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Transféré par Viet NguyenHoang

Tạp chí Khoa học và Công nghệ – Số 119 (05/2017)
1. Experimental Studies to Verify the Effect of Chip Shrinkage Coefficient on Cutting Forces and Surface Roughness in High Speed Milling of A6061 Aluminum Alloy
Pham Thi Hoa1,2, Mac Thi Bich1,2, Banh Tien Long1, Nguyen Duc Toan1*
1 Hanoi University of Science and Technology
2 Department of Mechanical Engineering
2. Dynamics and control of a four-bar mechanism with relative longitudinal vibration of the coupler link
Nguyen Van Khang1, Nguyen Sy Nam2*
1 Hanoi University of Science and Technology
2 National University of Civil Engineering
3. Development of Plasma-Mig Hybrid Welding Process for Butt Joint Welding of Thick Plate Steel
Lam Tran1*, Van Anh Nguyen2, Shinichi Tashiro2, Manabu Tanaka2,
Thuc Ha Nguyen1
1Hanoi University of Science and Technology
2Osaka University
4. The Influence of Electrical Parameters on the Penetration of Tungsten into the SKD61 Workpiece Surface in PMEDM using Tungsten Carbide Powder
Le Van Tao1,2,*, BanhTien Long1, Tran Xuan Thai 1, Nguyen Thi Hong Minh 1
1 Hanoi University of Science and Technology
2 Military Technical Academy
5. Modeling and Force Analysis of an Electrothermal Micro Gripper with Amplification Compliant Mechanism
Dang Bao Lam1*, Nguyen Tuan Khoa1,2, Nguyen Dang Thuan3, Pham Hong Phuc1
1 Hanoi University of Science and Technology
2 Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Australia
3 Smart System Laboratory, Hanbat National University, Korea
6. Application of Sinusoidal Phase Modulation Technique for Infrared Spectrum Measurement by Fourier Transform Method
Doan Giang1,2, Nguyen Van Vinh1 , Nguyen Thi Phuong Mai1, Vu Thanh Tung1*
1 Hanoi University of Science and Technology
2Military Institute of Environmental Chemistry
7. A Method for Capturing Accuracy and Pose Repeatability of Articulated Industrial Robots
Duong Minh Tuan*, Le Duc Do - Hanoi University of Science and Technology
8. Optimal Parameters of Linear Dynamic Vibration Absorber for Reduction of Torsional Vibration
Vu Xuan Truong1, 2, Khong Doan Dien2, Nguyen Duy Chinh2, Nguyen Duc Toan 3,*
1 Graduate University of Science and Technology, VAST
2 Hungyen University of Technology and Education
3 Hanoi University of Science and Technology
9. Effect of quenching media on distortion of C-Ring specimen made by 100Cr6 steel - Simulation and Experiment
Tran Thi Xuan1*, Nguyen Van Tu1, Le Thi Chieu2, Vu Dinh Toai1
1Hanoi University of Sciense and Technology
2 Vietnam Casting – Metallurgy Society
10. Dynamic Analysis of Complex Composite Tubes by Continuous Element Method
Le Thi Bich Nam1, *, Nguyen Manh Cuong1, Tran Ich Thinh1,
Duong Pham Tuong Minh2, Le Quang Vinh3
1 Hanoi University of Science and Technology
2 Thai Nguyen University of Technology
3 Viet tri University of Industry
11. Fatigue Life Prediction under Multiaxial Variable Amplitude Loading Using a Stress Invariant Based Criterion
Vu Quoc Huy*, Vu Dinh Quy, Le Thi Tuyet Nhung
- Hanoi University of Science and Technology
12. Performance Evaluation of a 2D Front Tracking Method – a Direct Numerical Simulation Method for Multiphase Flows
Vu Van Truong - Hanoi University of Science and Technology
13. Crystallization Kinetics of Mechanically Alloyed Al80Fe20 Amorphous Powder
Nguyen Thi Hoang Oanh, Tran Quoc Lap, Pham Ngoc Dieu Quynh,
Le Hong Thang, Nguyen Thi Anh Nguyet, Pham Ngoc Huyen, Nguyen Hoang Viet*
- Hanoi University of Science and Technology
14. Effects of Compaction Pressure on the Properties of In-Situ Hybrid Carbide-Reinforced Copper-Based Composite Synthesized by Powder Metallurgy
Le Minh Hai - Hanoi University of Science and Technology

