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(Rectilinear Motion with Constant Acceleration)

14. An automobile moving at a constant velocity of 45 ft


per sec passes a gasoline station. Two seconds later,
another automobile leaves the gasoline station and
accelerates at the constant rate of 6 ft per sec2. How soon
will the second automobile overtake the first?

SOLUTION:

Let the second automobile catch the first one after t sec,

Distance covered by first in (t+2) sec = Distance covered by


second in t sec

45(t+2) = 0 + 1/2 x 6 x t2

t2 -15t - 30 = 0

15(152 4(1)(30)
t= 2(1)

t = [15 +/- 18.57]/2

t = 16.79 sec (positive sign is taken because time cannot


be negative)
15. A balloon rises from the ground with a constant
acceleration of 4 ft per sec2. Five seconds later, a stone is
thrown vertically up from the launching site. What must
be the minimum initial velocity of the stone for it to just
touch the balloon? Note that the balloon and stone have
the same velocity at contact.

SOLUTION:

as g=32ft/s2 = v0t-16t2 (stone height)


balloon: (5 seconds after v=v0+gt
the ground) = v0-32t (stone velocity)
h=1/2at2
= (4)(5)2
h= 50ft balloon=stone (velocity)
v=at 20+4t= v0-32t
= (4)(5) v0= 36t+20
v= 20ft/s
balloon=stone (height)
t seconds after: 2t2+20t+50= v0t-16t2
h=h0+v0t+1/2at2 = (36t+20)t-16t2
= 50+20t+2t2 = 20t2+20t
h= 2t2+20t+50 18t2= 50
t= 1.667s
(balloon height)
v=20+4t (balloon v0= (36)(1.667+20)
velocity)
V0= 80 ft/s (stone initial
stone: velocity)
h=v0t+1/2gt2
= v0t+1/2(-32)t^2
Rectilinear Motion with Variable Acceleration
Using Equations of Motions

1. The motion of a particle is given by the equation


1
s 2t 4 t 3 2t 2 , where s is in feet and t in seconds.
6
Compute the values of v and a when t = 2 sec.

SOLUTION:

1
S= 2t4- 6t3+ 2t2
v=ds/dt
v=8t31/2t2+4t

a=dv/dt
a=24t22t/2+4

When t = 2 sec

v=8(23)1/2(22)+4(2)
v=70 ft/s

a=24(22)2+4
a=98 ft/s2

Summary of answers:

v=70 ft/s
a=98 ft/s2
2. A particle moves in a straight line according to the law s
= t3 - 40 t where s is in feet and t in seconds.
(a) When t = 5 sec, compute the velocity.
(b) Find the average velocity during the fourth second.
(c) When the particle again comes to rest, what is its
acceleration?

SOLUTION:

a. S=t3-40t @ 4th seconds


v= 3t2 40 s= (4)3-40(40)
a=6t s= -96 m

@t= 5 sec c. If v=0


v= 3(5)2-40 0=3t2-40
v= 35 ft/sec t= 3.65 seconds

total distance a=6t


b. Vave= total time
96(93)
a=6(3.65)
= a= 21.9ft/sec2
43
3
=1
Vave= -3m/sec Summary of answers:
a. v= 35 ft/sec
b. Vave= -3m/sec
c. a= 21.9ft/sec2
3. A ladder of length L moves with its ends in contact with
a vertical wall and a horizontal floor. If the ladder starts
from a vertical position and its lower end A moves along
the floor with a constant velocity vA, show that the velocity
of its upper end B is vB = -vAtan where is the angle
between the ladder and the wall.

SOLUTION:

L
Y

Va

A
X=Vat

g=L2 X 2

dy 1 1 dy
Vb= dt =2y(-2X) dt

dx
But X = Vat + dy =Va
x
Therefore: Vb = -y Va
Vb = -Vatan

When = 90, Vb= , which is impossible.


4. The rectilinear motion of a particle is given by s = v2 - 9
where s is in feet and v in feet per second. When t = 0, s =
0 and v = 3 ft per sec. Find the s-t, v-t, and a-t relations.

SOLUTION:

S+9=v2 t+c=ln[sec+tan]

v=5 + 9 = ds/dt s2 +9 5
ln[ +3] =t+c
3
ds 3sec^2d c=0
=dt=9+9tan^2 s2 +9 5
5+9 t= ln[ +3]
3
3sec^2d
= s2 +9 5
3sec
et = +3
3
s= 3tan
(v2 9)2 +9 v2 9
et= +
3 3
ds=3sec2d
dv ds
dt=secd 2V dt = dt

2Va=V

a= 1/2
s s 2 + 9

3
5. The velocity of a particle moving along the X axis is
defined by v = x3 - 4x2 + 6 x where v is in feet per second
and x is in feet. Compute the value of the acceleration
when x = 2 ft.

