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CHAPTER 10

Infinite Series

EXERCISE SET 10.1

1. (a) f (k) (x) = (1)k ex , f (k) (0) = (1)k ; ex 1 x + x2 /2 (quadratic), ex 1 x (linear)


(b) f  (x) = sin x, f  (x) = cos x, f (0) = 1, f  (0) = 0, f  (0) = 1,
cos x 1 x2 /2 (quadratic), cos x 1 (linear)
(c) f  (x) = cos x, f  (x) = sin x, f (/2) = 1, f  (/2) = 0, f  (/2) = 1,
sin x 1 (x /2)2 /2 (quadratic), sin x 1 (linear)
(d) f (1) = 1, f  (1) = 1/2, f  (1) = 1/4;
1 1 1
x = 1 + (x 1) (x 1)2 (quadratic), x 1 + (x 1) (linear)
2 8 2

2. (a) p2 (x) = 1 + x + x2 /2, p1 (x) = 1 + x


1 1 1
(b) p2 (x) = 3 + (x 9) (x 9)2 , p1 (x) = 3 + (x 9)
6 216 6

3 7 3
(c) p2 (x) = + (x 2) 3(x 2)2 , p1 (x) = + (x 2)
3 6 72 3 6
(d) p2 (x) = x, p1 (x) = x

1 1/2  1 1 1
3. (a) f  (x) = x , f (x) = x3/2 ; f (1) = 1, f  (1) = , f  (1) = ;
2 4 2 4
1 1
x 1 + (x 1) (x 1)2
2 8
1 1
(b) x = 1.1, x0 = 1, 1.1 1 + (0.1) (0.1)2 = 1.04875, calculator value 1.0488088
2 8

4. (a) cos x 1 x2 /2
2
(b) 2 = /90 rad, cos 2 = cos(/90) 1 0.99939077, calculator value 0.99939083
2 902

5. f (x) = tan x, 61 = /3 + /180 rad; x0 = /3, f  (x) = sec2 x, f  (x) = 2 sec2 x tan x;

f (/3) = 3, f  (/3) = 4, f  (x) = 8 3; tan x 3 + 4(x /3) + 4 3(x /3)2 ,

tan 61 = tan(/3 + /180) 3 + 4/180 + 4 3(/180)2 1.80397443,
calculator value 1.80404776
1 1/2  1
6. f (x) = x, x0 = 36, f  (x) = x , f (x) = x3/2 ;
2 4
1 1 1 1
f (36) = 6, f  (36) = , f  (36) = ; x 6 + (x 36) (x 36)2 ;
12 864 12 1728
0.03 (0.03)2
36.03 6 + 6.00249947917, calculator value 6.00249947938
12 1728
1
7. f (k) (x) = (1)k ex , f (k) (0) = (1)k ; p0 (x) = 1, p1 (x) = 1 x, p2 (x) = 1 x + x2 ,
2
1 1 1 1 1 n k
(1) k
p3 (x) = 1 x + x2 x3 , p4 (x) = 1 x + x2 x3 + x4 ; x
2 3! 2 3! 4! k!
k=0

397
398 Chapter 10

a2 2
8. f (k) (x) = ak eax , f (k) (0) = ak ; p0 (x) = 1, p1 (x) = 1 + ax, p2 (x) = 1 + ax +
x ,
2
a2 a3 a2 a3 a4 
n
ak k
p3 (x) = 1 + ax + x2 + x3 , p4 (x) = 1 + ax + x2 + x3 + x4 ; x
2 3! 2 3! 4! k!
k=0

9. f (k) (0) = 0 if k is odd, f (k) (0) is alternately k and k if k is even; p0 (x) = 1, p1 (x) = 1,
n
[2]
2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4  (1)k 2k 2k
p2 (x) = 1 x ; p3 (x) = 1 x , p4 (x) = 1 x + x ; x
2! 2! 2! 4! (2k)!
k=0
NB: The function [x] dened for real x indicates the greatest integer which is x.

10. f (k) (0) = 0 if k is even, f (k) (0) is alternately k and k if k is odd; p0 (x) = 0, p1 (x) = x,
[ n1
2 ]
3 3 3 3  (1)k 2k+1
p2 (x) = x; p3 (x) = x x , p4 (x) = x x ; x2k+1
3! 3! (2k + 1)!
k=0
2 ] = 1; by denition any sum which runs from k = 0 to k = 1 is called
NB If n = 0 then [ n1
the empty sum and has value 0.

(1)k+1 (k 1)! (k)


11. f (0) (0) = 0; for k 1, f (k) (x) = , f (0) = (1)k+1 (k 1)!; p0 (x) = 0,
(1 + x)k
1 1 1 1 1 1 n
(1)k+1 k
p1 (x) = x, p2 (x) = x x2 , p3 (x) = x x2 + x3 , p4 (x) = x x2 + x3 x4 ; x
2 2 3 2 3 4 k
k=1

k!
12. f (k) (x) = (1)k ; f (k) (0) = (1)k k!; p0 (x) = 1, p1 (x) = 1 x,
(1 + x)k+1

n
p2 (x) = 1 x + x2 , p3 (x) = 1 x + x2 x3 , p4 (x) = 1 x + x2 x3 + x4 ; (1)k xk
k=0

13. f (k) (0) = 0 if k is odd, f (k) (0) = 1 if k is even; p0 (x) = 1, p1 (x) = 1,


n
[2]
 1 2k
2 2 2 4
p2 (x) = 1 + x /2, p3 (x) = 1 + x /2, p4 (x) = 1 + x /2 + x /4!; x
(2k)!
k=0

14. f (k) (0) = 0 if k is even, f (k) (0) = 1 if k is odd; p0 (x) = 0, p1 (x) = x, p2 (x) = x,
[ n1
2 ]
 1
3
p3 (x) = x + x /3!, p4 (x) = x + x /3!; 3
x2k+1
(2k + 1)!
k=0

 
(1)k/2 (x sin x k cos x) k even (1)1+k/2 k k even
15. f (k) (x) = , f (k) (0) =
(k1)/2 0 k odd
(1) (x cos x + k sin x) k odd
[n
2 ]1
1  (1)k 2k+2
p0 (x) = 0, p1 (x) = 0, p2 (x) = x , p3 (x) = x , p4 (x) = x x4 ;
2 2 2
x
6 (2k + 1)!
k=0

16. f (k) (x) = (k + x)ex , f (k) (0) = k; p0 (x) = 0, p1 (x) = x, p2 (x) = x + x2 ,


1 1 1 
n
1
p3 (x) = x + x2 + x3 , p4 (x) = x + x2 + x3 + x4 ; xk
2 2 3! (k 1)!
k=1
Exercise Set 10.1 399

17. f (k) (x0 ) = e; p0 (x) = e, p1 (x) = e + e(x 1),


e e e
p2 (x) = e + e(x 1) + (x 1)2 , p3 (x) = e + e(x 1) + (x 1)2 + (x 1)3 ,
2 2 3!
e e e n
e
p4 (x) = e + e(x 1) + (x 1)2 + (x 1)3 + (x 1)4 ; (x 1)k
2 3! 4! k!
k=0

1 1 1 1
18. f (k) (x) = (1)k ex , f (k) (ln 2) = (1)k ; p0 (x) = , p1 (x) = (x ln 2),
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
p2 (x) = (xln 2)+ (xln 2)2 , p3 (x) = (xln 2)+ (xln 2)2 (xln 2)3 ,
2 2 22 2 2 22 2 3!
1 1 1 1 1
p4 (x) = (x ln 2) + (x ln 2)2 (x ln 2)3 + (x ln 2)4 ;
2 2 22 2 3! 2 4!

n
(1)k
(x ln 2)k
2 k!
k=0

(1)k k! (k)
19. f (k) (x) = , f (1) = k!; p0 (x) = 1; p1 (x) = 1 (x + 1);
xk+1
p2 (x) = 1 (x + 1) (x + 1)2 ; p3 (x) = 1 (x + 1) (x + 1)2 (x + 1)3 ;

n
p4 (x) = 1 (x + 1) (x + 1)2 (x + 1)3 (x + 1)4 ; (1)(x + 1)k
k=0

(1)k k! (1)k k! 1 1 1
20. f (k) (x) = k+1
, f (k)
(3) = k+1
; p0 (x) = ; p1 (x) = (x 3);
(x + 2) 5 5 5 25
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
p2 (x) = (x 3) + (x 3)2 ; p3 (x) = (x 3) + (x 3)2 (x 3)3 ;
5 25 125 5 25 125 625
1 1 1 1 1 
n
(1)k
p4 (x) = (x 3) + (x 3)2 (x 3)3 + (x 3)4 ; (x 3)k
5 25 125 625 3125 5k+1
k=0

21. f (k) (1/2) = 0 if k is odd, f (k) (1/2) is alternately k and k if k is even;


2
p0 (x) = p1 (x) = 1, p2 (x) = p3 (x) = 1 (x 1/2)2 ,
2
n
[2]
2 4  (1)k 2k
2 4
p4 (x) = 1 (x 1/2) + (x 1/2) ; (x 1/2)2k
2 4! (2k)!
k=0

22. f (k) (/2) = 0 if k is even, f (k) (/2) is alternately 1 and 1 if k is odd; p0 (x) = 0,
1
p1 (x) = (x /2), p2 (x) = (x /2), p3 (x) = (x /2) + (x /2)3 ,
3!
n1
[ 2 ]
1  (1)k+1
p4 (x) = (x /2) + (x /2)3 ; (x /2)2k+1
3! (2k + 1)!
k=0
400 Chapter 10

(1)k1 (k 1)! (k)


23. f (1) = 0, for k 1, f (k) (x) = ; f (1) = (1)k1 (k 1)!;
xk
1 1 1
p0 (x) = 0, p1 (x) = (x 1); p2 (x) = (x 1) (x 1)2 ; p3 (x) = (x 1) (x 1)2 + (x 1)3 ,
2 2 3
1 1 1  n
(1) k1
p4 (x) = (x 1) (x 1)2 + (x 1)3 (x 1)4 ; (x 1)k
2 3 4 k
k=1

(1)k1 (k 1)! (k) (1)k1 (k 1)!


24. f (e) = 1, for k 1, f (k) (x) = ; f (e) = ;
xk ek
1 1 1
p0 (x) = 1, p1 (x) = 1 + (x e); p2 (x) = 1 + (x e) 2 (x e)2 ;
e e 2e
1 1 1
p3 (x) = 1 + (x e) 2 (x e)2 + 3 (x e)3 ,
e 2e 3e
1 1 1 1 n
(1)k1
p4 (x) = 1 + (x e) 2 (x e)2 + 3 (x e)3 4 (x e)4 ; 1 + (x e)k
e 2e 3e 4e kek
k=1

25. (a) f (0) = 1, f  (0) = 2, f  (0) = 2, f  (0) = 6, the third MacLaurin polynomial for f (x) is f (x).
(b) f (1) = 1, f  (1) = 2, f  (1) = 2, f  (1) = 6, the third Taylor polynomial for f (x) is f (x).

26. (a) f (k) (0) = k!ck for k n; the nth Maclaurin polynomial for f (x) is f (x).
(b) f (k) (x0 ) = k!ck for k n; the nth Taylor polynomial about x = 1 for f (x) is f (x).

27. f (k) (0) = (2)k ; p0 (x) = 1, p1 (x) = 1 2x, 4


4
p2 (x) = 1 2x + 2x2 , p3 (x) = 1 2x + 2x2 x3
3

-0.6 0.6

-1

28. f (k) (/2) = 0 if k is odd, f (k) (/2) is alternately 1 1.25


1
and 1 if k is even; p0 (x) = 1, p2 (x) = 1 (x /2)2 ,
2
1 1 ^ i
p4 (x) = 1 (x /2)2 + (x /2)4 ,
2 24
1 1 1
p6 (x) = 1 (x /2)2 + (x /2)4 (x /2)6
2 24 720 -1.25

29. f (k) () = 0 if k is odd, f (k) () is alternately 1 1.25


1
and 1 if k is even; p0 (x) = 1, p2 (x) = 1 + (x )2 ,
2
1 1
p4 (x) = 1 + (x )2 (x )4 ,
2 24
1 1 1 0 o
p6 (x) = 1 + (x )2 (x )4 + (x )6
2 24 720 -1.25
Exercise Set 10.1 401

(1)k1 (k 1)!
30. f (0) = 0; for k 1, f (k) (x) = , 1.5
(x + 1)k
f (k) (0) = (1)k1 (k 1)!; p0 (x) = 0, p1 (x) = x,
1 1 1 -1 1
p2 (x) = x x2 , p3 (x) = x x2 + x3
2 2 3

-1.5

31. f (k) (x) = ex , |f (k) (x)| e1/2 < 2 on [0, 1/2], let M = 2,
1 1 1 1 1
e1/2 = 1 + + + + + + + Rn (1/2);
2 8 48 24 16 n!2n
M 2
|Rn (1/2)| (1/2)n+1 (1/2)n+1 0.00005 for n = 5;
(n + 1)! (n + 1)!
1 1 1 1 1
e1/2 1 + + + + + 1.64870, calculator value 1.64872
2 8 48 24 16 120 32

1 1
32. f (x) = ex , f (k) (x) = ex , |f (k) (x)| 1 on [1, 0], |Rn (x)| (1)n+1 = < 0.5 103
(n + 1)! (n + 1)!
1 1 1 1 1
if n = 6, so e1 1 1 + + + 0.3681, calculator value 0.3679
2! 3! 4! 5! 6!

33. p(0) = 1, p(x) has slope 1 at x = 0, and p(x) is concave up at x = 0, eliminating I, II and III
respectively and leaving IV.