- Intermediate and Advanced Machining
- Milling Machine_W200 Brochure
- sb1024_m.pdf
- Heidenhain Tnc 620 User Manual
- Study of Cutting Speed Variation in the Ultrasonic Assisted Drilling of Carbon Fibre Composites
- machining parameters
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- CNC Milling Tool @ AJAY
- tech_f_1
- InTech-Machinability of Titanium Alloys in Drilling
- Othermill - Getting Started

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No.119B

2017

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017)

CONTENTS

1. Experimental Studies to Verify the Effect of Chip Shrinkage Coefficient on Cutting Forces 1 16-107

and Surface Roughness in High Speed Milling of A6061 Aluminum Alloy

Pham Thi Hoa1,2, Mac Thi Bich1,2, Banh Tien Long1, Nguyen Duc Toan1*

1

Hanoi University of Science and Technology

2

Department of Mechanical Engineering

2. Dynamics and control of a four-bar mechanism with relative longitudinal vibration of the 6 16-158

coupler link

Nguyen Van Khang1, Nguyen Sy Nam2*

1

Hanoi University of Science and Technology

2

National University of Civil Engineering

3. Development of Plasma-Mig Hybrid Welding Process for Butt Joint Welding of Thick 11 16-115

Plate Steel

Lam Tran1*, Van Anh Nguyen2, Shinichi Tashiro2, Manabu Tanaka2,

Thuc Ha Nguyen1

1

Hanoi University of Science and Technology

2

Osaka University

4. The Influence of Electrical Parameters on the Penetration of Tungsten into the SKD61 16 17-009

Workpiece Surface in PMEDM using Tungsten Carbide Powder

Le Van Tao1,2,*, BanhTien Long1, Tran Xuan Thai 1, Nguyen Thi Hong Minh 1

1

Hanoi University of Science and Technology

2

Military Technical Academy

5. Modeling and Force Analysis of an Electrothermal Micro Gripper with Amplification 22 17-011

Compliant Mechanism

Dang Bao Lam1*, Nguyen Tuan Khoa1,2, Nguyen Dang Thuan3, Pham Hong Phuc1

1

Hanoi University of Science and Technology

2

Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Australia

3

Smart System Laboratory, Hanbat National University, Korea

Measurement by Fourier Transform Method

Doan Giang1,2, Nguyen Van Vinh1 , Nguyen Thi Phuong Mai1, Vu Thanh Tung1*

1

Hanoi University of Science and Technology

2

Military Institute of Environmental Chemistry

7. A Method for Capturing Accuracy and Pose Repeatability of Articulated Industrial Robots 32 16-041

Duong Minh Tuan*, Le Duc Do - Hanoi University of Science and Technology OL

8. Optimal Parameters of Linear Dynamic Vibration Absorber for Reduction of Torsional 37 16-159

Vibration

Vu Xuan Truong1, 2, Khong Doan Dien2, Nguyen Duy Chinh2, Nguyen Duc Toan 3,*

1

Graduate University of Science and Technology, VAST

2

Hungyen University of Technology and Education

3

Hanoi University of Science and Technology

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017)

