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# UNIVERSITI TENAGA NASIONAL

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

EXPERIMENT

SECTION :7

GROUP NUMBER : 1

GROUP MEMBER:

## MOHAMMAD AMIR HAZIQ BIN JAILANI ME096466

INSTRUCTOR : EN HASSAN

## Performed Date Due Date* Submitted Date

5/7/2017 12/7/2017 12/7/2017

*Late submission penalty: Late 1 day: 20%, Late 2 days: 40%, Late 3 days: 60%, More than 3 days: not accepted
STATEMENT OF PURPOSE

The objective of this experiment is to investigate the kinematics motion of a Crank and

Slotted Lever Quick Return mechanism. The investigation is to show that it is indeed a

quick return mechanism and to evaluate the increase in efficiency that this would offer if

## DATA , RESULTS AND OBSERVATION

CRANK PERCENTAGE
EXPERIMENTAL THEORETICAL VELOCITY
ANGLE DIFFERENCE

0 69 69 0 48

## 120 126 126.646 0.510083224 -17.921

130 122 122.391 0.319467935 -31.003

## 350 60 60.645 1.063566658 47.619

360 69 69 0 48

Table 1 shows the data of both theoretical and experimental slider postion and velocity

SAMPLE CALCULATIONS

1) Position Analysis

## Theoretical Slider Position, x(mm)

= cos = 40 sin

By Pythagoras

= 2 + 2

By Geometry

sin = =

=

40 sin
= 240
(40 sin )2 + (160 + 40 cos )2

And

= 70 +

40 sin
= 70 + [ 240]
(40 sin )2 + (160 + 40 cos )2

## For = 180 ; X = 69.00 mm

2) Velocity analysis (mm/degree)

= 0 + =

If

then

=
2

Where

= 9600 sin

= 9600 cos

## = (40 sin )2 + (160 + 40 cos )2

6400 sin
=
(40 sin )2 + (160 + 40 cos )2

Hence

## 9600[cos ((40 sin )2 +(160 + 40 cos )2 ) + 6400(sin )2 ]

=
[(40 sin )2 + (160 + 40 cos )2 ]1.5

## For = 180 V = -80.00 mm/

Graph of Crosshead Postion (mm) against Crank
Angle ()
140
Crosshead Postion, x (mm)
Reverse Stroke
120
Cutting
100
80
60 Experimental
40
Cutting Theoretical
20
0
0 100 200 300 400
Crank Angle ()

Graph 1 : The graph shows the crosshead position against crank angle

## Graph of Crosshead velocity (mm/) against

Crank Angle()
60
40
Crosshead Velocity (mm/)

Reverse Stroke
20
0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
-20
-40
Cutting Cutting
-60
-80
-100
Crank Angle ()

Graph 2 : The graph shows the crosshead velocity against crank angle
ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

1) Initially, the crank angle started at 0o and end at 360o. Based on the result obtained from this

experiment, there are only a slight different between the experimental value and the theoretical

value. The most errors are below than 1 percent but only few has an error above than 0.2 percent

and the average error are . However, when the crank is at 240o, it has the most percentage different

which is 14.49709354 percent. This errors maybe due to parallax error occur when reading is taken.

Although there are errors, it does not affect the mechanism to show that the crank and slotted lever

## has a quick return mechanism.

2) According to the result gained from this experiment, the rotational angle started when the crank is

at 0o. As the crank move, it possessed a cutting stroke from 0o until 100o and the velocity are above

zero. However, as the crank angle increased the velocity decreased below than zero thus making it

to possess a return strokes which are at range between 110o to 250o. After that, it returned back to

cutting strokes and the velocity are increased back to above the zero according to graph 2.
3) The four bar mechanism, crank and slotted lever quick return mechanism is an inversion of single

slider crank chain which has three turning pair and also one sliding pair. There is a crank and slotted

that are connected by a couple of slider. Slider A and B, and there is a crank in the middle of them.

The sliders are free to slide in side slotted lever, when the crank rotates about the part A, it transmits

into a slider and when the slider is fitted inside the slotted lever, it starts to oscillates to the part B.

The sliders will make a 90 degree angle when they are not rotated. Other than that, there is also an

upper end of slotted lever that is attached to the ram of the machine through the linkages, but this

doesnt take part in the basic inversion. During the rotating of the sliders, the forward stroke will

make an angle of , which the return stroke covers an angle of . So the figure will have the angle

of >. So to be concluded, the forward stroke will take more time than the return stroke. Which

## indeed, makes it a quick return mechanism.

4) In order to increase the efficiency of the mechanism, we make full of use of the return stroke than

the crank revolution. The return stroke takes less power, energy and time to operate compare to

cutting stroke in a quick return mechanism. As the time taken for the slider of the quick return

mechanism to return to its initial position is faster than the cutting operation. It is also obvious that

the value of the return stroke rotation is smaller than the cutting stroke angle which can also increase

the efficiency of the mechanism. At the same time, we have to also avoid the main error while

handling the experiment which is parallax error, parallax error happens when the students fail to

get an accurate reading. In order to avoid this problem, the students should place the eyes parallel

## to the level of the reading.

CONCLUSION

All through this test, we learnt the kinematics movement of a Crank and Slotted Lever Quick

Return component and assessed the efficiency that it would offer it's applied to a machine apparatus.

In light of the outcomes, it demonstrated that cutting stroke possesses higher percentage of

revolution contrasted with return stroke, which expanded the time taken and vitality required in

order to work. In each examination, there are dependably mistakes that can influence the after

effects of the analysis and decrease the accuracy of the information. Not withstanding, we figured

out how to get practically exact and same information as in theory. As our tabulated graph has

nearly a similar shape to the theory of this experiment. Hence, it can be presume that we figured

out how to accomplished the main objective of this experiment and could lead the experiment

smoothly. Since the cutting stroke is more than the return stroke period, therefore this will in a

roundabout way help in expanding the efficiency of the mechanism as all the more cutting

procedure will be done in less time, without wasting time only for the component to return to its

original position. Thusly, the expansion in effectiveness will helps in sparing vitality, cost and time.

REFERENCES

Semester 1 2017/2018. Mechanical Design and CAD Laboratory Manual MEMB331. College Of

## Engineering. Uniten, pp 28-35.

H.G.Phakatkar. 2009. Theory of Machines and Mechanisms. 4th Ed. Nirali Prakashan. pp18-19.