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# OK

## MICHAELPAULROSENAU

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means without permission from the pub - lisher. Critics are welcome, or course, to quote brief passages by way of criticism and review.

Rosenau Publishing P.O. Box 845 Savannah, GA 31402 Designed and Assembled in Savannah Georgia printed and bound by Rosenau Design Group

# CONTENTS

For my wonderful Design professor Zoran Bellic, and his bitchin’ 6-series.

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# TAUTOLOGICAL

## True by necessity of their logical form

Em width. The base for typographic measurements.

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## True by necessity of their logical form

NIHIL EST IN INTELLECTU QUOD NON PRIUS FUERIT IN SENSU, NISI IPSE INTELLECTUS.

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# THE MIND.

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## True by necessity of their logical form

Tautology is defined as being true by virtue of its logical form

alone. In this paper I will be looking at tautology as it pertains to semiotics and its relevance in modern typography. If you were assigned the task of taking any letter and any typeface and told to place it on a blank document at any size and position on the page so that it represents that letter as being only that

letter and nothing else―how would you present the letter so it

would be a tautological statement? In this paper I will break down the reason behind the correct representation of a letter so that it is being only that letter and nothing else. A simplified definition of a tautological statement is A=A and it can be seen as an absolutely true statement. In pertaining to typography lets look at the theory of sign known as semiotics. In typography each letter of the alphabet in its purest form is a visual code for a phonetic value. What about all the different typefaces to chose from? Which ones purely represent the phonetic value of each individual letter? San Serif typefaces are the best choice, they were created to rep - resent each letter in the alphabet as tautologically represent - ing only its phonetic value. Serif typefaces have ornamentation and aesthetically added forms that can lead the viewer to see a letter as something outside of being just that letter. The French linguist Ferdinand de Saussure’s theory for semiotics revolves around the signifier and the signi - fied. The signifier is audio that serves as a sign which points to something else. The signified is something that has been

pointed out by its signifier, which can be referred to as the acoustic image. According to Saussure, sound is comprised of two elements; phoneme which are all sound values and mor - pheme which is the building block of sounds to form words. Semiosis is the process when something becomes or is a sign. Phoneme and Morpheme are the two elements of semiosis. So what do Saussure’s theories mean for typogra - phy? Saussure’s theories tell us that each letter in the alpha - bet is a signifier. The visual shape signifies the sound that the

letter makes―which is the signified and vice versa.

Charles Morris a philosopher also has a theory of semiotics. There are 4 cardinal elements. First is the sign vehicle which is equivalent to signifier. The sign vehicle is any - thing absorbed through the 5 senses. Second we have the designatum/denotatum which is equivalent to signified and it’s something pointed out by the sign vehicle. Designatum is something not perceptible and denotatum is something per - ceivable. Third we have the interpretation. Fourth we have the interpreter. All 4 elements are absolutely necessary. Morris’ theory applies to typography the same way Saussure’s do-the sign vehicle shows us the designatum/denotatum and we in - terpret that information according to our knowledge. Before learning about Semiotics, Saussure and Morris I was given the task mentioned above—to present a chosen letter in its tautological essence. I thought to myself should it be big should it be small, should it be serif, should it be san serif. Should I place it in the corner or in the center.

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Ultimately I chose a san serif typeface I placed the letter G in the center of the page and gave it a font size of about 40pt not big not small but average. My decisions were correct because the letter was not acting as a design element it was not stray - ing from its essence as would a decorative serif typeface. Placing it in the middle is the most natural way to view the let - ter. We as humans naturally want to center objects, we look to the middle. Choosing a medium font size allows the negative space and the margin surrounding the letter to become non- active and not important. My tautological assignment of basically removing all design elements from a sign (phonetic letter) is used margin - ally in the design profession. There are certain rules that I do follow. I know that san serif fonts are easier to read in body copy. I also know that people read words often as shapes and that the spelling of a word can be totally skewed and people will still read it correctly. Because of this knowledge I use ty- pography as a design element to further enhance what I am trying to communicate. These facts that I know pertain to se - miotics and the tautological representation of letters. What’s fascinating is we can relate the structure and theory of semiotics to visualization. A deeper analysis into the history of semiotics and typography brings up gestalt, picto - graphs, ideograms and logograms. Gestalt is wholes com - prised of elements. Pictographs are visual marks capturing the essential forms and other perceivable objects. An ideo - gram is a symbol that represents an idea. If the symbol in - stead represents a word it’s a logogram. We can trace our letters and characters back to a pictograph. The beauty of it all is in the way language forms us, we are a depository of in - formation of language. It defines our intellectual abilities. If we understand semiotics its themeology and the syntax of words our intellect will grown and so will our visual skills along side it. We still must remember that the primary function of all char - acters is communication. That must not be ignored.

