demand outstrips supply, raising the price to un-
belivable heights and necessitating the importation of beef from the U.S.,
Australia, and New Zealand. Dairy herds are raised in northern Honshu and
Hokkaido, but the best beef cattle are raised in the Kansai area,particu-
larly in Matsuzaka in Mie Prefecture and Kobe in Hyogo Prefecture.

9. The Salary Man's Living Expenditures

One of the peculiarities about the white collar worker's salary is


that it is determined not by contract as in the U.S. but by a predictable
rate determined by education, rank in the company hierarchy, and service
record. Ano ther characteristic is the annual raise in the base pay, which
is negotiated every spring. If the negotiations proceed without a hitch,
there is no problem; if they hit a snag the employees go on strike, which
explains the concentration of strikes in the spring (shunto). The third
peculiarity is the bonus system which distributes extra wages twice a year,

- 245-
LESSON 4

in June and December, the amount depending on the company's profits. During
the economic boom of the latter half of the 1960's, some corporations issued
bonuses that were equivalent to four month's salary. As the result of the
deceleration in economic growth, the average bonus now amounts to about a
month-and-a-half's salary for the white collar worker, and slightly less for
civil servants.
In our play, Takahira Kaname probably earns something like 220,000
per month($1,150). With bonuses, his annual salary is in the neighborhood
of 3,500,000 ($18,400). The tax bite on this gross is 10%, his life-and
accident insurance is 150,000 ($790), his health plan costs the same amount,
netting him 2,850,000 ($15,000) or 240,000($1,260)per month.
What about his monthly expenses? Food costs are exceedingly high,
at least 80,000 a month for a family of four. When there are guests, as
in our play, costs rise quickly to 100,000. The mortgage ranges between
80-90,000, Kaname's lunches and incidentals cost 50,000 ($260), and
the children's education costs run to 10,000, bringing the total monthly
costs to 230,000 leaving a bare margin of 10,000 for savings.
On the whole, food and shelter cost more in Japan than in the U.S.,
while clothing, insurance, and education costs are comparatively cheaper.
The textbooks in the elementary and middle schools are free because the
state bears education cmsts. High school tuition fees are $37 annually while
they are $75 for state universities.

-246-
LESSON 5

LESSON 5 VOCABULARY LIST

L -:. (7) ~llHJ ifiJ (7) ~ g ~ -e. "t * * ~ --:i vt -c *B ii' L- t;: g 1t.n::J;t. * g a:- --:i vt *it /v o ~t

b7 :/7' !l ~ 7 " '/ s Y(7)---.::-::;fcvt~~L.-C:J:o~'i9o t;:t i l;f, C T-1-1 o) IJ:.

1. * 3(~ father writer


bb:l.-1>

** ~*~ role t.J: tc v' t.J: tc Nada Inada


~<vJi

* -EB:~
11 1:1::1.-~
mother * IPJ t. < also
-
)l~J[t.J:~t ~ a society without Sato Aiko
"b "b:1.-~ ~''"' the father
to exist * ~@i~~ movie director
,ZV> ;)i :Olv /:. <
authority consistently

examination, consideration young people, youth

to carry on, proceed * tla< to depict

(T-1-3) Urayama Kirio

* :J:ov'Tv't;:tc' < < *-ct G 5


~
fQJ'[;~i]!I
v I:' :6'<~
Wako Gakuen
to grace, to lend honor/
dignity to proceedings * :Bl* principal
(to have someone come)
}L/j\:J& Maruki Masaomi

* :)Z.J fil:X Education Minister relationship, connection

:lk:#:i!Ht Nagai Michio * * .. . ... .tt~ -c in making comparisons


~''"' )J."b ;I,

* :ffl,ffe iJ I.:. a s a phenomemon


~fol F' 7 "7/ Milky Way Playhouse
~1v:0
(an NHK series of plays) white-collar worker

** gj5Ji!l! I.:. f.J:-!> be the talk of the town T 7 ~ - "71 : / !li'ff\


[;, t!:V>
the Age of the Whit e-collar
The Grass is Green e r
worke r
Rashida Sugako * Imttfl: pro f ession and s h e lter
L-1 < ~5

- 247 -
LESSON 5

be separate multiphasic (lit.,


"man in (dry-) dock")
to leave the house

business firm ** ~ B the nex t day


government office to repair

* tR ( fJ~ ) ,,5, ~t Q hour grows late partner, sharer


.to

* * 3F~t~ extremely, very both


1> t.:..t 5
in a word, in sum,
* JI level (of society)
in short
-'t '

* 1'' ~ minority mother and child as


L .t 51" 5 one
farming family
fl*
5 tJ
Q)
Tokyo University

IW* merchant family proudly


L,t5 tJ Ii ~

El El3~ free enterprises **~~ examination


t.:. t9> 5 ~.t 5 L 11.4,

2. * *BU'-J ~ relationship, closeness **~~fr} several years ago


td

Wcww~ education specialist *A$~~ entrance exams


~,t5 V>( -lt;\,~'.t5 ~?;O i( L 11.4,

* f5[fj'--:r? #~~v' escort, chaperone


a PTA-mother
~.t 5 \r> <

* ~< 5 to speak ill of * ;W:gjjj teacher, instructor


bl.>
"' ~ .t5 L

** :J=Jt:j:IJ-t Q criticize * * ffiJ .M period


1> li.4,

-tltmit V>
-It
household
1 IB
thermos

w-rnt
c511 V>
statistics pills, vitamins
_A.$53.'.; entrance ceremonies 3. pat, stroke
f'Lt9>57l'< L. ~

* 71- hang in there!


:t c
outside
to idle, dawdle, fritter ~.w,; horse racing
away one's time 11\r> tr
* '/J>-J-C (!) ... ... in the past, once

~$:f:t~ competitive society (T- 2-2)


~.t5-'t5 L,..~tJV>

outside (the famil y ) ** -1'._lfffi-' resoluteness,


\r>'.? l..,t 511A...IDV>
intently determination
* * ~,[;,~:.
t:l'.'.) l..A,

to be dead tired, ** ~~ as a matter of course


be pooped c 5-t!A,

**Wlil9 to look up

a short nap hero, main character

-248-
LESSON 5

grow up * fif-1.H..::. personality-wise


premise , set-up ** tc..v, t.tc.. important

in the case of (T-1-5)

?'R.tt ~A; Sawamura (Sadako), the *El*


rt? ii
result
~vlj 0 veteran actress who plays
the mother-in-law in The ** ~n/5 to leave
Ii ~
Grass is Greener.
* * ~ ~l..::.li actually
t: ?~I;>

& role * %J:\B"JI..::. as a matter of form


-I> < r,r,,.. 1., ~ -0

~m~ civil servant 5. * .:c. :::i'


ego
C. ' l j l;>/v

* JH1 salary * i31Lv'c5 L each other


11? l!<9> '
instill, drill into _.s:--:JiJ> ~ 15- 5 to clash
~

(T-3-4) interests, benefits

to pour everything into coincide


element to~di:i v'di:i v' . peace and harmony
b ~

* * :~ ~ /5 (T-1-2)
oldest brother i: [,

relationship a nuisance

to be c lose bicker, be at
loggerheads

-249-
LESSON 5

LESSON 5 NOTES ON GRAMMAR AND EXPRESSIONS I

1. p. 1
"It may be called," "We may call it ... "
colloquial form for J:: v' 5 0

E g ' 3( ~ tJ ~ li ~ -:i -C 1t ' 5 A_; -C'T iP,


We may call it a society without the father, ...

2. l-f$ ... '/J> p. 1

"What on earth," "what in the world," "what exactly ... " -{:;$:occurs in an
interrogative sentence and is usually followed by such interrogative words
as "f.' 5, t;:n,, or fiiJ. An adverb, it serves to intensify the question.
E.g.' 3(~c7J&'ilfU-:> -c c7) fj:~{:;fs: E 5 tJ -:::>-C v' Q c7) '/J>o
Exactly what's happened to the role of the father?
-{:;$: .!::' 5 LJc,4..,TT'/J' a
What on earth's happened?

3. H .!::' 5 -:e J:: 6 L. <15 ~ v' v' tc L. ;t Ta P. 1


A formulaic expression used when (a) introducing oneself to others,
or (b) one has asked a favor of another. There is no exact English equi-
valent. A literal translation is "Please favor me with your acquaintance
patronage I favor." In English, "How do you do?" would be used in
situation (a) above.

4. ** p. 1
TT is a sentence final, but in spoken Japanese it is often used
after a phrase in the middle of a sentence where it functions as a
pause filler which allows the speaker to collect his thoughts for
his next utterance. The particle tl.often occurs in spoken Japanese.
Basically, it is used when the speaker wishes to solicit the listener's
agreemen~ with the statement made, and is similar in nature to a tag
question in English.
E. g. , ~ B, ~Bl""-rr <A, -e-ttl.a
You are going to school tomorrow, aren't you?
The problem is that tl. does not always indicate an appeal for con-
currence; instead, it functions to soften a bald assertion. Without

- 250-
LESSON 5

;(J, -z"9 will sound unpleasantly aggressive to the listener.


E.g., ~~-z"--tb. c5v'5ccto::. m~Et:Jf;:-z"ttJ.
j:O /~\ v' f;: fJ I) *TZPo
In recent times, what would you make of it, as a phenomemon, that is?

5. * L - - 1_ c____.. p. 1
This c is used as a sentence final and is an abbreviation for
cv'5Cc-z"T o r c,~,5C0-z"To
E.g., 3(fJH:i1'.R.,),vt -C 1m 0 c, tf.JJ> G cf;'*- IJ T-~ c ~b tJ v'o
The fact is that the father returns late at night. So he does not see
the children much.

6. p. 2
An abbreviation for tr:. c v' 5 c or 1.P C v' 5 CC f;: fJ 0 C ("when it
comes to the question of ... "). v'~cf; -<- v'5{_1-;f

E.g., ten c Mcl-J <t.J, "':>-cc, J L t.P tJ "'Iv -z"-t o


When it comes to the question of who the child forms a close relationship
with, there is no one but the mother.

1. I f:" s v' s -= c I p. 2
"So," "like that." It refers back to the preceding discourse.

E.g., i? J: --:> c, ki!EHl:il:i--:> ~ IJ L *-it Iv C ;0;), f:"C0 <'' Gv'l:if:" 5 v' 5 Cc Iv tJ 0 c ,~,
v'*-Tb~ o
I'm not sure about the statistics, but I believe they will show that
about that many [famil~ es ] are like that (i.e., in the situation
where the father is absent).

8. p.2
"Cannot help -ing ," cannot help but. ... " The verb form before - 2:'. 0
is the base in the - fJ v' form.
E.g. , .:J:o J 2: Iv t.J;* 2:'.0 ~ ~ fJ v' l: v' 5 C l: f;::_ fJ 0 !v '"("I_, J: 5 1.J>o
Dose it turn out that the mother can't help coming [with her child]?

We can't help doing so, can we?

If we can't cancel it, we'll be forced to go, won't we?

- 251 -
LESSON 5

g: ** p. 2
"Turn out to be," "come out to be," "be .decided," "be assumed that ... "

It turns out that [the mother] attends the ceremony with her ch i ld.

CT- I-3 )
It was decided that we'd come see your new house.
_: c I= tJ: .Q describes the natural consequence in a given circum-
stance. It does not assume or specify any agent or decision-maker in
the action. The construction is used when the agent or decision-maker
is not involved, not clear, not important, or when the speaker wishes to
avoid mentioning him.

10. ** n vt tc, P 2
"The situation is that.'; "It's. that " :bvt literally means
"reason," but when used at the end of a sentence, it loses this
basic meaning and functions as an intensifier of the statement.

E.g., ~~17)c ~zrG, -mf=-J 1.r'-CD< bvt-e-tbo


The situation is that [the mother] tags along with [her child] from
the time of the [entrance] exams, don't you see.

_ELW:b~Jt-~ lli-C-~vt Iv~ v'fiJJv' -C v' -0 :bvt -e-t .t bo


The . situation is that the father goes into the outside world and works
hard, don't you see.

The negative of
and it means "it isn't that .... "

In fact, it isn't that the father is spending his time idly outside ....

11. 1 . . . c: ~ fJ: l_, 1= I p. 2


"It's not that .... but." It is similar to .. -c"litJ:< -C
E.g., A$ :a'.; 1= -J v' -c v' < Iv t ~ tJ: Li=, ~~O) c ~ t.J~ G-m1=-Jv'-CD < :b vt-e""tbo
It isn't that [the mother] attends the entrance ceremony with
[her child], but the situation is that she tags along with him from the
time of the [entrance] exams, don't you see.

-252-
LESSON 5

12. p. 3
"Now," "at present." -'\=' is an emphasizer of 4- .
E.g., 4"-'\=', -tJ- 7 ~ - ~ /~~-C'To ( p. 1 )
It's now the age of the salary man.

That's the way it was before; now it's taken as a matter of course, ....

13. p. 3
In Lesson 4 (G4.23), we saw the three usages of <''Gv': (a) "about,"
"approx imately," (b) "as ... as," "like," (c) "at least." The following
is an example of (b).

E.g.' -t:n <'' G v'-~~t Iv cl6 v'TTtJ~ G. ~O) c ~ f;:fj:, -~f;:fi < -=cf;: tJ Q Iv T'tbo
Since [the mother] puts her whole soul into the effort, it turns out
that she will go to the ceremony with her child.

14. I ~ v, 5 -= c tc. P 3
"It's that .. .," "that is I means ... " Like bt . cv' 5-=c
emphasizes the statement.

Eg , m: mc 0) Mu--=> ~ n> ~ <tJ "':) tc. c v, 5 -: c -r--t o


It's that [the child's] ties with its mother have become stronger.

bn~ffi!IJ:::k~. -t: 5-r-~.:s. c v' 5-= c "t"Tbo


It's that it is very much so in our country, don't yo u see.

15. I {71JO) I p. 4
"That." iffU refers to a thing or person whom both the speaker
and the listener are familliar with.

E.g., 'fffUO) 11 ~ tJ ~ O)z~ j] 0)9=1-C'


In that [story ] The Grass is Greener, ....

171J 0) -: ~ -r-tn>
About that matter . . ..

16. p.4
"Like," "seem," "as if," "feel as though."

I suppose he must feel as though he's taking a multiphasic, but ....

- 253-
LESSON 5

17. p. 4
As in English, the first and second person pronouns are used for
the speaker ahd listener in a direct quotation.
Eg , flit 17) tc ~ r= ~ n tc ~t 'i5 '!E L -c. ~ wflit r= ---::i ~-~Iv -c: <n tc 0

[She ] suffered all that hardship and spent every cent on me .


=
.ta fiJ 17) tc ~ f fh ti~ 0 -c Q Iv tc o

It's for yo ur sake that I'm doing it.

18. * * j tJ;:.ta 0 L ~ 0 tc J:: 5 f;::_ p.4


"As someone mentioned .... "
E.g.' 7k#9c1::'/J; .ta 0 L ~ 0 5 f;::.,
tc J::
7k4Ht1:=.tJ> .ta -::i L ~ v' :t L tdtn f,
As Mr. Nagai mentioned ....
~th f' usually means "although , " "but," but here it has lost
its usual function as an adversative conjunction and serves as a
connector between sentences.

