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CRIMINAL LAW 1

SAN BEDA COLLEGE OF LAW


Mendiola, Manila

Prescribed textbook/s:
1. Revised Penal Code Book I by Luis B. Reyes, and/or
2. Commentaries on Criminal Law Book I by Atty. Maximo P. Amurao Jr.
NB: Closed book policy shall be observed during class. Only handwritten notes will be
allowed.

I. General Principles of Criminal Law


A. Nature and definition
Ient v. Tullett Prebon, G.R. No. 189158, 11 January 2017

B. Characteristics of Criminal Law


1. General (Art. 2, RPC)
Minucher v. Scalzo, G.R. No. 142396, 11 February 2003
Liang v. People, G.R. No. 125865, 28 January 2000
2. Territorial (Art.2, RPC)
People v. Tulin, G.R. No. 111709, 30 August 2001, 364 SCRA 10
3. Prospective (Article 21 and 22, RPC)
a. Effects of repeal
C. Sources of Criminal Law
1. Revised Penal Code
2. Special Penal Laws
D. Constitutional Limitations on Criminal Law
1. Due process and Equal protection (Art. 3, Sec. 1, 1987 Constitution)
White Light Corp. v. City of Manila, G.R. No. 122846, 20 January 2009
Garcia v. Drilon, G.R. No. 179267, 25 June 2013
2. Freedom of expression (Art. 3, Sec. 4, 1987 Constitution)
Guingguing v. People, G.R. No. 128959, 30 September 2005.
3. Freedom of religion (Art. 3, Sec. 5, 1987 Constitution)
Estrada v. Escritor, AM No. P-02-1651, 22 June 2006, 492 SCRA 1
4. No excessive fines, nor cruel, degrading or inhuman punishment. (Art. 3, Sec. 19,
1987 Constitution)
People v. Echagaray, G.R. No. 117472, 7 February 1997, 267 SCRA 682
Corpuz v. People, G.R. No. 180016, 29 April 2014
5. Non-imprisonment for debt or non-payment of poll tax (Art. 3, Sec. 19, 1987
Constitution)
6. Bill of attainder (Art. 3, Sec. 22, 1987 Constitution)
People v. Ferrer, L-32613-14, 27 December 1972, 48 SCRA 382
7. Ex-post facto laws (Art. 3, Sec. 22, 1987 Constitution)
US v. Diaz Conde, L-18208, 14 February 1922
E. Construction and interpretation
1. Liberally in favor of the accused
2. Spanish text of the RPC prevails over the English text
People v. Abilong, L-1960, 26 November 1948.
3. Retroactive application when favorable to the accused
4. Prescribed but undeserved penalties (Art. 5, RPC)
People v. Formigones, L-3246, 29 November 1950
5. Suppletory application of RPC to Special Penal Laws (Art. 10, RPC)
Ladonga v. People, G.R. No. 141066, 17 February 2005
People v. Simon, G.R. No. 93028, 29 July 1994
II. General Principles of Criminal Liability
A. Felony, defined (Art. 3, RPC)
B. Elements of criminal liability
1. Physical element (Actus reus)
a. Act
b. Omission
People v. Sylvestre and Atienza, G.R. No. 35748, 14 December 1931, 56 Phil. 353
People v. Talingdan, L-32126, 6 July 1978, 84 SCRA 19
2. Mental element (Mens rea)
a. Deliberate intent (Dolo)
Manuel v. People, G.R. No. 165842, 29 November 2005
i. Elements of dolo
ii. General and specific intent
People v. Puno, G.R. No. 97471, 17 February 1993, 219 SCRA 85
People v. Delim, G.R. No. 142773, 28 January 2003
iii. Mistake of fact
US v. Ah Chong, G.R. No. 5272, 19 March 1910, 15 Phil. 488
People v. Oanis, G.R. No. 47722, 27 July 1943, 74 Phil. 257
iv. Malum prohibitum as exception to the requirement of mens rea
Padilla v. Dizon, AC No. 3086, 23 February 1988, 158 SCRA 127
Magno v. CA, G.R. No. 96132, 26 June 1992, 210 SCRA 475
Garcia v. CA, G.R. No. 157171, 14 March 2006, 484 SCRA 617
v. Intent distinguished from motive
b. Constructive intent (Culpa) Art. 3 and 365
i. Elements
ii. Imprudence or lack of skill
iii. Negligence or lack of foresight
People v. Pugay, L-74324, 17 November 1988, 167 SCRA 439
Ivler v. San Pedro, G.R. No. 172716, 17 November 2010.
c. Transferred intent (Art. 4, par. 1)
i. Aberratio ictus
People v. Guillen, L-1477, 18 January 1950, 85 Phil. 307.
ii. Error in personae
People v. Sabalones, G.R. No. 123485, 31 August 1998, 294 SCRA 751
iii. Praeter intentionem
People vs. Albuquerque, G.R. No. 38773, 19 December 1933, 59 Phil. 150
3. Concurrence
4. Resulting harm
5. Causation
Bataclan v. Medina, L-10126, 22 October 1957, 102 Phil. 181
People v. Iligan, G.R. No. 75369, 26 November 1990
Urbano v. Intermediate Appellate Court, G.R. No. 72964, 7 January 1988
C. Impossible Crimes (Art. 4, Par. 2)
Intod v. CA, G.R. No. 103119, 21 October 1992, 215 SCRA 52
People v. Saladino, L-3634, 30 May 1951, 89 Phil. 807
Jacinto v. People, G.R. No. 162540, 13 July 2009.