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# Anatomies

## Proportionally structured by necessity of their optical appearance

Using the dimensions of the typeface to dictate a design solution.

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## Proportionally structured by necessity of their optical appearance

Syntax is defined as the grammatical arrangement of words in a sentence. Building off of the topic of semiotics from our last lecture we see syntax as the relationship among sign vehicles. When analyzing the influences that surround the syntax of a language we must ask our selves the question legibility of typographic signs. Is legibility subject to change and history amongst the particular language of focus? Do we condition our readership to prefer and recognize certain visual coding systems? I see the answer as yes because legibility is a mat - ter of interest, it is dependent on the desire of an individual to access and or present that material. When Gutenberg invented movable type he could have invented san serif typeface. He could have seen the need for a tautological representation of each phonetic value. Instead he invented a typeface that was a variation of the lettering standards used in manuscript writing of that time. He created letters in the style of the time. Even today we prefer specific types of character renderings. San serif typefaces are pre - ferred today for communication and for a modern design. The syntax of language are the rules. Sometimes these rules are very logical and structural. Sometimes the rules are a matter of heritage. Subtle changes over time. Through the use of these rules or syntax we assemble sen- tences in a linear matter. Sentences are subject to the gram- matical rules. These rules are organizing our speech to convey meaning. This is the central structure of our language; the of- ficial language. Outside of this central structure are deviations. Dialects, slang, lingo’s are all deviations from the official lan - guage. A deviation is really to negative of a term in my opinion. I would call them additives. In America Ebonics is a primary example of a dialect of American English. Linguistically speak- ing Ebonics can stand on its own and be recognized as its own official language. Politically this will likely never happen. So what’s the analogy between grammar and the vi - sual realm? What is the syntax of visual constructs? Colors, shapes, composition and the Golden mean. Colors have vari - ous associations and combinations that evoke personal feel - ings and commons emotional responses among cultures. Shapes can be subjected to formal rules. Simple shapes can be combined to build more complex shapes. Much like the way we build single words to create com- plex intellectual sentences which can contain more meaning and depth. The golden mean or golden rule is the most pow - erful and widely used proportion in design. It is a ratio found in the structure of the natural world. All of nature revolves around this proportion which is 1.618 or 0.618. When we de - sign according to this proportion the design appears harmoni - ous. This balance in design is an artificial harmony because we are emulating what we find in nature and what we naturally find pleasing to the eye. As humans we have a desire to emulate and depict as accurately as possible the world around us. We must take

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care in how we construct a false reality. Logical rules are a necessary element to construct our visual statement. There is no binary logic in the visual realm. If there was we would have troubles innovating our creativity. In language we have binary logic yet as human we love to speak in metaphors which are often paradoxical statements. Take for example the metaphor, “life is a stage.” If we look at these words syntactically they are two unrelated statements. As a metaphor this statement is very powerful. A metaphor is a symbol we create new worlds visually with metaphors that have layers of depth and meaning. Applying this to typography we see that letters are derived from sym- bols which were metaphors. They’re a visual analogy between similar objects and letter forms. Simulacrum—an image representing another image. With metaphors and simulacrum we are stepping outside of binary logic into the visual realm. Constantly looking for visual harmony and an aesthetic value. Trying to emulate and relay meaning from a written verbal idea to a visual one. If we use some visual rules and syntax as guidance in our design a great more creative solution can be achieved, as long as we adhere to a strong core concept.

Break the right rules.

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# Five Cardinal Points Details

Playing with meaning and context.

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Dealing with Hierachy.