19. p. 5
"There are some points where .... "
E.g., tC.tJ> 1;, 5 i?IJ)tj:i"'(''.:i:. ::i'' tJ>:.ta][v' f' 5 L
.$~'8tJ> I) ..g- ,0 -Cv' G J: 5 tJ ~-::. 6'/J~dt> 0 -c
So there are some points at which egos will clash at home.

20. ** I t. ~ tJv'l"TtJ"" I p. s
"It is, isn't it?" An express ion soliciting confirmation of a statement.
E.g.' 4-/Jtl;l, v''/J;]f ..g- 5 0 -c-::. ~ tJ!v t. ~ tJ v'-c''TtJ >o
It's tha t this time they 'll bicker with each other, don't yo u think?

( p. 1 )

No matter how you look at it, this is a very big difference, wouldn't
you agree?

c p. 2 )
It would be more than 80%, wouldn't you think?

- 254-
LESSON 5

LESSON 5 NOTES ON GRAMMAR AND EXPRESSIONS II

DELETIONS

Examples from this lesson:

p. 2

2. -c.". *J'J~W"" ".)-Cv'".)-C~l"-;%1=:BiB:2:1v C Ii)~< bh*-t"vtch~" p. 2


3. c fB:fJHi. ,@,-T~) x~r=. 17u ~1;f*x1=A.ntc c v' 5.:: c ~~ G Lvfl=A.$~1=rr < /v c:
~ts. LI= ~~(7) c ~ tJ> G-~l=--Jv'-Crr < bv)-C'Tho p. 2
4. =--r~~f!Hi, A.$~~(7)c ~li#~;~".)-C(7)lititJ'-?tclv-C'-9J:o c .::6;6;;j~.l;O>j($(7)~

ITT~~".) -Cv' Q c, ;ii) Q Bey;WjtJ> G ( A.$~~(7) c ~ (7)# ~~v,;O> ) :Lt~* L -Cho ( -EB: f.f[;O> )
M$t:./cfJ'*~ifUctJ v'6v'6fi!i'-?-CQ/v-C'To .:th-C'J'JQ~~(7)r"'i~;a>~bQc Cj!_
f.f[;a:; ) tl-C *-Ch, C -f-~(7) 'W 4i a:- ) 2: T" -:::i tc fJ C:B ~a:- ) :W\ * LJc fJ L- -C, .:: (7) i'X JiJi~h-:::i

-c' ( .:thli ) i? J: -::;> c rm.~h-tc v' fJ.~ c:;a:;T Q 0 P 2 ~ 3

5. ( fB:fJHi ) :th< G v'-1:.~ifP-c."T;ij> G. A.$:i!';(7) c ~ 1= Ii~ ~ - ~1=rr < .:: c 1= ts. Q lv-C:
Tho p. 3

6. ~ ~. -c."TtP G C f.lli) i? .1: ".) c ~-Ch-tclv-c."T;O>, p. 3


7. .:t 5 T Q c C -T~li ) 3(m(7) 7"1-(7) C ~ ) Ii~~ tJ. v'fJ' G. p. 4

8. J'J (7) ~ ~ ".) -C (7) t , ~ ".) Ii fJ ( -EB: m Ii ) ~ (7) 1J -~ ".) tc fJ L -C tc Iv -c." L J: 5 h" p. 4

-255-
LESSON 5

LESSON 5 NOTES ON SOCIO- CULTURAL BACKGROUND

1. The participants in this segment of the roundtable discussion are:


a. The announcer-moderator.
b. Nagai Michio, the Minister of Education in the Miki Cabinet
and the f irst Fukuda Cabinet. Formerly a professor of the sociology of
e du cation at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, he is well-known for
having introduced Parsons-Sills' Toward a General Theory of Action through
a Japanese translation. Since he resigned from gove rnment, he is on the
editorial staff of the Asahi and is also a critic. He was the Minister of
Educat ion a t the time of th e taping of this program.

2. The Age of the Salary Man


Where the salaried worker before the war numbered less than h a lf
of the total work force, his number burgeoned after the war to about 70%.
This is partly accounted for by the in corpora tion into the corporate
structure of farm and industrial workers as well as free agents like the
writer and critic who end u p on the payrolls of publishing hous es .

3. The "Education " Marna


One of the contemporary socia l phenomena in Japan is the emergence
of women wi th a determina tion so fierce that the counterpart in the West--
the "stage mama"-- pales by comparison. This is the " education ma ma " whose
appearance coincides, i nterest in gly eno u gh, with the dea th of the so-called
"American dream" in the U.S. The Japan ese fiction that any man, regardless of
education, could succeed on the basis of s h eer will and hard work gave way
to the realit y that the upp er echelons of corporate management were open only

to the graduates of a small numb e r of exc lusive unive r s ities . This inte nsi-
fied the already acut e concern of the Japanese toward education, spawned
thousands of special after-hours preparatory-remedial acade mies, and ma de
e ntra n ce into the top three or four univers ities almost a li fe-or-death
matt e r. Since the course l eadin g to entry into these univers ities is pretty
we ll set out, it behooves the parents to get the ir off s pring into the right
kindergarten. (There are kindergarten preparatory schools !) The task of
moldin g t h e child a nd socializin g him for achievement falls to the moth e r,
who doe s not take this responsibility lightly .
- 256 -
LESSON 5

4. Competitive Society

The concept of competition in society is nothing new in Japan, but


the implantation of the need to compete even before a child enters kinder-
garten is becoming a grow in g conce rn. (The need for studying the education
system with the aim of reform has been v oiced in various quarters in recent
years.) Also, competition in Japan was not usually exposed to view, but
within the last decade some firms have made it a policy of promoting men
on the basis of merit, not seniority.

5. Entrance Exams

Entrance exams, usually g iven once annually, determine the high


school graduate's chances of entering the universit y of his choice.
(Universities stagger their exams, allowing the student to take several.)
Those who fail must wait a whole yea r before they can take the exams again.
During this period the student is known as a ronin ( a roving, masterless
samurai).
Competition for entrance into select middle an d high schools attached
to universities is fierce, for acceptance into these smooths the way into
the university. The incentive to study builds through all levels of school-
ing and peaks with the college entrance exams. Once in college, the Japanese
student, generally speaking, tends to slack off.

- 257-
LESSON 6

LESSON 6 VOCABULARY LIST

i. c. 0) ~ t.JJtr 0) ~ ~az -e. c i' "':) ~t -c *'611' Lt.: ~ 1:iJ 1= 1. ~ ~ i' "':) ~t *it /v o ~ c
r7/~P~~~3/0)~-~~~i'~L-Cto~'iTo ~ci~ (T-1-10)~.

2. :: t ~JJ*Ef7 tJ::/J~fi,
c. 'j tJ -c~
*f, -E 0) ~ - ~ i' ~ v'-C lf- -c r 7 / ~ I/ ~ 7 " ~ 3 :/ i' ~lf-. -E
O)j'.(!l*tP
~"-~-?<
GZn t.: ~1:i]O);i;'* i' }GJ, v'll Tc. c -et" 0 c. 5 Thl;f, ~~ i'wtfi'f;:
11\rotJ\ro
L fJ v'-c"
~1:1]0) ,i;'* i'fii~;gT .Q c. c ;Q>-c:~ 'i To c- 5 L -ct }GJ, v'll it fJ: v' c ~ td:T. -EO)~ O)~

~~ i' ~ .Q J.: 5 f;: L t.::!J;Q>v' v'-C' L J: 5o

1. lay down the bedding :f~ company-built housing


4 tt <
please don't! (in this 5 "? c 5 L v' gloomy, depressing
context the mother-in-
law is disconcerted by to revive
Tomoko's solicitude)
older brother (i.e.,
to~m12kv' be treated as a guest Kaname's older brother
~1'< a 1 ;b?tJ and Tomoko's brother-
}i5----5. G v' feel uncomfortable in-law)
\ro

-=---~ < IJ to{t]f. f;: fJ:


"?
1'-T
"? -C <tc' 2: v'o totnPm
n~a 1
elder sister (here,
T;ru's wife)
I hope you'll sleep
comfortably (a fixed filJ J.: IJ tc' be the best (news)
expression)
* * ( 1'lt!J) ~~ (T-2-3)
c ... , ...
** ( .to ) r 1 [/ toilet things go smoothly,
get along
** r the first floor
t... tt
be inconvenient ~$1=~-?-C.Q make a go of it
~ c
(T-2-5) 3Ki6> 7J> IJ tc' be a source of concern
~

/smell of (new) wood

T;ru (male name; Kaname's JI.&


tml>
(T-1-6)
older brother)

-258-
LESSON 6

f=~.& Q be nothing like drink in a pleasant


frame of mind (as
P~1':::$ daughter and her husband opposed to drowning
one's sorr<Dw)
.... . f =ti!: f=t.t. Q
-11:
~3
t>
be looked after

~ tr to have, give birth to the old lady (masc.


for own mother)
'
* * 1&'1ffl-t Q to regret
c. ';0.V>
far from being ...
2. * E-:. 37'.l> (T-1-6)

j3'9J'O)fi a source of worry 3.


< 0' i\:tl
anything like filial
* 1 [) @~ ( ~ ) 7'.J> ~t Q to cause to wo rry duty
l..lvr.1'.V>

**~GT (T-1-7) a tiny bit


<
7':~ t.t.~ C ~) TQ be brazen, bold * ,~,jg L.. repayment of a debt
$/v;Oi~
id lli>
of gratitude
as brass

apologetic make-believe, outward


form
What nonsence!
You can't mean it ,etc.
feeling

* ~f=*tctz: woman marrying into * * ff tr do one's best


.tl6 ~ i>"'--1.<:
a family
* -~ 2: L.. <T Q be kind to

a daughter given (T-1- 8)


away in marriage get carried away
* Wlil-T?J>v'v '
b.t ' I..

feel relieved * * ,~t;::' be necessary


0? .t'

fPJ C ~ ) :t:o -:i L.. ~ Q fv-z"Tti'o be unnecessary


f.<:f'[
What are you saying? tnsistently, have the
last word / one's way
.. * ~>5 f:, J: 6 L.. tl;!)i
*
<:t:o D v'v' t.:: L.. To
I hope I won' t be too building costs
much trouble .
* fi ~ ra; ~
!> cc
* c" ..
-tt /v ~t 700,000 yen
to fall shont of to go over
expectations, be r emiss
to feel at home, make ~&x'!T Q be dead set agains t
oneself at home, feel
at ease, r elax * * ~~T Q be grateful

,~Jb(: ~T Q take a rest, relax


Ir>~ Ill

-259 -
LESSON 6

* i::i
q,
c1i ;t fJ:v' <'' G v'
V>
:ton t= Ii~-t f!"tc. --JJ: m
K.t,f"l'?

to the extent beyond words a wife more than I deserve

4. (T-2-7) * 1f~i5~-t0
tr,H,l'J:t.i: L

(T-3-4)
reminisce

-260-
LESSON 6

LESSON 6 NOTES ON GRAMMAR AND EXPRESSIONS I

1. I . . . /v ti Q J:: 5 ti p. 1

Iv is a colloquial form of f;::. (See Lesson 4, Exrcise III, p.74)


X f;::. ti Q .l 5 ti Y means "not so Y as to X."

I haven't got to that age where stairs give me trouble.


ttt6;v\-'\Jf;::.tiQ.,t 5 ti::..~ -C'l:HEI IJ *Tbo
I'd be unhappy if the facts of the case are that you're getting
tired of working.
Instead of f;::.tiQ~ 5 ti::.. ~-C'li , f;::.tiQ.,t 5-C'li is often used.
It means "if one is such that one starts I becomes .... "
E.g., ttt6;v\'\"l;::.tiQ.,t 5-C-li~IJ *Tbo
I'd be unhappy if you've got to where you're tired of working.

2. p. 1
{iiJJ:: 1J means "above all," "most" etc. X -C{iiJ .l IJ Y means " Y above
all because X."

Eg " .to :5G ~ -C:' fiiJ .ct 1J ""Z" 9 :b"


I'm most happy to see you in such good spitits.
The above is a formulaic expression. After {iiJ J:: IJ such words like *51*
or 5 n L v\ are deleted but are implied.

3. p. 1
"Well, somehow or other," "well, one way or another," etc.
E.g.' *iitJ, {iiJ --c Q J:: 5 ""Z"T
~ tJ:.~ $ 1::-'\J-::> l,t\ 0

Well, She seems to be getting alorig all right somehow.


<it> CT) A tiG * Ji:i fiiJ tJ:.-'\J -::i
~ <
--C v \ 5o
""Z" L .1::

Well, I think he'll manage to get along somehow.

4. ** I -'\:> -::> ii IJ I p. 1
(See Gl.18.)
E.g., T-~li-'\J-::ifflJY~f=~NQ:bo
When it comes to children, daughters, after all, are best.

-261-
LESSON 6

5. p. 1
" ... is the best," "these's nothing like ... " literally means
"to limit it to ... "
E. g , T-~li-'\='-::i ff' IJ RR f~jl.ll 0 :bo
When it comes to children, daughters, after all, are best.

6. ** f'.::: 0 tJ> p. 2
"Not at all, but ... ," "far from ... but. .. " c.::: 6 tJ> implies
that you may think X, but actually Xis not at all so but ...

Far from being happy, my mother seems to think of me as the cause


of all her troubles, and I'm always causing her to worry.

~ L v' c.::: 0 tJ> /Gf\fij 1:k: tc' J:: o


It's not at all pleasant but downright unpleasant.

After c.::: 7jtJ>, tJ> ft -::i -C ("rather") is often used.


E g ' ib IJ il~r.: v' c.::: 0 tJ>. tP ft -::i -C :i*~-C:T J:: o
I'm not at all grateful upset rather.

7. p. 2
11
If it's the case that ... " Iv is the colloquial form of (]) (See Lesson 4,
Exercise III, p.74) t.:G is a conditional conjunction ('if").
-(])//vtc' is used to emphasize the conditional clause( "if it is the case
that ... ").
E. g. , 1t L jQ ffl: ~ii~ ib tJ t.: c ~ Lt.: v' -::i -C ,~, -::i -C v' G -::i L ~ 0 Iv tf..' -::i t.: G, :b r.: L tJ Iv tJ >
7;: ~ tJ ~ L -C .::: 5 -'\=' -::i -C ;~U.: IJ L -C, fiiJ tf..' tJ> $ L ~ tJ v' J:: 5 tJ ~ii~ L i? ~ -::i -Cb"
If it's the case that your mother is coming here with the idea that she
wants to live with you, I'd feel conscience-stricken if she found me
visiting you like this, as bold as brass.

8. * I . . . t.: IJ L -c I p. 2
"To do such a thing like ... " t.: IJ L -C implies that the action
described was not supposed to be done.
E g. , .::: 5-'\=' -::i -c ;fu.: IJ L -c, fiiJ tc' tJ> $ L ~ tJ v' J:: 5 tJ 'Ail~ L '!? ~ -::i -c bo
I'd feel conscience-stricken if she found me visiting you like this.

-262-
LESSON 6

4- 1:3li'r -:i t;:


~ L t;: G ~ :f lt.P L Go
If I were to do such a thing as call on you right now, would you mind?

