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PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2

Linabuan National High School Senior High


Ma. Nelyn Amor I. Ricarto, T-I

Content: Nature of Inquiry and Research


Content Standard:
The learner demonstrates understanding of:
1. the characteristics, strengths, weaknesses, and kinds of quantitative research
2. the importance of quantitative research across fields
3. the nature of variables
Performance Standard: The learner is able to decide on suitable
quantitative research in different areas of interest
Learning Competencies:
--Describes characteristics, strengths, weaknesses, and kinds of quantitative research CS_RS12-Ia-c-1

LESSON 1: Characteristics, Strengths, Weaknesses, and Kinds Of Quantitative Research


Time Frame: Week One

OVERVIEW
Humans are 'intuitive' scientists ....always asking questions and testing theories about themselves, others,
events, the environment and the world around them.
Research is asking a question and finding out the answer
1. It is looking into something.
2. It is looking for something.
3. It is comparing and contrasting things.
4. It is finding out more information...it is counting things ...making
inquiries...being curious...finding out what people think...finding out what people
do....finding out what works.... finding out what doesn't work...finding out what people
want...
What research have you conducted recently?
1. What decisions have you made about your day?
2. What decisions have you made today?
3. What influenced your decision to take this course?
4. How do you prepare and write assignments?
5. How do you decide how to provide the best quality of service for your service
users?
We all engage in or do social research as we act on the basis and results of our own research
and theorizing, therefore, what we think affects the way we behave....
What do we research?
We research people and their behaviour, opinions, attitudes, trends and patterns, also politics,
animals, health and illness. Research can be conducted either informally for our own benefit, through
asking questions, watching, counting or reading and formally, for medical or academic purposes, as a
marketing strategy, to inform and influence politics and policy.
Research may be carried out in our own lives, through the media, in our place of work, with our
friends and family or through reading past research.
Our views - personal, social, community and worldwide and our own identities are socially
constructed through our own theorizing.
Research gives us information about:
1. Thoughts and opinions 5. Norms
2. Attitudes 6. Scientific facts
3. Habits 7. Medical information
4. Culture
What do we do with research?
1. Have it as interesting fact
2. Use it to make decisions
3. Use it to persuade influence others
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
Linabuan National High School Senior High
Ma. Nelyn Amor I. Ricarto, T-I

4. Use it to affect change


5. Use it to change behaviour
6. Use it to better use...medical ...improve customer care...write better funding applications....monitor
and evaluate our provision....
We research in order to understand society and social processes, as well as to test and or create
theories in order that we are better able to inform about social action and potentially 'improve' social
conditions.

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
Quantitative research is defined by Bryman and Bell (2005, p. 154) that entailing
the collection of numerical data and exhibiting the view of relationship between theory
and research as deductive, a predilection for natural science approach, and as having
an objectivist conception of social reality.
Quantitative research is influenced by the empiricist paradigm, which means that
it is concerned with cause and effect of social phenomena and uses the data - which is
based on empirical observation and their critical interpretation.
Quantitative research is the systematic empirical investigation of observable
phenomena via statistical, mathematical or computational techniques.

The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical


models, theories and/or hypotheses pertaining to phenomena. The process
of measurement is central to quantitative research because it provides the fundamental
connection between empirical observation and mathematical expression of quantitative
relationships. Quantitative data is any data that is in numerical form such as statistics,
percentages, etc. The researcher analyzes the data with the help of statistics.
The researcher is hoping the numbers will yield an unbiased result that can be
generalized to some larger population.

"Qualitative research, on the other hand, asks broad questions and collects word data from
phenomena or participants. The researcher looks for themes and describes the information in themes and
patterns exclusive to that set of participants. "

This research method is used:


to describe variables;
to examine relationships among variables;
to determine cause-and-effect interactions between variables.' (Burns & Grove 2005:23)

Quantitative research is generally made using scientific methods, which can include:
The generation of models, theories and hypotheses
The development of instruments and methods for measurement
Experimental control and manipulation of variables
Collection of empirical data
Modeling and analysis of data

Use of statistics
Statistics is the most widely used branch of mathematics in
quantitative research outside of the physical sciences, and also finds
applications within the physical sciences.
Quantitative research using statistical methods starts with the
collection of data, based on the hypothesis or theory. Usually a big
sample of data is collected this would require verification, validation
and recording before the analysis can take place. Software packages such as SPSS and R are typically
used for this purpose.
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
Linabuan National High School Senior High
Ma. Nelyn Amor I. Ricarto, T-I