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# -Zoran Belic

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Simulation or simulate is to pretend to have something one doesn’t have. Jean Baudrillard is the champion of simulation theory. The world renowned intellectual theorist recently passed away and left a legacy of theory and critical analysis of culture and its inate desire to simulate. We as humans are deeply involved in simulation. More increasingly in the past century. Technology has played a large part in our manipulating of substances to create some - thing that will feed our ideals. Our conquering of flight was a result of an imitation of natural flight. In simulation theory the act of simulating can also be referred to as mimesis; the act of mimicking or imitating. There are two main forums of simulation. One way to imitate is to mimic the surfaces of objects, an example is faux finishes. Technology is becoming so advanced that many faux finishes are almost indistinguishable. When this happens the purchase and consumption of the original look is often an emo - tional decision. Secondly we have the imitation of the principles or structures of objects. Technology plays an even larger part in structural simulation than surface simulation. Major ac - complishments in the special effects industry of movie making have been made. Special effects feed our desire for the cred - ible believable appearance of story telling. Structural simulation studies the laws and info struc - ture beyond initial perception. Achieving a view of the micro - scopic world to discover and accumulate knowledge about those underlying processes. Remarkable achievements have been made by discerning what’s behind or under the surface. A third element of simulation is how we look to nature for inspiration to simulate in another way. Not mimicking but instead learning and transferring knowledge to find a differ - ent structure to emulate through. An example is how a bird flies by flapping its wings. The bird is made up of light hollow bones and feathers. We used the bird as inspiration to achieve flight through a combination of propulsion and gliding. Early attempts at flight did try to directly simulate bird flight employ the flapping technique. A second topic that relates to simulation and is also highly prevalent in our technology based society is replica - tion. Replication since the industrial revolution has changed the way we live and interact in society. There are two major characteristics of replication. Look is the visual replication of the forms and shapes of an object. They appear the same. Function is the characteristic of the objects use. Each repli - cated objects performs the same tasks. Simulants are the closes to life of all simulations. Simulants are artificial intelligence. They are made by humans to try and mimic what we do. We are trying to create an inde - pendent machine that thinks and makes decisions freely. With artificial intelligence we are trying give machines creativity. Baudrillard’s fear is that in our simulation rich so - ciety the more we are involved in simulation the further we

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# Natural

## ENVIRONMENT

are from life. Will we soon become simulants of our own? We naturally can transfer simulation and repetition into our de - sign techniques and strategies. With the golden proportion we simulate the appearance and feeling of natural elements in the ratio of our design layout. Nature itself is very repetitive and mathematical in its underlying structure. Ultimately in our design we should seek to draw from many influences—artificial and natural enabling us to come to an original style and visually appearance.

Finding and compairing the letter “H”

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# Artificial Natural

## OBJECTS

How does this correlate to the origins of the written language?

Inspiration from experience and keen observation.

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# Artificial

## OBJECTS

Different Graphemes for the sound of the letter “R.”

KOREAN
ARABIC

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# Latin Letter

## Changes throughout the centuries

Typographic marks change through centuries. Each mark in an alphabet depends on a phoneme. The grapheme changes with time and with culture, it adapts, matures or digresses. Typography never occurs in isolation. Letterforms are not objects of science they are an art form and they participate in history just like other art forms do. Renaissance, Baroque, Neoclassical, Romantic. Different typographic styles exist for each art period and each typeface has a reference to an era just like Michelangelo’s David does. Technology can often play a big part in the change of typographic marks. When the technology of moveable type hit Europe scribes saw there profession change overnight, yet today many ancient Roman scribal conventions exist as type today.