9. ** *2: tJ > p. 2
(See Gl .15.) *2: 'IJ> emphasizes the speaker's disbelief, that "whatever may
have happened, it couldn't be." I t implies that I (the speaker) would
be surprised if it we re true. *2:'/J> is often used as an interjection
meaning "Oh no! [it can't be!]"
E.g., * 2: '/J>, (b(7)Jf'i~ Iv fJ
Oh no! My mother wouldn't dream of such [a thing]!

10. p.2
"My mother also considers me to be a daughter she has given away to
another family. X tc.'-::::> -C Y c ,fl!, 5 means "X also thinks Y," Y being
a clause embedded in the main sentence. ti-:i -C used after a noun phrase
means "also," "even." It functions to make the noun phrase the topic
of the sentence.
E g., ::::tce~t~' -:i c
-C ~:h,7JO:JE L v' ,fl!, -:i -C 0 ""C' L l 5 o
Taro must also think that this is the right thing to do.
In the above example ~ t;: L and ::::tee~ are the subjects of the
embedded clause.

lL * I fPJ ( ~ ) (7) ( ""Z"T'IJ>) I p. 2


(See G4.18.)

E g., fPJ, :to -:i L ~ 0 Iv ""Z"T'IJ>, :to 3: 2: lvo


What are y ou talking about, mother?

What are you t alking about / \\Iha t do you mean?


!v in the above examples i s the colloquial form of (7).

12. ** I ::. ~ G ::. ~ I p. 2


"It's I, rather , [who should saywhat you just said]," or the comic
English equivalent "Likewise, I'm sure." An il:.dii..omatic expression used
in response to a formulaic expression of greeting. ::. ~G is

-263-
LESSON 6

a locative pronoun C''here") but here it is the first person pronoun


("I"). C -t is an intensifier of -=:_ 'G G
E.g., ~(!)}:: ~5;c'J::6L<.tolmv'ifcL*9o

.!: tr : '* c!ti, -=:. t:i G-=:. -to


Kaname's mother: I'd be pleased if you were disposed kindly toward me.
Tomoko: Oh, it's I [who should say that].
Af ter -=:_ 'G G -=:.-t, the speaker may repeat what the listener has said.
It is often deleted but is implied.

13. ** I . . . ---::> t 'O tc_ I p. 2


---::> t 'O tc_' means "to intend I mean," "to fancy I assume."
(See Gl .15.) X ---::> t 'O -C' Y means (a} doing Y intending I meaning
S; (b) doing Y fancying / assuming that X. X may be a verb or a
noun. If a verb, it takes th e present tense in (a) and the past tense
in (b).

E.g., ~ -~i)Hi~17~9.Q--:>t 'O 'C'*~tlt.:lv'C'9;6>


(a) I left home this morning intending to do some shopping, but ....

U~Mm(1)~1'J'O'C'-t5~~klv'C'9o
I told him so, intending it as a kindness.

'Jffefi f.::_fi ~ t.:---::> t


'O 'C'WJ~ L tJ v' ?
(b) Why don't we put the money in savings pretending we went on
a trip?

cit.iv'--:>, 5J'C'li'.JL~S '*"'--:>t 'O tJ1vtc_-;0>tJ,,


That guy fancies he has a sense of humor.

Please make yourself at home (lit., please assume that you're in


your own home and relax).

14. p. 2
"Drink to a happy occasion."
Eg , ~ '* L -c < n J:: ' 4- B Ii tJ' 5 n L 1;'?@ tJ Iv fc_'tp G 0

Let me drink, because I 'm drinking to a happy occasion.

- 264-
LESSON 6

15. p. 2

"It's been a long time since I saw my mother's face light up with
joy like that." ft is the subject of .~.tc. . Instead of Ii, a colloquial
form tJ C ~ ) is used as an intensifier. The Ii is deleted after ~tc.'7).

16. ** / GLv' p. 3
(a) GL v' may mean "be like." In X G L v', the presupposition on
the speaker's part is that there is a prototypical X, i.e., an idea of
what X should be like.
E.g.' filJ~--J~~rr G L l;\:::. ~ li-c'~ tJtJ> :dd:Ht c ~ ..
I wasn't able to act anything like a dutiful son, but ....

He is manly, isn't he?

(b) The G L v' also means "seem to be," "look," "appear."

That man seems to be Mr. Yamada.

He seems to have left already.

17. p. 3
"It is I should be all right," "isn't it all right," "never mind,"
"what's wrong with ... ?",etc. In this'" case, the speaker is not posing
a quest ion but is making an assertion.

E g ' v' ~ *- -e v' ic. -::i -C v' v' t. ~ tJ v' tJ> o


What difference does it make how long she stays with us?
t. ~ tJ l;\;()>, jO.,,.), < 67.J>~ Iv tJ 1~:g1v-c' <h -c lvtf..' J::
l;\ t\ 0

What's wrong with that-Mom showed us how happy she was.

v'v' t. ~ tJv'tJ>, :::. -::i i?""'*-C-~l~~.17-*- L J:: 5 o


Never mind--come here, let's drink. ( p. 4)

v 'i..' t. ~ tJ v 'i.J
~ !frfs tJ Iv tc. i.J' Go
Never mind--we're a married couple. ( p. 4)

- 265-
LESSON 6

18. ** I . . v ~t i..:: ~ tJ v , I p. 3
(See GS.10.) "It isn't that ... "
E.g., v'v' t.:: ~ tJv';Q>, 13,,5~ <.:SOJ;f.l.Q{ill~;Q;tJv'b~:J t.:: ~ tJ Lo
That's all right, it isn't as though we don't have a place for Mom
to sleep.

19. JIJOJ13$~1ib. 13~~0Jtc61'J l=~,~~1.:'7J, G ~ -c


JtJ tJ fdi I tJ t.:'t.:'o J ~ -C \t' 5 0), ~JJ. f= JtJ fc L i'J; o

JtJ tJ tr_, JtJn, ~~Jf ;Q;--t;--r 75 ;t - _,~ --t 0 ~ -C ~Bz:xt tJ ~ -? tc lv-C Ti'J> G bo p. 3

"About that room--I insisted [that it be built] on the ,grounds that it


would be necessary for guests, although you said it was a waste.
You opposed it fiercely, remember, saying that it would go over
building cos ts by .JOo.,.ooo."

After JfJ tc Li'J; the phrase f'F .Q J::. 5 f=Jmlv t.:' ("I asked you to
build it") is deleted, but ispredictable from the context .
;itJtJfdi ltst.:'t.:' 0 j ~ -Cv' 5 0) is inserted between ~JJit.:';Q> G ~ -C and ~JJ.f=JIJ
tc L;Q;

20. * -CJ::. i'J> ~ tc p. 3


"I'm glad that .... ,"" it is good that .... ," etc.

I'm happy myself that we built it.


j\,$7J;tJ13 ~-CJ::. lJ>~ fc-c'Tbo
I'm glad [to l earn] that you're over your cold.

21. ** <'' G v' ] P 3


(See G4.23.)

Eg =
~ OJ 13 ff.]: ~ Iv f fi i:::i -C Ii il tJ v' <'' G v' ~ ~ L -C 0 J::. o
I am more grateful to your mother than I can put into words.

22. ** b ~t c i'J; ) tJ v, I p.4


"It's impossible that ... ," " there's no reason to believe that ... ,"etc .

It's impossible that she 'd stay with us forever.

- 266 -
LESSON 6

~;?~-t.- h.J tJ-: ~ -t ~ :b ~t tJ v' J: a

It's impossible to believe he'd do such a thing.

LESSON 6 NOTES ON GRAMMAR AND EXPRESSIONS II

SPEECH LEVELS (Forms of address)

There is a scene in this episode in which Kaname, highball in hand,


converses with Tomoko. Kaname refers to himself as :ton and to Tomoko as ~'

while Tomoko uses f.l or 'Jf>tc L when referring to herself, and 'Jf>tt.tc with her
husband. Among younger couples, this pattern of address is breaking down;
many call each other by their first names or nicknames based on their given
names. When a wife calls her husband by the second person 'Jf>ft.tc , this
pronoun is the equivalent of the intimate tu in French; in many cases the use
carries implications of emotional dependency (amae) or pleading on the part of
the woman. While a married woman may use ~ft.tr.. with her husband or her younger
brother, she would never use it with other males.
In the play, Tomoko is almost unfailing in her use of the polite speech
forms with her husband. It is not unusual to find middle-aged wives using
polite speech with their husbands, though perhaps not with Tomoko's consistency.

- 267-
LESSON 6

LESSON 6 NOTES ON SOCIO-CULTURAL BACKGROUND

1. Laying out the bedding

In this segment of the drama, Tomoko is seen laying out the bedding
for her mother-in-law, who responds with "Oh, I wish you wouldn't treat me
like a guest." In the West, it's a simple matter of providing a guest with
fresh sheets and a pillowcase, but in Japan, where guestrooms are not
provided with beds, this involves laying down the bedding at night and
clearing it away in the morning. Within the family, each member is respon-
sible for his own bedding, but when there is a guest, the housewife takes
over the task or delegates it to a daughter.

2. A daughter married into the Takahira family

The general mode of marriage arrangements in Japan is, as it is in


the rest of the world, for the woman to leave her home for her husband's.
(If a famil y has only daughters, a son-in-law is adopted into the wife's famil y
so that her family line will not die out.) Theoretically the married couple
sets up an independent unit, but generally speaking, in their reciprocal
relationships the couple will interact more with his family than with hers.
The view expressed in this drama is quite conservative. The characters seem
uniformly to hold the view that once the woman marries, she severs ties with
her own family and becomes a member of her husband's family exclusively.

-
3. Dozo yo roshiku onegai itashimasu

This imperson a l expression is used in two different situations:


a. When one is introduced to another person for the first time.
b. With an acquaintance from whom a favor has been extracted.

4. The Japanese male and his drinking habits

Observation of the prerogatives of hierarchy and decorum tend


to go by the board when the Japanese male has a couple of drinks in him.
It is only in a drinking situation that an employee may say anything to his
superiors without fear of repercussions. Thus, a worker with complaints

- 268-
LESSON 6

he has suppressed during the day will unburden himself of them to his super-
visor in a bar or tavern after work. If this employee commits a crime under
the influence of drink (other than drunk driving, which calls for severe
penalties) he will get off relatively lightly. If he passes out in the
street the police stations will put him up for the night in a "drunk tank."
A common after-dark sight in Japan is a man weaving drunkeniy along the
streets, arm in arm with a buddy. This male closeness does not imply a
homosexual relationship any more than the holding of hands of two Russian men.

5. Expression of affection before a third party

The Japanese seldom give vent to private feelings before a third


person. In this segment of the drama, Kaname, slightly intoxicated, urges
Tomoko to drink with him and tries to draw her close to him. She cries
out, "Don't! Your mother's still up! and pushes him away . A married couple
in America would not give it a second thought, but for the Japanese couple
the possibility that his mother might appear precludes the wife's responding
to her husband's embrace. The Japanese neither kiss nor embrace in fron t of
o thers. They might steal a kiss in, say, a public park, but only if th ey are
certain they are alone . Any Japanese couple seen kissing in p ubli c would
scandalize the neighborhood and frighten the horses. Scenes at the
departures and arrivals at airpor ts in the West cannot be duplicated in Japan.
Even in situations in which thedisplay of emotion is natural, as the death
of a close kin, the Japnese wil l weep in solitude but display dry eyes in
public, stoic endurance being considered a virtue.

- 269-
LESSON 7

LESSON 7 VOCABULARY LIST

1. C. O)~t,), 1}<7).i;ji ~~""(", * c * * ~ -J ft -C m:fl- L tc ~1:JJf= 1. ~~ ~ -J ~t ~ -t- lvo ~ c


r7 :/ 7-. ~ ~ 7' '/ s :/ <7)-'"' - :; ti..' ~t ~ 5f: L -Ci:> ~ ~To tc c ;;t l~f. C T - 1- 1 o ) 1,

1. to contact, to call to be in a different


someone up class/category

to promise .. ~ti>ti.ti>tJv' easy-going, relaxed


~

~t :S ~ c clean, completely

annoyance, nuisance to look forward to


* ~~tC:'
!OV>b ( [something ]
=.Alf G L t wo people (not to sigh
~k' c necessarily conjugally
living together 2. commuting to a job

fJJ/1)~ L-Cv'-0 to work (for a f=.:f.ti>-ctJv'