III. Stages of Execution


A. Attempted Stage
B. Frustrated Stage
C. Consummated crimes
US v. Eduave, G.R. No. 12155, 2 February 1917, 36 Phil. 209
Rivera v. People, G.R. No. 166326, 25 January 2006, 480 SCRA 188
Baleros v. People, G.R. No. 138033, 22 February 2006, 483 SCRA 10
D. Stages of execution in relation to specific felonies
1. Theft
Valenzuela v. People, G.R. No. 160188, 21 June 2007
2. Illegal Trespass
People v. Lamahang, L-43530, 3 August 1935, 61 Phil. 703
3. Physical Injuries, Homicide, and Murder
People v. Borinaga, G.R. No. 33463, 18 December 1930, 55 Phil. 433
People v. Kalalo, G.R. No. 39303-05, 17 March 1934, 59 Phil. 715
People v. Trinidad, G.R. No. 79123-25, 9 January 1989, 169 SCRA 51
Martinez v. CA, G.R. No. 168827, 13 April 2007.
Mondragon v. People, L-17666, 30 June 1966, 17 SCRA 476
People v. Sy Pio, L-5848, 30 April 1954, 94 Phil. 885
4. Robbery
People v. Dio, L-36461, 29 June 1984, 130 SCRA 151
People v. Salvilla, G.R. No. 86163, 26 April 1990.
5. Rape
People v. Orita, G.R. No. 88724, 3 April 1990, 184 SCRA 105
People v. Campuhan, G.R. No. 129433, 30 March 2000
6. Arson
US v. Valdes, L-14128, 10 December 1918.
E. Conspiracy and proposals to commit a felony (Art. 8)
1. Conspiracy and proposal, when punished?
2. As a manner of incurring criminal liability.
People v. Aguilos, G.R. No. 121828, 27 June 2003
IV. Circumstances that affect criminal liability
A. Justifying circumstances
1. Defense of self, relatives, and strangers
Manaban v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 150723, 11 July 2006.
Senoja v. People, G.R. No. 160341, 19 October 2004.
People v. Decena, G.R. No. 107874, 4 August 1994, 235 SCRA 67
People v. Dela Cruz, G.R. No. 128359, 6 December 2000, 347 SCRA 100
People v. Jaurigue, G.R. No. 384, 21 February 1946, 76 Phil. 174
People v. Narvaez, L-33466-67, 20 April 1983, 121 SCRA 389 (see also dissents
of J. Abad Santos and J. Gutierrez, Jr.)
Sabang v. People, G.R. No. 168818, 9 March 2007, 518 SCRA 35
People v. Dagani, G.R. No. 153875, 16 August 2006, 499 SCRA 64
Palaganas v. People, G.R. No. 165483, 12 September 2006, 501 SCRA 533
2. Avoidance of greater evil
People v. Ricohermoso, L-30527-28, 29 March 1974, 56 SCRA 431
People v. Norma Hernandez, CA-G.R. No. 22553-R, 14 April 1959, 55 OG 8465
3. Fulfillment of duty
People v. Delima, L-18660, 22 December 1922, 46 Phil. 738
People v. Lagata, L-1940-42, 24 March 1949, 83 Phil. 150
Mamangun v. People, G.R. No. 149152, 2 February 2007
People v. Dagani, G.R. No. 153875, 16 August 2006, 499 SCRA 64
4. Obedience to a lawful order of a superior
People v. Beronilla, L-4445, 28 February 1955, 96 Phil. 566
Tabuena v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 103501-03, 17 February 1997, 268 SCRA
332
B. Exempting Circumstances
1. Insanity
People v. Taneo, L-37673, 31 March 1933, 58 Phil. 255
People v. Bonoan, L-45130, 17 February 1937, 64 Phil. 87
People v. Dungo, G.R. No. 89420, 31 July 1991, 199 SCRA 860
People v. Rafanan, L-54135, 21 November 1991, 204 SCRA 65
People v. Madarang, G.R. No. 132319, 12 May 2000, 332 SCRA 99
People v. Robios, G.R. No. 138453, 29 May 2002, 382 SCRA 581
People v. Opuran, G.R. Nos. 147674-75, 17 March 2004, 425 SCRA 654
Verdadero v. People, G.R. No. 216021, 2 March 2016
People v. Genosa, 341 SCRA 493, 419 SCRA 537
RA 9262 (Re: Battered Woman Syndrome)
See also: Maria Diory F. Rabajante, The Privilege of Being Insane: An
Examination of, and a Saner Alternative to the Insane Rule on Insanity Defense,
49 San Beda L.J. 1 (March 2012)
2. Minority
RA 9344 as amended by RA 10630.
People v. Doquea, G.R. No. 46539, 27 September 1939, 68 Phil. 580
Ortega v. People, G.R. No. 151085, 20 August 2008
People v. Mantalaba, G.R. No. 186227, 20 July 2011.
3. Accident
US v. Taedo, L-5418, 12 February 1910, 15 Phil. 196
People v. Castillo, G.R. No. 172695, 29 June 2007, 526 SCRA 215
People v. Retubado, G.R. No. 124058, 10 December 2003
Pomoy v. People, G.R. No. 150647, 29 September 2004, 439 SCRA 439
4. Irresistible force or uncontrollable fear of a greater injury
US v. Caballeros, G.R. No. 1352, 29 March 1905, 4 Phil. 350
People v. Loreno, L-54414, 9 July 1984, 130 SCRA 311
People v. Del Rosario, G.R. No. 127755, 14 April 1999, 305 SCRA 740
5. Insuperable cause
People v. Bandian, G.R. No. 45186, 30 September 1936, 63 Phil. 530 (see also:
separate opinion of J. Villareal)

