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# Program Logic formulation is the study of the properties of propositions and

deductive reasoning by abstraction and analysis of the form rather than the content
of propositions under consideration.

Logic is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration.

The computer brain (C.P.U.) has different components that work cooperatively to
execute instructions. These components are:
Control Unit (C.U.) The command center of the processor. It has three
primary functions: read and interpret instructions, direct flow of operations of
computer and hardware devices and, control the flow of instructions and
data.

## Register A temporary storage microchip that holds data during processing.

It is located inside the CPU and has the same function that of a memory,
specifically the type Random Access Memory (R.A.M.) because of its volatile
character data are lost once electric current is turned off; it just holds data
temporarily for processing.

Arithmetic and Logic Unit (A.L.U.) the most significant component inside
the C.P.U. for our learning of the behind the scene. It is the chief of
operations of the computer. A.L.U. performs two major operations in
processing data: all mathematical computations (addition, subtraction,
multiplication, and division) and all logical operations(comparisons of data
such as; greater than, less than, equal, greater than or equal to, and less
than or equal to). These processing are the main concentration of how a
computer process data, and is the foundation of the behind the scene.

## Behind the scene in action

As we have read the blue print of behind the scene, it is now clear why a
computer is defined as an electronic device that can accept, process, and store
vast amount of data to produce useful information. Let us now zero in on behind
the scene and understand its language of ABC.
Computer programmers write computer instructions in computer
programming language. Just as people speak their native dialect, programmers
write programs in different languages; some examples are C++, Visual Basic, Java
and COBOL. No matter which programming language a Computer programmer
uses, the language has rules governing its terminology and punctuation. These
rules are called the languages syntax. This syntax is a rule that governs a
programming language. is unique and have their specific set of syntax.
When ideas are converted into a computer program, it is sent to the CPU
processing. However, The CPU cannot understand the code (computer program) and
will not do anything because of language incompatibility. For the CPU to understand
the code, a language translator is needed. The language translator software is
called compiler or interpreter. The role of compiler is to transform the code into a
machine language (series of 1s and 0s to represent ON and OFF states of the
computer devices. It is also the representation of the digital electronic charges
inside the computer). Once the code is compiled, it changes its form from computer
program with strict syntax to a readable machine language that can be interpreted
by the CPU. CPU then executes the instructions and performs the tasks.

## Lifeblood of a Computer System

Tasks executed by the CPU vary from simple acceptance of data to a complex
merging of different files. Whatever tasks the CPU is instructed to perform, the
instruction would have to be in the language of computers. Computer program is
the lifeblood of a computer system it is the fluid that runs through the veins of the
computer that tells what the organs to function and what action to perform. With
the analogy, we can define a computer program or code as a set of logical
instructions given to a computer for data processing that is interpreted by a
compiler to produce useful information.
Programmers integrate ideas to a code in no simple way. In their practice of
developing computer programs, it brings to them the hurdles to accomplish the
task. Being new to programming, we might not be ready yet to overcome the
challenges. As a guide, programmers suggest to observe the following guide
questions in planning and developing a program:

## 1. What is the problem?

2. What are the available data?
3. What output information or data is needed?
4. When do you need the output?
5. What processing is needed to produce the output?
6. What is the desired output?
7. Where should the output go?

We can now agree that code is the gasoline that powers the computer. It is
now the role of behind the scene to translate ideas into a form that is friendlier and
easier to understand and illustrate. Behind the scene can be illustrated by the use of
flow chart. Flowchart is a modeling tool used to illustrate data, instructions, process,
information, and workflow by the use of specialized symbols. In the world of
computers we can simply say that flow chart is a step-by-step graphical
representation of a solution. The basic symbols used in programming are presented
in Table 1.

http://www.scribd.com/doc/7368548/Logic-Formulation

Logic formulation is the process of coming out with the basic steps to implement a
procedure in computer programming. This is usually resorted to when having top-
down design. Flowcharts and pseudo codes are the two of most common output of
qid=20071110191353AABcdvH

Maybe the right question is "What is a Logic Formulation". I would like to give my
view on this.

Perhaps, the best way to understand "logic formulation" is by first knowing what
"logic" is. In philosophy "logic" can be discussed endlessly but in so far as computer
science is concern what we actually need is a simple application of it. Let me define
"logic" as the grammar of correct thinking and reasoning. Take note of the
conjunctive word "and" in the definition. Hence, two important elements must
conform to define logic and that is (1) to think correctly and; (2) to reason out
correctly. If one of the elements would be missing then no logic can be derived from.

## The importance of logic in computer science is not as complicated as one might

think of it philophically. Its use in programming is only for the purpose of bringing
your instructions into proper order. Other than that, no further deductions or
inference is needed. In writing instructions for the computer you have to take the
individual steps comprising of the whole act to attain the desired results. Computer
don't possess inherent power of thinking as human would demonstrate in the
conduct of his task. Thus, each step must be taken and arranged according to the
order of their priorities. These individual steps will make the instructions needed by
the computer to execute its task. Each individual step is known as ALGORITHM.
Let us "MAKE COFFEE" to further illustrate this. When you want to make a coffee
there are certain steps you need to do and so you can sip it in the end. Even us,
human, cannot take all the steps at one time just to make coffee. Much so if
computer is to make it for you. Computers works faster than human but despite of
that tremendous speed computers will still take your instructions one at a time. So
what are the steps in doing a cup of coffee? Let us consider:

1. Get a cup
2. Put a teaspoon of coffee into the cup
3. Put a spoonful of sugar into the cup
4. Pour hot water into the cup
5. Stir it with spoon
6. Drink (slowly)

As you can see, the above steps are arranged in LOGICAL order. Some of the steps
like the 2nd to the 4th steps maybe interchanged without affecting the LOGICAL
process but not steps 1, 5 and 6. But just to satisfy your curiosity try to do step 5 as
your first step or perhaps 6th as your first. I just wonder what will become of your
coffee as what would become of you in the face of those people watching you.

Clearly LOGIC FORMULATION simply means bringing the steps as required by the
task in PROPER ORDER so that when it is executed procedurally the desired result is
achieved according to the required output specification.

## This course is designed specially for beginners in programming. This course is

designed to introduce participants to basic problem solving techniques, flow
charting, writing, debugging and testing.

Pre-requisite: None

Target Audience:

Programming.

General Outline:

## Systems Development Overview

Overview of System Life Cycle
Program Specifications
Flowcharting
Problem Solving using Flowchart
Pseudocode Overview
Record Declaration
Pseudocode Structure, Commands

http://www.informatics.edu.ph/wp/courses/program-logic-formulation