9. Effect of quenching media on distortion of C-Ring specimen made by 100Cr6 steel - 43 16-036

Simulation and Experiment OL

Tran Thi Xuan1*, Nguyen Van Tu1, Le Thi Chieu2, Vu Dinh Toai1

1

Hanoi University of Sciense and Technology

2

Vietnam Casting Metallurgy Society

10. Dynamic Analysis of Complex Composite Tubes by Continuous Element Method 48 16-026

Le Thi Bich Nam1, *, Nguyen Manh Cuong1, Tran Ich Thinh1,

Duong Pham Tuong Minh2, Le Quang Vinh3

1

Hanoi University of Science and Technology

2

Thai Nguyen University of Technology

3

Viet tri University of Industry

11. Fatigue Life Prediction under Multiaxial Variable Amplitude Loading Using a Stress 54 16-057

Invariant Based Criterion

Vu Quoc Huy*, Vu Dinh Quy, Le Thi Tuyet Nhung

- Hanoi University of Science and Technology

12. Performance Evaluation of a 2D Front Tracking Method a Direct Numerical Simulation 59 16-137

Method for Multiphase Flows

Vu Van Truong - Hanoi University of Science and Technology

Nguyen Thi Hoang Oanh, Tran Quoc Lap, Pham Ngoc Dieu Quynh,

Le Hong Thang, Nguyen Thi Anh Nguyet, Pham Ngoc Huyen, Nguyen Hoang Viet*

- Hanoi University of Science and Technology

14. Effects of Compaction Pressure on the Properties of In-Situ Hybrid Carbide-Reinforced 71 16-039

Copper-Based Composite Synthesized by Powder Metallurgy OL

Le Minh Hai - Hanoi University of Science and Technology

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 001-005

Cutting Forces and Surface Roughness in High Speed Milling of A6061

Aluminum Alloy

Pham Thi Hoa1,2, Mac Thi Bich1,2, Banh Tien Long1, Nguyen Duc Toan1*

1

Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No. 1, Dai Co Viet, Hai Ba Trung, Hanoi, Viet Nam

2

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hungyen University of Technology and Education, Hungyen, Vietnam

Received: June 14, 2016; accepted: June 9, 2017

Abstract

This paper studied the relationship between the cutting force, surface roughness and chip shrinkage

coefficient through the affect of cutting parameters, i.e., cutting speed, feed rate and uncut chip thickness.

Experimental results of the chip shrinkage coefficient, cutting force and surface roughness at various cutting

parameter values for high-speed milling of A6061 aluminum alloy were presented in this study. The results

show that the cutting force and surface roughness can be derived based on the relationships with chip

shrinkage coefficient.

Keywords: High-speed milling, A6061 aluminum alloy, Chip shrinkage coefficient, Surface roughness,

Cutting force.

quality, properly cutting parameters should be

High-speed milling (HSM) has become an

established. Several researchers studied the

innovative technique, which keeps improving

relationships of surface roughness and cutting

progressively. It is particular important to model of

parameters such as nose radius, clearance angle,

the HSM process in order to aid for prediction of the

cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut, rake angle [7].

cutting process variables. Consequently, modeling of

Nowadays, research on surface roughness influenced

HSM process is essential for the design and

by cutting parameters is continuing for enhancing

optimization of the cutting conditions.

product quality at low cost.

Cutting force in a milling process is one of the

Another concern in modeling the HSM process

most important issues for the selection of machining

is estimation of chip geometric parameters, such as

parameters, such as feed rate and spindle speed [1].

chip thickness, chip length, etc. Since accuracy of the

Many researchers using both experiment and

model for chip parameter estimation directly affects

simulation approaches for prediction of cutting

the accuracy of the cutting force predictions, accurate

forces of HSM processes [2-4]. Compare to

chip modeling is always desired in the estimation of

experiment approach, simulation of a milling process

cutting forces, especially in micro milling [8]. Chip

using Finite Element Method (FEM) show a

shrinkage coefficient defined as the ratio of the uncut

beneficial of providing more detail information of

chip length by the actual chip length, can be a

cutting process variables, such as cutting forces, tool

prominent parameter for modeling of a cutting

stresses and temperatures [5]. Nowadays,

process. However, studies on the chip shrinkage

development of cutting force model for HSM is

coefficient have been limited in literature.

increasing interests toward higher precise cutting

force estimation and applicable for different cutting This study investigate the effect of cutting

conditions. parameters, i.e., cutting speed, feed rate and uncut

chip thickness on the chip shrinkage coefficient,

One of the major challenges of milling at high

cutting force, surface roughness. The relationship

speeds is that high-speed milling leads to the high

between this factor are found the chip shrinkage

temperature and stress growing at the interfaces of

coefficient and cutting force, surface roughness and

chip-tool or workpiece-tool resulting in unexpected

cutting parameters are found through experimental

roughness of workpiece surface finish [6]. In order to

measurement for high-speed milling of A6061

aluminum alloy.