34. Let p0 (x) = 2, p1 (x) = p2 (x) = 2 3(x 1), p3 (x) = 2 3(x 1) + (x 1)3 .

35. f (k) (ln 4) = 15/8 for k even, f (k) (ln 4) = 17/8 for k odd, which can be written as
16 (1)k  16 (1)k
n
f (k) (ln 4) = ; (x ln 4)k
8 8k!
k=0

36. (a) cos 1 2 /2; x = r r cos = r(1 cos ) r2 /2


(b) In Figure Ex-36 let r = 4000 mi and = 1/80 so that the arc has length 2r = 100 mi.
4000
Then x r2 /2 = = 5/16 mi.
2 802

37. From Exercise 2(a), p1 (x) = 1 + x, p2 (x) = 1 + x + x2 /2

(a) 3

-1 1

-1
402 Chapter 10

(b) x 1.000 0.750 0.500 0.250 0.000 0.250 0.500 0.750 1.000
f (x) 0.431 0.506 0.619 0.781 1.000 1.281 1.615 1.977 2.320
p1 (x) 0.000 0.250 0.500 0.750 1.000 1.250 1.500 1.750 2.000
p2 (x) 0.500 0.531 0.625 0.781 1.000 1.281 1.625 2.031 2.500

(c) |esin x (1 + x)| < 0.01 (d) |esin x (1 + x + x2 /2)| < 0.01
for 0.14 < x < 0.14 for 0.50 < x < 0.50
0.01 0.015

-0.15 0.15 -0.6 0.6


0 0

38. (a) f (k) (x) = ex eb , (b) 0.002

eb b3
|R2 (x)| < 0.0005,
3!
eb b3 < 0.003 if b 0.137 (by trial and
error with a hand calculator), so [0, 0.137].
0 0.2
0

x3
39. (a) sin x = x + 0 x4 + R4 (x), (b) 0.0005
3!
|x|5
|R4 (x)| < 0.5 103 if |x|5 < 0.06,
5!
|x| < (0.06)1/5 0.569, (0.569, 0.569)
-0.7 0.7
0

EXERCISE SET 10.2

1 (1)n1 2n 1 n2
1. (a) (b) (c) (d)
3n1 3n1 2n 1/(n+1)

2. (a) (r)n1 ; (r)n (b) (1)n+1 rn ; (1)n rn+1

3. (a) 2, 0, 2, 0 (b) 1, 1, 1, 1 (c) 2(1 + (1)n ); 2 + 2 cos n

4. (a) (2n)! (b) (2n 1)!

n
5. 1/3, 2/4, 3/5, 4/6, 5/7, . . .; lim = 1, converges
n+ n + 2
Exercise Set 10.2 403

n2
6. 1/3, 4/5, 9/7, 16/9, 25/11, . . .; lim = +, diverges
n+ 2n + 1

7. 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, . . .; lim 2 = 2, converges
n+

1 1 1 1
8. ln 1, ln , ln , ln , ln , . . .; lim ln(1/n) = , diverges
2 3 4 5 n+

ln 1 ln 2 ln 3 ln 4 ln 5
9. , , , , , . . .;
1 2 3 4 5
 
ln n 1 ln x
lim = lim = 0 apply LHopitals Rule to , converges
n+ n n+ n x

10. sin , 2 sin(/2), 3 sin(/3), 4 sin(/4), 5 sin(/5), . . .;


sin(/n) (/n2 ) cos(/n)
lim n sin(/n) = lim = lim = , converges
n+ n+ 1/n n+ 1/n2

11. 0, 2, 0, 2, 0, . . .; diverges

(1)n+1
12. 1, 1/4, 1/9, 1/16, 1/25, . . .; lim = 0, converges
n+ n2

13. 1, 16/9, 54/28, 128/65, 250/126, . . .; diverges because odd-numbered terms approach
2, even-numbered terms approach 2.

n 1
14. 1/2, 2/4, 3/8, 4/16, 5/32, . . .; lim = lim n = 0, converges
n+ 2n n+ 2 ln 2

1
15. 6/2, 12/8, 20/18, 30/32, 42/50, . . .; lim (1 + 1/n)(1 + 2/n) = 1/2, converges
n+ 2

16. /4, 2 /42 , 3 /43 , 4 /44 , 5 /45 , . . .; lim (/4)n = 0, converges


n+

17. cos(3), cos(3/2), cos(1), cos(3/4), cos(3/5), . . .; lim cos(3/n) = 1, converges


n+

18. 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, . . .; diverges

x2
19. e1 , 4e2 , 9e3 , 16e4 , 25e5 , . . .; lim x2 ex = lim = 0, so lim n2 en = 0, converges
x+ x+ ex n+


20. 1, 10 2, 18 3, 28 4, 40 5, . . .;
 3n 3 3
lim ( n2 + 3n n) = lim = lim  = , converges
n+ n+ 2
n + 3n + n n+ 1 + 3/n + 1 2
 x
2 3 4 5 x+3
21. 2, (5/3) , (6/4) , (7/5) , (8/6) , . . .; let y = , converges because
x+1
x+3  n
ln 2x2 n+3
lim ln y = lim x + 1 = lim = 2, so lim = e2
x+ x+ 1/x x+ (x + 1)(x + 3) n+ n + 1
404 Chapter 10

22. 1, 0, (1/3)3 , (2/4)4 , (3/5)5 , . . .; let y = (1 2/x)x , converges because


ln(1 2/x) 2
lim ln y = lim = lim = 2, lim (1 2/n)n = lim y = e2
x+ x+ 1/x x+ 1 2/x n+ x+

 +
2n 1 2n 1
23. ; lim = 1, converges
2n n=1
n+ 2n

 +  +
n1 n1 1 1
24. ; lim = 0, converges 25. ; lim = 0, converges
n2 n=1
n+ n2 3n n=1
n+ 3n

+
26. {(1)n n}n=1 ; diverges because odd-numbered terms tend toward ,
even-numbered terms tend toward +.
 +  
1 1 1 1
27. ; lim = 0, converges
n n+1 n=1
n+ n n+1


+
28. 3/2n1 ; lim 3/2n1 = 0, converges
n=1 n+


+
29. n + 1 n + 2 n=1 ; converges because
(n + 1) (n + 2) 1
lim ( n + 1 n + 2) = lim = lim =0
n+ n+ n+1+ n+2 n+ n+1+ n+2

+
30. (1)n+1 /3n+4 ; lim (1)n+1 /3n+4 = 0, converges
n=1 n+

 
n, n odd 1/n, n odd
31. (a) 1, 2, 1, 4, 1, 6 (b) an = (c) an =
1/2n , n even 1/(n + 1), n even

(d) In Part (a) the sequence diverges, since the even terms diverge to + and the odd terms
equal 1; in Part (b) the sequence diverges, since the odd terms diverge to + and the even
terms tend to zero; in Part (c) lim an = 0.
n+

32. The even terms are zero, so the odd terms must converge to zero, and this is true if and only if
lim bn = 0, or 1 < b < 1.
n+


n
33. lim n
n = 1, so lim n3 = 13 = 1
n+ n+

 
1 a 1 a
35. lim xn+1 = lim xn + or L = L+ , 2L2 L2 a = 0, L = a (we reject a
n+ 2 n+ xn 2 L
because xn > 0, thus L 0.

36. (a) an+1 = 6 + an

(b) lim an+1 = lim 6 + an , L = 6 + L, L2 L 6 = 0, (L 3)(L + 2) = 0,
n+ n+

L = 2 (reject, because the terms in the sequence are positive) or L = 3; lim an = 3.


n+
Exercise Set 10.2 405

1 2 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 3 2 5
37. (a) 1, + , + + , + + + = 1, , ,
4 4 9 9 9 16 16 16 16 4 3 8
1 1 1 1n+1
(c) an = 2 (1 + 2 + + n) = n(n + 1) = , lim an = 1/2
n n2 2 2 n n+

1 4 1 4 9 1 4 9 16 5 14 15
38. (a) 1, + , + + , + + + = 1, , ,
8 8 27 27 27 64 64 64 64 8 27 32
1 1 1 1 (n + 1)(2n + 1)
(c) an = 3 (12 + 22 + + n2 ) = 3 n(n + 1)(2n + 1) = ,
n n 6 6 n2
1
lim an = lim (1 + 1/n)(2 + 1/n) = 1/3
n+ n+ 6

sin2 n 1
39. Let an = 0, bn = , cn = ; then an bn cn , lim an = lim cn = 0, so lim bn = 0.
n n n+ n+ n+

n
  n  n
1+n 3 n/2 + n
40. Let an = 0, bn = , cn = ; then (for n 2), an bn = cn ,
2n 4 2n
lim an = lim cn = 0, so lim bn = 0.
n+ n+ n+

n
41. (a) a1 = (0.5)2 , a2 = a21 = (0.5)4 , . . . , an = (0.5)2
n
(c) lim an = lim e2 ln(0.5)
= 0, since ln(0.5) < 0.
n+ n+

(d) Replace 0.5 in Part (a) with a0 ; then the sequence converges for 1 a0 1, because if
a0 = 1, then an = 1 for n 1; if a0 = 0 then an = 0 for n 1; and if 0 < |a0 | < 1 then
n1
a1 = a20 > 0 and lim an = lim e2 ln a1
= 0 since 0 < a1 < 1. This same argument
n+ n+
proves divergence to + for |a| > 1 since then ln a1 > 0.

42. f (0.2) = 0.4, f (0.4) = 0.8, f (0.8) = 0.6, f (0.6) = 0.2 and then the cycle repeats, so the sequence
does not converge.

43. (a) 30

0 5
0

ln(2x + 3x ) 2x ln 2 + 3x ln 3
(b) Let y = (2x + 3x )1/x , lim ln y = lim = lim
x+ x+ x x+ 2x + 3x
x
(2/3) ln 2 + ln 3
= lim = ln 3, so lim (2n + 3n )1/n = eln 3 = 3
x+ (2/3)x + 1 n+

Alternate proof: 3 = (3n )1/n < (2n +3n )1/n < (23n )1/n = 321/n . Then apply the Squeezing
Theorem.

44. Let f (x) = 1/(1 + x), 0 x 1. Take xk = 1/n and xk = k/n then
n n  1 1
1 1 1
an = (1/n) = xk so lim an = dx = ln(1 + x) = ln 2
1 + (k/n) 1 + xk n+ 0 1+x 0
k=1 k=1
406 Chapter 10

 n
1 1 ln n ln n 1
45. an = dx = , lim an = lim = lim = 0,
n1 1 x n1 n+ n+ n1 n+ n
 
ln n
apply LHopitals Rule to , converges
n1

an+2 an
46. (a) If n 1, then an+2 = an+1 + an , so =1+ .
an+1 an+1

(c) With L = lim (an+2 /an+1 ) = lim (an+1 /an ), L = 1 + 1/L, L2 L 1 = 0,


n+ n+

L = (1 5)/2, so L = (1 + 5)/2 because the limit cannot be negative.
 
1  1
47.  0 = <  if n > 1/

n n

(a) 1/ = 1/0.5 = 2, N = 3 (b) 1/ = 1/0.1 = 10, N = 11

(c) 1/ = 1/0.001 = 1000, N = 1001


 
 n  1
48.  1 = <  if n + 1 > 1/, n > 1/ 1
n+1 n+1

(a) 1/ 1 = 1/0.25 1 = 3, N = 4 (b) 1/ 1 = 1/0.1 1 = 9, N = 10

(c) 1/ 1 = 1/0.001 1 = 999, N = 1000


 
1  1
49. (a)  0 = <  if n > 1/, choose any N > 1/.

n n
 
 n  1

(b)  1 = <  if n > 1/ 1, choose any N > 1/ 1.
n+1 n+1

50. If |r| < 1 then lim rn = 0; if r > 1 then lim rn = +, if r < 1 then rn oscillates between
n+ n+
positive and negative values that grow in magnitude so lim rn does not exist for |r| > 1; if r = 1
n+
then lim 1n = 1; if r = 1 then (1)n oscillates between 1 and 1 so lim (1)n does not exist.
n+ n+

EXERCISE SET 10.3

1 1 1
1. an+1 an = = < 0 for n 1, so strictly decreasing.
n+1 n n(n + 1)

1 1 1
2. an+1 an = (1 ) (1 ) = > 0 for n 1, so strictly increasing.
n+1 n n(n + 1)

n+1 n 1
3. an+1 an = = > 0 for n 1, so strictly increasing.
2n + 3 2n + 1 (2n + 1)(2n + 3)

n+1 n 1
4. an+1 an = = < 0 for n 1, so strictly decreasing.
4n + 3 4n 1 (4n 1)(4n + 3)

5. an+1 an = (n + 1 2n+1 ) (n 2n ) = 1 2n < 0 for n 1, so strictly decreasing.


Exercise Set 10.3 407

6. an+1 an = [(n + 1) (n + 1)2 ] (n n2 ) = 2n < 0 for n 1, so strictly decreasing.

an+1 (n + 1)/(2n + 3) (n + 1)(2n + 1) 2n2 + 3n + 1


7. = = = > 1 for n 1, so strictly increasing.
an n/(2n + 1) n(2n + 3) 2n2 + 3n

an+1 2n+1 1 + 2n 2 + 2n+1 1


8. = n+1
n
= =1+ > 1 for n 1, so strictly increasing.
an 1+2 2 1 + 2n+1 1 + 2n+1

an+1 (n + 1)e(n+1)
9. = = (1 + 1/n)e1 < 1 for n 1, so strictly decreasing.
an nen

an+1 10n+1 (2n)! 10


10. = = < 1 for n 1, so strictly decreasing.
an (2n + 2)! 10n (2n + 2)(2n + 1)

an+1 (n + 1)n+1 n! (n + 1)n


11. = n = = (1 + 1/n)n > 1 for n 1, so strictly increasing.
an (n + 1)! n nn
2
an+1 5n+1 2n 5
12. = (n+1)2 n = 2n+1 < 1 for n 1, so strictly decreasing.
an 2 5 2

13. f (x) = x/(2x + 1), f  (x) = 1/(2x + 1)2 > 0 for x 1, so strictly increasing.

14. f (x) = 3 1/x, f  (x) = 1/x2 > 0 for x 1, so strictly increasing.

1 + 1/x
15. f (x) = 1/(x + ln x), f  (x) = < 0 for x 1, so strictly decreasing.
(x + ln x)2

16. f (x) = xe2x , f  (x) = (1 2x)e2x < 0 for x 1, so strictly decreasing.

ln(x + 2)  1 ln(x + 2)
17. f (x) = , f (x) = < 0 for x 1, so strictly decreasing.
x+2 (x + 2)2

18. f (x) = tan1 x, f  (x) = 1/(1 + x2 ) > 0 for x 1, so strictly increasing.

19. f (x) = 2x2 7x, f  (x) = 4x 7 > 0 for x 2, so eventually strictly increasing.

20. f (x) = x3 4x2 , f  (x) = 3x2 8x = x(3x 8) > 0 for x 3, so eventually strictly increasing.

x 10 x2
21. f (x) = , f  (x) = 2 < 0 for x 4, so eventually strictly decreasing.
x2 + 10 (x + 10)2

17  x2 17
22. f (x) = x + , f (x) = > 0 for x 5, so eventually strictly increasing.
x x2
an+1 (n + 1)! 3n n+1
23. = n+1
= > 1 for n 3, so eventually strictly increasing.
an 3 n! 3

24. f (x) = x5 ex , f  (x) = x4 (5 x)ex < 0 for x 6, so eventually strictly decreasing.