SPSS Statistics is a software package used for logical batched and non-
batched statistical analysis. Long produced by SPSS Inc., it was acquired
by IBM in 2009. The current versions (2015) are officially named IBM SPSS
Statistics. Companion products in the same family are used for survey
authoring and deployment (IBM SPSS Data Collection), data mining (IBM
SPSS Modeler), text analytics, and collaboration and
deployment (batch and automated scoring services).
The software name originally stood
for Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS),[2] reflecting the
original market, although the software is now popular in other fields as well,
including the health sciences and marketing.
International Business Machines Corporation (commonly referred to as IBM)
is an Americ an multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States,
with operations in over 170 countries.
R is an open source programming language and software environment for statistical computing and
graphics that is supported by the R Foundation for Statistical Computing. [6] The R language is widely
used among statisticians and data miners for developing statistical software[7] and data
analysis.[8] Polls, surveys of data miners, and studies of scholarly literature databases show that R's
popularity has increased substantially in recent years.[9]

CHARACTERISTICS OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

Your goal in conducting quantitative research study is to determine the relationship


between one thing [an independent variable] and another [a dependent or outcome
variable] within a population. Quantitative research designs are
either descriptive [subjects usually measured once] or experimental [subjects measured
before and after a treatment]. A descriptive study establishes only associations between
variables; an experimental study establishes causality.

Quantitative research deals in numbers, logic, and an objective stance. Quantitative research
focuses on numeric and unchanging data and detailed, convergent reasoning rather than divergent
reasoning [i.e., the generation of a variety of ideas about a research problem in a spontaneous, free-
flowing manner].

Its main characteristics are:


The data is usually gathered using structured research instruments.
The results are based on larger sample sizes that are representative of the population.
The research study can usually be replicated or repeated, given its high reliability.
Researcher has a clearly defined research question to which objective answers are sought.
All aspects of the study are carefully designed before data is collected.
Data are in the form of numbers and statistics, often arranged in tables, charts, figures, or other
non-textual forms.
Project can be used to generalize concepts more widely, predict future results, or investigate causal
relationships.
Researcher uses tools, such as questionnaires or computer software, to collect numerical data.

The overarching aim of a quantitative research study is to classify features,


count them, and construct statistical models in an attempt to explain what
is observed.


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
Linabuan National High School Senior High
Ma. Nelyn Amor I. Ricarto, T-I

The weight of a person (in kilograms)


The height of a person (in metres)
The age of a person (in years and months)
The gender of a person (using a numerical system of categorisation, e.g. 1 for female, 2 for male)
A persons education (e.g. number and grade of school certificates; classification of undergraduate
degree)
A persons political views (e.g. using a scale that goes from 0 for extreme left-wing to 10 for extreme
right-wing)
STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

Allows for a broader study, involving a greater number of subjects, and


enhancing the generalization of the results;
Allows for greater objectivity and accuracy of results. Generally, quantitative
methods are designed to provide summaries of data that support generalizations about
the phenomenon under study. In order to accomplish this, quantitative research
usually involves few variables and many cases, and employs prescribed procedures to
ensure validity and reliability;
Applying well-establshed standards means that the research can be replicated,
and then analyzed and compared with similar studies;
You can summarize vast sources of information and make comparisons across categories and over
time; and,
Personal bias can be avoided by keeping a 'distance' from participating subjects and using
accepted computational techniques.
Quantitative data is more efficient and able to test hypotheses, but may
miss contextual detail;
Uses a static and rigid approach and so employs an inflexible process of
discovery;
The development of standard questions by researchers can lead to
"structural bias" and false representation, where the data actually reflects
the view of the researcher instead of the participating subject;
Results provide less detail on behavior, attitudes, and motivation;
Researcher may collect a much narrower and sometimes superficial dataset;
Results are limited as they provide numerical descriptions rather than detailed narrative and
generally provide less elaborate accounts of human perception;
The research is often carried out in an unnatural, artificial environment so that a level of
control can be applied to the exercise. This level of control might not normally be in place in the
real world thus yielding "laboratory results" as opposed to "real world results"; and,
Preset answers will not necessarily reflect how people really feel about a subject and, in some
cases, might just be the closest match to the preconceived hypothesis.

KINDS OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
Linabuan National High School Senior High
Ma. Nelyn Amor I. Ricarto, T-I

There are four (4) main types of quantitative designs: descriptive, correlational,
quasi-experimental, and experimental.

Descriptive research is a study designed to depict the participants in an


accurate way. More simply put, descriptive research is all about describing people who
take part in the study.

There are three ways a researcher can go about doing a descriptive research
project, and they are:
Observational, defined as a method of viewing and recording the participants
Case study, defined as an in-depth study of an individual or group of
individuals
Survey, defined as a brief interview or discussion with an individual about a
specific topic

Correlational study is a quantitative method of research in which you have 2


or more quantitative variables from the same group of subjects, & you are trying
to determine if there is a relationship (or covariation) between the 2 variables (a
similarity between them, not a difference between their means).
Theoretically, any 2 quantitative variables can be correlated (for example,
midterm scores & number of body piercings!) as long as you have scores on these
variables from the same participants; however, it is probably a waste of time to
collect & analyze data when there is little reason to think these two variables
would be related to each other.