not be able to
living) sf ford
~

Toru (male name) -JGv',~,v'~T-0 to suffer


:i.-t hardships
.. lliifJJT ;s to transfer to another train fare
~~~~ office I city
not insignificant
be forced to go transportation costs

along with (T-6-2)


a person brought up spending money
in Tokyo
everywhere

:@::Ell!.1 tJ v' there being hardly be short of


c'' any expectation
that. .. my father (masc.)

7' Ltc t.~tJv' it's not much pension, annuity


kV>
of a ....
~O)tfff:.;J.;.. tc v' be like a drop in
TflO "f/.)j.fi.
a bucket

- 270-
LESSON 7

3. milk lotion to lose one's way


* "'JvTQ to apply to, put on a formal call

* -eil3%:..g-:n-tt.g to make do with ** O)jOtJ>vf-z" thanks to ...


1 ~

bothersome * L ihb-tttc. (T-1-7)

makeup, cosmetics ** :n;0> i: i: tc. be self-centered,


selfish
* * ~ ~ "':) vt
~
-c c <tc. ~ v' ) take care

(T-4-4) * ~;Q>~;Q>ftv' dense, obtuse,


~ insensitive
[the houses] are
densely packed lift L
(to be on the receiving
end of favors and not
..: -:5';6> 'v' 0) ,IE L f;: an addition to reciprocate)
ft
spending money,
an extra to be without a skill
or talent
** '.JE~ joke
t.:i ,;c.1v

needs, necessities 6. * ~~~ti,vt .g (T-2 - 6)


IOV>b <
* ~~ttt~~~ 5 be unnecessarily * *'1- JJ. $Bi: cooking school
.I: IJV> ~ ? -ti
concerned 9.r' 9 -ti<? C'

** /s: G /s: G9 .g (T-5-2)


4. it's only a token ,IE !JM 0) rz: "':) 5 'I? f;:
~ t...c
t... ft
while one is able to
to stay get about
** Ii--:> o what was that? what? yes? younges t daughter

to switch (here, the to be cleared off (here: to


person a~ked for takes marry [one's daughter ] off)
the receiver)
remarkable, wonderful
Jil\l;O>v' .g need to be circumspect
~lv9.r
"'J6l)O)~;ij>~itlv C:-C~tJ
I'm sure, I'll bet, etc. to model oneself afte~ ano ther
(lit., "to make an infusion 0
(T- 2-6) the dirt under your fingernails
and drink it,"i.e.,the least
5. (T-3-2)
part of another person is
likely to benefit the speaker)
** frlt c ~ ) T .g to get ready
t... ft<
* ~<it< 9 .g (T-1-2)
homework
** ..:C-0..:C-0 soon
**jOL~-"'~T.g (T-1-1)
steady, solid
** ;0,~- ~ti,vt.g to lock the door
[your] daughter

- 271-
LESSON 7

work, job nowadays, recent years


?c
)l~:QS I) each in his own turn * El 51'${,, self- centeredness
49>/v!. < t: .O:lv99>5 l-lv

* - A flT I= 9 .Q to see to adulthood ** v' fortunately


,;w.,

v\fhli in due time (T-3-5)

* 6blv~5~~Q to look after one's


needs

- 272-
LESSON 7

LESSON 7. NOTES ON GRAMMAR AND EXPRESSIONS I

1. p. 1
"Well [, the fact is ... ]"

E.g.'
Yes, well, ah, I just wan ted to make a phone call.

2. p. 1
"At this time [of night]? What time do you think it is? You'll
annoy her." After -=:1VtJSifisi1:=., ~3900) ("are you going to phone her?")
is deleted. Before ~~tcJ::, -=:AJJSifiAif::.~LJc.G ("if you call at this
hour'') is deleted. The deleted elements are predictable from the context.

3. p. 1
An exclamatory expression. "You cannot imagine / you couldn't know
how ... !"
E.g.' f'IVfJi:=_*J?:~jffl-::> -C*fc.fP-::> fc.fPo
You can't imagine how I longed to return to Tokyo!
After *tc.;6>-::> fc.;6> a phrase like 9:DhfJv' ("cannot be know") or :b;V> GfJ
v'-C'LJ: 5 ("you couldn't know") is deleted.

4. * I . . . "'.) tc. G I p. 1

(See G4.6.)
E g , g -::> tc. G b ft , fB: ~ IV 0) $ } tc' -::> -C,
't:J ~ c:b IV t
Speaking of Kaname, he thinks of everything--he built a room saying
it's mine.

5. ** fJIV -C j p. 2

(See Gl.4.)
E g , :7\:~b ft, Jij!J f::_ -Sifisi~ t ;6>;6> 0 fJ IV-C .
Such a bore to have to commute an hour and a half.
< <
;6>:b v'.:t 5 b, -:1=1\fVJ;6> fJ 't:J ~ fJIV fJ v\A.;6>-:i=-5'.H L fJ 't:J ~ fJIV fJ v'fJIV-C .
Poor dear! To think that the man who has to work the hardest has to
suffer the most.

- 273-
LESSON 7

In the above examples, the word order is inverted. In the normal


come at the end of the sentence.

6. * * li:;J;-?cl P 2
"For a while, II "just," "a little, II etc.
E.g . , c t-T. i:;J;-?Ca
Tomoko, [come here] a minute.
t:; J; '? c~~~iJ>~)tc\t'c
-=.6ii;iV>-?-Cba ( p. 1 )
I just had a place wanted to call.

c
f:J: Iv Cl) t:; J; '? Cl) isVc' t Cl) a
It's for just a little while after al l.

( p. 5 )
I thought I'd jus t come by to say hel lo.

t:J J;-? c may also be a vocative interjection (Hey!", "Say ," etc.)
E.g., ~G. i:;J;-?C.
Oh, hey !

I say, excuse me .

7. p. 2
"Whatever one may say ," " after all." The meaning is the same as
fiJJ c -? -Ct, but fiJJ (: -? tc-? -C is more informal and colloquial.

E.g. , .1Q,,S, <6 f~Ji., .1Q.J\=' t,Cl) :~ii; iV> 0 G L v' Iv tc'ii;, fiJJ c '? tc '? -C 1fi- 0)~7-J- tc v' ft.
t Iv tc'ii~ G ft.a
Mom seems to be ge ttin g Pob's pension, but after all, it's a mere
pittance.

8. P 3
(See G4.2.)
E.g., )\:f\&0)5i:Jfj: , f:J:G, ~;bl)f,);~-C-:./v-c"0-C'LJ; Sa
The house in Osaka is--you know-- squeezed in with the other houses
around it.

- 274-
LESSON 7

9. * I . . . .<)~ fJ p. 3

"After an absence," "the first time in a long whi le ."


E.g.,
I wonder how many years it's been since I've felt so contented?

~~~=~~f.J~B*~~f.J:tLka
I went back to Japan this summer after a t wo years' absence.

10. p. 3

"In this way," "like this." The meaning is the same as ~ 5 L -C, ~ 5 ~-? -C
is more informal and colloquial. There are other expressions in a
similar vein, such as -t 5-'\=' -J -c lb~-'\=' -J --c, -t 5 L -C, and ibib L-C
("like that").
E.g.,
I'm fully aware that, hav~ng built a house like this, you do have
expenses.

11. ** I . . . ~ c c 1:t ) fJ. v , I p. 3

"There is no need to," "you don't have to."

E.g. ,
There's no need to concern yourself so much about me.

( p. 6 )
Do yo u have to work like a horse?

( P 6 )
[There is no need] for yo u to wo rk--th e idea!

( p. 7 )
There's no need to be reserved wi th yo un g people.

~~ f'ifJ.v' may a l so mean PJ~tt7'.1>tJ.v' ("unlikely," "cannot be").


E g., -{-Iv fJ. ~ c fj: fJ. v' c ,~, v' :t -t7'.1>o
I think that it's unlikely.

12. ** I .. ~ t p. 4

(a) "Something like," "say [for example]."


E. g. , :10 ll 7'.1~ vt ~ ~ ~ ~ J:E ~ f-=. -r t tJ. ~ -? -c T ~ v' o
Please use this for, say, your expenses when yo u go out.

-275-
LESSON 7

1:: fJ 0 fJ vt tuJ , :J:o1[~-C t ;6> H-Cv' 0 "'.'.) L ~ v' ~ T-C L .!.: ? 0


t L :J:o:b;O> I)
If she doesn't know the way, I'm sure she'll phone us or something.

:::! - t. --C-1.J l;\;Q>;6~-Z:-9iPo


Would you care for, say, a cup of coffee?

(b) -C-t may also mean "even," "even if."

Even a child knows that.


He works even on Sundays sometimes. fElli B Iii B -C-t {J <,:: .!:: ;6~&1:> I) ~ 9 o
( c) --C:' t may also mean "also," "as we ll."
E g., ,,~ 3l -iO~!J vtni~L
-:[ - ti'~ './-C- t v'v'-z:-9 J:"
If you don't have any butter, margarine will do as well.

13. p. 4

(See G4.10.)
E g , -tt "".) ;6> <tc' ;6> (:> Ji!'- fJ L f::"
You're too kind--I won't wait to be asked a second time.
<
-tt "".) ;6> ~ L J,z. f:: L -C v' .Q V') f::/G El El3 2: Li? ~ ;O>:b v'-l- ? tc'i6> 0 fJo
It would be sad to see her short of spending money when she's all
set to enjoy herself.

1" "'? ;6> <tc';O> 0 Jl!IJJ LI:: is a formulaic expression. The complete form is
-tt-j ;6> <V'J1'l!IJ~~--C:'Ti6> 0, Jlll:tJ Lr:: v'fctc'~ ~To

14. ** 1 ... ~-= .:s 1 p. 4

(a) When the verb before~ ,::;s is in the dictionary form, it means
"be about to" (future).
E.g.'
I 'm about to eat.
t, tl ;0, vt .Q c .:: 6-C-T o
I'm about to leave.

(b) When the verb is in the present I past progressive form, it means
"be in the state of" (progressive).

E.g.'
I'm eating right now.

- 276-
LESSON 7

I'm reading right now.

I was thinking about going out r~ght this minute.

(c) When the verb is in the past tense, it means "have just done"
(perfective)
Eg , it, ft -"' f.: C: -:_ '3 e9 o
I have just eaten .

15. ** t, ~, ~Ii I p. 5
(See G4.19.)
Eg . , -:. Iv tJ ai Fs%'.:. ~ i fJ v' Iv t.: ~ , { m'. L C: v' tdl: 5 ii:; v' v'~ L J: 5o
Since she's not here at this hour, I had better prepare [dinner].

16. p. 5
"Thinking that .. "
E . g . , i? J: -:J (: , . -:_''cit> v' 2: --:J f;:_ (: ,~, "':;) -C 2: a
I thought I'd just [call to] say hello.
( p. 6)
I thought I'd [do something] while I'm able to get around.
In the above examples ,, I;: / Ii C: is an abbrevia t e d expression.
The expression 5 il~;O>:JQ 5 has been deleted after
has been deleted after ,@_~O)ll:--:J 5 i?li. After 1~, -:J -C 2: in the first
example, 5 ii~ ii> -:J tr.. 0) is deleted. In the second example, an expression
such as fiWv'-C :JQ I) :t9 has been deleted. These deletions are predictable
from the context and are provided by the listener.

17. p. 5

"Thanks to," "owing to."

Thanks to Kaname, Tomoko is happy.


The idiomatic expression :JQil~~f 2: ;t--C' may be translated "Thank you."

- 277-
LESSON 7

E.g., A . .gr271v. :to5C~ve-ttJ>o


Is everybody all right?

B. ;;l ;;l, :totJ~vf 2: :'t -C'o


Yes, thank you.

18- * _-=_-t-__.
. _ _ I_ _

p. 5

(See G6.12.)

E. g.' ~DrO)ffJ: : 4-1& t: t J:: 6 L <1000iv'$ L :'t9o


~ 0) ffJ:: v'v'il, ~t~ < LO)V;J:: 5 .=:-t-, t 5 :toiit~f;:Jt IJ -::>Ifft L-C'o
Tomoko's mother: I hope you'll be lenient with her.
Kaname's Mother: Come now, it is I rather [who should say
that ] . I'm in her debt and I'm not doing a thing to reciprocate.

19. * I . . . ":) fi tt_ L fl_' I p. 5

"Be on the receiving end and not reciproca te .


Eg , :to iJt ~j!i(:: tt_ I) ":) ff tt_ L -C- o
I'm in her debt and I'm not doing a thing to reciprocate.

20. * I . . f;f "': ) ;6> I) fl_' I p. 6


Like ":> f;:l:tt_ L fl_', f;f ":> ;6> 1J fl_' means "onl y / always and .. . "

l:f-? t;~ I) is a colloquial and emphatic form of f;f/J> IJ o


E.g., ~1t,Atc1?!::~~~tJ,ftQl;f.':JtJ, IJ -e
I've been only tro ubl e to the young people, and [I haven't been able
to do anything in return].
After f;f. -:J ;6> I) -c in t he above example, an exp ression like
f.MifiiJ 1iJ -r~'.'t-i"lv (I'm unable to do any thing") has been deleted.
I t is i mpl i ed.

E.g., ~O)rfii1!fXf;f. ;6-:.IJ-C-, 1-'Lt*1J~L:'t-i"lvo


That child only plays and does not study a t a ll.

21. 103:~ p. 5
E g , :to ffJ: ~ ~ Jlt ":> -C fiiJ 0) ~ 1J f.J: v' -fr:-z:: .= ~v' :'t 9 1J 0) b il o
In contrast to your mother, I am a woman wi thout an oun ce of t a l ent,
don't you see.
Kaname' s mother us es the very polite them of address :toffJ:~ in
referring to Tomoko's mother.
-278-
LESSON 7

22. p. 6
"Are you still a teacher a t a cooking school?" In this question,
L-Cv'f'.J-:i L~.QO)-C- -91,J> is deleted after)'[;:_~. but it is predictable
from the context.

23. p. 6

"[Something] won't do I is not satisfactory." 1PJ literally means


"what," but it is used in this cons truction to avoid making an
explicit statement; a negative nuance is implicit in it.
E.g., 5 i?-C-7"7 77 L-C-Ct'(PJ-c-,:'~-v ' i9tJ>Go

It won't do for me to stay home all day doing nothing, so ...

-=-= L:>~ 1PJ-C"9tJ> G. --C' t ~]f. tJ l,JO: G ~3 L 'i it Iv tJ>o


7c 0) "-lv -C' =1 - l::
This place is unsatisfactory, so wha t do you say to talking over coffee
some place else?

p. 6
"Start doing / think about doing something."

E g ' 7c 6 7c 6 ~ v' 'i it J:: .,


0) Iv (j" t) t.,i:
Do start talking things easy.

Shall we start going?

2s. ** I 0) c tc_ ) I p. 6
are often used in Japanese.
Their basic meaning may be translated literally as "it is that,"
but it will not always be translatable. A sentence is not altered
with the addition of O)fc', but an emphasis is added to a statement,
or an elucidation is made on what has been said, done, or observed.

I suppose your younger daughter is already working, is she?

He most certainly is reliable.

c p. 5 )
It doesn't concern you, so [pay no attention to it]. I'm sure
you have some homework.
- 279-
LESSON 7

J:3 fi.ib ti~ :'t 7'.J>.A "'.) -C ~ -C J:3 L ~-"' D9 0 Iv tc.' t ~o ( p. 5 )


But Granny comes into [my room] and yaks away.

( P 7 )
I wonder what they 're go ing to do.

26. p. 6

"To be in the care of one's children when one grows old. Isn't that
the natural course of things?" In conversatio n, plain verb forms
are not used in the sentence final position. Sentences usually end
with a polite form or with one of the sentence-en ding particles.
But plain forms may be used as sentence finals when the speaker is
quoting a statement without quotation complementi zers like C v' 5 c ) ~ f
or C cv' 5 ~) Tf.
Eg , ~~ tlt3 I= f fJ 01) c", ~~ ITfi{]!Jf 7f- GhfJ v'o -i:-h 1.: ~El 53-t~ ti 7,)>~ ~ c "'.) t~
t: ~ 1= -1* c' ::i -t 0 /v -e L, J: 5 h *- o
[Children] are looked a after by their parents, but they can't take care
of their parents. If that's the case, just what do they think will
happen to them when they grow old themselves?

27. ** L7'.J' fJv' p. 7

"Only," "nothing but." L7'.J> is always complemente d by ft v'.

E.g., fifv c l=Jtt ::._- ,;s ~Ev' At~ ti ~h i. El 51'-'*1 1 C.,'~~ i 15 L 7'.J> T ~ft. v'fv T9 t ~hi o
Really, I must say the young people nowadays can only think of
themselves first.

1BU*gg: L7'.J>31tttv' o Cf. 1EU*gg:7,)>31t ft. v'o


He can speak only English. He can't speak English.

4-~ t:. ::.. 0. -i:-htc'lt L7'.J> 71:. :'t 1t lv o


For the moment, I can say only that.

- 280-
LESSON 7

LESSON 7 NOTES ON GRAMMAR AND EXPRESSIONS II

SPEECH LEVELS (Forms of ad dr ess)

In this segment we hear Shino re fer t o Tomoko and Kaname with


'!h .~tctci? (p.3). It is ur ged that foreign students of Japanese avo i d using
this form a t all cos t. (This form is the result of the shift of I na I t o
In /.)Wh o then can u se this pronoun with impunit y? Mainly elderly people
of both sexes (it is no t us e d by Japanese under thirty) . Even within the
fami l y, its use is r es tricted to parents toward children or between husban d
and wife.

