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Outline

PERT/CPM

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PERT/CPM
Program (or Project) Evaluation
and Review Technique /
Critical Path Method

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PERT/CPM
Two related network based methods to schedule ac
tivities for a (large) project
PERT: Program (or Project) Evaluation and Review Te
chnique
CPM: Critical Path Method
huge saving in projects such as the Manhattan Project, t
he Apollo Project

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PERT/CPM
Two conventions
nodes for events and arcs for activities (our convention)
node i: the begin of
l
i j activity (i, j)

node i: the end of


(i, j): an activity, of length l activity (i, j)

arcs for events and nodes for activities

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PERT/CPM - Example
A marine crop was going to launch an amphibious
operation. To do so, new amphibious landing craft
s were requested. Upon their arrivals, some testin
g and tuning were necessary. At the same time, th
e crop also needed to train new recruits for landin
g operations. These new recruits were training on
the old landing crafts.
Assume that other than the precedent constraint, t
he activities can be carried out in any order, with o
r without other activities at the same time.

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PERT/CPM - Example
define activities
A: the lead time to get new landing crafts
B: testing and tuning of the new landing crafts
C: training of the new recruits
define events
1: the planning of the landing operation
2: the arrival of landing crafts
3: the landing operation was ready
the precedent relationship of the activities can be represent
ed by a network.
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A B
1 C 3 6
PERT/CPM - Example A 2
B
1 C 3

Suppose that the duration of A = 10 weeks, of B = 5 weeks,


and of C = 20 weeks. How can the activities be carried out?
There are many ways.
Which way gives the shortest project completion time?
A B
A B C C

A B C A B
C
A B C
A B
A C B C
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PERT/CPM - Example
There are slack in activities A and B so that their s
tart times can be postponed without delaying the c
ompletion time of the whole project.

A B A B
C C

A B A B
C C
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PERT/CPM - Example
Questions
What is an earliest start time of an activity?
What is the latest start time of an activity?

A B

Too much delay in activity B so that the


completion time of the project is delayed.
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PERT/CPM - Example
The shortest completion time can be found f
rom the critical path.
Let ESi be the earliest start time of event i,
which is shown within the triangle beside no
de i. For example, ES1 = 0.
2
0
A= 8 B=7
1 C = 20 3
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PERT/CPM - Example
2
A= 8 B=7
0
1 C = 20 3

8 ES2 = ES1 + 8 = 8

2 ES3
A= 8 B=7 20
0 = max {ES1 + 20,
1 C = 20 ES2 + 7}
3
= 20
The earliest time to launch the
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landing operation = 20 weeks
PERT/CPM - Example
In general, ESj = max{ ESi1 + li1 j , ..., ESin + lin j }

i1
li1 j
.
. j
.
l in j
in

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PERT/CPM - Example
Let LSj be the latest start time of event j.
With the shortest project completion time fo
und, how to determine the latest start time o
f each event?
Box the latest start time of an event beside it
.
2
A= 8 B=7 20

1 C = 20 3
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PERT/CPM - Example

LS1 LS2 = LS3 7 = 13


= min {LS2 8, LS3 20} 13
=0
0 2
A= 8 B=7 20

1 C = 20 3

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PERT/CPM - Example
In general, LSi = min{ LS j1 lij1 , ..., LS jn lijn }

j1
lij1
.
i .
lijn .
jn

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PERT/CPM - Example
The computation of the ES and LS can be p
i
ut in the same graph. . j
1 li1 j

i.n l in j

ESj = max
Forward Pass . ES
{ ESi + li1 j , ..., ES in + l in j }
1

LS LSi = min
8 { LSi lij1 , ..., LS in lijn }
1

13 20 lij1
j1
2 i lijn
.
0 A= 8 B=7 20 j. n

0 .
1 C = 20 3 Backward Pass
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PERT/CPM - Critical Path
Critical path: The path in which for all events ESi = LSi
path (1, 3) is critical
path (1, 2)-(2, 3) is not critical
Activities in a critical path do not have slack. Any delay of such ac
tivities will delay the completion time of the project.

8
13
2 20
0 A= 8 B=7 20
0 1 C = 20 3
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PERT/CPM - Slack
ESi ESj
lij
LSi i j LSj

for activity (i, j):


total slack, TSij = LSj ESi lij
free slack, FSij = ESj ESi lij

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PERT/CPM - Slack
TSij = LSj ESi lij
8
FSij = ESj ESi lij 13
2 20
0 A= 8 B=7 20
0 1 C = 20 3

TS12 = 5; FS12 = 0; TS23 = 5; FS23 = 5; TS13 = 0; FS13 = 0


Activity (1, 2) is not on the critical path, but its free slack is
equal to zero. Thus, any delay of the event delay the start
of subsequent activities by the same amount.

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PERT/CPM Another Example
8
8
2 15
0 A= 8 B=7 15
0 1 C = 13 3

TS12 = 0; FS12 = 0; TS23 = 0; FS23 = 0; TS13 = 2; FS13 = 2


With FS13 = 2, it is possible to schedule the start time of eve
nt (1, 3) within the time interval (0, 2) without delaying the
completion time of the project.
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PERT/CPM Yet Another Example
30

2 30
A = 30
B=5
0 2
3
1 C=2 35
0 32 D=3
7 35
E=7
7
4 F = 25
G =15 10 I=2 75
J =10
75
5 H = 10 6
15 25 L= 30
8 9
23 33 45
K = 15
45 21
PERT/CPM Yet Another Example
TSA = 0, FSA = 0 TSB = 0, FSB = 0
TSC = 30, FSC = 0 TSD = 30, FSD = 30
TSE = 3, FSE = 0 TSF = 3, FSF = 3
TSG = 8, FSG = 0 TSH = 8, FSH = 0
TSI = 8, FSI = 8 TSJ = 0, FSJ = 0
TSK = 30, FSK = 30 TSL = 0, FSL = 0

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PERT/CPM Yet Another Example
30

2 30
A = 30
B=5
0 2
3
1 C=2 35
0 32 D=3
7 35
E=7
7
4 F = 25
G =15 10 I=2 75
J =10
75
5 H = 10 6
15 25 L= 30
8 9
23 33 45
K = 15
45 23
Two Comments on PERT/CPM
Sometimes dummy arcs of zero duration are adde
d to model the logical precedent relationship amon
g activities. arcs
activities
In applying PERT/CPM in real life, the most diffic
ult part is the modeling part, i.e., to identify events
, to identify activities, and to determine the preced
ent relationship. Calculation is simple.

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