*

Corresponding author: Tel: (+84) 988 693 047

Email: toan.nguyenduc@hust.edu.vn

1

Journal of Science and Technology

2.1 Workpiece material

The workpiece used in this study is aluminum

alloy A6061, which has the hardness of 97HB. The

chemical composition of workpiece material is

represented in Table 1. Several workpieces used for

experiment are shown Figure 1. The workpiece

dimensions are 70x30x70 (mm).

Table 1. Chemical composition of the workpiece material

(%).

Si Fe Cu Mn Mg

0,4-0,8 0,3 0,05-0,3 0,10 0,8-1,2 Fig. 2. Surface roughness tester

Cr Zn Ti Al The Sartorius Volume Comparator (S224-1S)

0,05-0,30 0,25 0,15 remaining scale is used to determine the weigh of the chip after

cutting. The scale parameters are as follows: capactiy

of 220 gr, readability of 0.1 mg.

The chip shrinkage coefficient (K) can be

calculated by following formula [11]:

1000.Q

K (1)

.L.S.t

where Q is weight of the chip (gr), is material

density (g/cm3), l is chip length (mm), S and t are

feed rate (mm/rev) and uncut chip thickness (mm),

respectively.

The effects of cutting speed, feed rate, uncut

2.2 Milling experiment

chip thickness, on chip shrinkage coefficient, force

All the experiments are performed on a HS cutting, surface roughness are examined using a

Super MC500 high-speed milling machine three-factor/three-level full factorial design [10]. The

maximum feed rate of 30 m/min, maximum spindle range of each factor is set at three different levels as

speed of 30.000 rpm, travel distances of the shown in Table 2. Figure 3 shows the experimental

operating platform in the X, Y and Z directions of set-up of the milling process.

500 mm, 400 mm and 300 mm, respectively. Dry

milling condition with carbide insert cutting tool

(APMTT1604PDTR TC300) and diameter of 40 mm

is used for milling.

2.3 Measurement equipment

The cutting forces are measured by force

measurement device Kisler, which is equipped with a

force sensor (Kisler 9257B). The maximum load

capacities of the device in X, Y and Z directions are

1500N, 1500N and 5000N, respectively. The

sensitivity of sensor in X, Y and Z directions are 7.39

pC/N 7.39 pC/N and 3.72 pC/N, respectively. The

measured data is collected by an acquisition system

using DASYlab 10.0 software.

The surface roughness of the machined Fig. 3. Experimental set-up

workpiece is measured by a surface roughness tester

(Mitutoyo SJ400). The roughness values are in m.

Figure 2 shows the surface roughness measuring

2

Journal of Science and Technology

1

b2 b3 b4

f t (3)

Level

No. Parameter Unit Level 1 Level 2

3 Ra c1V c2 f c3 t c4 (4)

V

1 (cutting m/min 1000 1130 1256 where ai, bi, ci (i = 1...4) are the constants to be

speed) determined. Using curve fitting tool in Minitab17,

f those constants can be determined as shown in Table

2 mm/min 800 1350 1800

(feed rate) 4.

t

3 (uncut chip mm 0,5 1,0 1,5 Table 4. Fitted constants obtained by surface fitting

thickness) method

Table 3. Experimental results i 1 2 3 4

a 0,889866 0,0090714 0,0339467 -0,1402635

V f F Ra 0,092838

No t (mm) K b 1264,012 -0,36893 0,047466

(m/ min) (m/min) (N) (m)

c 5820,781 -1,378843 0,04978739 0,10138765

1 1000 800 0,5 1,294 135,71 0,64 Figures 4-6 show K, F, and Ra as a function of

2 1256 800 0,5 1,304 126,98 0,39 the cutting parameters, i.e., V, f and t, respectively,

3 1000 1800 0,5 1,322 120,88 0,60 obtained using equations (2), (3) and (4) with the

4 1256 1800 0,5 1,370 111,73 0,31 constants in Table 4. Figure 4 shows that increasing

cutting speed leads to the increase of K. On the other

5 1000 800 1,5 1,144 146,36 0,53

hand, K is decreased with increasing depth of cut.