Quasi-experimental design involves selecting groups, upon which a variable


is tested, without any random pre-selection processes.
For example, to perform an educational experiment, a class might be
arbitrarily divided by alphabetical selection or by seating arrangement. The
division is often convenient and, especially in an educational situation, causes
as little disruption as possible.
After this selection, the experiment proceeds in a very similar way to any other
experiment, with a variable being compared between different groups, or over a
period of time.

Experimental research is commonly used in sciences such as sociology and


psychology, physics, chemistry, biology and medicine etc. It is a collection
of research designs which use manipulation and controlled testing to understand
causal processes. Generally, one or more variables are manipulated to determine
their effect on a dependent variable.
The experimental method is a systematic and scientific approach to
research in which the researcher manipulates one or more variables, and controls
and measures any change in other variables.
The word experimental research has a range of definitions. In the strict
sense, experimental research is what we call a true experiment.
This is an experiment where the researcher manipulates one variable, and control/randomizes the
rest of the variables. It has a control group, the subjects have been randomly assigned between the groups,
and the researcher only tests one effect at a time. It is also important to know what variable(s) you want
to test and measure.
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
Linabuan National High School Senior High
Ma. Nelyn Amor I. Ricarto, T-I

ACTIVITY 1A.1.1

Direction: Put a tick (/) if it describes the characteristics of a Quantitative Research.

1. Data is in the form of words, pictures or objects.


* 2. The data is usually gathered using structured research instruments.
3. It is not based upon numerical measurements and does not use numbers and statistical methods
as key research indicators and tools.
4. It tends to be associated with small-scale studies and a holistic perspective, often studying a
single occurrence or small number of occurrences/case studies in great depth.
* 5. The research study can usually be replicated or repeated, given its high reliability.
* 6. Data are in the form of numbers and statistics, often arranged in tables, charts, figures,
or other non-textual forms.
7. Emphasis is on discovery rather than proof.
* 8. The results are based on larger sample sizes that are representative of the population.
9. It tends to be associated with emergent research design, using a wide range of approaches
* 10. Researcher has a clearly defined research question to which objective answers are sought.
SCORE: ____________________
Corrected by: __________________
ACTIVITY 1A.1.2

Answer the following questions comprehensively.


1. Discuss the strengths of a Quantitative Research.
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
2. Discuss the weaknesses of a Quantitative Research.
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
SCORE: ____________________
Corrected by: __________________
ACTIVITY 1A.1.3

Describe the following Kinds of Quantitative Research.


1. Descriptive - __________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. Correlational - ________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
3. Quasi-experimental - _________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
4. Experimental - _______________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
SCORE: ____________________
Corrected by: __________________
TOTAL SCORE
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
Linabuan National High School Senior High
Ma. Nelyn Amor I. Ricarto, T-I

REFERENCES

Burns N, Grove SK (2005) The Practice of Nursing Research: Conduct, Critique, and Utilization (5th Ed.). St.
Louis, Elsevier Saunders

http://research-methodology.net/research-methods/quantitative-research/

https://cirt.gcu.edu/blogs/quantitative-methods/characteristics-of-quantitative-research

http://spalding.libguides.com/c.php?g=461133&p=3153088

http://www.erm.ecs.soton.ac.uk/theme4/quantitative_research.html

http://spalding.libguides.com/c.php?g=461133&p=3153088

http://researchguides.ebling.library.wisc.edu/samples.jbpub.com/9780763780586/80586_CH03_Keele.pdf

http://study.com/academy/lesson/descriptive-research-design-definition-examples-types.html
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
Linabuan National High School Senior High
Ma. Nelyn Amor I. Ricarto, T-I

Content: Nature of Inquiry and Research


Content Standard:
The learner demonstrates understanding of:
1. the characteristics, strengths, weaknesses, and kinds of quantitative research
2. the importance of quantitative research across fields
3. the nature of variables
Performance Standard: The learner is able to decide on suitable
quantitative research in different areas of interest
Learning Competencies:
--Illustrates the importance of quantitative research across fields CS_RS12-Ia-c-2

LESSON 1: Importance of Quantitative Research


Time Frame: Week Two

Importance of Quantitative Research


1. More reliable and objective
2. Can use statistics to generalise a finding
3. Often reduces and restructures a complex problem to a limited number of variables
4. Looks at relationships between variables and can establish cause and effect in highly controlled
circumstances
5. Tests theories or hypotheses
6. Assumes sample is representative of the population
7. Subjectivity of researcher in methodology is recognized less
8. Less detailed than qualitative data and may miss a desired response from the participant