C. Other exculpatory causes


1. Instigation
People v. Lua Chu, G.R. No. 34917, 7 September 1931, 56 Phil. 44
People v. Doria, G.R. No. 125299, 22 January 1999, 301 SCRA 668
2. Pardon (Art. 266-C and Art. 344)
3. Absolutory circumstances
a. Art. 6 (3)
b. Art. 20
c. Art. 247
d. Art. 280*
e. Art. 332
Intestate Estate of Manolita Gonzales v. People, G.R. No. 181409, 11 February
2010.
D. Mitigating Circumstances
1. Classes of Mitigating Circumstances
a. Privileged
i. Art. 13 (2) and Art. 68
ii. Art. 13 (1) and Art. 69
People v. Jaurigue, G.R. No. 384, 21 February 1946, 76 Phil. 174
People v. Narvaez, L-33466-67, 20 April 1983, 121 SCRA 389
People v. Ulep, G.R. No. 132547, 20 September 2000
Guillermo v. People, G.R. No. 153287, 20 January 2009.
b. Ordinary
i. Lack of intent to commit so grave a wrong
People v. Ural, L-30801, 27 March 1974, 56 SCRA 138
People v. Gonzales, G.R. No. 139542, 21 June 2001, 359 SCRA
352
ii. Sufficient provocation
People v. Pagal, L-32040, 25 October 1977, 79 SCRA 570
Urbano v. People, G.R. No. 182750, 20 January 2009
iii. Vindication of a wrong
People v. Benito, L-32042, 13 February 1975, 74 SCRA 271
Bacabac v. People, G.R. No. 149372, 11 September 2007
iv. Passion or obfuscation
US v. Hicks, G.R. No. 4971, 23 September 1909, 14 Phil. 217
US v. Dela Cruz, G.R. No. 7094, 29 March 1912, 22 Phil. 429
People v. Gelaver, G.R. No. 95357, 9 June 1993, 223 SCRA 310
People v. Bello, L-18792, 28 February 1964
v. Voluntary surrender or plea of guilt
People v. Amaguin, G.R. Nos. 54344-45, 10 January 1994, 229
SCRA 166
People v. Dela Cruz, L-45284, 29 December 1936, 63 Phil. 874
vi. Deafness, muteness, blindness, or other physical defect which restricts
the offenders means of action, defense, or communication
vii. Illness as would diminish the exercise of will-power without depriving
the offender of consciousness of his acts.
viii. Analogous circumstances
Canta v. People, G.R. No. 140937, 28 February 2001
E. Aggravating Circumstances
- Art. 14 and 62 of the RPC.
- People v. Legaspi, G.R. Nos. 136164-65, 20 April 2001
1. Classes of Aggravating Circumstance
a. Generic
b. Qualifying
c. Specific
d. Inherent
e. Special
2. Taking advantage of public office
People v. Capalac, L-38297, 23 October 1982, 117 SCRA 874
People v. Gapasin, G.R. No. 73489, 25 April 1994, 231 SCRA 728
3. Insult to public authority
People v. Tiongson, L-35123-24, 25 July 1984, 130 SCRA 614
People v. Magdueo, L-68699, 22 September 1986, 144 SCRA 210
People v. Tac-an, G.R. Nos. 76338-89, 26 February 1990.
4. Disregard of rank, age, or sex, and dwelling;
People v. Diaz, G.R. No. L-24002, 21 January 1974.
People v. Arizobal, G.R. No. 135051-52, 14 December 2000, 348 SCRA 143
People v. Daniel, G.R. No. L-40330, 20 November 1978
People v. Apduhan, L-19491, 30 August 1968
5. Abuse of confidence or obvious ungratefulness
People v. Mandolado, L-51304-05, 28 June 1983, 123 SCRA 133