25. (a) Yes: a monotone sequence is increasing or decreasing; if it is increasing, then it is increas-
ing and bounded above, so by Theorem 10.3.3 it converges; if decreasing, then use Theo-
rem 10.3.4. The limit lies in the interval [1, 2].
(b) Such a sequence may converge, in which case, by the argument in Part (a), its limit is 2.
But convergence may not happen: for example, the sequence {n}+ n=1 diverges.
408 Chapter 10

|x|n+1 |x| |x|n |x|


26. (a) an+1 = = = an
(n + 1)! n + 1 n! n+1
(b) an+1 /an = |x|/(n + 1) < 1 if n > |x| 1.
(c) From Part (b) the sequence is eventually decreasing, and it is bounded below by 0, so by
Theorem 10.3.4 it converges.
|x|
(d) If lim an = L then from Part (a), L = L = 0.
n+ lim (n + 1)
n+
|x|n
(e) lim = lim an = 0
n+ n! n+

  

27. (a) 2, 2 + 2, 2 + 2 + 2

(b) a1 = 2 < 2 so a2 = 2 + a1 < 2 + 2 = 2, a3 = 2 + a2 < 2 + 2 = 2, and so on
indenitely.
(c) a2n+1 a2n = (2 + an ) a2n = 2 + an a2n = (2 an )(1 + an )
(d) an > 0 and, from Part (b), an < 2 so 2 an > 0 and 1 + an > 0 thus, from Part (c),
a2n+1 a2n > 0, an+1 an > 0, an+1 > an ; {an } is a strictly increasing sequence.
(e) The sequence is increasing and has 2 as an upper bound so it must converge to a limit L,

lim an+1 = lim 2 + an , L = 2 + L, L2 L 2 = 0, (L 2)(L + 1) = 0
n+ n+
thus lim an = 2.
n+


28. (a) If f (x) = 12 (x + 3/x), then f  (x) = (x2 3)/(2x2 ) and f  (x) = 0 for x = 3; the minimum

value of f (x) for x > 0 is f ( 3) = 3. Thus f (x) 3 for x > 0 and hence an 3 for
n 2.

(b) an+1 an = (3 a2n )/(2an ) 0 for n 2 since an 3 for n 2; {an } is eventually
decreasing.

(c) 3 is a lower bound for an so {an } converges; lim an+1 = lim 12 (an + 3/an ),
n+ n+
L = 12 (L + 3/L), L2 3 = 0, L = 3.

29. (a) The altitudes of the rectangles are ln k for k = 2 to n, and their bases all have length 1 so
the sum of their areas is ln 2 + ln 3 + + ln n = ln(2 3 n) = ln n!. The area under the
 n  n+1
curve y = ln x for x in the interval [1, n] is ln x dx, and ln x dx is the area for x in
 n1 1
n+1
the interval [1, n + 1] so, from the gure, ln x dx < ln n! < ln x dx.
1 1
 n n  n+1
(b) ln x dx = (x ln x x) = n ln n n + 1 and ln x dx = (n + 1) ln(n + 1) n so from
1 1 1
Part (a), n ln n n + 1 < ln n! < (n + 1) ln(n + 1) n, en ln nn+1 < n! < e(n+1) ln(n+1)n ,
nn (n + 1)n+1
en ln n e1n < n! < e(n+1) ln(n+1) en ,< n! <
en1 en
 n 1/n  1/n
n
n (n + 1)n+1
(c) From Part (b), n1 < n! < ,
e en

n
n (n + 1)1+1/n 1 n
n! (1 + 1/n)(n + 1)1/n
< n! < , < < ,
e11/n e e11/n n e

1 1 (1 + 1/n)(n + 1)1/n 1 n
n! 1
but and as n + (why?), so lim = .
e11/n e e e n+ n e
Exercise Set 10.4 409

nn n n n
n
30. n! > n1
, n! > 11/n , lim 11/n = + so lim n! = +.
e e n+ e n+

EXERCISE SET 10.4

62 312 2 2(1/5)n 5 5
1. (a) s1 = 2, s2 = 12/5, s3 = , s4 = sn = = (1/5)n ,
25 125 1 1/5 2 2
5
lim sn = , converges
n+ 2
1 3 7 15 (1/4) (1/4)2n 1 1
(b) s1 = , s2 = , s3 = , s4 = sn = = + (2n ),
4 4 4 4 12 4 4
lim sn = +, diverges
n+

1 1 1 1 1 3 1
(c) = , s1 = , s2 = , s3 = , s4 = ;
(k + 1)(k + 2) k+1 k+2 6 4 10 3
1 1 1
sn = , lim sn = , converges
2 n + 2 n+ 2

2. (a) s1 = 1/4, s2 = 5/16, s3 = 21/64, s4 = 85/256


  n1    n 
1 1 1 1 1 (1/4)n 1 1 1
sn = 1 + + + = = 1 ; lim sn =
4 4 4 4 1 1/4 3 4 n+ 3

4n 1
(b) s1 = 1, s2 = 5, s3 = 21, s4 = 85; sn = , diverges
3
(c) s1 = 1/20, s2 = 1/12, s3 = 3/28, s4 = 1/8;
n  
1 1 1 1
sn = = , lim sn = 1/4
k+3 k+4 4 n + 4 n+
k=1

1
3. geometric, a = 1, r = 3/4, sum = = 4/7
1 (3/4)

(2/3)3
4. geometric, a = (2/3)3 , r = 2/3, sum = = 8/9
1 2/3

7
5. geometric, a = 7, r = 1/6, sum = =6
1 + 1/6

6. geometric, r = 3/2, diverges

n 
 
1 1 1 1
7. sn = = , lim sn = 1/3
k+2 k+3 3 n + 3 n+
k=1

n 
 
1 1 1 1
8. sn = k
k+1 = n+1 , lim sn = 1/2
2 2 2 2 n+
k=1

n 
 
1/3 1/3 1 1/3
9. sn = = , lim sn = 1/6
3k 1 3k + 2 6 3n + 2 n+
k=1
410 Chapter 10

n+1 

n+1
1/2 1/2

1  1  1
n+1
10. sn = =
k1 k+1 2 k1 k+1
k=2 k=2 k=2
n+1 
 
1   1
n+3
1 1 1 1 1 3
= = 1+ ; lim sn =
2 k1 k1 2 2 n+1 n+2 n+ 4
k=2 k=4


 
1
11. = 1/k, the harmonic series, so the series diverges.
k2
k=3 k=1

(e/)4 e4
12. geometric, a = (e/)4 , r = e/ < 1, sum = = 3
1 e/ ( e)



  k1
4k+2 4 64
13. = 64 ; geometric, a = 64, r = 4/7, sum = = 448/3
7k1 7 1 4/7
k=1 k=1

14. geometric, a = 125, r = 125/7, diverges

0.4
15. 0.4444 = 0.4 + 0.04 + 0.004 + = = 4/9
1 0.1

0.9
16. 0.9999 = 0.9 + 0.09 + 0.009 + = =1
1 0.1

0.37
17. 5.373737 = 5 + 0.37 + 0.0037 + 0.000037 + = 5 + = 5 + 37/99 = 532/99
1 0.01

0.159
18. 0.159159159 = 0.159 + 0.000159 + 0.000000159 + = = 159/999 = 53/333
1 0.001

0.7821 7821 79
19. 0.782178217821 = 0.7821 + 0.00007821 + 0.000000007821 + = = =
1 0.0001 9999 101

0.00014 44663
20. 0.451141414 = 0.451 + 0.00014 + 0.0000014 + 0.000000014 + = 0.451 + =
1 0.01 99000

3 3 3 3 3 3
21. d = 10 + 2 10 + 2 10 + 2 10 +
4 4 4 4 4 4
   2  3
3 3 3 20(3/4)
= 10 + 20 + 20 + 20 + = 10 + = 10 + 60 = 70 meters
4 4 4 1 3/4
 3  3  3  2  n
1 1 1 1 1 1
22. volume = 1 + 3
+ + + + = 1 + + + + +
2 4 2n 8 8 8
1
= = 8/7
1 (1/8)
 
1 2 3 n 1 2 3 n 1
23. (a) sn = ln + ln + ln + + ln = ln = ln = ln(n + 1),
2 3 4 n+1 2 3 4 n+1 n+1
lim sn = , series diverges.
n+
Exercise Set 10.4 411

k2 1 (k 1)(k + 1) k1 k+1 k1 k
(b) ln(1 1/k 2 ) = ln 2
= ln 2
= ln + ln = ln ln ,
k k k k k k+1
 k1
n+1
k

sn = ln ln
k k+1
k=2
       
1 2 2 3 3 4 n n+1
= ln ln + ln ln + ln ln + + ln ln
2 3 3 4 4 5 n+1 n+2
1 n+1 1
= ln ln , lim sn = ln = ln 2
2 n + 2 n+ 2

 1 1
24. (a) (1)k xk = 1 x + x2 x3 + = = if | x| < 1, |x| < 1, 1 < x < 1.
1 (x) 1+x
k=0

 1 1
(b) (x 3)k = 1 + (x 3) + (x 3)2 + = = if |x 3| < 1, 2 < x < 4.
1 (x 3) 4x
k=0

 1 1
(c) (1)k x2k = 1x2 +x4 x6 + = = if |x2 | < 1, |x| < 1, 1 < x < 1.
1 (x )
2 1 + x2
k=0

25. (a) Geometric series, a = x, r = x2 . Converges for | x2 | < 1, |x| < 1;


x x
S= = .
1 (x )2 1 + x2
(b) Geometric series, a = 1/x2 , r = 2/x. Converges for |2/x| < 1, |x| > 2;
1/x2 1
S= = 2 .
1 2/x x 2x
(c) Geometric series, a = ex , r = ex . Converges for |ex | < 1, ex < 1, ex > 1, x > 0;
ex 1
S= = x .
1 ex e 1

k+1 k k+1 k 1 1
26. = = ,
2
k +k k k+1 k k+1
n        
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
sn = = + +
k=1
k k+1 1 2 2 3 3 4
 
1 1 1
+ + =1 ; lim sn = 1
n n+1 n + 1 n+

27. sn = (1 1/3) + (1/2 1/4) + (1/3 1/5) + (1/4 1/6) + + [1/n 1/(n + 2)]
= (1 + 1/2 + 1/3 + + 1/n) (1/3 + 1/4 + 1/5 + + 1/(n + 2))
= 3/2 1/(n + 1) 1/(n + 2), lim sn = 3/2
n+

n    n 

n
1  1/2 1/2 1 1  1
n
28. sn = = =
k(k + 2) k k+2 2 k k+2
k=1 k=1 k=1 k=1
 n   
1 1 1
n+2
1 1 1 1 3
= = 1+ ; lim sn =
2 k k 2 2 n+1 n+2 n+ 4
k=1 k=3
412 Chapter 10

n    n 

n
1  1/2 1/2 1  1 n
1
29. sn = = =
(2k 1)(2k + 1) 2k 1 2k + 1 2 2k 1 2k + 1
k=1 k=1 k=1 k=1
 n   
1  1  1
n+1
1 1 1
= = 1 ; lim sn =
2 2k 1 2k 1 2 2n + 1 n+ 2
k=1 k=2

1 1
30. Geometric series, a = sin x, r = sin x. Converges for | sin x| < 1, | sin x| < 2,
2 2
sin x 2 sin x
so converges for all values of x. S = = .
1 2 + sin x
1 + sin x
2

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
31. a2 = a1 + , a3 = a2 + = 2 a1 + 2 + , a4 = a3 + = 3 a1 + 3 + 2 + ,
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
a5 = a4 + = 4 a1 + 4 + 3 + 2 + , . . . , an = n1 a1 + n1 + n2 + + ,
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

 1   n
a1 1/2
lim an = lim n1 + =0+ =1
n+ n+ 2
n=1
2 1 1/2

32. 0.a1 a2 an 9999 = 0.a1 a2 an + 0.9 (10n ) + 0.09 (10n ) +


0.9 (10n )
= 0.a1 a2 an + = 0.a1 a2 an + 10n
1 0.1
= 0.a1 a2 (an + 1) = 0.a1 a2 (an + 1) 0000

33. The series converges to 1/(1 x) only if 1 < x < 1.

34. P0 P1 = a sin , a sin u cos u


P1
P1 P2 = a sin cos ,
P2 P3 = a sin cos2 , P3 a sin u cos2 u
a sin u
P3 P4 = a sin cos3 , . . . u a sin u cos3 u
u
(see gure)
Each sum is a geometric series. u
P
P0 P2 P4
a

a sin
(a) P0 P1 + P1 P2 + P2 P3 + = a sin + a sin cos + a sin cos2 + =
1 cos

(b) P0 P1 + P2 P3 + P4 P5 + = a sin + a sin cos2 + a sin cos4 +


a sin a sin
= = = a csc
1 cos2 sin2
(c) P1 P2 + P3 P4 + P5 P6 + = a sin cos + a sin cos3 +
a sin cos a sin cos
= = = a cot
1 cos2 sin2

/2
35. By inspection, + + = = /3
2 4 8 16 1 (1/2)
Exercise Set 10.5 413

1
36. A1 + A2 + A3 + = 1 + 1/2 + 1/4 + = =2
1 (1/2)
   
2k A 2k B 2k 3k+1 2k+1 A + 2k 3k 2k B
37. (b) k + k+1 =
3 2k 3 2k+1 (3k 2k ) (3k+1 2k+1 )
   
3 6k 2 22k A + 6k 22k B (3A + B)6k (2A + B)22k
= =
(3 2 ) (3
k k k+1 2 k+1 ) (3k 2k ) (3k+1 2k+1 )
so 3A + B = 1 and 2A + B = 0, A = 1 and B = 2.
n   n
2k 2k+1 2k
(c) sn = = (ak ak+1 ) where ak = .
3k 2k 3k+1 2k+1 3k 2 k
k=1 k=1

But sn = (a1 a2 ) + (a2 a3 ) + (a3 a4 ) + + (an an+1 ) which is a telescoping sum,


 
2n+1 (2/3)n+1
sn = a1 an+1 = 2 n+1 , lim sn = lim 2 = 2.
3 2n+1 n+ n+ 1 (2/3)n+1

  
1 1 1
38. (a) geometric; 18/5 (b) geometric; diverges (c) = 1/2
2 2k 1 2k + 1
k=1

EXERCISE SET 10.5




 
 
1 1/2 1 1/4 1 1
1. (a) = = 1; = = 1/3; + = 1 + 1/3 = 4/3
2k 1 1/2 4k 1 1/4 2k 4k
k=1 k=1 k=1




1 1/5 1
(b) = = 1/4; =1 (Example 5, Section 10 .4);
5 k 1 1/5 k(k + 1)
k=1 k=1

 
1 1
= 1/4 1 = 3/4
5k k(k + 1)
k=1




1 7 7/10
2. (a) = 3/4 (Exercise 10, Section 10.4); = = 7/9;
k2 1 10k1 1 1/10
k=2 k=2

 
1 7
so = 3/4 7/9 = 1/36
k 2 1 10k1
k=2

 9/7
(b) with a = 9/7, r = 3/7, geometric, 7k 3k+1 = = 9/4;
1 (3/7)
k=1

2k+1 4/5
with a = 4/5, r = 2/5, geometric, = = 4/3;
5k 1 (2/5)
k=1

 
2k+1
7k 3k+1 k = 9/4 4/3 = 11/12
5
k=1

3. (a) p = 3, converges (b) p = 1/2, diverges (c) p = 1, diverges (d) p = 2/3, diverges

4. (a) p = 4/3, converges (b) p = 1/4, diverges (c) p = 5/3, converges (d) p = , converges
414 Chapter 10

 k
k2 + k + 3 1 1
5. (a) lim = ; the series diverges. (b) lim 1+ = e; the series diverges.
k+ 2k 2 + 1 2 k+ k
1
(c) lim cos k does not exist; (d) lim = 0; no information
k+ k+ k!
the series diverges.
k
6. (a) lim = 0; no information (b) lim ln k = +; the series diverges.
k+ ek k+

1 k
(c) lim = 0; no information (d) lim = 1; the series diverges.
k+ k k+ k+3
 + 
1 1
7. (a) = lim ln(5x + 2) = +, the series diverges by the Integral Test.
1 5x + 2 + 5 1
 
+
1 1 1 1 
(b) 2
dx = lim tan 3x = /2 tan1 3 ,
1 1 + 9x + 3 1 3
the series converges by the Integral Test.
 + 
x 1 2
8. (a) dx = lim ln(1 + x ) = +, the series diverges by the Integral Test.
1 1 + x2 + 2 1
 
+
3/2

(b) (4 + 2x) dx = lim 1/ 4 + 2x = 1/ 6,
1 + 1
the series converges by the Integral Test.