Breaking down the Latin letter let take a closer look at the Renaissance roman letter. Renaissance roman letters where developed in northern Italy by scholars in the fourteenth and fifteenth century. These letter forms have a sensual na - ture and reflect the bustling time when beautiful art and mu - sic was being made with great ambition and progressiveness. Just like Renaissance painting. The typographic letter devel - oped during this time they set the standard for the medium for centuries to come. Moving on to the Mannerist letter we once again can compare changes in the typefaces to the changes in painting. Mannerist type is a bit longer and the angularity is stronger. Most work was primarily done in Italy and France during this time period. The Baroque letter has bit more differences from the benchmark Renaissance letter forms. Here is a list of dif- ference that Robert Bringhurst points out. The stroke axis varies widely with in a single alphabet. Contrast is increased. The x-height is increased. The aperature is generally reduced. There is further softening of terminals from abrupt to lachry - mal. The head serifs become sharp wedges. In summary the Baroque letters appear more mod - eled and less written than the Renaissance form. The give less evidence of the trace of the written letter, the scribal form. Part of that attribute can be contributed to the further devel - opment of moveable type. Neoclassic art can be classified as more rigid and restrained than Renaissance art. More science and less emo - tion. Neoclassical art is more interested in rigorous consis - tency. Yet still in Neoclassical letters evidence of the broad pen is evident. Bringhurst calls them a “products of the Rationalist ear: frequently beautiful, calm forms, but forms oblivious to the more complex beauty of organic fact.” I couldn’t have said it better myself. Skipping ahead to the Realist letter which appeared in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries accompany - ing a large variety of artistic movements such as - Realism, Naturalism, Impressionism, Expressionism, Art Nouveau, Art Deco, Constructivism, Cubism, Abstract Expressionism, Pop Art, Op Art, and many many more. Most all of these move - ments have inspired some sort of typographic form. Focusing

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on the Realist letter form we can notice that it has the same basic shape as the Neoclassical and Romantic letters but it is heavier on the serif or it has no serifs at all. The stroke, weight and aperture are much more uniform and consistent. Most realist typeface lack a full collection of goodies such as small caps and text figures. Geometric Postmodernism. These letter forms don’t revive classic typefaces of the Mannerist or Renaissance times they instead reminisce on Realist ideas adding in some post modern humor and a touch of typographic sophistication. Postmodern letters live in the world of technology - high-speed offset printing and digital design. Technology and culture has shaped all these eras of artistic movements. Typography fits in to these movements just as strongly as painting, music and architecture do. Typographers will continue to create letter forms that fit and react to contemporary times. Yet typography today is much like it has always been. Bringhurst states this “confront the basic task with which typography began. That is the task of answering in two dimensions to a world that has many.

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# -Zoran Belic

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Robert Logan has hypothesized that there are six modes of language. He states that speech, writing, mathematics, sci - ence, computing and the Internet form an evolutionary chain of languages. Each one of these languages have different similarities amongst each other and each mode has evolved from the previous language due to its inability to deal with new information and needs in society. Each language has its own distinct semantics and syntax. The first mode speech is our original way of sharing information. Before written language evolved memorization of speech was the primary way to store and pass on informa - tion with in a culture. In speech we listen to the melody of the language. This skill is important for retaining information that exceeds one’s intellectual ability. Rhyme and rhythm are used in addition to melody to create easily stored and remembered information. This way of communication is the tradition of how societies and cultures passed down valuable information. Shamans in ancient cultures where given the responsibility of retaining the history of the tribe. Shamans are healers and storytellers. They had to memorize and relay informa - tion through Rhythm, rhyme and melody. Their words opened doors of creative thought and visualization for tribe members inviting the presence of other forces. In India the word manthra which means sacred sound defines how the delivery of words can give extra meaning, spiritual meaning. Shamans often didn’t know the entire mean - ing of the information they were relaying. They relied on the Rhythm and rhyme of the Shaman who taught them to convey that special cultural meaning. In today’s Christian world we have our own special expressions and meanings. When reciting a scripture we have normal expressions and we have expressions that mean something. Such as the use of the word amen, amen is a word of Egyptian origin. It means sun god and it has evolved through the centuries to become a word of special meaning for the ending of a prayer. It has almost no association to its original meaning. The oral tradition is enhanced by the written system. The written system relies on characters representing pho - netic value. Capturing and storing information grammar and structure become more important in the written mode of lan- guage. We use the rules of grammar to check the logic, to compare efficiently. We also go beyond the grammar into the structure that is called logical reasoning, not only for organiza - tion but for systemization so that we can organize our variety of interpretations of the world. Our third mode of language is mathematics. Math is deprived of other meanings. It is a special language and we use it to measure and quantify things. We use it to draw parallels and to compare and contrast. We try to find ways in which the world is made up of and can be broken down to math. A number four we have scientific methods. We com-