Importance of Quantitative Research across fields


In the social sciences, it is also common to count frequencies of observations; i.e. frequencies of
observable outcomes in an experiment.
Examples include the number of correct scores on an assessment of an ability, and the number of
statements on a questionnaire endorsed by respondents.
Provided each observable outcome is the manifestation of an underlying quantitative attribute, such
frequencies will generally indicate relative magnitudes of that attribute.
Strictly speaking, however, counts and frequencies do not constitute measurement in terms of a unit of
continuous quantity.
Use in prosody and poetry
In prosody and poetic meter, syllable weight can be a governing principle.
Many linguists use morae as a unit of syllable weighta syllable with more morae is heavier than one
with fewer morae.
Commonly, syllables with naturally long vowels, diphthongs, and vowels followed by two or more
consonants are said to be heavy, long, or bimoraic, whereas syllables with naturally short vowels,
followed by only one or no consonant, are said to be light, short, or monomoraic.

Quantitative research is widely used in both the natural and social sciences, from physics and
biology to sociology and journalism.
It is also used as a way to research different aspects of music education.
The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories and
hypotheses pertaining to natural phenomena.
The process of measurement is central to quantitative research because it provides the fundamental
connection between empirical observation and mathematical expression of quantitative relationships.
The term quantitative research is most often used in the social sciences in contrast to qualitative research.
Virtually all research in physics is quantitative whereas research in other scientific disciplines,
such as taxonomy and anatomy, may involve a combination of quantitative and other analytic approaches
and methods.
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
Linabuan National High School Senior High
Ma. Nelyn Amor I. Ricarto, T-I

In the social sciences particularly, quantitative research is often contrasted with qualitative
research which is the examination, analysis and interpretation of observations for the purpose of
discovering underlying meanings and patterns of relationships,
.. including classifications of types of phenomena and entities, in a manner that does not involve
mathematical models.
Approaches to quantitative psychology were first modelled on quantitative approaches in the physical
sciences by Gustav Fechner in his work on psychophysics, which built on the work of Ernst Heinrich
Weber.
Although a distinction is commonly drawn between qualitative and quantitative aspects of scientific
investigation, it has been argued that the two go hand in hand.
For example, based on analysis of the history of science, Kuhn (1961, p. 162) concludes that large
amounts of qualitative work have usually been prerequisite to fruitful quantification in the physical
sciences.

Qualitative research is often used to gain a general sense of phenomena and to form theories that
can be tested using further quantitative research.
For instance, in the social sciences qualitative research methods are often used to gain better
understanding of such things as intentionality (from the speech response of the researchee) and meaning
(why did this person/group say something and what did it mean to them?).

Although quantitative investigation of the world has existed since people first began to record
events or objects that had been counted,
the modern idea of quantitative processes have their roots in Auguste Comte's positivist framework.

Quantitative research using statistical methods typically begins with the collection of data based
on a theory or hypothesis, followed by the application of descriptive or inferential statistical methods.
Causal relationships are studied by manipulating factors thought to influence the phenomena of interest
while controlling other variables relevant to the experimental outcomes.
In the field of health, for example, researchers might measure and study the relationship between dietary
intake and measurable physiological effects such as weight loss, controlling for other key variables such
as exercise.

Quantitatively based opinion surveys are widely used in the media, with statistics such as the
proportion of respondents in favor of a position commonly reported.
In opinion surveys, respondents are asked a set of structured questions and their responses are tabulated.
In the field of climate science, researchers compile and compare statistics such as temperature or
atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.

Examples of Quantitative research


1. Has the change in household size over the years affected the economy?
2. Is the price of gasoline related to demand or price of oil?
3. Has public consumption changed over the years?
4. How has the increase in minimum wage affected small business?
5. Has the new health insurance laws threatening small business?
6. What happens to student loans if students fail to graduate from college?
7. Does unemployment directly affect changes in consumption?
8. Is the economy causing some home health care workers to disappear?

REFERENCES
http://libweb.surrey.ac.uk/library/skills/Introduction%20to%20Research%20and%20Managing%20Infor
mation%20Leicester/page_45.htm
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
Linabuan National High School Senior High
Ma. Nelyn Amor I. Ricarto, T-I

ACTIVITY 1A.2.1

Explain the importance of Quantitative research. Answer in 3 to 5 sentences.


_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
SCORE: ____________________
Corrected by: __________________

ACTIVITY 1A.2.2

Choose one field and explain the importance of quantitative research.


_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
SCORE: ____________________
Corrected by: __________________

TOTAL SCORE
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
Linabuan National High School Senior High
Ma. Nelyn Amor I. Ricarto, T-I