 1
1
9. = , diverges because the harmonic series diverges.
k+6 k
k=1 k=7



  
3 3 1
10. = , diverges because the harmonic series diverges.
5k 5 k
k=1 k=1


  1
1
11. = , diverges because the p-series with p = 1/2 1 diverges.
k=1
k + 5 k=6 k

1
12. lim = 1, the series diverges because lim uk = 1 = 0.
k+ e1/k k+

 + 
1/3 3
13. (2x 1) dx = lim (2x 1)2/3 = +, the series diverges by the Integral Test.
1 + 4 1

 + 
ln x ln x 1
14. is decreasing for x e, and = lim (ln x)2 = +,
x 3 x + 2 3
so the series diverges by the Integral Test.

k 1
15. lim = lim = +, the series diverges because lim uk = 0.
k+ ln(k + 1) k+ 1/(k + 1) k+

 + 
x2 1 2
16. xe dx = lim ex = e1 /2, the series converges by the Integral Test.
1 + 2 1
Exercise Set 10.5 415

17. lim (1 + 1/k)k = 1/e = 0, the series diverges.


k+

k2 + 1
18. lim = 1 = 0, the series diverges.
k+ k 2 + 3

 
+
tan1 x 1  1 2
19. 2
dx = lim tan x = 3 2 /32, the series converges by the Integral Test, since
1 1+x + 2 1
1 1
d tan x 1 2x tan x
2
= < 0 for x 1.
dx 1 + x (1 + x2 )2
 + 
1 1
20. dx = lim sinh x = +, the series diverges by the Integral Test.
1 x2 + 1 + 1

21. lim k 2 sin2 (1/k) = 1 = 0, the series diverges.


k+

 + 
3 1 3
22. x2 ex dx = lim ex = e1 /3,
1 + 3 1
3
the series converges by the Integral Test (x2 ex is decreasing for x 1).


23. 7 k 1.01 , p-series with p > 1, converges
k=5

 + 
2
24. sech x dx = lim tanh x = 1 tanh(1), the series converges by the Integral Test.
1 + 1

 +
1 dx
25. is decreasing for x ep
, so use the Integral Test with to get
x(ln x)p e p x(ln x)p

 
1p 

+ if p < 1
(ln x)
lim ln(ln x) = + if p = 1, lim = p1p
+ ep + 1 p ep if p > 1
p1
Thus the series converges for p > 1.

26. If p > 0 set g(x) = x(ln x)[ln(ln x)]p , g  (x) = (ln(ln x))p1 [(1 + ln x) ln(ln x) + p], and, for x > ee ,
 +
dx
g  (x) > 0, thus 1/g(x) is decreasing for x > ee ; use the Integral Test with
ee x(ln x)[ln(ln x)]p
to get
 
1p 

+ if p < 1,
[ln(ln x)]
lim ln[ln(ln x)] = + if p = 1, lim = 1
+ ee + 1p ee
if p > 1
p1
[ln(ln x)]p 1
Thus the series converges for p > 1 and diverges for 0 < p 1. If p 0 then
x ln x x ln x
for x > ee so the series diverges.




1 1 1 1
27. (a) 3 = 2 /2 4 /90 (b) 1 2 = 2 /6 5/4
k2 k4 k2 2
k=1 k=1 k=1

  1
1
(c) = = 4 /90
(k 1)4 k4
k=2 k=1
416 Chapter 10

28. (a) Suppose (uk + vk ) converges; then so does [(uk + vk ) uk ], but [(uk + vk ) uk ] = vk ,
so vk converges which contradicts the assumption that vk diverges. Suppose (uk vk )
converges; then so does [uk (uk vk )] = vk which leads to the same contradiction as
before.
(b) Let uk = 2/k and vk = 1/k; then both (uk + vk ) and (uk vk ) diverge; let uk = 1/k and
vk = 1/k then (uk + vk ) converges; let uk = vk = 1/k then (uk vk ) converges.




29. (a) diverges because (2/3)k1 converges and 1/k diverges.
k=1 k=1



(b) diverges because 1/(3k + 2) diverges and 1/k 3/2 converges.
k=1 k=1



1
(c) converges because both (Exercise 25) and 1/k 2 converge.
k(ln k)2
k=2 k=2


 
n

30. (a) If S = uk and sn = uk , then S sn = uk . Interpret uk , k = n + 1, n + 2, . . ., as
k=1 k=1 k=n+1
the areas of inscribed or circumscribed rectangles with height uk and base of length one for
the curve y = f (x) to obtain the result.

n
(b) Add sn = uk to each term in the conclusion of Part (a) to get the desired result:
k=1
 + 
+  +
sn + f (x) dx < uk < sn + f (x) dx
n+1 k=1 n

 + +
1 1 1
31. (a) In Exercise 30 above let f (x) = 2 . Then f (x) dx = = ;
x n x n n
use this result and the same result with n + 1 replacing n to obtain the desired result.
1 1 1
(b) s3 = 1 + 1/4 + 1/9 = 49/36; 58/36 = s3 + < 2 < s3 + = 61/36
4 6 3
1 2
(d) 1/11 < s10 < 1/10
6

33. Apply Exercise 30 in each case:


 +

1 1 1 1 1
(a) f (x) = , f (x) dx = , so < s10 <
(2x + 1)2 n 2(2n + 1) 46 (2k + 1)2 42
k=1
 +
1
(b) f (x) = , f (x) dx = tan1 (n), so
k2 + 1 n 2

 1
/2 tan1 (11) < s10 < /2 tan1 (10)
k2 + 1
k=1

 +

x k
(c) f (x) = , f (x) dx = (n + 1)en , so 12e11 < s10 < 11e10
ex n ek
k=1
Exercise Set 10.6 417

 +
1 1
34. (a) dx = 2 ; use Exercise 30(b)
n x3 2n
1 1
(b) < 0.01 for n = 5.
2n2 2(n + 1)2
(c) From Part (a) with n = 5 obtain 1.200 < S < 1.206, so S 1.203.

 +
1 1 1 1
35. (a) dx = 3 ; choose n so that < 0.005, n = 4; S 1.08
n x4 3n 3n3 3(n + 1)3

 n  n+1
1 1 1
36. (a) Let F (x) = , then dx = ln n and dx = ln(n + 1), u1 = 1 so
x 1 x 1 x
ln(n + 1) < sn < 1 + ln n.
(b) ln(1, 000, 001) < s1,000,000 < 1 + ln(1, 000, 000), 13 < s1,000,000 < 15
(c) s109 < 1 + ln 109 = 1 + 9 ln 10 < 22
(d) sn > ln(n + 1) 100, n e100 1 2.688 1043 ; n = 2.69 1043

37. p-series with p = ln a; convergence for p > 1, a > e

38. x2 ex is decreasing and positive for x > 2 so the Integral Test applies:
 
2 x x
2
x e dx = (x + 2x + 2)e = 5e1 so the series converges.
1 1

39. (a) f (x) = 1/(x3 + 1) is decreasing and continuous on the interval [1, +], so the Integral Test
applies.
(c) n 10 20 30 40 50
sn 0.681980 0.685314 0.685966 0.686199 0.686307
n 60 70 80 90 100
sn 0.686367 0.686403 0.686426 0.686442 0.686454
 +
 
1 3 1 n3 + 1 3 1 2n 1
(e) Set g(n) = dx = + ln tan ; for n 13,
n x3 + 1 6 6 (n + 1)3 3 3
g(n) g(n + 1) 0.0005; s13 + (g(13) + g(14))/2 0.6865, so the sum 0.6865 to three
decimal places.

EXERCISE SET 10.6



1 1 1  1
1. (a) 2 = 2, converges
5k 2 k 5k k 2 4k 4k 2
k=1

3 3 
(b) > , 3/k diverges
k 1/4 k
k=1


k+1 k 1  2 2  2
2. (a) > = , 1/k diverges (b) < , converges
k2 k k2 k k4 + k k4 k4
k=2 k=1
418 Chapter 10


1 1  1 5 sin2 k 5  5
3. (a) < k, converges (b) < , converges
3k + 5 3 3k k! k! k!
k=1 k=1



ln k 1 1
4. (a) > for k 3, diverges
k k k
k=1

k k 1  1
(b) > = ; diverges
k 3/2 1/2 k 3/2 k k=1 k


 4k 7 2k 6 + 6k 5
5. compare with the convergent series 1/k 5 , = lim = 1/2, converges
k+ 8k 7 + k 8
k=1


 k
6. compare with the divergent series 1/k, = lim = 1/9, diverges
k+ 9k + 6
k=1


 3k
7. compare with the convergent series 5/3k , = lim = 1, converges
k+ 3k +1
k=1


 k 2 (k + 3)
8. compare with the divergent series 1/k, = lim = 1, diverges
k+ (k + 1)(k + 2)(k + 5)
k=1


1
9. compare with the divergent series 2/3
,
k=1
k
k 2/3 1
= lim = lim = 1/2, diverges
k+ (8k 3k)
2 1/3 k+ (8 3/k)1/3



10. compare with the convergent series 1/k 17 ,
k=1

k 17 1
= lim 17
= lim = 1/217 , converges
k+ (2k + 3) k+ (2 + 3/k)17

3k+1 /(k + 1)! 3


11. = lim = lim = 0, the series converges
k+ 3k /k! k+ k + 1

4k+1 /(k + 1)2 4k 2


12. = lim k 2
= lim = 4, the series diverges
k+ 4 /k k+ (k + 1)2

k
13. = lim = 1, the result is inconclusive
k+ k+1

(k + 1)(1/2)k+1 k+1
14. = lim k
= lim = 1/2, the series converges
k+ k(1/2) k+ 2k

(k + 1)!/(k + 1)3 k3
15. = lim 3
= lim = +, the series diverges
k+ k!/k k+ (k + 1)2

(k + 1)/[(k + 1)2 + 1] (k + 1)(k 2 + 1)


16. = lim = lim = 1, the result is inconclusive.
k+ k/(k 2 + 1) k+ k(k 2 + 2k + 2)
Exercise Set 10.6 419

3k + 2
17. = lim = 3/2, the series diverges
k+ 2k 1

18. = lim k/100 = +, the series diverges


k+

k 1/k
19. = lim = 1/5, the series converges
k+ 5

20. = lim (1 ek ) = 1, the result is inconclusive


k+

21. Ratio Test, = lim 7/(k + 1) = 0, converges


k+



22. Limit Comparison Test, compare with the divergent series 1/k
k=1

(k + 1)2
23. Ratio Test, = lim = 1/5, converges
k+ 5k 2

24. Ratio Test, = lim (10/3)(k + 1) = +, diverges


k+

25. Ratio Test, = lim e1 (k + 1)50 /k 50 = e1 < 1, converges


k+



26. Limit Comparison Test, compare with the divergent series 1/k
k=1


 k3
27. Limit Comparison Test, compare with the convergent series 1/k 5/2 , = lim = 1,
k+ k 3 +1
converges k=1


4 4  4  4
28. < , converges (Ratio Test) so converges by the Comparison Test
2 + 3k k 3k k 3k k 2 + k3k
k=1 k=1


 k
29. Limit Comparison Test, compare with the divergent series 1/k, = lim = 1,
k+ k2 +k
diverges k=1


2 + (1)k 3  k
 2 + (1)k
30. k
k
, 3/5 converges so converges
5 5 5k
k=1 k=1



31. Limit Comparison Test, compare with the convergent series 1/k 5/2 ,
k=1
k 3 + 2k 5/2
= lim 3 = 1, converges
k+ k + 3k 2 + 3k


4 + | cos k| 5  3
 4 + | cos k|
32. < , 5/k converges so converges
k3 k3 k3
k=1 k=1



33. Limit Comparison Test, compare with the divergent series 1/ k
k=1
420 Chapter 10

34. Ratio Test, = lim (1 + 1/k)k = 1/e < 1, converges


k+

ln(k + 1) k
35. Ratio Test, = lim = lim = 1/e < 1, converges
k+ e ln k k+ e(k + 1)

k+1 1
36. Ratio Test, = lim 2k+1
= lim 2k+1
= 0, converges
k+ e k+ 2e

k+5
37. Ratio Test, = lim = 1/4, converges
k+ 4(k + 1)

k k 1
38. Root Test, = lim ( ) = lim = 1/e, converges
k+ k+1 k+ (1 + 1/k)k

1
39. diverges because lim = 1/4 = 0
k+ 4 + 2k

 k ln k  k ln k k ln k k ln k ln k
40. 3
= 3
because ln 1 = 0, 3 < 3
= 2 ,
k +1 k +1 k +1 k k
k=1 k=2
 +  


ln x ln x 1 1 ln k k ln k
dx = lim = (ln 2 + 1) so converges and so does .
2 x2 + x x 2 2 k2 k3 + 1
k=2 k=1


tan1 k /2  /2  tan1 k
41. < , converges so converges
k2 k2 k2 k2
k=1 k=1

   
5k + k 5k + 5k 2 5k  5k  5k + k
42. < = , 2 converges (Ratio Test) so converges
k! + 3 k! k! k! k! + 3
k=1 k=1

(k + 1)2
43. Ratio Test, = lim = 1/4, converges
k+ (2k + 2)(2k + 1)

2(k + 1)2
44. Ratio Test, = lim = 1/2, converges
k+ (2k + 4)(2k + 3)

k! k+1
45. uk = , by the Ratio Test = lim = 1/2; converges
1 3 5 (2k 1) k+ 2k + 1

1 3 5 (2k 1) 1
46. uk = , by the Ratio Test = lim = 0; converges
(2k 1)! k+ 2k

1
47. Root Test: = lim (ln k)1/k = 1/3, converges
k+ 3

(k + 1) k+1
48. Root Test: = lim 1+1/k
= lim = , diverges
k+ k k+ k


sin(/k)
49. (b) = lim = 1 and /k diverges
k+ /k
k=1

 
1 1 1 cos(1/k)
50. (a) cos x 1 x2 /2, 1 cos 2 (b) = lim = 2, converges
k 2k k+ 1/k 2
Exercise Set 10.7 421

d 1 1
51. Set g(x) = g(x) = = 0 when x = 4. Since lim g(x) = lim g(x) = +
x ln x;
dx 2 x x x0+ x+

it follows that g(x) has its minimum at x = 4, g(4) = 4 ln 4 > 0, and thus x ln x > 0 for
x > 0.

ln k k 1  1  ln k
(a) 2
< 2
= , converges so converges.
k k k 3/2 k 3/2 k2
k=1 k=1


1 1 1  1
(b) > , diverges so diverges.
(ln k)2 k k (ln k)2
k=2 k=2


52. By the Root Test, = lim = = , the series converges if < 1 and diverges
k+ (k 1/k ) 1


if > 1. If = 1 then the series is 1/k which diverges.
k=1

 
53. (a) If bk converges, then set M = a1 + a2 + + an b1 + b2 + + bn M ;
bk . Then
apply Theorem 10.5.6 to get convergence of ak .

