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OXO -REACTOR

DESIGN
REACTOR DESIGN
(OXO-REACTOR)
Equipment Tag RE 101 Equipment Name Oxo - Reactor

Objective To produce aldehyde by reacting propylene and synthesis gas and using
cobalt carbonyl solution as catalyst.

SPECIFICATION SHEET
Continuous Stirred Tank
Operation Continuous
Functional Description Catalytic Reactor
Type Stirred Tank Reactor
DESIGN DATA
3
Volume 16.08 m Length of Blade 0.5505m
Length 3.94 m Width of Blade 0.4404 m
Diameter 1.97 m Width of Baffle 0.2202 m
Number of Baffles 4 Impeller distance 0.734m
from the floor
Type of Impeller Disc Turbine Impeller speed 130 rpm
Number of Blades 6 Power requirements 46.74
Wall thickness 116 mm Jacket Area 27.43
Head thickness 118 mm Water requirements 30.96
Impeller diameter 0.734 m

Main Reaction: ( Propylene)+ H 2+ CO ( Aldehyde )

C3 H 6 + H 2 +CO C4 H 8

Side Reaction:

(Propylene)+ H 2 ( Propane) C3 H 6 + H 2 C 3 H 8

( Aldehyde)+ H 2 ( Butanol)
C 4 H 8 O+ H 2 C 4 H 10 O

Kinetic Parameters

1 ESPINOSA, KHIARA CLAUDINE O.


k0 Ea k1 k2 k3 k3
7.5454 x 83, 150 1.367 0.5641 0.4995 1.823 x
1012 102

C kmol
Concentration of Cobalt Carbonyl ( Co ) : 5.47 3
m

Concentration of Propylene ( C Pr ):
Partial Pressure of Hydrogen: 113.36 bar
Partial Pressure of Carbon monoxide: 115.47 bar
Partial pressure of Propylene: 108.46 bar
Temperature: 130 C

Ea
RT Pa P b Pc C a
r=k 0 R x e 2 2
(1k 1 P a) ( 1k 2 Pb ) ( 1k 3 P c ) (1k 4 C pr )3

Ea
RT Pa P b Pc C a
r=R x k 0 e 2 2
(1k 1 P a) ( 1k 2 Pb ) ( 1k 3 P c ) (1k 4 C pr )3

83150
r=( 7.545 x 1012) e 8.314 x 403.15 x
(113.36)(115.47 )(108.46)(5.47)
2 2
(11.367 x 113.36) ( 10.5642 x 115.47 ) ( 10.4995 x 108.46 ) (11.823 x 102 x 5.47)3
mol
r=43.724
sm3

2 ESPINOSA, KHIARA CLAUDINE O.


kg 1000 g
27.13 x
m s kg mol
F a 0= = =616.59
MW g s
44
mols
mol
F a 0=616.59
s

mol
616.59 ( 0.95)
Fa0 s
Volume of Reaction= = =13.397 m3
ra mol
43.724
sm3
3
Volume of Reaction=13.397 m
Determination of Residence Time:

For Backmix R
Residencetime ( sec )=( Production Rate)

kg
(
1.925 x 101
s )
=3800 sec=1.06 hr

3 ESPINOSA, KHIARA CLAUDINE O.


kg
51.61 3
h m
Volume of Catalyst= =2.760 x 103
kg hr
1870 3
m

m3
2.760 x 103 x 1.06 hr
hr
3 3
Volume of Catalyst=2.862 x 10 m

TOTAL VOLUME
Volume Total=Volume of reaction+Volume of catalyst
3 3
Volume Total=(13.397+ 2.862 x 10 )m
3
Volume Total=13.40 m

13.40 m3
Filling Capacity= =16.75 m3
0.80
Safety Factor
3
V 1=13.40 m (1.20)
3
V 1=16.08 m

REACTOR DIAMETER
V =V cylinder +V spherical section +V sphericalhead

2 3 3
V= D H+ D + D
4 12 12
Consider H = 2D
2 3
V= D
3
3 2 3
16.08 m = D
3
D=1.97 m

4 ESPINOSA, KHIARA CLAUDINE O.


Diameter without Safety Factor
D=1.97 x 0.80
D=1.576 m
TOTAL REACTOR HEIGHT
Consider: H t =2 D [Table 10-65. Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook, 8th edition.]