SPEECH STYLES (Women's speech)

Let's take a closer look at women's speech with the focus on the
transciption ( p. 5 - 7 ) of the dialogue betwe en the two mothers. In this
situation, the two women, mothers of offspring who have married each othe r ,
and women who have seldom met up to now, go the whole length of po l ite and
humble speech, to a point where it mi ght be considered excessive. But even
in a s uch a formal conversation the t yp ical sentence-ending forms in women 's
speech like :b , (J) i:,(J) an d '/:J>L G are t acked on.
A characteristic in women's speech is the rising intonation of the
end of some polite form of a verb to form the interrogative mode, e . g.,

I ~~itlv J I v'~J
I v'G -:::i l ~ v'iT J
Grammatically spe a king, there would be nothing wrong if men adopted the same
style, but they would certainly be considered feminine if they d i d.

- 281-
LESSON 7

LESSON 7 NOTES ON SOCIO-CULTURAL BACKGROUND

1. Born in Tokyo and raised in Tokyo

In this segment Kaname's mother, Shino, relieves herself of a


pejorative remark about Osaka--that, having been born and raised in Tokyo,
it was impossible for her to become accustomed to "the water in Osaka"
(meaning every thing about that city).
Japan is a small country which is broken down further int o smaller
units, each boasting of its own character and disparaging other areas.
(This tradition accounts for the unusual ease with which camaraderie will
spring up between standoffish Japanese who learn they are from the same
area.) The largest breakdown between areas is the Kanto (centered aroun d
Tokyo) and the Kansai (centered around Osaka and Kyoto). There is a c l ear
demarcation in finan~ial circles between those institutions that are base d
in Tokyo and Osaka. The lines are also drawn in academia fo r n either Tokyo
University nor Kyoto University will entertain the idea of a joint project .
Shino implies that it was impossible for her to live in Osaka because
it is a provincial city, not the capital. She may be venting herself of
bile accumulated from actual experience, but at the same time she would be
the last to deny that she is not a little vain about having been born in
Tokyo. The people of Kansai do not willingly suffer fools either; their
attitude is that Tokyo , with a history that can claim not quite four centuries,
is an upstart city peopled by b arbarians.

2. Common Greetings

This is a roundup of the greetings we have encounter e d up to now:


a. Tadaima. Okaerinasai . (Lesson 4)
The family me mb er returning home will say tadaima ( a n abbreviat i on
for tadaima kaerimashita, "I' ve just come back"), while the member coming
to the door will say okaerinasai . These greetings are normally exchan ge d
betwee n me mb ers of the family, but a guest who sees someone returning may
also we lcome him back.

b. Yoku irasshaimashita/Yoku irashite kudas aimashita/Yokoso


Th ese are expressions us ed to welcome arriving gu es ts.

- 282 -
LESSON 7

c. Shitsurei shimasu. (NB: This does not have the same connota-
tions as " exc us e me" does in English!)
1) It is used when one is invited into a home or office.
2) It is interchangeable with sayonara on parting.

d. Shitsurei shimashita. (NB: This must not be viewed . simply as


the past tense of shitsurei shimasu.)
1) It is th e equiva lent of gomennasai ("excuse me"), as when
one steps on the foot of another person.
2) In the phrase senjitsu wa shitsureishimashita, the connota tion
is "You were most considerate the last time I saw you, and I thank you for it."

e. Dozo goyukk uri


It is part of Japanese e tiquette to detain guests about to depart
even if that departure is devoutly desired. Dozo goyukkuri might be pre-
faced by suc h expressions as mada h ayai kara ("it's early yet") or sekkaku
kita no ni (" yo u' ve taken all this trouble to come").

3. Ex tra Spending Money

In the scene in which Tomoko hands her mother-in-law an envelope con-


taining 3 0,000, she does not say samman'en agemasu ("here's 30,000"), or
okane agemasu (here's some money"), o r okozukai o agemasu ("here's some
spendin g money"). Etiquette demands the use of a discreet, circumlocutory
phrase like okozukai no tashi ni ("as supplement to your spending money"),
or kurumadai I denshachin ni de mo ("for taxi or train fare").

4. Exchange of g re etings b e tween Tomoko's mother and Kaname's mother

When there has been little personal con t act before a meeting, as
in this case, when the two women have not met in yea rs since the wedding
of their offspring, th e initial several minutes of th eir greetings are
taken up b y a string of self-deprecatory and humble expressions, each more
self-debasin g than the preced in g . When this pro-forma scenario ends, the
real feelings of the parties begin to surface.

- 283 -
LESSON 7

5. Young people nowadays ....


To the order generation, what l i ttle individualism that has taken
hold in Japan is difficult to understand or tolerate, for individualism tends
to be equated with self-centeredness. This is undoubtedly one of the causes
of the postwar tensions in the family. The seniors in J apan, as elsewhere,
have always said of their children, "Young peo!Dle nowadays simply have no
sense!" In present-day Japan the gap between generations is continually
windening, causing more distress among the aged than ever before.

-284-
LESSON 8

LESSON 8. VOCABULARY LIST

1. -::. 0) ~ Ll fiJ 0) ~ ~ ~ --e, * c* =


* ~ "'J vt --c *151f L tc ~ 'PJ f 1, ~ ~ ~ "'J vt 'i it A,, o ~ c
r 7 ::/ ?.. !7 IJ 7 / 3 ::/ 0) ~ - :/ t::'Vt ~ ~ L --C :to ~ 'i Ta tc c it l;f, C T - 1 - 1 O ) f,

1. delivery man 3. here: she herself

** ?iD' !Jm
le: t?
load (T-1-7)

)l(l.i\n {l be carried in capable, resourceful


Takahira Shino (Kaname's * ,~, T (T-4-6)
mother's given name trt c.
is Shino) J9i\1=:9{l to choose
to have a bath
belongings

seal, chop

incredible (here:amount; ** 3'B addressed to


;<, -c
a mountain of .... )
**~
(b
Lv' exact, detailed
fill;>) ~ Ji> -? --C 1{j no matter what happens 4. * * (.} 'i time

genially * O):JNtj=itc' be right in the


<!v.t;, 5 middle of
2. * 1i.A friend
laughter * ~-? --Cv' {l be spoiled
<<!
* <tc' G tJ v' t 0) worthless program (T- 1- 3)

to cluck Don't!
[one' s disapproval]
** J&
I:
t) f=: * ;s to come and get [someone does] as he
pleases
* * Jt~il attitude
kV. I:
convenience
!!' 7 <' - tc' be glamorous

** !*1ffdJ:v ' have no connection with [a married woman's]


~ lvltV. own mother

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LESSON 8

sternly meager salar y

* 1:J ?J> ~ ~t -c t even i f they put hot (T-5-4)


< ~ ~ tongs to y ou
(T-4-3)
generation
* ;JjR Lv' ,~,v '~9 0 to feel lonely, means
~u ~ be left out of
things * * "'{5 hardships

gentle, meek be requited

* ! ~ ~ I) ~ it Q make clear be repaid


tr<
* t~cL-C:kl< to leave matters as 1t IJU C:..:. c tc'
to be the
they are ~ same as
;bi'J> ~ 'S ~ v'fJ:v' not understand

i:tv'~~9 0 to appear soft I b ?J>~ -C v' 0 lJ' G .:. t


~"i ;61>
lenient it's precisely because
f0f0c keep on [staying] they understand

5. * 11' tc v' t.: ~t [to stay] as much as to partake of,


I wan t to stay share
* * .:... 'St 5 f;:_ fJ: 0 be wined and dined

* * n~n~ (T-1-3) ~~0)3(\,;ff sense of gratitude


;illv 4 ~ ~ ~

v\~ c ~ nowadays 6. J:: ~It c+-- J:: ~l c much more

envious relations between


husband and wife
lucky /fortunate person

tf v' tc <~ il !;f ~ IJ ?J>tJ: v' to go well


v-> One can't have every thing
proof

(T-2-4) ::*:: l~fH;:


1>1>.;:t:i
*
GD
~ tc 3(1, Cfir )
~ ~ ~

the feeling of being on


department head top of the world
"iS f;:.tJ:G fJ: v' t o find it no trouble * * fJ: 1= t . . . . . .:. c
fJ: 1t \
< no need to do ...
ti. 5 'Sbl?;\J G9
~
0
< to live in the lap of
luxury have no time to eat

**tO)i'J>;bl) (T-2-5)
tempura (shrimp or
vege tabl es dipped in
* **~ l? ...t~f.Q
~V>;O ( ~
to send to college
batter and deep-fried)
sobersided * * ftW.:?J>tJ:v' (T-3-3)
~ff' l....t ( .t (

(T-5-4) (T-4-3)

-286-
LESSON 8

7. window curtains * ~;f 5 --:i -c ::!O < to leave alone,


pay no attention to
Oh dear!

last night

-287 -
LESSON 8

LESSON 8. NOTES ON GRAMMAR AND EXPRESSIONS I

p. 1

"Excuse me," "I'm sorry ." An idiomatic expression used in the following
situations, among others: (a) when the speaker enters or leaves
a room; (b) when the speaker interrupts the activities of others;
(c) when the speaker leaves a person or group, or says goodbye;
(d) when the speaker has to break off a conversation for a moment;
(e) when the speaker excuses himself from attending a conference,
party, or other gathering.

is more formal and polite than ~ .fl L. *To


E.g.,
Excuse me a moment.

I must be going now.


~ tc L-~J:.
i? J: --::> t jfjt; > ~ t) *-:JO)-c' ~ .fLv'fc L *To
As I have some business to attend to tomorrow, I won't be coming.

(Cf. ~ .fl -c -tt;> is used when the speaker poses a question to


the listener, or when the speaker calls the listener's attention to
something:
E.g.,
Excuse me, but [what is]your occupation?
~.fL --c--tiJ>, . i?
*-Cv'tctdt .t-? ~
lviJ ~ o *-tt
Excuse me, but could you [come here] for a minute?)

2. * 1 - - 1_ _ _-s_~_tc_
' t>__. p. 1

"Must not," "should not." is the colloquial form of --c fj:, which
expresses the conditional "if." -CIJ:tOb literally means
"it would be wrong if," but it is usually an indirect command or prohibition.
tc
E . g . , :to t ~ Iv f.:: fiJJ f.:: t ljfJ v' i? ~ '> J:. o ( a woman )
You shouldn't ask your mother about any thing, understand?
( a man )
You shouldn't do such a thing again .
.:.t Iv tJ t 0) C:, ~ tc'> J:. a ( a woman )
That won't do.

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LESSON 8

:t:~~ C: ~ tC..''r!> J::., *tc'-T#t:tc'ip Go ( a womwn )


Since he is a child, Taro won't be up to it.
Besides tC.''r!>tC.', --ni/'S ~ takes other words like
-Cl;J:~9 means "I'll get in trouble if. .. " -Cfd:v'~fC.' means
"I won't like it if ... "
E.g.'
I'll get in trouble if you do such a thing.
( a woman )
I don't want you to leave.
(See G4.19, G7.15.)

3, p. 2

In this ::$: ~ l~.:t3 * ;t fj: means "You really are a pain I impossible,"
etc. An expression like ("an impossible brat") or
rn " .) t:::. ~ ...-.JtC.' ("incorrigible") has been deleted. I t is implied.

p. 2

~> is used here as an exhaustive-lis ting particle,i.e., X meaning


"X and only X," or "it's X that .... " The ~> in this function is used
when the speaker points to a particular person or thing among others.
E.g.'
It's Granny who should come and pick it up.

( P 4 )
Was it Mom who said so?

( P 5 )
Shino, as far as this house goes, it might have been built by you.

( p. 5 )
Even pocket money--she thinks of everything, my son's wife.

5. I . . . -c t v, \, p. 2

(a) "One wouldn't mind," "one wouldn't care if."


E.g.'
The woman with the glamorous daughter you thought you wouldn't
mind having married.

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LESSON 8

~ fJ. tc fl) /p b
IJ f:::. f.L-t.1> ff -:i -C t v' v "t i'" J:: o
I wouldn't mind going in your place.
In these examples -ct v'v' describes the speaker's feelings or
judgement about his own actions.

(b) "You may." -Ctv'v' is also used when the speaker gives
another person permission to carry out an act, or asks the listener
for permission to do something.

E.g., t '.'.Hffi-?-Ctv'v'L'"tJ::o
You may go home now .
.:_fl);;$: a: lO filf IJ l- -C 1lJ J:: 0 l- l,t\ '"'C"i'" ;i;~o
. May I borrow this book?

6. 1E EE ~ Iv, 1!f, ~ fJ. tc ;O> ~ ~ L- -C t v' v' t: :Jo }j!\l, v' f:::. fJ. -:i tc 11 7 " - fJ. ~ ~ Iv fl) v' i? -:i ~ ~ ~
no p. 2
"Mrs. Hanada. The woman with the glamorous daughter you once thought
you wouldn't mind having married."
The noun phrase -;J is modified by the entire relative clause preceding
it. 117-..-fJ.~~fv is modified by the clause 1f, ~tJ.tc;O>~~L--Ctv'v'c'.::
;Jo}j!\l,v'l.:fJ. 0 tc The structure of noun modification by relative clauses
in the above is as follows:

7. I fJ. i? I P 3
(a) "As for," "for." This construction, normally a form of the
conditional "if," functions here as a ki'[fd of topic marker.
E. g , -t fl) 1J:. ~ fJ. i?, :Jo .,S, <0 fl) n ;0> i? ~ v' f_: f.j-
tc Iv C:. ~ fJ. v' fl) ;O~o -:i

About that friend--didn't Mom go and see her?


-f' fl) .:_ C fJ. i?' 1t ') ~j5 ~ fc_fj: f '"'C"-9 ;0>o
About that matter--I'm sure I've already told you about it.

p. 3

~ .t? 7'.;>t.t.v' and ~;i; ~tc.7'.i>t.t.v' are almost identical in meaning.

- 290-
LESSON 8

(a) "Be bothered I annoyed I troubled by"

E.g.' t 't ? , L .t 5 -/J~b 7L tJ cha


Damn! She's impossible!

5 -/J ~ b 7L is the vulgar form of L J:: 5 -/J>tJv'o


L J::
(b) "There is no other way," "it can't be helped. II (See G4.3.)

9. p. 3
" ... and what not," "and the like." -? -C is the abbreviated form
of t v' "'.) -c ("saying ... ")
E g ., -: -: k= JJSf Ade' G' '* t.: g i!Uc' {ii} tc' "'.) -c' *7J tJ -: c!:: <'' Gv \ ' :to .<S, <7::di "'.) -c
Even Mom [knows that] if she invites [her friend here ] it'll be a chore,
with dinner and what not.

10. P 3
Even Mom [knows that] .. it'li be a chore, with dinner and wha t not.
After :to.<S, <JStc'"'.) -c the expression ;b-/J>-:::i-Cv'~di-ftc is deleted.
It is implied. The listener reads the impltcation from the context.