(b) 
Assume the contrary, that bk converges; then use Part (a) of the Theorem to show that
ak converges, a contradiction.

54. (a) If lim (ak /bk ) = 0 then for k K, ak /bk < 1, ak < bk so ak converges by the Comparison
k+
Test.

(b) If lim (ak /bk ) = + then for k K, ak /bk > 1, ak > bk so ak diverges by the
k+
Comparison Test.

EXERCISE SET 10.7

1. ak+1 < ak , lim ak = 0, ak > 0


k+

ak+1 k+1 2k 2
2. = = for k 1, so {ak } is decreasing and tends to zero.
ak 3k 3k 3

k+1
3. diverges because lim ak = lim = 1/3 = 0
k+ k+ 3k + 1

k+1
4. diverges because lim ak = lim = + = 0
k+ k+ k+1

5. {ek } is decreasing and lim ek = 0, converges


k+


ln k ln k
6. is decreasing and lim = 0, converges
k k+ k

(3/5)k+1
7. = lim = 3/5, converges absolutely
k+ (3/5)k

2
8. = lim = 0, converges absolutely
k+ k+1
422 Chapter 10

3k 2
9. = lim = 3, diverges
k+ (k + 1)2

k+1
10. = lim = 1/5, converges absolutely
k+ 5k

(k + 1)3
11. = lim = 1/e, converges absolutely
k+ ek 3

(k + 1)k+1 k!
12. = lim = lim (1 + 1/k)k = e, diverges
k+ (k + 1)!k k k+




(1)k+1 1
13. conditionally convergent, converges by the Alternating Series Test but diverges
3k 3k
k=1 k=1


1
14. absolutely convergent, 4/3
converges
k=1
k

15. divergent, lim ak = 0


k+

16. absolutely convergent, Ratio Test for absolute convergence






cos k (1)k (1)k
17. = is conditionally convergent, converges by the Alternating Series
k k k
k=1 k=1 k=1


Test but 1/k diverges.
k=1




(1)k ln k ln k
18. conditionally convergent, converges by the Alternating Series Test but
k k
k=3 k=3

diverges (Limit Comparison Test with 1/k).

 k+2
19. conditionally convergent, (1)k+1 converges by the
k(k + 3)
k=1

k+2 
Alternating Series Test but diverges (Limit Comparison Test with 1/k)
k(k + 3)
k=1


 (1)k+1 k 2
20. conditionally convergent, converges by the Alternating Series Test but
k3 + 1
k=1

 k2 
diverges (Limit Comparison Test with (1/k))
k3 + 1
k=1



21. sin(k/2) = 1 + 0 1 + 0 + 1 + 0 1 + 0 + , divergent ( lim sin(k/2) does not exist)
k+
k=1


 | sin k| 
22. absolutely convergent, converges (compare with 1/k 3 )
k3
k=1
Exercise Set 10.7 423




(1)k 1
23. conditionally convergent, converges by the Alternating Series Test but diverges
k ln k k ln k
k=2 k=2
(Integral Test)

 (1)k
24. conditionally convergent,  converges by the Alternating Series Test but
k=1
k(k + 1)

 1 
 diverges (Limit Comparison Test with 1/k)
k=1
k(k + 1)



25. absolutely convergent, (1/ ln k)k converges by the Root Test
k=2



(1)k+1
26. conditionally convergent, converges by the Alternating Series Test but

k=1
k+1+ k

 1 
diverges (Limit Comparison Test with 1/ k)
k=1
k+1+ k

x2 + 1  x(4 3x x3 )
27. conditionally convergent, let f (x) = then f (x) = 0 for x 1 so
x3 + 2 (x3 + 2)2
 +
+ k2 + 1
{ak }k=2 = is decreasing, lim ak = 0; the series converges by the
k3 + 2 k=2 k+

 k2 + 1 
Alternating Series Test but 3
diverges (Limit Comparison Test with 1/k)
k +2
k=2





k cos k (1)k k (1)k k
28. = is conditionally convergent, converges by the
k2 + 1 k2 + 1 k2 + 1
k=1 k=1 k=1

 k
Alternating Series Test but diverges
k2 + 1
k=1

k+1
29. absolutely convergent by the Ratio Test, = lim =0
k+ (2k + 1)(2k)

30. divergent, lim ak = + 31. |error| < a8 = 1/8 = 0.125


k+

32. |error| < a6 = 1/6! < 0.0014 33. |error| < a100 = 1/ 100 = 0.1

34. |error| < a4 = 1/(5 ln 5) < 0.125

35. |error| < 0.0001 if an+1 0.0001, 1/(n + 1) 0.0001, n + 1 10, 000, n 9, 999, n = 9, 999

36. |error| < 0.00001 if an+1 0.00001, 1/(n + 1)! 0.00001, (n + 1)! 100, 000. But 8! = 40, 320,
9! = 362, 880 so (n + 1)! 100, 000 if n + 1 9, n 8, n = 8

37. |error| < 0.005 if an+1 0.005, 1/ n + 1 0.005, n + 1 200, n + 1 40, 000, n 39, 999,
n = 39, 999
424 Chapter 10

38. |error| < 0.05 if an+1 0.05, 1/[(n + 2) ln(n + 2)] 0.05, (n + 2) ln(n + 2) 20. But 9 ln 9 19.8
and 10 ln 10 23.0 so (n + 2) ln(n + 2) 20 if n + 2 10, n 8, n = 8

3 3 3/4
39. ak = , |error| < a11 = 12 < 0.00074; s10 0.4995; S = = 0.5
2k+1 2 1 (1/2)
 k1  10
2 2 1
40. ak = , |error| < a11 = < 0.01735; s10 0.5896; S = = 0.6
3 3 1 (2/3)

1 1
41. ak = , an+1 = 0.005, (2n + 1)! 200, 2n + 1 6, n 2.5; n = 3,
(2k 1)! (2n + 1)!
s3 = 1 1/6 + 1/120 0.84

1 1
42. ak = , an+1 = 0.005, (2n)! 200, 2n 6, n 3; n = 3, s3 0.54
(2k 2)! (2n)!

1 1
43. ak = , an+1 = 0.005, (n + 1)2n+1 200, n + 1 6, n 5; n = 5, s5 0.41
k2k (n + 1)2n+1

1 1
44. ak = , an+1 = 0.005,
(2k 1)5 + 4(2k 1) 5
(2n + 1) + 4(2n + 1)
(2n + 1)5 + 4(2n + 1) 200, 2n + 1 3, n 1; n = 1, s1 = 0.20

1 1
45. (c) ak = , an+1 = 102 , 2n + 1 100, n 49.5; n = 50
2k 1 2n + 1


 1
46. (1/k p ) converges if p > 1 and diverges if p 1, so (1)k p converges absolutely if p > 1,
k
k=1
and converges conditionally if 0 < p 1 since it satises the Alternating Series Test; it diverges
for p 0 since lim ak = 0.
k+

   
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
47. 1 + 2 + 2 + = 1 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 +
3 5 2 3 2 4 6
 
2 1 1 1 2 1 2 2
= 2 1 + 2 + 2 + = =
6 2 2 3 6 4 6 8

   
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
48. 1 + + + = 1 + + + + + +
34 54 24 34 24 44 64
 
4 1 1 1 4 1 4 4
= 4 1 + 4 + 4 + = =
90 2 2 3 90 16 90 96

49. Every positive integer can be written in exactly one of the three forms 2k 1 or 4k 2 or 4k,
so a rearrangement is
       
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 + + + + +
2 4 3 6 8 5 10 12 2k 1 4k 2 4k
       
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
= + + + + + = ln 2
2 4 6 8 10 12 4k 2 4k 2
Exercise Set 10.8 425

50. (a) 1.5 (b) Yes; since f (x) is decreasing for x 1


and lim f (x) = 0, the series
x+
satises the Alternating Series Test.

0 10
0

51. (a) The distance d from the starting point is


 
180 180 180 1 1 1
d = 180 + = 180 1 + .
2 3 1000 2 3 1000
1 1 1
From Theorem 10.7.2, 1 + diers from ln 2 by less than 1/1001 so
2 3 1000
180(ln 2 1/1001) < d < 180 ln 2, 124.58 < d < 124.77.
180 180 180
(b) The total distance traveled is s = 180 + + + + , and from inequality (2) in
2 3 1000
Section 10.5,
 1001  1000
180 180
dx < s < 180 + dx
1 x 1 x
180 ln 1001 < s < 180(1 + ln 1000)
1243 < s < 1424

52. (a) Suppose |ak | converges, then lim |ak | = 0 so |ak | < 1 for k K and thus |ak |2 < |ak |,
k+
a2k < |ak | hence a2k converges by the Comparison Test.
1  2 
(b) Let ak = , then ak converges but ak diverges.
k

EXERCISE SET 10.8




k x (1)k
1. f (k)
(x) = (1) e ,f (k)
(0) = (1) ;k
xk
k!
k=0


 ak
2. f (k) (x) = ak eax , f (k) (0) = ak ; xk
k!
k=0


 (1)k 2k
3. f (k) (0) = 0 if k is odd, f (k) (0) is alternately k and k if k is even; x2k
(2k)!
k=0


 (1)k 2k+1
4. f (k) (0) = 0 if k is even, f (k) (0) is alternately k and k if k is odd; x2k+1
(2k + 1)!
k=0



(1)k+1 (k 1)! (k) (1)k+1
5. f (0) (0) = 0; for k 1, f (k) (x) = , f (0) = (1)k+1 (k 1)!; xk
(1 + x)k k
k=1
426 Chapter 10



k!
6. f (k)
(x) = (1) k
; f (k) (0) = (1)k k!; (1)k xk
(1 + x)k+1
k=0


 1 2k
7. f (k) (0) = 0 if k is odd, f (k) (0) = 1 if k is even; x
(2k)!
k=0


 1
8. f (k)
(0) = 0 if k is even, f (k)
(0) = 1 if k is odd; x2k+1
(2k + 1)!
k=0

 
(1)k/2 (x sin x k cos x) k even (1)1+k/2 k k even
(k) (k)
9. f (x) = , f (0) =
(1)(k1)/2 (x cos x + k sin x) k odd 0 k odd

 (1)k 2k+2
x
(2k + 1)!
k=0


 1
10. f (k) (x) = (k + x)ex , f (k) (0) = k; xk
(k 1)!
k=1


 e
11. f (k) (x0 ) = e; (x 1)k
k!
k=0



1 (1)k
12. f (k) (x) = (1)k ex , f (k) (ln 2) = (1)k ; (x ln 2)k
2 2 k!
k=0



(1)k k! (k)
13. f (k) (x) = , f (1) = k!; (1)(x + 1)k
xk+1
k=0



(1)k k! (1)k k! (1)k
14. f (k) (x) = k+1
, f (k) (3) = ; (x 3)k
(x + 2) 5k+1 5k+1
k=0

15. f (k) (1/2) = 0 if k is odd, f (k) (1/2) is alternately k and k if k is even;



 (1)k 2k
(x 1/2)2k
(2k)!
k=0


 (1)k+1
16. f (k) (/2) = 0 if k is even, f (k) (/2) is alternately 1 and 1 if k is odd; (x/2)2k+1
(2k + 1)!
k=0

(1)k1 (k 1)! (k)


17. f (1) = 0, for k 1, f (k) (x) = ; f (1) = (1)k1 (k 1)!;
xk

 (1)k1
(x 1)k
k
k=1

(1)k1 (k 1)! (k) (1)k1 (k 1)!


18. f (e) = 1, for k 1, f (k) (x) = ; f (e) = ;
xk ek

 (1)k1
1+ (x e)k
kek
k=1
Exercise Set 10.8 427

 
 uk+1 
19. geometric series, = lim    = |x|, so the interval of convergence is 1 < x < 1, converges
k+ uk 
1
there to (the series diverges for x = 1)
1+x
 
 uk+1 
20. geometric series, = lim    = |x|2 , so the interval of convergence is 1 < x < 1, converges
k+ uk 
1
there to (the series diverges for x = 1)
1 x2
 
 uk+1 

21. geometric series, = lim   = |x 2|, so the interval of convergence is 1 < x < 3, converges
k+ uk 
1 1
there to = (the series diverges for x = 1, 3)
1 (x 2) 3x
 
 uk+1 
22. geometric series, = lim   = |x + 3|, so the interval of convergence is 4 < x < 2,
k+ uk 
1 1
converges there to = (the series diverges for x = 4, 2)
1 + (x + 3) 4+x
 
 uk+1 

23. (a) geometric series, = lim   = |x/2|, so the interval of convergence is 2 < x < 2,
k+ uk 
1 2
converges there to = ; (the series diverges for x = 2, 2)
1 + x/2 2+x

(b) f (0) = 1; f (1) = 2/3


   
 uk+1  x 5

24. (a) geometric series, = lim   
= , so the interval of convergence is 2 < x < 8,
k+ uk  3 
1 3
converges to = (the series diverges for x = 2, 8)
1 + (x 5)/3 x2

(b) f (3) = 3, f (6) = 3/4

k+1
25. = lim |x| = |x|, the series converges if |x| < 1 and diverges if |x| > 1. If x = 1,
k+ k+2



(1)k 1
converges by the Alternating Series Test; if x = 1, diverges. The radius of
k+1 k+1
k=0 k=0

convergence is 1, the interval of convergence is [1, 1).