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## signification

bine it with number three mathematics because math is at the core of all scientific methods. It is used to analyze and with out it scientists would not have enough time to find meaning in the vast plethora of information in our world today. Which leads us to our fifth mode; computing. The computational mode is all about complexity. Computers are used for accessing information and sort - ing information. Scientists are heavily reliant on computers. Computers are made up of math. They are used to enhance our communication. Computers are an extension of a scien - tists mind. The most recent and sixth mode of language is the internet. The information revolution is redefining the way we learn and process information. This technology will have pow - erful effects on social, economic and cultural life. How can we relate all of this information to our de - sign. Well we as designers understand that visual media is a big aspect of communication. Today as designers we are not honest people. It is our job to manipulate and seduce our view- ers to desire the product we are advertising through visual means. We aren’t looking to outright manipulate them we get into their subconscious through associations and metaphors. There are two desires that consumers have. The desire to possess, to own, to occupy and to most of all live. There is on the contrary fear of loss which deep down is tied to a fear of dying. We designers tap into these fears and desires with color, composition, association and strong metaphors.

# Typography

Design is subtle manipulaton.

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# -Zoran Belic

I find Robert Bringhurst’s book “Elements of Typographic style” an exhaustingly thorough analysis and presentation of typog - raphy and its history. I was researching Robert Bringhurst on - line and found an interview with him after the release of his second edition of the book. I found this quote that he said at the very end very applicable to my journey as a designer. He said “The masters of art, it seems to me are those who never stop apprenticing.” I’ve heard this saying in various forms over the years but I like the way he states it because it really keeps people off of their pedestals. There is not much room to move on top of a pedestal. What I think he is saying is that we can learn from lots of different people and if we approach each day as an oppor - tunity to learn something new we can progress the medium of design. We can keep aspiring to do better and keep learning. I was quite overwhelmed by the book as I began to read it, Bringhurst weaves poetic lyrical descriptions of type with tangible logical rules to follow. I really had to relax my senses and just take the book in, and try to absorb through in - spiration. What I really did enjoy about the book was the deep visceral respect Bringhurst places on the art of type design and typography. His in depth look into every minute aspect of page layout, typeface choice, etc. etc. It’s not only an in depth look, it also includes many strict guidelines to follow for the organization and distribution of the type on the page. What I was most interested in was the actual pro - cess of making a typeface out of metal at a type foundry. He dipped into explaining it in bits and pieces but he never fully explains how it happens. The book is definitely a typographic bible as Hermann Zapf has wished it to become. It is the kind of book a designer can reference over time or read leisurely in parts.

I really enjoyed Chapter 6: Choosing and Combining Type. He talks about how a typeface should be chosen on the basis that it has remained faithful to the spirit and the letter of the old designs. Many typefaces have gone from metal to photo and finally to digital. Faces are designed differently for each output medium. The weight and finish are different. As a typographic purist he talks about the final printing conditions being taken into consideration as well. He is mostly talking about poor digital reproduction such as a laser printer. He constantly refers to the original intention of a typeface. What it was made for, who made it and why, what time period it was made in. What typefaces it was inspired by or modeled after. What kind of paper it was pressed into. It seems a bit anal at time but that kind of attention to every detail can enhance the subconscious impact of the design. In this chapter he says choose faces that suit the task as well as the subject. Go with the deeper less obvious asso - ciations. Once again we come back to subconscious manipula - tion. He uses the example of designing a book about bicycle racing. Don’t use a typeface that has and O with spokes in it and a T that resembles handle bars. Choose a typeface that