11. p. 3

"It is / should be," "it should be." is more polite


than t:. ~ tJ v'-/J'o
E g., '*
v' v' t:. ~ ch D -tt Iv -/J>, ,@, r -/J> ~-Ct.: 5 t a:
~ -C :to t 0 v' t;::, tt_ Dt.: -/J> "'.) t.: Iv -C: L J::
5' j0fi3: ~ /vo
It's all right. Your mother probably wan ted to show [her friend] the
house her son had built.

v'v' t:. ~ch D '*it


/v-/J>, ch Iv tJ t;::, :;:1v-z: v' G -:::i L ~ Q lvtc'-/J> Go
Since she's so happ y, it's all right.
which can be:
(a) a question posed to solicit confirma tion, i.e ., "It is . .. , isn't it?
(b) an indirect assertion (i.e., "it is I should be ... ")

12. c /vtJ?ilfifm'IJ~A.-:::i-Cv'Q-/J>lifjv'-Clt-tJv'to ~-?-CQJ:. 5 tJ1tlv-C:1tA.-?-C t.:G , if.v't -:


~lHt tJ v, c!:: o P. 4
"[We need to] ask her what she has packed in there. If there's

- 291-
LESSON 8

something that might spoil, [we need to] open it right away."

Af ter lif]v\-Cl:f-t.i:v\c and l~rHtt.i:v\ c the phrase lt\~JfJ:v\ [we need


to] has been deleted. It is implied.

13. p. 4

"I'm afraid it's the case that," "I hope it isn't the case that."
t. ~ t.i: v\tC.'6 5 t.i: cf> is the same as t. ~ f! v\-c." !__, J: 5 tJ. 71:_
but is less polite and is used more often by men.

E g , i: 2: fp, 10 ,5, <6 .:. .:. I.::. f -') c v \ 0 -'J I{) I) t. ~ f! v \ tC.' 6 S fJ. cf> o
Oh no-- I hope it's not the case that Mom's planning on staying here
permanently.

*~~ /\n;E;nt.:A..,
t. ~ t1.1t\-C' L- J: sh. *-0
I hope you didn't forget to put in the letter.

14. k I) 9 0 A., t. ~ fJ. \r \ p.4

"One shouldn't do a thing like ... "


Eg. , It\ -'J i: -c v \ 0 -'J 1t I) tc. fJ. A., -C, i:J n> 2: v] -C 1t lif] v \ t.: I) 9 0 A., t. ~ fJ. v \ -') -Co
[I was told that] I should never, even at gunpoint, do such a thing
like ask [the question] "How long are you staying?"
(Cf. i=in>2:v1-Ct literall y means "even i f my mouth splits open,"
but it is used idiomatically here to mean something like "no matter
what happens.")

The polite form of

You shouldn't go to the movies on your way home from school.

15. p.4
"Eventually yo ur mother's intentions will also become clear to us."
Before ;b;;?>0:bJ:, :bf.: L,f;:i'.)I.'.:. is deleted. The nus" to whom Shino's
intentions will become clear are Tomoko and Kaname.

16. p. 4
"If you act so sweet, [she'll] drag out [her stay forev er]."

-292-
LESSON 8

The complete sent ~n ce would be something like the following:

17. I . . tdt I p. 5
(See G4.24.)

Eg , <
~ t ~ t v' t.: v' tc' vt v' -c n "".) -c 5 "".) -c n 1v 0) J:: < 0

Both Kaname and his wif e have told me to stay as long as I want to.

:to tFf ~ fJ. tc' vt f 5 f:'o


Please [take] as much as you like.

-r: ~ 9 tc' vt 0) -= c Id: L :t L J: 5o


I'll do as much as I can.

18. p.5
"[To do something] specially," "to take the trouble to."
E. g . , ff): -6 Iv 0) t.: 69 t=, ;b 2:'. ;b 2:,. -: 0) fill~-: L G ;t t.: Iv tc'i'j> G "".) -Co
[They've ]told me, "Since we built this room especially for you
[,stay on]."

Thank you so much for having taken the trouble to come out all this
distance.
As in the second example above, ;b~''b2:" is often used in a
formulaic expression of thanks.

19. p.5

Eg , t 5 f "".) ~ ""'rr "".) -c t 1 :to ffJ -6 1v ,


:to ffJ -6 1v J -r: 1-L 5 ~ -r: ~ tt 0 1v tc' t o) n 0

Yo u'r e now in a position where you can lead a pampered life whichever
place you go, and be treated like a queen.
'""('here means ;btl -C ("being called").
in this context is a description of Shina's care and
interests preceding those of everybody else.

20. P 5
"As good as," "it may we ll be said that," "no less than."

E. g, -= 0) 5 ~Id: , L 0) -6 .Iv' if> fJ. t.: lj> ~ -ct.: t :to Iv fJ. t.:-= ~ tc';b J:: 0

Shine, you as good as built this house yourself .

- 293 -
LESSON 8

p. 5
"Not know," "not be aware of." h7'.P-?i?~v'fJ:v' is the colloquial form of
hiP-?-Cfv\f J:v' The affirmative form is hiP-?-Cv'0o Both hiJ>-::J-Cv'0
and h iJ> -:i -C fj: v \ tJ 1t'. describe a state of knowing or not knowing something.
biJ> 0 and hiJ> GfJ: v', on the other hand, describe the potentialit y of
understandi ng.
E.g., ~t.: i:j 1.:.1J:, hiJ> -:i i:j ~ v' tJ v't;:;s 5 ~t ~ao
Kaname and his wife probably aren't aware of it, though.

;g- ti fiiJ 1.:. 1t b iJ> -:'.) i:j ~ 1t \ fJ: 1t \ fJ: Ji:> 0

You don't know anything.

hiJ>-:'.) -C 0 h J:: 5 o hiJ> -:i -C 0 iJ> G.: --E, .: Iv tJ fil5~t;: -:i -C Ji:> tJ t.: <TJt.: If> L::.o
Of course they know. It's precisely because they know that [they built]
this room for yo u.

22. ** p. 5
(See G2.5.)
E.g., *
.: IT) :!O*'l-:!1!.1t' Ji:> t.: ]__, -c":!O ;f# 2: ]__, -c 1t G "? -c 0
And she was good enough to let even me share these dishes.
:!O 1J\ :ii 1t \ * -r' i:j ~ Ji:> Iv 2:: l!*iJ~ 0

Even pocket money-- she thinks of everything, my son's wife.

23. p. 5
"Even pocket money-- she thinks of everything, my son's wife.
The word order is inverted here, and the phrase ht.:!TJ J:: ("gave to me") <
is deleted. I t is implied. The complete sentence would be l!*iJ~:!0 1J\:ilv'1 -r

24. p.6
"[Kaname' s] training of his wife has been good: The normal word
Out of context, this sentence is
ambiguous. It could mean either (a) "someone's training of his wife, "
or (b) "the wife's training of someone else."

- 294-
LESSON 8

25. ( fiiJ t ) C. t C Id: ) t.t- v' p. 6


(See G7 .11.)
fiiJ t ("nothing") is often accompanied by and emphasizes
C. t ii ftv' ("there is no need to ... at all . ")

Eg ' fiiJ 1J {{t ~ ~ ~ -C 0 C. t t.t- v' Iv t_: J: o


- - ;,-ti
You needn~t have waited for me at all.

fiiJ t -i:' Iv t.t- .,.,j, 5 f;:::_ 5 c. t t.t- v \ -c-[_, J: 5 0

You needn't speak like that, need you?

26. p. 7
[You. needn't get up] just because Morn's up." After fiiJt 2: an expression
like ~1J~~0C.tt.t-v'd:: ("you needn't get up") has been deleted. As
for 'b~ ~ ::J -C, see Gl. 16.

- 295-
LESSON 8

LESSON 8 NOTES ON GRAMMAR AND EXPRESSIONS II

WORD ORDER
Examples from this l essen:

i. ib ib, c<:. ""'r.f -:i -c rr < /v t1J, , t: 1v ts. t /v o P. 2


C ib ct;, 7c Iv ts. t Iv, c< "'-fif -:i -c D < Iv tcv'a )

2. l, t.: < -C 1J T ~ fJ.v'fvfc' J:., :iOfiif:> i? ~ Iv !J) r '/J> 5 0 2: < -Co p. 2


c 1_, t.: < -c ti , :to vi.ib i? ~ /v !J) r tJ ~ 5 0 2: < -c -c- ~ ts. v, /v tc l. a )

3. :tofiib i? ~ 1vtJ>!IX D t= 31Utvi.v'v'tc-:s 5 o :to1iib i? ~ fv !J) :to:g. 2: Iv ts.Iv tc'/J, G., P 2

c :tofi'ib i? ~ fv!J):JO~ 2: fvts.fvtc'/J, G. :tofXib i? ~ 1vt>!IX 0 t=*=hli.v ' v'tc0 5 o )

4. ts.fvtc. 7c!J)[~l!tv:t., P 2

c 7c!J)[~Jt1:t, ts.fvtc,, )
5. .:,"':)tPv'"? -:i -c < nh.1vtc0 5 ts.if:>, :to . s, . < 01=. ., P 3

( :to /5, < 6 1=' .:. "":)''/)> v\-'\=' -c < ht.: Iv tc' 6 5 fJ. ch
'? 0 )

6. 7c h fJ. G 7c 5 t :to '? L ~ 0 "(" I_, J: 5 ' fiflJ El 51' lJ> G v p. 4

C7c h ts. G 7c 5 t, fiflJ El 5:J'-'/J, G :to -:i t_, ~ 0T t_, J: 5a )

7. 7c Iv ts. .:. t ~ :b h t.: G , ~ -:i t ;j: t_, v' :~, v' ~ ts. 2: 0 :b J.. , :to J 2: Iv ,, p. 4

C :to J '6 Iv !:t, 7c Iv ts. .:. t ~ :b n t.: G, ~ -:i t ;j: t_, v , ,~, v , ~ ts. 2: 0 :b J:: a )

8. v'v' C:. ~ ib t) ~ -tt fv'/J ibfv ts. t.:::;}fv Tv' G -:i L, ~ 0 fvtc'/J, Ga p. 4

(;b ,fvts.t= :m: 1v-c-v'G-:i L, ~0fvtc' '/J>G, v't, ,C:.~ibtJ~i:tfv'/J>o )

9. iUHil=rr<!J)t.:::tfEf\7J>'/J>'/J>0tc05'/J,G-:i-C, :to :. "':) '/J,v'~-cT?~ibfvt , ~'/J>o p. 5

C j1,tflll= D < !J) t= t fEK:n>;O>'/J> ~ tc-:s 5 '/J>G -:i -C, ~ '/J>:to .:. "':)'/J, v' ~Ti?~ ib Iv ta )

10. ;t6(~'/J:;l;\l;\!J)J:_, :to~2:fv!J),_, p. 6

c :to~2:fv!J)~w'/J>v'v ' !J)J::,, )

- 296-
LESSON 8

As the examples above illustrate, inversion of clauses may occur just


as readily as inversion of subjec t an d object (and other noun phrases) or of
subject and p r e di cate .
In Japanese, the clause expressing cau se, reason, or condition usually
precedes the clause expressing consequence, conclusion, or result; but this
order is occasionally reversed .

SPEECH STYLES (Men's speech and women's speech)

In this segment Kaname says i:J;Z-:::i, L .t 5tJ~b:ZtJcb (p.3). This b:Z


is a shift of the / nai / to [ne e ] in a kind of li a ison; but quite distinct
from such abbreviated forms like reba ---* ryaa, and dewa - jaa. [Nee] is so
rude in its connotations that students are advised aga inst using it.

- 297-
LESSON 8

LESSONS 8 NOTES ON SOCIO-CULTURAL BACKGROUND

1. Hanko onegaishimasu (Your seal, please)

Hanko is hanko with the o lengthened. Han means "seal;" ko has no


meaning.
In Japan a seal is used in all cases where a signature is necessary in
the West. (About the only time a signature is valid in Japan is at the
Immigration Office.) Three types of seals are in use in modern Japan, and
some Japanese carry all three on their persons. These are: 1) the Jitsuin
(lit., "true mark") used for official and legal documents; the family and
given names are usually written in the ancient Chinese seal characters;
2) the ginko-in ("bank mark"), which is used in bank transactions; only the
last name is carved, and the seal may be used by another person authorized to
do so; 3) the sanmonban ("three-penn y seal"), bought at any stationery store
and used, as in this sequence, in minor transactions, like the acknlowledge-
ment of goods delivered.
As seals are as legally binding as signatures in the West, the Japanese
never entrust them to persons other than family members or a supervisor.
Their importance as evidence in judicial matters is ranked in the order given
above. Normally the jitsuin is locked up for safekeeping.

2. Nanda sono taido wa (You watch your manners!)

An expression used when the speaker has sensed a less than adequate
amount of respect in another person's attitude, it is commonly directed by
a father toward his children. The c ritic need not give reasons for his
displeasure; he usually ignores his inferior's justification or arguments
even if they are germane (particularly if they are proposed by children).
This sequence illustrates beautifully the relationship between a man in a
superior position with his inferior.

3. Majime ippo no komuin; yasugekkyu (a sobersided bureaucrat; low wages)

Japanese society is on the whole bureaucratic in outlook, with


university students opting for jobs in national, prefectural, and municipal
offices. The bureaucrat is accorded a deference that is withheld from the

- 298-
LESSON 8

whitecollar worker, even if it is the latter who keeps the economic wheels
turning. The fact that the centralized state itself exerts great control
over private enterprise may account for this preference. The image of the
bureaucrat is one of a diligent worker exerting himself on behalf of the
public weal, satisfied with low wages in exchange for status. There is
actually about a 20,000 difference in the beginning salaries of a bureau-
crat and a salaried man in private companies, and a total of a ten million
yen difference in the lifetime salaries of the two. Yet, i n the annual exams,
for every upper echelon position within the bureaucracy, there are fifty
applicants, with a large number of the cream of the graduates of "ivy
league " universities applying. A professor in a private university will
often take a position in a national unviersity even if it means a cut in pay.

4. Musuko ni morau yori yoppodo ureshikatta (I was much happier receiving


[th e money from Tomoko] than from my son)
In this sequence, Kaname's mother is boasting about h er son and his
wife to a friend, but she twists the truth a bit. When Tomoko gave her
mother 30,000, she made it quite clear that the sum had come from Kaname.
The mother- in- law tells other little white lies like "My daughter- in-law
even gives me spending money" and "Both Kaname and my dau ghter- in-law insist
I stay with them as long as I want to." By pretending that she is welcome
when she knows she is not, and by praising her daughter-in-l aw and thereby
enhancing her own stock in the eyes of others, Shino Takahira solicits the
deference of her friend and maintains her self-respect.

5. Tenpura oredake ka (tenpura only for me?)

Kaname delivers this line when, at dinner, he realizes that his


wife has served tenpura only to him. Being a modern woman, Tomoko's
statement that she isn't hungry may be taken at face value, but in an
ear li er day, the housewife, out of a sense of economy and frugality, wo uld
not have shared such a luxury dish like tenpura. She might do so only if
h er husband insisted, but she would usually wait until after dinner and t hen
eat leftover scraps.