26. = lim 3|x| = 3|x|, the series converges if 3|x| < 1 or |x| < 1/3 and diverges if |x| > 1/3. If
k+



x = 1/3, (1)k diverges, if x = 1/3, (1) diverges. The radius of convergence is 1/3, the
k=0 k=0

interval of convergence is (1/3, 1/3).

|x|
27. = lim = 0, the radius of convergence is +, the interval is (, +).
k+ k+1
428 Chapter 10

k+1
28. = lim |x| = +, the radius of convergence is 0, the series converges only if x = 0.
k+ 2


5k 2 |x| (1)k
29. = lim 2
= 5|x|, converges if |x| < 1/5 and diverges if |x| > 1/5. If x = 1/5,
k+ (k + 1) k2
k=1

converges; if x = 1/5, 1/k 2 converges. Radius of convergence is 1/5, interval of convergence is
k=1
[1/5, 1/5].

ln k
30. = lim |x| = |x|, the series converges if |x| < 1 and diverges if |x| > 1. If x = 1,
k+ ln(k + 1)



(1)k 
converges; if x = 1, 1/(ln k) diverges (compare to (1/k)). Radius of convergence
ln k
k=2 k=2

is 1, interval of convergence is [1, 1).


k|x| (1)k
31. = lim = |x|, converges if |x| < 1, diverges if |x| > 1. If x = 1, converges;
k+ k + 2 k(k + 1)
k=1

 1
if x = 1, converges. Radius of convergence is 1, interval of convergence is [1, 1].
k(k + 1)
k=1

 1
k+1
32. = lim 2 |x| = 2|x|, converges if |x| < 1/2, diverges if |x| > 1/2. If x = 1/2,
k+ k + 2 2(k + 1)
k=0
 k
(1)
diverges; if x = 1/2, converges. Radius of convergence is 1/2, interval of convergence
2(k + 1)
k=0
is (1/2, 1/2].


k  1
33. = lim |x| = |x|, converges if |x| < 1, diverges if |x| > 1. If x = 1, diverges; if
k+ k+1 k=1
k

(1)k1
x = 1, converges. Radius of convergence is 1, interval of convergence is (1, 1].
k=1
k

|x|2
34. = lim = 0, radius of convergence is +, interval of convergence is (, +).
k+ (2k + 2)(2k + 1)

|x|2
35. = lim = 0, radius of convergence is +, interval of convergence is (, +).
k+ (2k + 3)(2k + 2)


k 3/2 |x|3 3 1
36. = lim 3/2
= |x| , converges if |x| < 1, diverges if |x| > 1. If x = 1, 3/2
converges;
k+ (k + 1) k
k=0

(1)k
if x = 1, converges. Radius of convergence is 1, interval of convergence is [1, 1].
k=0
k 3/2

3|x|
37. = lim = 0, radius of convergence is +, interval of convergence is (, +).
k+ k+1
Exercise Set 10.8 429

k(ln k)2 |x|


38. = lim = |x|, converges if |x| < 1, diverges if |x| > 1. If x = 1, then, by
k+ (k + 1)[ln(k + 1)]2



1 (1)k+1
Exercise 10.5.25, 2
converges; if x = 1, converges. Radius of convergence
k(ln k) k(ln k)2
k=2 k=2

is 1, interval of convergence is [1, 1].


1 + k2 (1)k
39. = lim 2
|x| = |x|, converges if |x| < 1, diverges if |x| > 1. If x = 1,
k+ 1 + (k + 1) 1 + k2
k=0

1
converges; if x = 1, converges. Radius of convergence is 1, interval of convergence is
1 + k2
k=0
[1, 1].


1 1
40. = lim |x 3| = |x 3|, converges if |x 3| < 2, diverges if |x 3| > 2. If x = 1, (1)k
k+ 2 2
k=0

diverges; if x = 5, 1 diverges. Radius of convergence is 2, interval of convergence is (1, 5).
k=0


k|x + 1| 1
41. = lim = |x + 1|, converges if |x + 1| < 1, diverges if |x + 1| > 1. If x = 2,
k+ k + 1 k
k=1

 (1) k+1
diverges; if x = 0, converges. Radius of convergence is 1, interval of convergence is
k
k=1
(2, 0].

(k + 1)2
42. = lim |x 4| = |x 4|, converges if |x 4| < 1, diverges if |x 4| > 1. If x = 3,
k+ (k + 2)2



1/(k +1)2 converges; if x = 5, (1)k /(k +1)2 converges. Radius of convergence is 1, interval
k=0 k=0

of convergence is [3, 5].

3
43. = lim (3/4)|x + 5| = |x + 5|, converges if |x + 5| < 4/3, diverges if |x + 5| > 4/3. If
k+ 4



x = 19/3, (1)k diverges; if x = 11/3, 1 diverges. Radius of convergence is 4/3, interval
k=0 k=0

of convergence is (19/3, 11/3).

(2k + 3)(2k + 2)k 3


44. = lim |x 2| = +, radius of convergence is 0,
k+ (k + 1)3
series converges only at x = 2.

k2 + 4
45. = lim |x + 1|2 = |x + 1|2 , converges if |x + 1| < 1, diverges if |x + 1| > 1. If x = 2,
k+ (k + 1)2 + 4



(1)3k+1 (1)k
converges; if x = 0, converges. Radius of convergence is 1, interval of
k2 + 4 k2 + 4
k=1 k=1

convergence is [2, 0].


430 Chapter 10

k ln(k + 1)
46. = lim |x 3| = |x 3|, converges if |x 3| < 1, diverges if |x 3| > 1. If
k+ (k + 1) ln k



(1)k ln k ln k
x = 2, converges; if x = 4, diverges. Radius of convergence is 1, interval of
k k
k=1 k=1

convergence is [2, 4).

|x 1|2
47. = lim = 0, radius of convergence +, interval of convergence (, +).
k+ (2k + 3)(2k + 2)

1 1 1
48. = lim |2x 3| = |2x 3|, converges if |2x 3| < 1 or |x 3/2| < 8, diverges if
k+ 16 16 16



k
|x 3/2| > 8. If x = 13/2, (1) diverges; if x = 19/2, 1 diverges. Radius of convergence
k=0 k=0

is 8, interval of convergence is (13/2, 19/2).

 |x|
49. = lim k
|uk | = lim = 0, the series converges absolutely for all x so the interval of
k+ k+ ln k
convergence is (, +).

2k + 1
50. = lim |x| = 0 51. (a) 10
k+ (2k)(2k 1)

so R = +.

-1 1
-1

|x|2
52. Ratio Test: = lim = 0, R = +
k+ 4(k + 1)(k + 2)

53. By the Ratio Test for absolute convergence,


(pk + p)!(k!)p (pk + p)(pk + p 1)(pk + p 2) (pk + p [p 1])
= lim |x| = lim |x|
k+ (pk)![(k + 1)!]p k+ (k + 1)p
    
1 2 p1
= lim p p p p |x| = pp |x|,
k+ k+1 k+1 k+1
converges if |x| < 1/pp , diverges if |x| > 1/pp . Radius of convergence is 1/pp .

54. By the Ratio Test for absolute convergence,


(k + 1 + p)!k!(k + q)! k+1+p
= lim |x| = lim |x| = 0,
k+ (k + p)!(k + 1)!(k + 1 + q)! k+ (k + 1)(k + 1 + q)

radius of convergence is +.

55. (a) By Theorem 10.5.3(b) both series converge or diverge together, so they have the same radius
of convergence.
Exercise Set 10.9 431


(b) By Theorem
 10.5.3(a) the series (ck + dk )(x x0 )k converges
 if |x x0 |k < R; if |x x0 | > R
then (ck + dk )(x x0 )k cannot converge, as otherwise  ck (x x0 ) would converge by
the same Theorem. Hence the radius of convergence of (ck + dk )(x x0 )k is R.

 x0 ) . If |x x 0 | < min(R1 , R2 )
k
(c) Let rbe the radius of convergence
 of (ck + dk )(x
then ck (x x0 ) and
k
dk (x x0 ) converge, so (ck + dk )(x x0 )k converges. Hence
k

r min(R1 , R2 ) (to see that r > min(R1 , R2 ) is possible consider the case ck = dk = 1).
If in addition R1 = R2 , and R1 < |x x0 | < R2 (or R2 < |x x0 | < R1 ) then

(ck + dk )(x x0 )k cannot converge, as otherwise all three series would converge. Thus
in this case r = min(R1 , R2 ).

56. By the Root Test for absolute convergence,


= lim |ck |1/k |x| = L|x|, L|x| < 1 if |x| < 1/L so the radius of convergence is 1/L.
k+





k 2k
57. By assumption ck x converges if |x| < R so ck x = ck (x2 )k converges if |x2 | < R,
k=0 k=0 k=0




2k 2 k

|x| < R. Moreover, ck x = ck (x ) diverges if |x | > R, |x| >
2
R. Thus ck x2k
k=0 k=0 k=0

has radius of convergence R.




k k
58. The assumption is that ck R is convergent and ck (R) is divergent. Suppose that ck Rk
k=0 k=0 k=0


k
is absolutely convergent then ck (R) is also absolutely convergent and hence convergent
k=0


because |ck Rk | = |ck (R)k |, which contradicts the assumption that ck (R)k is divergent so
k=0


ck Rk must be conditionally convergent.
k=0

EXERCISE SET 10.9


(/45)3 (/45)5
1. sin 4 = sin = +
45 45 3! 5!
(/45)n+1
(a) Method 1: |Rn (/45)| < 0.000005 for n + 1 = 4, n = 3;
(n + 1)!
(/45)3
sin 4 0.069756
45 3!
(/45)5
(b) Method 2: The rst term in the alternating series that is less than 0.000005 is , so
5!
the result is the same as in Part (a).
(/60)2 (/60)4
2. cos 3 = cos =1 +
60 2 4!
(/60)n+1 (/60)2
(a) Method 1: |Rn (/60)| < 0.0005 for n = 2; cos 3 1 0.9986.
(n + 1)! 2
(/60)4
(b) Method 2: The rst term in the alternating series that is less than 0.0005 is , so the
4!
result is the same as in Part (a).
432 Chapter 10

(0.1)n+1
3. |Rn (0.1)| 0.000005 for n = 3; cos 0.1 1 (0.1)2 /2 = 0.99500, calculator value
(n + 1)!
0.995004 . . .

4. (0.1)3 /3 < 0.5 103 so tan1 (0.1) 0.100, calculator value 0.0997

1 1
5. Expand about /2 to get sin x = 1 (x /2)2 + (x /2)4 , 85 = 17/36 radians,
2! 4!
|x /2|n+1 |17/36 /2|n+1 (/36)n+1
|Rn (x)| , |Rn (17/36)| = < 0.5 104
(n + 1)! (n + 1)! (n + 1)!
1
if n = 3, sin 85 1 (/36)2 0.99619, calculator value 0.99619 . . .
2

(x + )2 (x + )4
6. 175 = + /36 rad; x0 = , x = + /36, cos x = 1 + ;
2 4!
(/36)n+1 (/36)2
|Rn | 0.00005 for n = 3; cos( + /36) = 1 + 0.99619,
(n + 1)! 2
calculator value 0.99619 . . .

1  0.5  1
7. f (k) (x) = cosh x or sinh x, |f (k) (x)| cosh x cosh 0.5 = e + e0.5 < (2 + 1) = 1.5
2 2
1.5(0.5)n+1 (0.5)3
so |Rn (x)| < 0.5 103 if n = 4, sinh 0.5 0.5 + 0.5208, calculator
(n + 1)! 3!
value 0.52109 . . .
1  0.1 
8. f (k) (x) = cosh x or sinh x, |f (k) (x)| cosh x cosh 0.1 = e + e0.1 < 1.06 so
2
1.06(0.1)n+1 (0.1)2
|Rn (x)| < 0.5 103 for n = 2, cosh 0.1 1 + = 1.005, calculator value
(n + 1)! 2!
1.0050 . . .

|x /4|n+1
9. f (x) = sin x, f (n+1) (x) = sin x or cos x, |f (n+1) (x)| 1, |Rn (x)| ,
(n + 1)!
|x /4|n+1
lim = 0; by the Squeezing Theorem, lim |Rn (x)| = 0
n+ (n + 1)! n+

so lim Rn (x) = 0 for all x.


n+

ex
10. f (x) = ex , f (n+1) (x) = ex ; if x > 1 then |Rn (x)| |x 1|n+1 ; if x < 1 then
(n + 1)!
e |x 1|n+1
|Rn (x)| |x 1|n+1 . But lim = 0 so lim Rn (x) = 0.
(n + 1)! n+ (n + 1)! n+

11. (a) Let x = 1/9 in series (13).


 
(1/9)3
(b) ln 1.25 2 1/9 + = 2(1/9 + 1/37 ) 0.223, which agrees with the calculator value
3
0.22314 . . . to three decimal places.
Exercise Set 10.9 433

12. (a) Let x = 1/2 in series (13).


 
(1/2)3
(b) ln 3 2 1/2 + = 2(1/2 + 1/24) = 13/12 1.083; the calculator value is 1.099 to
3
three decimal places.

13. (a) (1/2)9 /9 < 0.5 103 and (1/3)7 /7 < 0.5 103 so
(1/2)3 (1/2)5 (1/2)7
tan1 (1/2) 1/2 + 0.4635
3 5 7
(1/3)3 (1/3)5
tan1 (1/3) 1/3 + 0.3218
3 5
(b) From Formula (17), 4(0.4635 + 0.3218) = 3.1412
1 1
(c) Let a = tan1 , b = tan1 ; then |a 0.4635| < 0.0005 and |b 0.3218| < 0.0005, so
2 3
|4(a + b) 3.1412| 4|a 0.4635| + 4|b 0.3218| < 0.004, so two decimal-place accuracy is
guaranteed, but not three.
 
1 12 2 125 3
14. (27+x) 1/3
= 3(1+x/3 ) = 3 1 + 4 x 8 x + 12 x + . . . , alternates after rst term,
3 1/3
3 3 2 3 3!
 
32 1
8
< 0.0005, 28 3 1 + 4 3.0370
3 2 3

x2 x4
15. (a) cos x = 1 + + (0)x5 + R5 (x), (b) 0.00000005
2! 4!
|x|6 (0.2)6
|R5 (x)| < 9 108
6! 6!

-0.2 0.2
0

16. (a) f  (x) = 1/(1 + x)2 , (b) 0.00005

|f  (x)| < 1/(0.99)2 1.03,


1.03|x|2 1.03(0.01)2
|R1 (x)|
2 2
5.15 105 for 0.01 x 0.01
-0.01 0.01
0

1(2) 2 1(2)(3) 3 1(2)(3) (k) k


17. (a) (1 + x)1 = 1 x + x + x + + x +
2! 3! k!


= (1)k xk
k=0
434 Chapter 10

(1/3)(2/3) 2 (1/3)(2/3)(5/3) 3
(b) (1 + x)1/3 = 1 + (1/3)x + x + x +
2! 3!


(1/3)(2/3) (4 3k)/3 k 2 5 (3k 4) k
+ x + = 1+x/3+ (1)k1 x
k! 3k k!
k=2

(3)(4) 2 (3)(4)(5) 3 (3)(4) (2 k) k


(c) (1 + x)3 = 1 3x + x + x + + x +
2! 3! k!