6 1256 800 1,5 1,102 128,42 0,48 This figure also shows that t has a great influence on

7 1000 1800 1,5 1,137 139,71 0,55 K, while the effect of f on K is minor. Besides,

8 1256 1800 1,5 1,133 117,38 0,35 cutting speed increases leading to the decrease in

9 1130 1350 1 1,236 125,46 0,44 contact area between the chip and the front of the

10 1130 1350 1 1,236 124,82 0,44 tool. Consequently, chip shrinkage coefficient is

1130 1350 increased [11]. In order to obtain the optimal cutting

11 1 1,236 126,72 0,44

parameter values for minimizing K, MAPLE

4. Results and discussions software is utilized based on NLPSolve command.

Optimal values for V, f and t are 1000 m/min, 800

4.1 Influences of V, f and t on the K, F and Ra mm/min, and 1.5 mm, respectively.

Table 3 shows the experiment results of K, F, Ra as a From Figure 5, increasing V, f or t all reduces F.

function of V, f and t. Using curve-fitting tool, the This is because at high-speed cutting, the generated

relationship between K, F, Ra dependence on V, f and heat can soften the materials thus decreasing cutting

t is established. That relationship is described by the forces [11]. Using NLPSolve command, the optimal

following equation (2), (3),(4). parameters of V, f and t for the objective function of

minimizing F are also found equal to 1256 m/min,

K a1V a2 f a3 t a4 (2)

1800 mm/min, and 0.5 mm, respectively.

Fig. 4. The relationship between K and cutting parameters V, t and f. a) Fixed V, b) Fixed f, c) Fixed t

3

Journal of Science and Technology

Fig. 5. The relationship between F and cutting parameters V, t and f. a) Fixed V, b) Fixed f, c) Fixed

Fig. 6. The relationship between Ra and cutting parameters V, t and f. a) Fixed V, b) Fixed f, c) Fixed t

Fig. 7. The relationship between F and K Fig. 8. The relationship between Ra and K

Figure 6 indicates that Ra increases with f and t on the relationship between F and K as well as

increasing f and t but reduces with increasing V. This Ra and K, the five-level full factorial design was

is because under high-speed cutting, the built up edge assigned for cutting speed (V) of 1000, 1064, 1128,

phenomenon would disappears leading the reduction 1192, 1256 m/min; feed rate (f) of 800, 1050, 1300,

of surface roughness [11]. Similar to K and F, the 1550, 1800 mm/min and uncut chip thickness (t) of

optimized values of V, f and t for minimizing Ra are 0.5, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50 mm, respectively.

1256 m/min, 1800 mm/min and 0.5 mm, respectively.

It is seen that minimum values of F and Ra are

4.2 The relationship between F and K, Ra and K 117N and 0.403m, respectively, which are all

obtained at K = 1.312. When K is equal to 1.154,

This section analyzes the relationship between F

maximum values of F and Ra are obtained equal to

and K as well as, Ra and K based on Eqs. (2-4). By

eliminating V, f and t from Eqs. (2-4), the relationship 146N and 0.64m, respectively.

between F and K, Ra and K are found. As shown in The figures 7 and 8 also summarize the affected

Figures 7-8, In order to verify the effect of various V, trend of cutting parameters i.e., cutting speed, feed

4

Journal of Science and Technology

rate and uncut chip thickness on the cutting force (F) prediction of cutting forces in end milling with

and surface roughness (Ra) related with chip application to cor-nering cuts, International Journal of

shrinkage coefficient (K) as discussing in detail on Machine Tool Design and Research 22 (1982) 722.

section 4.1. From those figures, the optimal cutting [3] H.J. Fu, R.E. DeVor, S.G. Kapoor, A mechanistic

parameters can be obtained by minimizing cutting model for prediction of the force system in face

force (F), surface roughness (Ra) and chip shrinkage milling oper-ation, ASME Journal of Engineering for

coefficient (K). In order to minimize the F and Ra, the Industry 106 (1984) 8188.