- 299-
LESSON 9

LESSON 9 VOCABULARY LIST

1. ,: 0) ~ tJ. f!JO) * g~atR-c-, * C: * * ~"".:>Vt -C *Bfi' LJ.: g~11J 1:: l'i, 9H~ ~ "".:> ~t *it lvo ~ C:
~ 7 / 7-. ~ ~ 7 :/ 3 / 0) '"' - ;_;, tc. ~t ~ Jf\ L., -C :to ~ , t To t.: C: ft l;f, C T - 1 - 1 o ) f'i,

1. * )(j/,/G.fr absence of the father writer


~~;,-~ ... ~"'

undoubtedly, definitely -::i p -:J.. p l y ing under foot

** ~
-tt'lt
figure, form ffJ.K t.: G l_, -C ii!VJ
<b-l!:)j.1' r.t.'te,
< to work by

** ilt!: f;:: conversely the sweat of his brow


~-~<

** Ii t the more. . . the more * tfvtp Don't give me that!

the sense of its existence good-for-nothing

* C C:v'5 ) ~15- ib~;b0 to respect


If if>V>
th~re are such cases
be hopeless, useless
(in which)
(_} [_,(_} [_, (: palpably part

(T-5-2) 2. * 2:..0 ~ ft tor v,


can' t help but ...
* ~T 0 t;:: (T-5-2)
J: 5
* * ti\:t!f, situation
* * Ji'.ff:~ C: 0 to take the responsibility
-!!:~IC"-' 1.&::h*-C 0 be utterl y exhausted
?;!J> 11.
prerogatives, privileges
as a ...
* -t tor :to tor~ ffl frank/ open/
ilA,L:.i'
candid feelings ** ~F'ffi'I:: (T-5-2)
(} L:.i '
* * Ji'.ff:~ sense of responsibility * ii~E8f:: conceptually
-l!:~K"-'t"-'

51vC: emphatically, tremendously the master of the


house
fif'StlT to bring front and center
~ ti.
naturally, of its own
jfj3 L.. "".:> }J 0 to force on, impose upon accord

to exaggerate everyday

-300-
LESSON 9

n:tc. 1-:i Ji'- .,,s~ 0 ;t v'


It>
behavior' deportment to examine, survey

to look up to, respect 3. (T-5-1)

expectation, confidence, * Kff~tJ .: c!:: 2::- it f;f simply stated


trust
camera object,
photographic object
to respond to

?P:. ltli" ~ r T pronounce j udgernen t, a dorable, sweet


~?~~ <~ arbitrate
it"'.) tc.htc. sweet, coquettish

in moments of crisis starving


suddenly, unexpectedly look of the eye s
appear gleam, sparkle

__t t.= fil: L- -Cv' 0 El --::i ~ (/) .:ye "'.) tc. -r


'~ ( 0\1'
to be in a superior lb T.>"/J c.
a girl with a sparkle
position
in her eyes
to show, indicate **~'WU actual example
idler, loafer 7 r; 7 '7 t.= tJ ;;s frivolous,
superficial, silly
to take it easy

Morn, you take over/ ~~2::-fif --::> to have a family


I'll leave it all up tJ -Cit> ~

to you fil~lJtc' it is elliptical


slap a label on oneself be arbitrary

(T-1-7) to have dealings with

to abandon, surrender ** 11!~i:J:t i*: C (J)A)