(k + 2)! k  (k + 2)(k + 1) k
= (1)k x = (1)k x
2 k! 2
k=0 k=0

  
  
 
m m m k m
18. (1 + x) = + x = xk
0 k k
k=1 k=0

d 1 dk (k 1)! d (k 1)!
19. (a) ln(1 + x) = , k ln(1 + x) = (1)k1 ; similarly ln(1 x) = ,
dx 1 + x dx (1 + x) k dx (1 x)k
 
(n+1) (1)n 1
so f (x) = n! + .
(1 + x)n+1 (1 x)n+1
     
 (n+1)   (1)n   1  1 1
(b) f 
(x) n!   
+ n!   = n! +
(1 + x)n+1  (1 x)n+1  (1 + x)n+1 (1 x)n+1
 n+1
 (n+1)  M 1
(c) 
If f 
(x) M on the interval [0, 1/3] then |Rn (1/3)| .
(n + 1)! 3
 
 (n+1)  1
(d) If 0 x 1/3 then 1 + x 1, 1 x 2/3, f  
(x) M = n! 1 + .
(2/3)n+1
 n+1      
n+1 n+1  n+1
M 1 1 1 (1/3)n+1 1 1 1
(e) 0.000005 = + = +
(n + 1)! 3 n+1 3 (2/3)n+1 n+1 3 2

20. Set x = 1/4 in Formula (13). Follow the argument of Exercise 19: Parts (a) and (b) remain
unchanged; in Part (c) replace (1/3) with (1/4):
    n+1
 
Rn 1  M 1
0.000005 for x in the interval [0, 1/4]. From Part (b), together
 4  (n + 1)! 4
 
1
with 0 x 1/4, 1 + x 1, 1 x 3/4, follows Part (d): M = n! 1 + . Part (e) now
(3/4)n+1
 n+1   n+1  n+1 
M 1 1 1 1
becomes 0.000005 = + , which is true for n = 9.
(n + 1)! 4 n+1 4 3

21. f (x) = cos x, f (n+1) (x) = sin x or cos x, |f (n+1) (x)| 1, set M = 1,
1 |x a|n+1
|Rn (x)| |x a|n+1 , lim = 0 so lim Rn (x) = 0 for all x.
(n + 1)! n+ (n + 1)! n+

22. f (x) = sin x, f (n+1) (x) = sin x or cos x, |f (n+1) (x)| 1, follow Exercise 21.

23. (a) From Machins formula and a CAS, 0.7853981633974483096156608, accurate to the 25th
4
decimal place.
Exercise Set 10.10 435

(b) n sn
0 0.3183098 78 . . .
1 0.3183098 861837906 067 . . .
2 0.3183098 861837906 7153776 695 . . .
3 0.3183098 861837906 7153776 752674502 34 . . .
1/ 0.3183098 861837906 7153776 752674502 87 . . .

2
f (h) f (0) e1/h
24. (a) f  (0) = lim = lim , let t = 1/h then h = 1/t and
h0 h h0 h
2 2
e1/h 2 t 1 e1/h
lim+ = lim tet = lim t2 = lim 2 = 0, similarly lim = 0 so
h0 h t+ t+ e t+ 2tet h0 h
f  (0) = 0.
(b) The Maclaurin series is 0 + 0 x + 0 x2 + = 0, but f (0) = 0 and f (x) > 0 if x = 0 so the
series converges to f (x) only at the point x = 0.

EXERCISE SET 10.10


1
1. (a) Replace x with x : = 1 x + x2 + (1)k xk + ; R = 1.
1+x
1
(b) Replace x with x2 : = 1 + x2 + x4 + + x2k + ; R = 1.
1 x2
1
(c) Replace x with 2x : = 1 + 2x + 4x2 + + 2k xk + ; R = 1/2.
1 2x
1 1/2 1 1 1 1 1
(d) = ; replace x with x/2 : = + 2 x + 3 x2 + + k+1 xk + ; R = 2.
2x 1 x/2 2x 2 2 2 2

2. (a) Replace x with x : ln(1 x) = x x2 /2 x3 /3 xk /k ; R = 1.


(b) Replace x with x2 : ln(1 + x2 ) = x2 x4 /2 + x6 /3 + (1)k1 x2k /k + ; R = 1.
(c) Replace x with 2x : ln(1+2x) = 2x(2x)2 /2+(2x)3 /3 +(1)k1 (2x)k /k+ ; R = 1/2.
(d) ln(2 + x) = ln 2 + ln(1 + x/2); replace x with x/2 :
ln(2 + x) = ln 2 + x/2 (x/2)2 /2 + (x/2)3 /3 + + (1)k1 (x/2)k /k + ; R = 2.

1 1 13 2 135 3
3. (a) From Section 10.9, Example 5(b), =1 x+ 2 x 3 x + , so
1+x 2 2 2! 2 3!
1 1 1 13 2 135 3
(2 + x)1/2 =  = 1/2 5/2 x + 9/2 x 13/2 x +
2 1 + x/2 2 2 2 2! 2 3!
1 1
(b) Example 5(a): = 1 2x + 3x2 4x3 + , so = 1 + 2x2 + 3x4 + 4x6 +
(1 + x)2 (1 x2 )2

1 1/a
4. (a) = = 1/a + x/a2 + x2 /a3 + + xk /ak+1 + ; R = |a|.
ax 1 x/a
1 1 1  
(b) 1/(a + x)2 = 2 2
= 2 1 2(x/a) + 3(x/a)2 4(x/a)3 +
a (1 + x/a) a
1 2 3 4
= 3 x + 4 x2 5 x3 + ; R = |a|
a2 a a a
436 Chapter 10

2 3 3 25 5 2 7 7
5. (a) 2x x + x x + ; R = +
3! 5! 7!
2 4 3
(b) 1 2x + 2x x + ; R = +
3

1 4 1
(c) 1 + x2 + x + x6 + ; R = +
2! 3!
2 4 4 6 6 8
(d) x2 x + x x + ; R = +
2 4! 6!

22 24 26
6. (a) 1 x2 + x4 x6 + ; R = +
2! 4! 6!
 
1 1 1 1
(b) x2 1 + x + x2 + x3 + = x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 + ; R = +
2! 3! 2! 3!
 
1 1 1 1
(c) x 1 x + x2 x3 + = x x2 + x3 x4 + ; R = +
2! 3! 2! 3!
1 6 1 1
(d) x2 x + x10 x14 + ; R = +
3! 5! 7!
 
7. (a) x2 1 3x + 9x2 27x3 + = x2 3x3 + 9x4 27x5 + ; R = 1/3
 
23 25 27 23 25 27
(b) x 2x + x3 + x5 + x7 + = 2x2 + x4 + x6 + x8 + ; R = +
3! 5! 7! 3! 5! 7!

(c) Substitute 3/2 for m and x2 for x in Equation (18) of Section 10.9, then multiply by x:
3 3 5 1
x x3 + x + x7 + ; R = 1
2 8 16

x x  
8. (a) = = x 1 + x + x2 + x3 + = x x2 x3 x4 ; R = 1.
x1 1x
3 4 3 3
(b) 3 + x + x8 + x12 + ; R = +
2! 4! 6!
(c) From Table 10.9.1 with m = 3, (1 + x)3 = 1 3x + 6x2 10x3 + , so
x(1 + 2x)3 = x 6x2 + 24x3 80x4 + ; R = 1/2

  
1 1 22 24 26
9. (a) sin2 x = (1 cos 2x) = 1 1 x2 + x4 x6 +
2 2 2! 4! 6!
2 3 4 25 6 2 7 8
= x2 x + x x +
4! 6! 8!
 
(b) ln (1 + x3 )12 = 12 ln(1 + x3 ) = 12x3 6x6 + 4x9 3x12 +

  
1 1 22 24 26
10. (a) cos2 x = (1 + cos 2x) = 1 + 1 x2 + x4 x6 +
2 2 2! 4! 6!
23 4 25 6
= 1 x2 + x x +
4! 6!
   
1x 1 1
(b) In Equation (13) of Section 10.9 replace x with x : ln = 2 x + x3 + x5 +
1+x 3 5
Exercise Set 10.10 437

1 1
11. (a) = = 1 + (1 x) + (1 x)2 + + (1 x)k +
x 1 (1 x)
= 1 (x 1) + (x 1)2 + (1)k (x 1)k +
(b) (0, 2)

1 1/x0
12. (a) = = 1/x0 (x x0 )/x20 + (x x0 )2 /x30 + (1)k (x x0 )k /xk+1
0 +
x 1 + (x x0 )/x0
(b) (0, 2x0 )

13. (a) (1 + x + x2 /2 + x3 /3! + x4 /4! + )(x x3 /3! + x5 /5! ) = x + x2 + x3 /3 x5 /30 +


(b) (1 + x/2 x2 /8 + x3 /16 (5/128)x4 + )(x x2 /2 + x3 /3 x4 /4 + x5 /5 )
= x x3 /24 + x4 /24 (71/1920)x5 +
 
1 2 1 4 1 6 3 25 331 6
14. (a) (1 x + x /2 x /6 + ) 1 x + x
2 4 6
x = 1 x2 + x4 x +
2 24 720 2 24 720
  
4 2 1 1 2 5 3 1 11 41
(b) 1 + x + 1 + x x + x = 1 + x + x2 + x3 +
3 3 9 81 3 9 81
 
1 1 2 1 4 1 6 1 5 61 6
15. (a) =1 1 x + x x + = 1 + x2 + x4 + x +
cos x 2! 4! 6! 2 24 720
   
sin x x3 x5 x2 x3 x4 1 1
(b) x
= x + 1+x+ + + + = x x2 + x3 x5 +
e 3! 5! 2! 3! 4! 3 30

tan1 x   2 2
16. (a) = x x3 /3 + x5 /5 / (1 + x) = x x2 + x3 x4
1+x 3 3
ln(1 + x)   1 5 7
(b) = x x2 /2 + x3 /3 x4 /4 + / (1 x) = x + x2 + x3 + x4 +
1x 2 6 12

17. ex = 1 + x + x2 /2 + x3 /3! + + xk /k! + , ex = 1 x + x2 /2 x3 /3! + + (1)k xk /k! + ;


1 x 
sinh x = e ex = x + x3 /3! + x5 /5! + + x2k+1 /(2k + 1)! + , R = +
2
1 x 
cosh x = e + ex = 1 + x2 /2 + x4 /4! + + x2k /(2k)! + , R = +
2

x + x3 /3! + x5 /5! + x7 /7! + 1 2 17 7


18. tanh x = = x x3 + x5 x +
1 + x2 /2 + x4 /4! + x6 /6! 3 15 315

4x 2 1 3    
19. = + = 1 + x + x2 + x3 + x4 + + 3 1 x + x2 x3 + x4 +
x 1
2 1x 1+x
= 2 4x + 2x2 4x3 + 2x4 +

x3 + x2 + 2x 2 1 2
20. =x+1 +
x2 1 1x 1+x
   
= x + 1 1 + x + x2 + x3 + x4 + + 2 1 x + x2 x3 + x4 +
= 2 2x + x2 3x3 + x4
438 Chapter 10

d  
21. (a) 1 x2 /2! + x4 /4! x6 /6! + = x + x3 /3! x5 /5! + = sin x
dx
d  
(b) x x2 /2 + x3 /3 = 1 x + x2 = 1/(1 + x)
dx

d  
22. (a) x + x3 /3! + x5 /5! + = 1 + x2 /2! + x4 /4! + = cosh x
dx
d   1
(b) x x3 /3 + x5 /5 x7 /7 + = 1 x2 + x4 x6 + =
dx 1 + x2


 
23. (a) 1 + x + x2 /2! + dx = (x + x2 /2! + x3 /3! + ) + C1
 
= 1 + x + x2 /2! + x3 /3! + + C1 1 = ex + C

 
(b) x + x3 /3! + x5 /5! + = x2 /2! + x4 /4! + + C1
= 1 + x2 /2! + x4 /4! + + C1 1 = cosh x + C


   
24. (a) x x3 /3! + x5 /5! dx = x2 /2! x4 /4! + x6 /6! + C1
 
= 1 x2 /2! + x4 /4! x6 /6! + + C1 + 1
= cos x + C

   
(b) 1 x + x2 dx = x x2 /2 + x3 /3 + C = ln(1 + x) + C

(Note: 1 < x < 1, so |1 + x| = 1 + x)

25. (a) Substitute x2 for x in the Maclaurin Series for 1/(1 x) (Table 10.9.1)
 
x 2 k
and then multiply by x: = x (x ) = x2k+1
1 x2
k=0 k=0

n! if n odd
(5) (6) (n)
(b) f (0) = 5!c5 = 5!, f (0) = 6!c6 = 0 (c) f (0) = n!cn =
0 if n even


 (1)k 22k
26. x2 cos 2x = x2k+2 ; f (99) (0) = 0 because c99 = 0.
(2k)!
k=0

sin x  
27. (a) lim = lim 1 x2 /3! + x4 /5! = 1
x0 x x0
 
tan1 x x x x3 /3 + x5 /5 x7 /7 + x
(b) lim = lim = 1/3
x0 x3 x0 x3

 
1 cos x 1 1 x2 /2! + x4 /4! x6 /6! + x2 /2! x4 /4! + x6 /6!
28. (a) = =
sin x x x3 /3! + x5 /5! x x3 /3! + x5 /5!
x/2! x3 /4! + x5 /6! 1 cos x 0
= , x = 0; lim = =0
1 x /3! + x /5!
2 4 x0 sin x 1
Exercise Set 10.10 439

 
1  1 1
(b) lim ln 1 + x sin 2x = lim ln(1 + x) sin 2x
x0 x x0 x 2
    
1 1 1 1 4 4
= lim x x2 + x3 2x x3 + x5
x0 x 2 2 3 3 15
 
3 1 3
= lim x + x2 + = 3/2
x0 2 4 2

   
1   1
1 6 1 1
29. sin x2 dx = x2 x + x10 x14 + dx
0 0 3! 5! 7!
1
1 3 1 7 1 11 1 15
= x x + x x +
3 7 3! 11 5! 15 7! 0

1 1 1 1
= + + ,
3 7 3! 11 5! 15 7!
 1
1 1 1 1
but < 0.5 103 so sin(x2 )dx + 0.3103
15 7! 0 3 7 3! 11 5!
   