maximum of cutting speed (V) and minimum of feed [4] W.P. Wang, Solid modelling for optimizing metal

rate (f) also uncut chip thickness (t) should be set. removal of three-dimensional end milling, Journal of

However, the decreasing of uncut chip thickness (t) Manufac-turing Systems 7 (1984) 5766.

will increase the chip shrinkage coefficient (K)

[5] T. O. Zel, T. Altan, Modeling of high speed

therefore (t) will be chosen based on the productivity machining processes for predicted tool forces stresses

of manufacturing process. and temperatures using FEM simulations, in:

5. Conclusions Proceedings of the CIRP International Workshop on

Modeling of Machining Oper-ations, Atlanta, GA,

This paper presents an experimental study on (1998) 225234.

relationship between cutting force, surface roughness [6] Tugrul Ozel, Taylan Altan, Process simulation using

and chip shrinkage coefficient when high speed finite element method - prediction of cutting forces,

milling of A6061 aluminum alloy. Some conclusions tool stresses and temperatures in high-speed flat end

are given as follows: milling, International Journal of Machine Tools &

Manufacture 40 (2000) 713738.

1. The relationship between the cutting force, surface

roughness and chip shrinkage coefficient through [7] Mehmet Alper, lhan ASLTRK, Effects of Cutting

cutting parameters e.g., cutting speed, feed rate, uncut Tool Parameters on Surface Roughness, International

chip thickness are explicitly described by Refereed Journal of Engineering and Science, 4(8)

(2015) 15-22.

mathematical functions.

[8] Ali Mamedo, Ismail Lazoglu, An evaluation of micro

2. The optimal cutting parameters for chip shrinkage milling chip thickness models for the process

coefficient, cutting force and surface roughness can mechanics, the International Journal of Advanced

be found by maximizing the cutting speed (V) and Manufacturing Technology, (2015) 1-7

minimizing the feed rate (f), which are useful for

[9] Swan MS. Incorporation of a general strain-to-failure

practical milling of A6061 aluminum alloy.

fracture criterion into a stress-based elasticity model

Acknowledgements: This research is funded by through a time-to-failure softening mechanism. M.Sc.

Vietnam National Foundation for Science and Thesis in Mechanical Engineering University of Utah,

Technology Development (NAFOSTED) under grant USA.(2012)

number 107.02-2016.01. [10] K. Venkata, M. Krishnam, G. R. Janardhana,

Optimization of Cutting Conditions for Surface

References Roughness in CNC End Milling, 12( 3) (2011) 383

[1] Wu Baohai, Yan Xue, Luo Ming, Gao Ge, Cutting 391.

force prediction for circular end milling process, [11] Banh Tien Long, Tran The Luc and Tran Sy Tuy.

Chinese Journal of Aeronautics, 26 (4) (2013) 1057 Metal Cutting Principles, 2nd Ed, Science and

1063. Technics Publishing House, (2013) (In Vietnamese)

[2] W.A. Kline, R.E. DeVor, J.R. Lindberg, The

5

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 006-010

Longitudinal Vibration of the Coupler Link

Nguyen Van Khang, Nguyen Sy Nam*

1

Hanoi University of Science and Technology No. 1, Dai Co Viet Str., Hai Ba Trung, Ha Noi, Viet Nam

2

National University of Civil Engineering , No. 55, Giai Phong Str., Hai Ba Trung, Ha Noi, Viet Nam

Received: October 12, 2016; accepted: June 9, 2017

Abstract

In the mechanisms and machines operating at high speeds, the elastic vibration of links is inevitable. In this

paper the dynamic modeling and controller design for a flexible four-bar mechanism are studied. The fully

coupled non-linear equations of motion are obtained by using the Lagranges equations with multipliers for

constrained multibody systems. The resulting differential-algebraic equations are solved using numerical

methods. A simple PD controller is designed to reduce the influence of the elastic link on the desired motion.

Keywords: Dynamic analysis, control, Four-bar mechanism, Ritz-Galerkin method, Vibration.