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# 6

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## Robert Bringhurst: The Elements of Typographic Style

is first and foremost good type. Then look for the assets that you will need. Such as a typeface that is good for long body text. Maybe a face that is lean and strong, swift. A French or Italian face would be good to since those two countries have a long passionate history in cycling. I am very interested in Bringhurst’s detailed look at typography and how it is a highly complex and misunderstood art form. I wish to over time absorb all his principle of type. I am much more interested in his process. His process of analysis and his start to finish break down of what needs to be looked at is applicable to any cre - ative process. I remember one favorite passage where he speaks of how instinct is memory in disguise. I find that very true. Look at most of the early 20th century masters of Art such as Picasso, Matisse, Rodin, or Pollock. These artist didn’t jump straight into abstract, expressive, cubist, child like art. They learned the principles of painting and sculpture and then pushed it even further with their intuition. Picasso learned from Cezanne’s work, Pollock learned from Picasso’s work. Yet they all create innovative progressive utterly unique styles of painting. Bringhurst’s process is phenomenal. The genius of ty - pography is in the details. Not very many people could look at the actual book and how it is designed and see what care and precision he put into the type design to complement his bril - liant writing. What if the cover was pink and the type was blue on grey paper using Arial as the choice typeface. What would then be perceived of the book and its author? Great design is often the most difficult to describe es - pecially for the laymen. The pink cover with blue text could be pointed out by anyone as terrible and uninviting. What about a poorly justified text with the rivers running right through each and every page? Would that be noticed? Typography is a highly intelligent art form. Chapter 8: Shaping the page is probably my favorite chapter. More often than not I’m a sucker for Bringhurst’s poetic metaphorical writing. Here’s the opening paragraph. “A book is a flexible mirror of the mind and the body. Its overall size and proportions, the color and texture of the paper, the sound it makes as the pages turn, and the smell of the paper, adhesive and ink, all blend with the size and form and place - ment of the type to reveal a little about the world in which it was made.”

He talks about how we have no real freedom of choice when it comes to choosing the shape and size of our substrate. We are restricted to the already determined sized decided by commerce. We have history, natural science, ge - ometry and mathematics to aid us in dividing up our deter - mined surface so that it is pleasing to the eye in the end. I am particularly fascinated by the golden section and the Fibonacci series. I enjoy the fact that this dimension is in- herently pleasing to the eye. It makes perfect sense that in America we have inches instead of the metric system, and we

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have 8.5 x 11 instead of A4 which uses the golden section. We just have to do everything different no matter the sacrifice. Chapter 7: Historical Interlude I found very educa - tional. Comparing and contrasting a number of faces from different periods of time really showed me a typeface really is highly representative of time period, especially the italics. Compare early I Renaissance italics to the Mannerist italics. The Renaissance italic Bembo has a rounded almost angular curves. The Mannerist italic Poetica is very script like with long and exaggerated tails and serifs. These subtle differences are important when choos - ing a typeface for a design. Simply going off of what face looks cool isn’t enough for Bringhurst. Yes he would agree that the page layout and design needs to visually and aesthetically soothing. But if you choose an English typeface designed for the protestant church for use with a book of Jewish poetry its completely ironic. Like I’ve already mentioned before. Most people won’t care or won’t get it. Typographers will see it as a sick joke. But the deeper more important issue is that choosing to mix styles and eras needs to be an aesthetic conscious choice. Not a lazy design solution. Little subconscious details go along way. They enhance the message of the text. The ultimate goal of the typographer is to enhance. One question that I would like to ask Mr. Bringhurst is this; What if the content in which I, the typographer am de - signing the book for is crap? What if I get some really terrible short stories with no plot, poor character development, too much dialog, and a boring mundane message? Do I do my best to enhance that story by creating an amazing book and with a beautiful typeface, elegant margins, perfect justification and kerning? Do I give it an innovative cover with soft supple paper? Or should I create a completely ironic design where everything clashes and it’s all a complete mash-up of random- ness, just like the text within it. I’ll go ahead and answer my own question. I would make as wonderful design as I possi - bly can so that at the very best the book could win an award for its design. To take a step back and look at the issue, I see that a designer can find assets in even the worst of projects. Everything has something positive to contribute. In the case of my example it might just be buried deep down under all the terrible writing that I mentioned…but it’s there. Chapter 3 don’t compose without scale. This chapter deals with issues of hierarchy, something that is often over - looked and misused in the design industry. I’ve seen it miss used in an attempt to be innovative, different. I am all for stretching the envelope, painting outside the lines, walking on the wild side. When it includes diverging from clear commu- nication its just frivolous and self indulging. Designer’s often forget that they are designing visual communication, not per - sonal works of art. One thing I noticed in chapter 6 is that Bringhurst is

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