-1!"4'9>' Ii T> I:
to hand over (people who) grew up
during the war
without a care
in ohter words
<" 5 tc. G ~ .:. good-for-nothing husband
* ~~~0 to survive
conversation will take
another tack to lose the war
with respect to,
become a father toward

real feeling rendering of a service

f ilrn, movie concept

-301-
LESSON 9

* it 5 (T-3-3) the Taisho Era (1912-1925)

freedom the so-called

i U$-t".Q to deprive, to strip away * $~!Ml~ riots on campus


l'i(lf.? 7l'(,t/vl: 5-t-5

mentalit y , cognition 5. 1rf~~~ loss of authority

::*::~ t t f.' t the husband and wife suddenly


h5h together
journalistic
circles
* ~~Ji;O>;O>tJ 5 dreams come true, ** VTI:rr a fad
:1J ,\,7)1v hopes are realized !J~5t.5

** lf < to play on r :X: J:,


~s
~ tJ t.:i:H$ 16,...::if.: a
?i
J
"Father, You Were Strong,"
the title a popular
/~1 .:r..1v Ferdinand Beyer, composer prewar song.
and compiler of texts for
a piano methods course r :!@~. \W, )(JJ;L ~:X:J
*
[; L-!v 7l"r7.t!J ,,, t; i>'-1> t.:

4. * ;(pfPJ;O> or something earthquake, thunder, fire,


the old man--the four
** -i:' (f) t (f) himself, themselves, things children stood
etc. in fear of
(T-5-1)
00 a:; 8"J ;i: f~ national will farmer
t. <.ij./v<: ~ "' L~

OO*:i:~ consciousness of the * #!\;$)(~ uneducated and illiterate


t.? 7l "' L~ tr 7li( ~Iv~ 5
state
unable to defy

* * ~~ -~ views, opinions ::R ~ (/) j;lj ~t ~ ~ -c v' t.:


"' H"lv -ClvV 5 tr.-t -'.

[Be] had got the aid of


the emperor
life ought to be this way
7(~ ~ JJ[,8fL with the emperor at
-c1v05 -Gr5-Clv
absoluteness the apex

* *lk!~M
,,, -CV>-ltV>7l?
family life to deny the self
the last fortress the state

(T-5-4) * .. f~*=tt--t.Q
Ii? [.,
to serve

delicious things ** :frif--t.Q (T-5-1)


-tlv<!"V>

6. lffJ~ microcosm
7)ifc.

{@~lf. drunkard
the generation o! the first <!l't v
decade of hte Showa Era i!::'.' 5 L J: 5t tJ v' (T- 1-6)
(1926-35)

-302-
LESSON 9

ne'er-do well, salary, wages


reprobate
to earn
set up on a pedestal,
revere LfviJo.G completely, totally

* {~Wi'.B"J1tl@Z traditional authority * JChtJflJ(l):f-; an earlier society


-r:1u.: 5-i:~111u i,o V> -tr/u 4 v V>

on the part of the state :w~ brains

grant, bestow, confer Efl~ft(l)Ji:,0~ a capable,


v V> L-i 5 ;,-,:c. resourceful man
* Ar~i8"J1;:.1J:: as a man
~M"f lu"t ~

strange aspects ~~(7)-J:!t W- the world as it


C 5 V> -It v V>
should be
i:p ,c,, core, nucleus
~5L/v

:tfv'.:::. t trouble * *~~(7)-J:!tJf. the ideal world

to speak ~Jf(7)~fj-~ textbooks on moral


L-t9>5 L.!v ~ x5v L.i training/ ethics
~ El
AD
(7) rin= ti: ir' -c
1~ ;,-
to seat [someone] in front
the image of the father
of one
in general terms head of a household
to have behind one insignificant,
(lit., to carry on one's piddling
back)

on one hand <,, 5 t.: G tJ iii incompetent side


AD!u of a personality
* ~f!J t-; prewar society
-it fv-ttA. L.1'vV>

* * r.m~, 1
~ lu t<V>
=-t 0 to take up as a problem;
side of. .. to have the spotlight
high rate of growth thrown on
(T-5-1) ufj'J'I'~ sympathy
1' <L. l E 5 L:x5

*I~ factories 7. * * ffl,~ (T-1-2)


(.' L:l5 VJ' /u (.; -:::>

* ::t ) inconsistencies
"111.:<9>/u
the working conditions
at the site * -2; tJ contain, be full of
... <
change completely ifitJ?."t0 to look at something
*
~x< L. directly
~~"HfJ supervisorial labor
vlu P <>5 E5

** ~~ machinery ** -*-* step by step

keep a surveillance, to step up and over


observe (.

-303-
LESSON 9

J:: ~ t (/) the good, the ideal * * I:::. C L.. i,J> ) T ~- ti v'
* l:::.:lli:"':i. < to approach,
be no more than
~ get close to
the entirety,
the whole
process, course

-304-
LESSON 9

LESSON 9. NOTES ON GRAMMAR AND EXPRESSIONS I

1. /pt v' 5 C: p. 1

"While it may be thought ... but ," "it may be said t hat ... but."
It is usuall y followed by a clause that ne ga tes the preceding
statement e.g., ;c5 t,~tJ<-C ("it isn't so"). 7J,-:::>-Cv'5 (: is a
colloquial form for 7J, (: \r' 5 C: .

E.g., ~7J~~ft.toev'7J,GXffeJFFtE7J,-:i-Cv'5 t ;c5 t.~toe<-Co


While it might be thought that the father is absent because he is
not seen, this is not so.

While it might be said that Hanako is sweet because she is a girl,


actually, she is rather the opposite.

p. 1

(a) X fl~ Y may mean "the more X, t he more Y."


E.g. , ~~~it toe"'' t (7) vl c tFtE~ 7J~ JtJ 0 -:i -c ~15- 7J~ JtJ 0 lv-z"-t J:,,
There are cases wh ere the less a thing is visible, the more we feel
its presence.

-:. 5 v' 5 t O)f;tb, i!vth 1i t11r'vl cv'v'lv-z"T J:o


rn1en it comes to this sort of thing , the older it is the better.

(b) " Extent~" "degree."


X fl [ Y means "Y to the extent / degree of X," "as Y as X,"
"so Y that X. "
E. g . ' fl t 1El (: ~ t, fl c
tc. 2: < Iv*
~ fi!i: "'? -c v\ *T 0

I too have as many books as he does.


;cnvl c,c.,,1toe G, ~~ L, -C lf.toe 2: v'o
If you are so worried, try calling [him] .

< *
vf 7J; tf -c' c hvl c i59!i L, -C ~ tc. TJ>, fm A I~ f;t b lJ' 0 v'o *
No one has any idea how much I've suffered till now.

;c (7) ~ toe G t 5 ~ ~ 0 fl c lifl 1r' tc. J: "


I've heard th a t story so often I'm sick of it.

-305-
LESSON 9

The negative form X fl c Y fJ:v' means "not so Y as X."


E.g., :f.lfi J. U - i l c:!O~fi} t. ~ fJ:v'
I am not so rich as Mary.

:; 3 < <
:dl c J: fiJJ Jdi "' r1 "' J: o
No one works h~rder than John.

~nvl c~ft L,v' ~HBXviW'Glvtc -=. t ti>t1v'J:o


I have never read a more difficult thesis.

El 5tti:; ~~ <tJ --:i tc. 1v t:: t v' s ~ :ti~ 1:1 1__, -c 1__, ~ *- l~f. -:. nvl c~ tJ-:. t ri tJ "' 1v -e-t J: o
Once [the father] has put up a sign that reads "I've become powerless,"
what could be a softer position for him?

(c) "About," "approximately."

I studied for about three houes yesterday.


T F. }V fl c~ !__, -C)Jiift ~it Iv ;6>o
Could you lend me about ten dollars?

3. p. 1

"That is ... ," the gerund noun "the -ing." --:i -Cv' S O)fi is the
colloquial form for t "' s 0) vi, and functions as an emphasizer.
E.g. Si? 1=r;f;6> D v'Q t "' S O)fi}!JffitJ-=. t TT a
Staying home all the time is boring.

{;ft
-VVU<
1__, tJ "' t "' s 0) ri, oo '* 1= "' 11' -:.
Not having an unbalanced diet is good for your health.
t t:: J: Q

t v' S O)fj: is often followed by /p Gtc ("because").

Xt v' S 0) Ii Y ;6> G fc' means "that X should be so is because Y," or


"the reason why Xis Y is .... "
E.g., t&W" "i6'EJ5J'O)-Tf~~-~vtlvbbv'$&1=.A.ntJ ~ ~ tJ GtJv'--:i-Cv' s O)fi,
~T Q 1= 3U'i!li6:; S -S r= .@ tJ v'lv tc.7'.J> Gt v' S -:. t -c-t ho

The reason why "the education mama" exerts so much effor t in putting
her children in [the right] schools is, in short, because of the fact
that the father isn't at home, don't you see.

~D-Ti6:;fiJ.Ji6>hfifJ G tJ v' t v' S O)fi, ~;6;;g1t ~tc ti, G-c-t a


1.z1 ~"-'

The reason Tomoko has to work is that her husband is lazy.

- 306 -
LESSON 9

p. 1

"How shall I put it?", "how shall I say it?", etc. This is a pause
filler uttered when the speaker ponders over the right expression.
There are a variety of such fillers, ranging from the formal and
polite to the informal and plain: fJ. Iv -C v' 5 (T), fJ. Iv -C v' 5 (T) '/:)> L G.
t.t.lv-Cv' 5 (T)'/:J>b,
c ? v' ? lv-C L .t 5 '/:J>.
tJ Iv t:. $ L'~ L .t 5 '/:J>.

E.g., xm(T)t.: -c :t *- ~BJmtJ>. =5. w-cv' 5 (T)'/:J>b, 5J-(T)~@:t1.@1;11f-ct1. <"?-ch.,


-t ~i>-
7c (T) ff:@i;t;> G. t.: -C :t *- 8::- 5 Iv t f i? t:l L, -C, 7c L, -C :fEl3 L,--:> }J t.: I) , ~il.& Lt.: I) L, -C 0 t
c. 1>.t 5

I think that a t times the mother, how shall I put it, not out of her
natural feelings, but from a sense of responsibility, will apply
the father's principles, and will force them on her child, or blow
them up all out of proportion.

Young people nowadays, how shall I say it, don't much care about
others.

s. ** 1 . . . t =0 t;> ~ Q I
p. 1

"There are points where," "at some points," "at times."

E.g., BJffeJltJ>t.:-C :t *- ~:J'El3 L,--:>ftt.: IJ ~il.& L,t.: I) L -Cv'~ t =0'/J>iYJ 0 Iv C ~ fJ.v''/:J' t ,~,
51v-z'TJ:o
I think that a t times the mother forces the principles on her
child or blows them up all out of proportion.

1EU;t, t 6 ~ 6 ~H~,f~ fJ. l'.J T~-0 t =;st;> iJtJ IJ :t Tba


He sometimes gets too en thusiastic, don't you think?
t:.=6, as shown in these examples, does not have its basic, literal
meaning of "place." A similar use of t =0 is seen in the following.

E.g., 7c(JJr..../vtJ>. :tot L,6v'c =6-z'9bo


That is an interesting point, isn't it?

7cnt;>fW(T)v'v' t =6tc.'o
That's his good point.

- 307-
LESSON 9

6. p. 1

"I don't believe that ... ," "don't tell me ... "
emphasizes the speaker's disbelief.

Eg , ff 7.K t.: G L -C fll)JJ v' -C .Q t Iv iJ> o


I don't believe he's burning the candle at both ends.
;f- Jv :/ .:r.. tJ Iv -C .'.& it .Q t Iv -c-t" iJ>. El ilii .Jfi:t.: -:i -C .'.& it tJ 1t '0) ~= o
Don't tell me you can afford a Porsche when you can't even buy a bicycle.

7. I ~- Q a: *- tJ 'v, I p. 2
(See G.5.8)
Eg , ~ ~::. 1ffl -:i -C ;JU.: -:i -C :::i P -d Pit~- .Q ~ it fJ v' J:: 5 tJ ~ 5 v' 5 :tk be -C-t" J:: tlo
The circumstances are such that even when he comes home, he's forced
to loll around the house.

8. P 2
"Once one has done .... "
E g ., I 3: i? ~ Iv ii: tr J:: J t -:i -C L'1 it f;:f, ~ L -C t 5 El % iJ; ~~ <fJ -:i t.: Iv t.: t v' 5 ~
:tJjZ' ~ ll L -C L '1 it ff, .:: n fi ~ ~ tJ .:: t Ii fJ v'Iv -c-t- J:: o
Once he's said, "Mama, I leave everything up to you," and once he's
hung out the sign that reads "I've become powerless," what could be
a softer position for him?

Jt it -C L '1 it Ii AA~ -c- t" J:: o


Once you've memorized it, it's easy .

9. ""(''Lt.: iJ> I P 3
" Was it ... ?", "I believe," "probably ." When the speaker uses
"""(" LJ.:iJ> in this way, he is not asking a question of the
listener but ratherof himself when his memory isn't reliable.
E.g., .v'-::>~""C'LJ.:iJ>. t 5-T::Cj:.<''Gv'fiJ""C'Lt.:iJ>o
When was it, I wonder ... probably about ten years ago ...

It was last week, I guess, when Mr. Yamada came.

- 308 -
LESSON 9

10. p. 4

"[The thin g ] its e l f," "the very."

E.g.' =f~{-0) t OJ/i>~'v'lv l: ~ft.< -C


It isn't that the children themselves are in the wrong .

7... ~ ~ --t OJ t OJ v;:t-t n vJ:


c 10 t t., 0 < tt. 1r' /v -c--t tJ:;
The story itself isn't so interesting, but ...

11. vttc p.4


"A unit of ten."
E.g.'
The father of the genera tion [born in] the first decade of the
Showa era.

Oh, I've misplaced one figure [in my calculations].

12. ** . . . t \t \ 5 0) f;:t p. 5

"What I mean by that is ... ," "for," "because." Used as a sentence


initial, this expression indicates that the sentence following it is
the reason for the preceding remark. The polite or formal form of
t v' 5 0) IJ:: is t $ L.: *. -j-0) tJ::o

Eg ' -C OJ tL A ra9 t v' 5 t OJ Id:, 51' ~ ~ t= L, -C :.:R ~ t 00 ~ f=~ tt L, tt. vt h vift. G fJ. v'
t v' 5 t :% 0) $ -c" :~f:tE L, tc b \t -c".
What I mean by that is that men in general existed in a society
where they subordinated (lit.: negated) themselves and had to serve
the emperor and the nation.

t $ t., *. T OJ t;:t-C-T ti. ~ fiJ OJ 3C ~ vd: 1ifid1> t= ~ 1.J> -:i tc Iv -c--t J: o


Wha t I mean by that is that fathers were [undoubtedly a ( powerful
[presence ] before the war.

13.
** . . . t \t \ 5 J: 5 tt. t 0) p. 5

(a) "Things like," "things such as," "a kind of thing like."
x t \,t\ 5 J: 5 tt. t 0) is used in reference to a particular kind of thing,
and giving X as an example of it. -::J-C fJ. ti 0) is an abbreviated
colloquial form for t v' 5 J: 5 tt. ti 0)0

-309-
LESSON 9

E g., /7 ~ .A<" .A t ii> lE Jj t v' 5 J: 5 tJ t Cl) l"i. r~ Cl) t.: 6b t= dt>'~ Iv -C-'9 J: o
l..!5~'"?
Holidays like Christmas and New Year's exist for children.

::ili Cl) :5 v' A Ii, .A - '/ ":) *


-C tJ t Iv l'i il0 IJ ~ tJ v' Iv t.:' ba
Young people nowadays don't wear things like suits.

(b)"Something like," "what might be called." In this case the phrase


is used when the speaker is critical of the element to which
the phrase has been added.

E.g.'

He was constantly demonstrating to me a force that was not t o


be encroached upon.

( p. 6 )
What might be termed the way of working at one's job has changed
completely.

( p. 6)
There's too much of what might be called "the ideal world."

14. * * P 5

X t'.v' 5 t,Cl) means "X in general," and is used to make a general statement
about x. ":) -c ( t ) Cl) is the colloquial form of t v' 5 t Cl)o
*
E.g. , Arl39 t v' 5 t Cl) l'i, El 5J-a:: 1!\U= L- -C 7~JlU:: 00 t= ~ f L- tJ ~thl;f tJ I? tJ v'a
Men in general had to subordinate (lit: negate) themselves and seave
the emperor and the nation.

Mankind, in general, is merely at a stage where we all are trying


to approach the good while facing up to the contradictions [in our
n a tur e] and overcoming them one by one. p.15.6.

15. p.6
"An aspect," "Phase," "a side," "respect."

E.g. , :fl Cl) :to~ t. r= t ti. A rl3i iJ r= l'i f v' .<5~ 1v :ton, L..JJ iii n> c10 ":) r.: tJ c10, t ,~, 5 /v t.:- ~t n
Eta
I'm convinced my father also had a great many strange aspects as a
human being.

-310 -
LESSON 9

In one respect [fathers] do seem to have lost t heir a uthorit y.


c O") .E!JJ!H.= LJ;: ~ -c. (' 5 t;: G f.J: ]ID L ;6> Jl it Gn f.J: \t' b vt --C-T J:: tJ. 0

All the husbands are put in a position where all they can do is
show their indolent side, don't you see.

16. p.6

"Compared with ."

E.g.' ~f!J:t~ t.=.tt~ Q t. T~O") {J!Jji()> GT Q t L iY:> bit f.J: Iv t: ~ f.J: v'i6> f.J:o
Compared wi th prewar society [and] from the children's point of view,
I believe they're happier .

.:t_-0")~.!J' O") l&f>~ ~ h-tc v' t.J: Y ffe.Jl t.= .tt ~ Q t . t: O") 1:!JJ1H.: L tc ~ -C. -!\" ~ Ii D <,, 5 tc G t.J: !ID
L tP 52. it Gn tt 1r' v vt -r' -t c1: tJ. ~ o
Compared with th e image of the fa ther in the textbooks on moral
education, all the husbands are put in a position where all they can
do is show their indolent side, don't you see.

17. p.6

"If we look at it from the side of ... "

If we look at it from the children's point of view, they're happier.


::t:ft~O"){Jl!Ji6>GTQC v'6v'6~i$Ji6~ilt:>Qi6>t Lh t.J:v 'vt c
If we look at it from Taro's side, he might have a lot of complaints , .. . .

18. p. 6
(See G2.15; GS.l; G9.4.) This expression is often used when the
speaker names a particular thing or phenomenon but is not q:uite
satisfied wi th his description .
-::::i-Cv'v';;::Ti6> is a colloquial form for cv'v''$:.Ti6'o
E.g.,~. ~~O")tlt:J1'.~-Cv'v'~Ti6>. ~~O")t!tJj!.~-Ct.J:tO")iJ~, i!t:>OT~-~ Ltl o
[In their minds] there are too many of what might be called "utopian"
worlds or of what might be called "ideal worlds."

- 311-
LESSON 9

19. ** p. 6

"In the case of," "also," "for ... also." I::::. l., Tc_~ -C
is the colloquial
form of . l::::. L.,-C t 0
It also functions as a kind of topic marker.

E. g. ' .!:::'.0) E!JJIH::::. l., tc. ~ -c, ~~ vi f) <'' 5 t.::. G tJ ]ID l., j.:. Jl it G:hJJ v\b vt-c."9 J:: td:. 0

All the husbands are put in a position where all they can show is their
indolent side, don't you see.

-c. j0 t L 6 < tJ v' Iv t, "" tJ v, o


9;o T- 1::::. Lt.::. -:: >
For Tomoko too, I'm sure it is unpleasant.

-:. OJ r"', ~ 1::::. L -C t , ll5'.I t, -: .!::: tJ~ ~ .Q Iv t, "" fJ. v' o


I believe the same thing can be said with respect to this problem, too.

< 1:: :. Ltc. -:: > -C/f~L"Ttl o


~~1::::.rr
Going out shopping is also inconvenient.

20. p.7

"Be no more than," "only," "be nothing but."


E.g., ~~t OJl::::.iJI--:5 _: 5 tT.Q~~l::::.L.,tJ:.-f-~' t.,tv' 0
[Mankind] is merely at a stage where we are attempting to arrive at the good.
-t:" :h.Jj: ~ fJ. .Q {&~I::::.~ ~fJ. V 'o
t!-lt?
That's no more than a hypothesis.
]_,j.:. is often used to emphasize the meaning of "only."

21. p. 6

"To call a matter into question," "make an issue of," "to dispute."

f1=1, ~I::::. 2: h .Q is the passive form for f1=1~ ~ l::::.-t .Q 0

Eg , X m, ~ -C OJ l'i, ~ G <f1=1, ~ I::::. 2: h .Q vt .!:::'. t


[The matter of the role of] the father is often called into question,
but. ...

I don't believe it needs to be made an issue.

- 312-
LESSON 9

LESSON 9 NOTES ON GRAMMAR AND EXPRES SIONS II

DELETIONS

Examples from this lesson:

i. 1-fO):R~tJ c1;r, ~ c ~ ) ~~~ it tJtJ' -:i tdtn c t, ibO)f?tE~ li c~ k 1:: ) v- L v- Lt


~ t. G h tc. ""C' L J: a p. 1

2. C XfJHi ) ff1.Ktc. G L -C jj}jv' -C 9 t lvt/> -:i -C, <,, 5 tc. G ::i' P -::i P L -C 9 t. ~ tJ v'ti' -:i -C C~

v':t L-C) bo C XJlO)) :t 5 v' 5 t-:. 67-1" C -=ff~ 1=) ~;{. i? ~ 5 lv""C'Tti' Gba C:t 5 v'
5 t -:.07-1>) ~;{.tc.G, ~hit, -T~t--'tlvtJI= C X!l~) ~t;& L;tit!vJ:ba p. l

3. C Xtflli) 1&'.h*-C-C:t Ttl> Gbo P 2

4. -* 0) JtJ 9 t. -:i -c 0) liitv' A tJ Iv t.:' t, ~ti& L tJ ~ ~ "' vt tJ v'lv ti -:i -Cv' 5 J~U= C -T~liffl:

tfll=)~;{.Gh-C~;t Ltc.7-l >Gba p. 2


5. --t.-L-Cb, (bO), WtJ,,:_ 5 C A,O))(~JHi ) ~~~-:i-Cv ' :tTba p. 2

6. C A, 0) :::75~ Ii ) c 5 L -C ,:, Iv tJ I= 7 '7 7 '7 f= tJ -:i -C ~ tc. 0) 7-1, tJ -:i -C -:. t ~ Cf.l Ii )
$;;{.tc. -=. t t1>ib9!v-C'T J:o p. 3

7. t.:'7-1, Gf.lli, ?6. A,O) J: 5 1=-00-C'li C XJlO)) :Ji~ti>tJ < tJ -:i tc. J: 5 1=~ ;{. 9 -:. O)i:j:if=
t bo p. 6

8. CX!ltv'50)fi)Fi:i~1'j[1if=~n9-=.t Cti>)tJv't.~tJv'ti'-:i-Cv'5 c-=.t""C""tb ) p.6

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LESSON 9

LESSON 9 NOTES ON SOCIO-CULTURAL BACKGROUND

1. Speakers at the roundtable discussion:

a. Sato Aiko: a novelist; a popular writer who wields a sharp scalpel


in depicting male-female relationships.
b. Urayama Kirio: movie director; specializes in psychological studies
of youth. His representative work is The Town with a Cupola.
c. Maruki Masaomi: principal of the Wako Academy; founder of one of
the few schools in Japan of the truly liberal arts type. Schools in Japan
are restricted by an incredible number of laws, leaving very little room
for flexibility, but at the Wako Academy, famous for its unique educational
policies, instruction is carried out, within permissible limits, with the
participation of the students themselves.

2. Tenno wa sugata o misenakatta (The emperor never showed himself)

From the Edo period (1603-1868) to the end of the war in 1945, the
emperor was considered a god and never mingled with the people. This was
especially true of the Taisho and of the present emperor, whose status was
warped by the mi.litary. They were deified to such an extent that there was
even a popular belief that if one cast one's eyes on these divine figures,
one went blind instantly.

3. Teishu o tateru (A wife looked up to her husband)

No matter how self-assertive a woman may be inside the home, she is


careful to conceal this outside it and will allow her husband to deal with
matters not directly connected with the household. This was considered a
virtue on the part of women and still exerts considerable force among the
young people even today.

4. Senchuha; Showa hitoketa (The wartime generation; the first decade of


the Showa era)

These are terms by which the generation born between 1926 and 1935
and who spent part of the war years in elementary and middle schools are
referred--the generation whose values were being formed during a crucial

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LESSON 9

period of growth and who were forced to shift gea rs drastically with the
end of the war. In their darker connotation, they mean th e generation that
suffered privations while at school during the war years and immediately
afterward. It is a curious fact that it is this generation that forms the
driving force behind the rapid postwar economic growth of Japan.

5. Chichiyo anata wa tsuyokatta (Father, you were strong.)

A line from a song that was popular during World War II .

6. Jishin kaminari kaji oyaji (earthquake, lightning, fires, the old man)

The four things most feared by women and chi ldren.

7. The pre -war role of the Japanese emperor

For nearly two generations, the Imperial Rescript on Edu ca tion, which
had been issued by the Meiji emperor in 1890, steadily became the tool for
the indoctrination of ultranationalism in the Japanese. By the start
of the 1930s it had been interpreted by the militarists in power as a docu-
ment glorifying the emperor in whose name they were to carry out an ex -
pansionist policy on the Asian continent and, ultimate l y, throughout the
world. During this period, the Japanese were taught to see th emselves as
forming a broad foundation for the nation with the emperor at the apex.
(See Robert K. Hall, ed., Kokutai no hongi, Cardinal Principles of the
National Entity of Japan, Harvard, 1949.)

In the postwar Constitution, the opening ar ticle reads: "The Emperor


shall be the symbol of the State and of the unity of the peop le, derivin g
his position from the will of the people with whom resides sovere ign power."

-
8. Kodo seicho (high-pitched economic growth)

The outbreak of the Korean War in 1950 began one of the asto unding
episodes in modern history--the postwar economic resurgence of Japan. This
remarkable growth, which continued up to 1976, when there was a deceleration
of that growth, was achieved in part by the protec tive umbrella of U.S.

-315-
LESSON 9

military power which allowed Japan to apportion less than ten percent of
its national budget to armament, by the cooperation of government and
industry, and by the productivity of the Japanese. (For an overall economic
history of Japan from 1868 to 1968, see William W. Lockwood, The Economic
Development of Japan, Princeton, 1970.)

9. Shushin (moral training)

Shushin is a general term for a kind of moral training course required


in schools from the Meiji era to the end of World War II. Based chiefly on
Confuction dogma, the training mainly regulated relationships within the home
and society between superior and inferiors and one's peers; provided inspira-
tional biographies of model Japanese' and glorified the imperial house.
The course itself was abolished after World War II, but its content is still
part of the mental baggage of the Japanese. A course called dotoku (morals)
has replaced shushin; its content is bland and innocuous.

-316-
ADVANCED SPOKEN JAP ANE SE
University of California
TONARI NO SHIBAFU vol. I ISBN 0-912966 - 23 - 8

1980- 3 fl 1 B ~fr

ft ~ FaiR#~
Frank T. Motofuji

Institute of East Asian Studies


University of California
Berkeley, California 94720
U.S. A.

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