6. The crime is committed in the palace of Chief Executive, in his presence, where public
authorities are engaged in the discharge of their duties, or place dedicated to religious worship;
7. Nighttime, uninhabited place, or by a band;
People v. Garcia, L-30449, 31 October 1979, 94 SCRA 14
People v. Rodas, G.R. No. 175881, 28 August 2007
People v. Damaso, L-30116, 20 November 1978, 86 SCRA 370 (uninhabited)
8. Crime committed on the occasion of conflagration, shipwreck, earthquake, epidemic,
or other calamity or misfortune;
9. Aid of armed men or persons who afford impunity;
10. Recidivism
People v. Baldera, L-2390, 24 April 1950, 86 Phil. 189
11. Reiteracion
12. Habitual delinquency (Art. 62, par. 5);
People v. Melendrez, G.R. No. 39913, 19 December 1933, 59 Phil. 154
13. Quasi- recidivism (Art. 160)
14. Price, reward, or promise;
15. Inundation, fire, poison, etc.
16. Evident premeditation;
US v. Manalinde, G.R. No. 5292, 28 August 1909, 14 Phil. 77
People v. Ilaoa, G.R. No. 94308, 16 June 1994, 233 SCRA 231
People v. Bibat, G.R. No. 124319, 13 May 1998, 290 SCRA 27
17. Craft, fraud, or disguise;
People v. Empacis, G.R. No. 95756, 14 May 1993, 222 SCRA 59
18. Taking advantage of superior strength, or means employed to weaken the defense;
People v. Bigcas, G.R. No. 94534, 2 July 1992, 211 SCRA 631
19. Treachery;
People v. Sangalang, L-32914, 30 August 1974, 58 SCRA 737
People v. San Pedro, L-44274, 22 January 1980, 95 SCRA 306
People v. Castillo, G.R. No. 120282, 20 April 1998, 289 SCRA 213
People v. Arizobal, G.R. No. 135051-52, 14 December 2000, 348 SCRA 143
People v. Escote, G.R. No. 140756, 4 April 2003, 400 SCRA 603
People v. Villonez, G.R. Nos. 122976-77, 16 November 1998, 359 Phil. 95, 1998
People v. Guzman, G.R. No. 169246, 26 January 2007
20. Ignominy;
People v. Torriefel CA-GR. No. 659-R, 29 November 1947, 45 OG 803
People v. Jose, L-28232, 6 February 1971, 37 SCRA 450
People v. Butler, L-50276, 27 January 1983, 120 SCRA 281
People v. Saylan, L-36941, 29 June 1984, 130 SCRA 159
People v. Sultan, G.R. No. 132470, 27 April 2000, 331 SCRA 216
21. Unlawful entry;
22. Breaking of wall, roof, floor, door, or window;
23. Aid of persons under fifteen years old, use of motor vehicles, airships, or other
similar means;
24. Cruelty;
25. Organized or syndicated crime group;
26. Use of illegal firearms or explosives see RA 10591
People v. Ladjaalam, G.R. Nos. 136149-51, 19 September 2000
Celino v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 170562, 29 June 2007
27. Use of dangerous drugs while committing a felony Sec. 25 of RA 9165
28. Use of information and communications technologies in committing a felony Sec.
6, RA 10175
F. Alternative Circumstances
1. Relationship
People v. Atop, G.R. No. 124303-05, 10 February 1998, 286 SCRA 157
2. Intoxication
US v. McMann, L-2229, 1 July 1905, 4 Phil. 561
3. Degree of Instruction
People v. San Pedro, L-44274, 22 January 1980, 95 SCRA 306