1/2
1
 2
 1/2
8 6 32 10 128 14 2
30. tan 2x dx = 2x x + x x + dx
0 0 3 5 7
1/2
2 8 32 128 15
= x3 x7 + x11 x +
3 21 55 105 0

2 1 8 1 32 1 128 1
= 3
7
+ 11
,
32 21 2 55 2 105 215
 1/2
32 2 8
but < 0.5 103 so tan1 (2x2 )dx 0.0804
55 211 0 3 23 21 27

   
0.2  
4 1/3
0.2
1 4 1 8
31. 1+x dx = 1 + x x + dx
0 0 3 9
0.2
1 5 1 9 1 1
= x + x x + = 0.2 + (0.2)5 (0.2)9 + ,
15 81 0 15 81
 0.2
1
but (0.2)5 < 0.5 103 so (1 + x4 )1/3 dx 0.200
15 0

 1/2  1/2  
1 5 15 6
32. (1 + x2 )1/4 dx = 1 x2 + x4 x + dx
0 0 4 32 128
1/2
1 3 1 5 15 7
=x x + x x +
12 32 896 0

1 1 15
= 1/2 (1/2)3 + (1/2)5 (1/2)7 + ,
12 32 896
 1/2
15 1 1
but (1/2)7 < 0.5 103 so (1 + x2 )1/4 dx 1/2 (1/2)3 + (1/2)5 0.4906
896 0 12 32
440 Chapter 10

     
x d 1 d  k 
k1

33. (a) = x = x x = x kx = kxk
(1 x)2 dx 1 x dx
k=0 k=1 k=1
  


1
(b) ln(1 x) = dx C = xk dx C
1x
k=0



xk+1 xk
= C = C, ln(1 0) = 0 so C = 0.
k+1 k
k=0 k=1


+
(1)k 
+
(1)k+1
k
(c) Replace x with x in Part (b): ln(1 + x) = x = xk
k k
k=1 k=1


+
(1)k+1
(d) converges by the Alternating Series Test.
k
k=1


+
(1)k+1
(e) By Parts (c) and (d) and the remark, xk converges to ln(1 + x) for 1 < x 1.
k
k=1

1 1/3 3
34. (a) In Exercise 33(a), set x = ,S= =
3 (1 1/3)2 4
(b) In Part (b) set x = 1/4, S = ln(4/3)
(c) In Part (e) set x = 1, S = ln 2

   
1
 
2 1/2 1 2 3 4 5 6
35. (a) sinh x= 1+x dx C = 1 x + x x + dx C
2 8 16
 
1 3 5 7
= x x3 + x5 x + C; sinh1 0 = 0 so C = 0.
6 40 112


 
2 1/2 (1/2)(3/2)(5/2) (1/2 k + 1)
(b) 1+x =1+ (x2 )k
k!
k=1

1 3 5 (2k 1) 2k
=1+ (1)k x ,
2k k!
k=1

 1 3 5 (2k 1) 2k+1
sinh1 x = x + (1)k x
2k k!(2k + 1)
k=1

(c) R = 1

   
1 3 5
36. (a) sin1 x = (1 x2 )1/2 dx C =
1 + x2 + x4 + x6 + dx C
2 8 16
 
1 3 5 7
= x + x3 + x5 + x + C, sin1 0 = 0 so C = 0
6 40 112
Exercise Set 10.10 441



 
2 1/2 (1/2)(3/2)(5/2) (1/2 k + 1)  k
(b) 1x =1+ x2
k!
k=1

(1)k (1/2)k (1)(3)(5) (2k 1)
=1+ (1)k x2k
k!
k=1

1 3 5 (2k 1) 2k
=1+ x
2k k!
k=1

1 3 5 (2k 1) 2k+1
sin1 x = x + x
2k k!(2k + 1)
k=1

(c) R = 1


 (1)k (0.000121)k tk
37. (a) y(t) = y0
k!
k=0

(b) y(1) y0 (1 0.000121t) = 0.999879y0


t=1

(c) y0 e0.000121 0.9998790073y0

 
ct ct ct mg mg cv
0

38. (a) If 0 then ect/m 1 , and v(t) 1 v0 + = v0 + g t.
m m m c c m

(b) The quadratic approximation is


 
ct (ct)2 mg mg cv
0
c2 mg 2
v0 1 + 2
v0 + = v0 +g t+ 2
v0 + t .
m 2m c c m 2m c

39. 0 = 5 = /36 rad, k = sin(/72)



L 
(a) T 2 = 2 1/9.8 2.00709
g
  
L k2
(b) T 2 1+ 2.008044621
g 4
(c) 2.008045644

40. The third order model gives the same result as the second, because there is no term of degree three
 /2
13
in (5). By the Wallis sine formula, sin4 d = , and
0 2 4 2
  /2   !  
L 1 2 2 13 4 4 L k 2 3k 4 3
T 4 1 + k sin + 2 k sin d = 4 + +
g 0 2 2 2! g 2 2 4 8 16
!  
L k2 9k 4
= 2 1+ +
g 4 64
442 Chapter 10

mgR2 mg  
41. (a) F = 2
= 2
= mg 1 2h/R + 3h2 /R2 4h3 /R3 +
(R + h) (1 + h/R)
(b) If h = 0, then the binomial series converges to 1 and F = mg.
(c) Sum the series to the linear term, F mg 2mgh/R.
mg 2mgh/R 2h 2 29,028
(d) =1 =1 0.9973, so about 0.27% less.
mg R 4000 5280

42. (a) We can dierentiate term-by-term:




 (1)k+1 x2k+1
 (1)k+1 (2k + 1)x2k
(1)k x2k1 
y = = , y = , and
22k1 k!(k 1)! 22k+1 (k + 1)!k! 22k+1 (k + 1)!k!
k=1 k=0 k=0





(1)k+1 (2k + 1)x2k+1 (1)k+1 x2k+1 (1)k x2k+1
xy  + y  + xy = + + ,
22k+1 (k + 1)!k! 22k+1 (k + 1)!k! 22k (k!)2
k=0 k=0 k=0


  
(1)k+1 x2k+1 2k + 1 1
xy  + y  + xy = + 1 =0
22k (k!)2 2(k + 1) 2(k + 1)
k=0


 (1)k (2k + 1)x2k   (1)k (2k + 1)x2k1
(b) y = , y = .
22k+1 k!(k + 1)! 22k (k 1)!(k + 1)!
k=0 k=1



 (1)k1 x2k+1
(1)k x2k+1 2
Since J1 (x) = and x J1 (x) = , it follows that
22k+1 k!(k + 1)! 22k1 (k 1)!k!
k=0 k=1

x2 y  + xy  + (x2 1)y




(1)k (2k + 1)x2k+1 (1)k (2k + 1)x2k+1 (1)k1 x2k+1
= + +
22k (k 1)!(k + 1)! 22k+1 (k!)(k + 1)! 22k1 (k 1)!k!
k=1 k=0 k=1


 (1)k x2k+1

22k+1 k!(k+ 1)!
k=0

 
x x  (1)k x2k+1 2k + 1 2k + 1 1
= + + 1 = 0.
2 2 22k1 (k 1)!k! 2(k + 1) 4k(k + 1) 4k(k + 1)
k=1

 (1)k+1 x2k+1
(c) From Part (a), J0 (x) = = J1 (x).
22k+1 (k + 1)!k!
k=0




43. Let f (x) = ak xk = bk xk for r < x < r. Then ak = f (k) (0)/k! = bk for all k.
k=0 k=0

CHAPTER 10 SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES





f (k) (0) f (k) (x0 )
4. (a) xk (b) (x x0 )k
k! k!
k=0 k=0

9. (a) always true by Theorem 10.5.2



(b) sometimes false, for example the harmonic series diverges but (1/k 2 ) converges
Chapter 10 Supplementary Exercises 443

(c) sometimes false, for example f (x) = sin x, ak = 0, L = 0


(d) always true by the comments which follow Example 3(d) of Section 10.2
1 1
(e) sometimes false, for example an = + (1)n
2 4
(f ) sometimes false, for example uk = 1/2
(g) always false by Theorem 10.5.3
(h) sometimes false, for example uk = 1/k, vk = 2/k
(i) always true by the Comparison Test
(j) always true by the Comparison Test

(k) sometimes false, for example (1)k /k

(l) sometimes false, for example (1)k /k

10. (a) false, f (x) is not dierentiable at x = 0, Denition 10.8.1


(b) true: sn = 1 if n is odd and s2n = 1 + 1/(n + 1); lim sn = 1
n+
(c) false, lim ak = 0

11. (a) geometric, r = 1/5, converges (b) 1/(5k + 1) < 1/5k , converges

9 9 9  9
(c) = , diverges
k+1 k+ k 2 k k=1 2 k

12. (a) converges by Alternating Series Test



 k
k+2
(b) absolutely convergent, converges by the Root Test.
3k 1
k=1
1/2 1 
k k 1 1
(c) 2 > = , diverges
2 + sin k 2+1 3k 3k
k=1


1 1  3
 1
13. (a) 3
< 3
, 1/k converges, so 3
converges by the Comparison Test
k + 2k + 1 k k + 2k + 1
k=1 k=1

1
(b) Limit Comparison Test, compare with the divergent series 2/5
, diverges
k=1
k
 


 cos(1/k) 

(c)  < 1 , 1
converges, so
cos(1/k)
converges absolutely
k 2  k 2 k 2 k2
k=1 k=1



ln k ln k
14. (a) = because ln 1 = 0,
k=1
k k k=2 k k
   
+
ln x 2 ln x 4 ln k
dx = lim = 2(ln 2 + 2) so converges
2 x3/2 + x1/2 x1/2 2 k=2
k 3/2



k 4/3 k 4/3 1 1
(b) = , diverges
8k 2 + 5k + 1 8k 2 + 5k 2 + k 2 14k 2/3 k=1 14k 2/3

 1 
(c) absolutely convergent, converges (compare with 1/k 2 )
k2 + 1
k=1
444 Chapter 10


 

1  1
99
1 1 1 1
15. = = =
5 k 5 k 5 k 5 100 5 k 4 599
k=0 k=0 k=100 k=0

1
16. no, lim ak = = 0 (Divergence Test)
k+ 2

17. (a) p0 (x) = 1, p1 (x) = 1 7x, p2 (x) = 1 7x + 5x2 , p3 (x) = 1 7x + 5x2 + 4x3 ,
p4 (x) = 1 7x + 5x2 + 4x3

(b) If f (x) is a polynomial of degree n and k n then the Maclaurin polynomial of degree k is
the polynomial itself; if k < n then it is the truncated polynomial.

18. ln(1 + x) = x x2 /2 + ; so |ln(1 + x) x| x2 /2 by Theorem 10.7.2.

19. sin x = x x3 /3! + x5 /5! x7 /7! + is an alternating series, so


| sin x x + x3 /3! x5 /5!| x7 /7! 7 /(47 7!) 0.00005

 1  2 1
1 cos x x x4 x6 1 1 1 1
20. dx = + = + , and < 0.0005,
0 x 2 2! 4 4! 6 6! 0 2 2! 4 4! 6 6! 6 6!
 1
1 cos x 1 1
so dx = = 0.2396 to three decimal-place accuracy.
0 x 2 2! 4 4!

 1/k
2k 2
21. (a) = lim = lim = 0, converges
k+ k! k+ k
k!
1/k k
(b) = lim uk = lim
k
= e, diverges
k+ k+ k!

22. (a) 1 k, 2 k, 3 k, . . . , k k, therefore 1 2 3 k k k k k, or k! k k .


 1  1
(b) k
, converges
k k!
 1/k
1 1
(c) lim k
= lim = 0, converges
k+ k k+ k


100  

99  
1 1 1
23. (a) u100 = uk 2 uk = = 2
100 99 9900
k=1 k=1
   
1 1 1
(b) u1 = 1; for k 2, uk = 2 2 = , lim uk = 0
k k1 k(k 1) k+
  n  
1
(c) uk = lim uk = lim 2 =2
n+ n+ n
k=1 k=1


  
   
3 2 3  2 3 1 2 1
24. (a) k = = = 2 (geometric series)
2k 3 2k 3k 2 1 (1/2) 3 1 (1/3)
k=1 k=1 k=1
Chapter 10 Supplementary Exercises 445


n

(b) [ln(k + 1) ln k] = ln(n + 1), so [ln(k + 1) ln k] = lim ln(n + 1) = +, diverges
n+
k=1 k=1

n    
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3
(c) lim = lim 1+ =
n+ 2 k k+2 n+ 2 2 n+1 n+2 4
k=1
n
 1   
(d) lim tan (k + 1) tan1 k = lim tan1 (n + 1) tan1 (1) = =
n+ n+ 2 4 4
k=1

25. (a) e2 1 (b) sin = 0 (c) cos e (d) e ln 3 = 1/3

1/2 1/4 1/2k1 k


26. ak = ak1 = ak1 = ak2 = = a1 = c1/2

(a) If c = 1/2 then lim ak = 1. (b) if c = 3/2 then lim ak = 1.


k+ k+

27. ex = 1 x + x2 /2! + . Replace x with ( x100 2


16 ) /2 to obtain
2(x 100)2 (x 100)4
e( )
x100
/2
=1
16 + + , thus
2 16 2 8 164
 110  
1 (x 100)2 (x 100)4
p 1 + dx 0.23406 or 23.406%.
16 2 100 2 162 8 164

 xk+1
x3 x4
28. f (x) = xex = x + x2 + + + = ,
2! 3! k!
k=0


3x 2
4x 3
k+1 k  k+1
f  (x) = (x + 1)ex = 1 + 2x + + + = x ; = f  (1) = 2e.
2! 3! k! k!
k=0 k=0

1 1 1
29. Let A = 1 2
+ 2 2 + ; since the series all converge absolutely,
2 3 4
2
 
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2
A = 2 2 + 2 2 + 2 2 + = 1 + 2 + 2 + = , so A = = .
6 2 4 6 2 2 3 2 6 2 6 12

30. Compare with 1/k p : converges if p > 1, diverges otherwise.

1 3 3 k+1 1
31. (a) x + x2 + x3 + x4 + ; = lim |x| = |x|,
2 14 35 k+ 3k + 1 3
1
converges if |x| < 1, |x| < 3 so R = 3.
3
2 2 8 k+1 2 1 2
(b) x3 + x5 x7 + x9 ; = lim |x| = |x| ,
3 5 35 k+ 2k + 1 2
1
converges if |x|2 < 1, |x|2 < 2, |x| < 2 so R = 2.
2

|x x0 | |x x0 |
32. By the Ratio Test for absolute convergence, = lim = ; converges if
k+ b b


|x x0 | < b, diverges if |x x0 | > b. If x = x0 b, (1)k diverges; if x = x0 + b,
k=0


1 diverges. The interval of convergence is (x0 b, x0 + b).
k=0
446 Chapter 10


( x)2 ( x)4 ( x)6 x x2 x3
33. If x 0, then cos x = 1 + + = 1 + + ; if x 0, then
2! 4! 6! 2! 4! 6!

( x)2 ( x)4 ( x)6 x x2 x3
cosh( x) = 1 + + + + = 1 + + .
2! 4! 6! 2! 4! 6!

34. By Exercise 74 of Section 3.5, the derivative of an odd (even) function is even (odd); hence all
odd-numbered derivatives of an odd function are even, all even-numbered derivatives of an odd
function are odd; a similar statement holds for an even function.
(a) If f (x) is an even function, then f (2k1) (x) is an odd function, so f (2k1) (0) = 0, and thus
the MacLaurin series coecients a2k1 = 0, k = 1, 2, .

(b) If f (x) is an odd function, then f (2k) (x) is an odd function, so f (2k) (0) = 0, and thus the
MacLaurin series coecients a2k = 0, k = 1, 2, .

 1/2  
v2 v2 2  1
35. 1 2 1 + 2 , so K = m0 c 1 m0 c2 (v 2 /(2c2 ) = m0 v 2 /2
c 2c 1 v 2 /c2

 +
1
36. (a) dx < 0.005 if n > 4.93; let n = 5.
n x3.7
(b) sn 1.1062; CAS: 1.10628824