SOLUTION:

v=(2)3-4(2)2+6(2)
v=4ft/sec

vdv=adx

a=vdv/dx

dv/dx=2

a=4(2)

a=8 ft/sec2
6. The motion of a particle is defined by the
relation a = 4 t, where a is in feet per second2 and t
in seconds. It is known that s = 1 ft and v = 2 ft per
sec when t = 1 sec. Determine the relations
between v and t, s and t, v and s.

SOLUTION:

dv/dt=4t c=1/3
4t^2
v= 2 +c-2t2+c
2t^3 1
c=0 ; if t=1 s= +3
3
v=2t2
t=
v 3s=2t3+1
2 v 3
ds/dt=2t2 3s= 2 ( ) +1
2

2t^3 2(v)^3
s= +c 3s= +1
3 22

2(1)^3
1= +c (v)^3
3 3s= +1
2

3=2+3c
(3s-1)2-v3/2
7. The motion of a particle is governed by the
8
equation a 2 , where a is in feet per second2
s
and s is in feet. When t = 1 sec, s = 4 ft and v = 2 ft
per Sec. Determine the relations between v and t, s
and t, v and s.

SOLUTION:

ads=vdv
vdv=-8/s2 ds 4dt=s ds
2s 3 /2
8s^1
4t= 3 +c
v2/2= +c 4= 2/3(4)3/2+c
1
C= -4/3
v2=16s-1+c
4t =2/3 s3/2+(-4/3)
if s=4 ; v=2 c=0
12t =2s3/2-4
v2=16/s
16
12t = 2 (v^2)3/2-4
s=16/v2
4
v= =ds/dt 128
8 12t = v^3 - 4
1
8. The motion of a particle is given by a 6v , 2

where a is in feet per second2 and v in feet per


second. When t is zero, s = 6 ft and v = 0. Find the
relations between v and t, s and t, v and s.

Given:
1
a 6v 2 ,
t=0, s=6, v=0

Required:
the relations between v and t, s and t, v and
s.

SOLUTION: 9 3
s= +C
3

dv/dt= 6v1/2
if s=6, t=0 therefore
dv/6 = dt
C= 6
dv/(v)-1/2 = 6dt
2v1/2 = 6t + C 9 3
s= 3 + 6
If t=0 and v=0 =3t3 + 6
therefore C= 0
S= 3( /3 )3 + 6
2v1/2 = 6t
V1/2 =3t 3^32
S= +6
V= 9t2 3(9)

T= /3
9s = v3/2 + 54
ds/dt = 9t2
9. The motion of a particle is governed by the
relation a = 4t2, where a is n feet per second2 and t
is in seconds. When t is zero, v = 2 ft per sec and s =
4 ft. Find the values of v and s when t = 2 sec.

Given:
a=4t2
t=0
v=2
s=4
Required:
v and s when t=2

SOLUTION:

dv/dt = 4t2
v= 4t3/3 + C
If t=0, s=4 ; C=4
4(0)3 4 4
2= 3 + C=2 S= 12 + 2 + 4
Therefore:
4 3 4(2)4
V= 3 + 2 S= + 2(2) + 4
12
V=12.67 ft/s answer
S=13.33 ft answer

4 3
= + 2
4 3
4
S= 12 + 2 +
1. From the v-t curve shown, determine the
distance traveled in 4 sec and also in 6 sec.

SOLUTION:
At 4 seconds:
S=1/2(4)(20)
S=40ft
At 6 seconds:
S=1/2(6)(20)
S=60ft
2. The motion of a particle starting from rest is
governed by the a-t curve shown. Determine the
displacement at t = 9 sec.

SOLUTION:
Solving for v1 and v2

a1= 2t
integrating:
a= 2
a=2
2 2
= 2 +C
v1 = t2 + C
if v1=0, t=0 therefore C1=0
v1 = t2
= 62
= 36 ft/s

4
a2= - 3 + 20
integrating:
4
= 3 ( + 20)

4 2
=5 + 20
2
4 2
v2 = + 20 + 2
6

if v1=v2=9 and t=6


4 2
36 = + 20 + 2
6

4(6)2
36 = + 20(6) + 2
6

C2 = -60
4(9)2
v2 = + 20(9) 60
6
v2 = 66 ft/s

Solving for s1 and s2 :

v1 = t2
integrating:
= 2
3
S1 = 3 + 1
If s=0, t=0
therefore C1=0
3
S1 = +
3

3 63
S1 = =
3 3
S1 = 72 ft

4 2
v2 = 6 + 20 + 2
integrating:
2 2
= ( + 20 + 60)dt
3

2 20 2
S2= 9 3 + 60 + 2
2
2
S2 = 9 3 + 10 2 60 + 2
If s1=s2=72 and t=6
2
72 = 9 (6)3 + 10(6)2 60(6) + 2
C2 = 120

When t=9
2
S2 = 9 3 + 10 2 60 + 2

2
S2 = 9 (9)3 + 10(9)2 60(9) + 120

S2 =228 ft answer