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# Section 6.

## 6.9.1 Strain Energy due to Plate Bending and Torsion

Here, the elastic strain energy due to plate bending and twisting is considered.

Consider a plate element bending in the x direction, Fig. 6.9.1. The radius of curvature is
R 2 w / x 2 . The strain energy due to bending through an angle by a moment
M x y is

M x y w2 x
2
1
U (6.9.1)
2 x

## Considering also contributions from M y and M xy , one has

1 2w 2w 2w
U M x 2 2 M xy M y 2 xy (6.9.2)
2 x xy y

## Using the moment-curvature relations, one has

D 2 w 2w 2w
2 2 2
2w 2w
U 2 2 2 21 xy
2 x x y 2 xy y 2

(6.9.3)
D 2 w 2 w 2 w 2 w 2 w 2
2

2 2 21 2 xy
2 x y x y 2 xy

This can now be integrated over the complete plate surface to obtain the total elastic strain
energy.

Section 6.9

## 6.9.2 The Principle of Minimum Potential Energy

Plate problems can be solved using the principle of minimum potential energy (see Book
I, 8.6). Let V Wext be the potential energy of the loads, equivalent to the negative of
the work done by those loads, and so the potential energy of the system is
w U w V w . The solution is then the deflection which minimizes w .

## When the load is a uniform lateral pressure q, one has

V Wext q w x, y xx (6.9.4)

and

2 2
2 w 2 w 2 w 2
D w w
2
2 2 21 2 qwxy (6.9.5)
2 x y x y 2 xy

## As an example, consider again the simply supported rectangular plate subjected to a

uniform load q. Use the same trial function 6.5.38 which satisfies the boundary
conditions:

mx ny
w( x, y ) Amn sin sin (6.9.6)
m 1 n 1 a b

## Substituting into 6.9.5 and integrating over the plate gives

b a D m2 n2
2
mx 2 ny
mn 2 2 sin 2
2 4
A sin
0 0 2 m 1 n 1 a b a b

m 2 n 2 4 2 mx 2 ny mx ny
21 2 2 sin sin cos 2 cos 2 (6.9.7)
a b a b a b

mx ny
q Amn sin sin dxdy
m 1 n 1 a b

## Carrying out the integration leads to

D 2 4 m2 n2 1
2

4ab
Amn 2 2 ab q Amn (6.9.8)
2 m 1 n 1 a b 4 mn 2
m 1, 3, 5 n 1, 3, 5

Section 6.9

2
ab 4 m2 n2 4ab
DAmn 2 2 q 0
Amn 4 a b mn 2

2
(6.9.9)
16q m n 2 2
Amn 2 2
Dmn a
6
b

## 6.9.3 Strain Energy in Polar Coordinates

For circular plates, one can transform the strain energy expression 6.9.3 into polar
coordinates, giving {Problem 1}

D 2 w 1 w 1 2 w
2

U 2 21
2 r r r r 2 2

(6.9.10)
2 w 1 w 1 2 w 1 w 1 2 w 2
2 2 2
2
xy
r r r r r r r

## For an axisymmetric problem, the strain energy is

D 2 w 1 w 2 w 1 w
2

U 2 21 2 xy (6.9.11)
2 r r r r r r

## 6.9.4 Vibration of Plates

For vibrating plates, one needs to include the kinetic energy of the plate. The kinetic
energy of a plate element of dimensions x, y and moving with velocity / t is

2
1 w
K h xy (6.9.12)
2 t

## According to Hamiltons principle, then, the quantity to be minimized is now

U w V w K ( w) .

Consider again the problem of a circular plate undergoing axisymmetric vibrations. The
potential energy function is

a 2 w 1 w 2 2 w 1 w
a
w
2

0 r r r r r r 0
t

Section 6.9

## Substituting this into 6.9.13 leads to

a d 2W 1 dW
2
d 2W 1 dW
a
D 2 21 2 rdr h W rdr
2
(6.9.15)
0 dr r dr

dr r dr 0

Examining the clamped plate, assume a solution, an assumption based on the known static
solution 6.6.20, of the form

W (r ) Aa 2 r 2
2
(6.9.16)

## Substituting this into 6.9.15 leads to

a
32 DA 2 2 a 4 4a 2 r 2 4r 4 1 a 4 4a 2 r 2 3r 4 rdr
0
(6.9.17)
dr
a
2 4
hA 2 r a 2 r
0

## Evaluating the integrals leads to

32 1
A 2 Da 6 ha 10 (6.9.18)
3 10

## Minimising this function, setting / A 0 , then gives

1 D 320
, 10.328 (6.9.19)
a2 h 3

This simple one-term solution is very close to the exact result given in Table 6.8.1,
10.2158. The result 6.9.19 is of course greater than the actual frequency.

6.9.5 Problems
1. Derive the strain energy expression in polar coordinates, Eqn. 6.9.10.