V. Persons Criminally Liable


A. Principals Art. 17
People v. Yanson-Dumancas, G.R. No. 133527-28, 13 December 1999, 320 SCRA 584
People v. Maluenda, G.R. No. 115351, 27 March 1998, 288 SCRA 225
People v. Montealegre, L-67948, 31 May 1988
People v. Madali, L-67803, 30 July 1990
B. Accomplices Art. 18
Abejuela v. People, G.R. No. 80130, 19 August 1991, 200 SCRA 806
People v. Doble, L-30028, 31 May 1982, 114 SCRA 131
People v. Doctolero, G.R. No. 34386, 7 February 1991, 193 SCRA 632
People v. De Vera, G.R. No. 128966, 18 August 1999, 312 SCRA 640
Garces v. People, G.R. No. 173858, 17 July 2007
C. Accessories Art. 19 and 20 (RPC); PD 1612; PD 1829
People v. Talingdan, L-32126, 6 July 1978, 84 SCRA 19
Dizon-Pamintuan v. People, G.R. No. 111426, 11 July 1994

VI. Plurality of Crimes


A. Compound crime (delito compuesto)
People v. Tabaco, G.R. No. 100382, 19 March 1997
People v. Valdez, G.R. No. 127663, 11 March 1999
People v. Sanchez, G.R No. 131116, 27 August 1999, 313 SCRA 254
B. Complex crime proper (delito complejo)
People vs. Hernandez, L-6025-26, 18 July 1956, 99 Phil. 515
Enrile vs. Salazar, G.R. No. 92163, 5 June 1990, 184 SCRA 217
People v. Garcia, G.R. No. 141125, 28 February 2002
Batulanon v. People, G.R. No. 139857, 15 September 2006
C. Continuing crime (delito continuado)
People v. Madrigal-Gonzales, L-16688, 30 April 1963
Gamboa v. Court of Appeals, L-41054, 28 November 1975
People v. Mallari, G.R. No. L-58886, 13 December 1988
Santiago v. Garchitorena, G.R. No. 109266, 2 December 1993
D. Composite Crimes/Special Complex Crimes
1. Art. 266-B
2. Art. 267
3. Art. 294
4. Art. 297
5. Art. 320
E. Complex crimes in relation to Quasi-crimes
Ivler v. San Pedro, G.R. No. 172716, 17 November 2010
VII. Penalties
A. Imposable penalties
1. Principal penalties
a. Capital punishment Sec. 19, Art III of the 1987 Constitution; RA 7659, RA
8177; RA 9346; Art. 40 and 47 Revised Penal Code; RA 9346
People v. Bon, G.R. No. 166401, 30 October 2006
b. Afflictive penalties
i. Reclusion perpetua RA 7659, Art. 27 of Revised Penal Code
People v. Lucas, G.R. No. 108172, 25 May 1994;
People v. Lucas, G.R. No. 108172, 9 January 1995;
People v. Latupan, G.R. No. 112453, 28 June 2001
ii. Reclusion temporal
iii. Perpetual or temporary absolute disqualification Article 30
iv. Perpetual or temporary special disqualification Art. 31
v. Prision mayor Art. 27