H t =2 D

H t =2 x 1.97 m

H t =3.94 m

D
H h=H b =
2
1.97
H b + H h=2 x
2
H h H b=1.97 m

H Total =H h + H b+ H t

H Total =1.97+3.94

H Total =5.91 m

TOTAL OPERATING PRESSURE


Ptotal=Ps + Pr

Where
Ptotal = Total Pressure

Ps = Static Pressure Pr = Pressure inside the Reactor


Ps= gh

5 ESPINOSA, KHIARA CLAUDINE O.


kg m
Ps=(1000 )(9.81 )(3.94)
m
3
s

Ps=38.65 kPa

1 =35000 kPa
102 kPa
Pr=350 x

Ptotal=Ps + Pr

Ptotal=( 38.65+35000 ) kPa

Ptotal=35038.65 kPa

Maximum Allowable Pressure


Ptotal=1.2 xP

Ptotal=42046.38 kPa

Shell Thickness
Consider:
Stainless Steel 304 (Sinnott, 2005)
S = 12.9 ksi [CITATION Per \l 1033 ]
PD
t s= +C
Sk 0.6 P
Where
t= minimum wall thickness, m
P= maximum allowable internal pressure, kPa
D= inside diameter of the shell before corrosion allowance is added, m
S= maximum allowable working stress, kPa
C= corrosion allowance and its value is taken as 3mm
E = efficiency of joints expressed as a friction and its value is 0.85

6 ESPINOSA, KHIARA CLAUDINE O.


PD
t s= +C
Sk 0.6 P
( 42046.38 kPa)(1.576 m)
+0.003 m
717 525.03(0.85)0.6( 42046.38)
t s =
t s=0.11624 m=116 mm

HEAD THICKNESS

PD
t h= +C
Sk0.26 P

( 42046.38 kPa)(1.576 m)
+ 0.003 m
717 525.03(0.85)0.2(42046.38)
t h=
t h=0.11799 m=118 mm

OUTER DIAMETER
D 0=D+2 t s

D 0=1.97+ 2 ( 0.116 ) m

D 0=2.202 m

AGITATOR DESIGN
at T = 403.15K:
= 4.35 centipoise

7 ESPINOSA, KHIARA CLAUDINE O.


IMPELLER DIAMETER
D 2.202
D 0= = =0.734 m
3 3

IMPELLER HEIGHT ABOVE VESSEL FLOOR


D 2.202
E= = =0.734 m
3 3

LENGTH OF IMPELLER BLADE


D 2.202
L= = =0.5505 m
4 4

WIDTH IMPELLER BLADE


D 2.202
W= = =0.4404 m
5 5

WIDTH BAFFLE

8 ESPINOSA, KHIARA CLAUDINE O.


D 2.202
J= = =0.2202m
10 4

SHAPE FACTOR
D0 1 J 1
S 1= = S 5= =
D 3 D 10

E 1
S 2= =
D 3
L 1
S 3= =
D 4
W 1
S4= =
D 5

9 ESPINOSA, KHIARA CLAUDINE O.


POWER CALCULATIONS
POWER REQUIREMENT OF THE IMPELLER
[ CITATION Don08 \l 1033 ]

P=N p x x N 3 x D5

Where:
P = Power (watts)
N p = Dimensionless power number

= density
N = no. of revolutions per min of impeller, rpm
D= diameter of the impeller, m

REYNOLDS NUMBER:
[ CITATION Jam04 \l 1033 ]

TipVelocitybine=5 m/s
TipVelocity= x D0 x N

m
5 (60)
s
N= =130 rpm
x 0.734 m

2
N D0
N =

rev 2 kg
130 (0.734 m) (940 3 )
min m


N =

N =252 438.0334
POWER
P
P=K T x N 3 x D5 x
gc

K for six blade disc turbine = 5.75


[ CITATION Dou \l 1033 ]
3
44 940
P=( 5.75 ) x ( )
60 s
5
x ( 0.734 ) x
1
J
P=29 618.57 =39.72hp
s

Power consumption by gas sparger


kg
Gas mass flow rate = 692.24
hr
kg
Gasdensity = 19.8
m3
Pressure difference due to sparger = 10 kP
Compressed efficiency = 0.75
Power consumption by sparger
mg x x P


27.13 x 0.75 x 10
=10.28 W=0.0138 hp
19.8
Total Power Consumption (0.0138+ 39.72) hp
39.73 hp

Assumptions:
5% of the impeller is utilized by the gear
10% minimum power for system variations
Actual minimum motor horse power:
impeller required

0.85
39.73 hp

0.85
46.74 hp

HEAT TRANSFER IN REACTOR


Cooling Jacket area available:
2
D
A= DH +
4

(1.97 )2
A= ( 1.97 m )( 3.94 m )+
4

A=27.43m2

Amount of water from the cooling jacket:


Based on Energy Balance:
M s=30.96 kg /s
References

Couper, James R. Chemical Process Equipment. 1st ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier,


2005. Print.
Perry, Robert H, and Don W Green. Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook. 1st
ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008. Print.
Peters, Max Stone, Klaus D Timmerhaus, and Ronald E West. Plant Design And
Economics For Chemical Engineers. 1st ed. Boston [u.a.]: McGraw-Hill,
2006. Print.
Sinnott, R. K. Chemical Engineering Design. 1st ed. Burlington: Elsevier, 2005. Print.