c. Correctional penalties Art. 27, 39, and 44
i. Prision correccional
ii. Arresto mayor
iii. Suspension
iv. Destierro
d. Light penalties Art. 27, 39, and 44
i. Arresto menor
ii. Public censure
e. Common penalties Art.25
i. Fines Art. 26, 39, and 66
ii. Bond to keep the peace Art. 27 and 35
2. Accessory penalties Art. 40 -45
a. Perpetual or temporary absolute disqualification
b. Perpetual or temporary special disqualification
c. Suspension from public office, the right to vote and be voted for, the profession
or calling
d. Civil interdiction
e. Indemnification
f. Forfeiture or confiscation of the instruments and proceeds of the offense
g. Payment of costs
3. Subsidiary penalty Art. 39
See also: RA 10159
B. Application and computation of penalties
1. General rules Art. 5, 21, 28, 29 (see also RA 10592), 46, 73-77
2. Specific Rules
a. Complex Crimes (Art. 48)
b. Crime different from that which was intended Art. 49
c. Effect of degree of participation and stage of commission Art. 50 -57, 60-61
d. Additional penalty for certain accessories Art. 58
e. Impossible crimes Art. 59
f. Effect of mitigating, aggravating, and qualifying circumstances Art. 62-66
g. Incomplete justifying or exempting circumstances Art. 67 and 69
h. Minors RA 9344
3. Indeterminate Sentence Law
People v. Lanuza, G.R. No. 188562, 17 August 2011
Talampas v. People, G.R. No. 180219, 23 November 2011
People v. Temporada, G.R. No. 173473, 17 December 2008. See CJ Puno Dissent
and J. Corona Separate Opinion
C. Execution and service of penalties
1. General rules Art. 47, 70, 78, and 86-88,
In re Petition for Habeas Corpus, Pete Lagran, G.R. No. 147270, 15 August 2001,
363 SCRA 275
2. Probation Law (PD 968 as amended), see also: RA 10707
3. Suspension of sentence
a. In cases of insanity Art. 79
b. Minors
i. Section 31-35 of AM No. 02-1-18-SC
ii. RA 9344

VIII. Extinction of criminal liability


A. Total Art.89-93
Sermonia v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 109454, 14 June 1994
Republic v. Desierto, G.R. No. 136506, 23 August 2001, 363 SCRA 585
See also: Act No. 3326 as amended by Act No. 3763
Romualdez v. Marcelo, G.R. No. 165510, 28 July 2006
B. Partial Art. 94-99; See also: amendments under RA 10592
Cruz III v. Go, G.R. No. 223446, 28 November 2016

IX. Civil Liability arising from criminal liability Art. 100-113


People v. Bayotas, G.R. No. 102007, 2 September 1994.