*

1. Introduction A fourbar mechanism OABC is shown in

Figure 1. The mechanism consists of the rigid crank

Traditionally, dynamic analysis and control of

OA of length l1, the flexible rod AB of length l 2 and

mechanisms have been based on the assumption that

the rigid rod BC of length l 3, the distance OC is l0,

the links behave as rigid bodies. The demand for high

speed lightweight machinery requires a redesign of is the external torque acting on the crank joint. e1(0)

the current mechanisms. Unfortunately, reducing the and e(20) are the unit vectors of the fixed coordinate

weight of four-bar mechanisms and/or increasing

system Ox0y0. e1 and e 2 are the unit vectors of the

their speed may lead to the onset of elastic

oscillations, which causes performance degradations reference coordinate system Axy which is rotated

such as misfeeding in the case of the card feeder with an angle 2 to the fixed one. Three

mechanism in Sandor et al [1]. Therefore, the variables 1, 2 and 3 are the angles between the x0-

dynamic analysis and control vibration of flexible axis and crank OA, the x0-axis and flexible link AB,

mechanisms are required. Although dynamic analysis the x0-axis and output link BC, respectively.

of flexible mechanisms has been the subject of

numerous investigations [1-6], the control of such u(l2,t)

systems has not received much attention [2-4]. Most l2 B x

of the work available in the literature which deals y

u(x,t)

with vibration control of flexible mechanisms employ x

an actuator which acts directly on the flexible link. y0 e2

A 2

The effect of the control forces and moments on the e1

overall motion is neglected. An alternative method

would be to control the vibrations through the motion e(20) 1 3

x0

of the input link. O C

( 0)

e 1

The current study deals with the control of a

Fig. 1. Diagram of the four-bar mechanism

four-bar mechanism with a flexible coupler link. An

actuator is assumed to be placed on the input link

which applies a control torque. A simple PD control It should be noted that in general the constraint

is designed which requires measurements of the equations depend on the elastic deformations. In this

position and angular velocity of the input link only. study, the transverse deformations are neglected.

Therefore, the constraint equations here depend on

2. Equations of motion of the four-bar mechanism

the longitudinal deformations:

f 1 l1 cos 1 l2 u( l2 ,t ) cos 2 l3 cos 3 l0 0

* f 2 l1 sin 1 l2 u( l2 ,t ) sin 2 l3 sin 3 0

Corresponding author: Tel.: (+84) 977.244.292

Email: nam.nguyensy@gmail.com (1)

6

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 006-010

Ritz-Galerkin method is applied to the coupler The strain energy according to Reddy [9] is given by

link. The axial deformation of the coupler link is l 2

u N N

2

EA dx EA kij qi q j

written as [7, 8] 1 1

(9)

N

2 0

x 2 i 1 j 1

u( x ,t ) X i ( x ).qi ( t ) (2) l2

i 1

where k ij X X dx

i j

where qi(t) are the modal coordinates and Xi(x) are 0

The Lagrange's equations for constrained

are as follows:

holonomic systems are [8]:

u (l 2 , t )

u(0,t) = 0; EA 0 (3) d T T 2 f

x

dt j

j

k k

j Qj

(10)

j k 1

The mode shapes are given as [7]:

where j are the generalized coordinates which

2i 1 x include rigid body coordinates 1, 2, 3 as

X i ( x ) Bi sin

(4)

2 l2 well as elastic modal coordinates qj; fk are the

constraint equations, 1 and 2 are Lagrange

To simplify the equation (4) take Bi = 1. multipliers; and Qj are the generalized forces. By

substituting equations (1, 8, 9) into equation (10), we

The kinetic energy of the four-bar mechanism

obtained the equations of motion of the system as:

shown in Figure 1 is given by

l1l 22

1 1 1

l2 I

l12 l 2 1 2 cos( 1 2 )

I O12 I C 32 rM2 dx (5)

O

T TOA TBC TAB 2

2 2 20 N N

l12 cos 1 2 C q i i l1 sin1 2 C q i i

i 1 i 1

where IO and IC are the mass moments of inertia of

l l 2 N

the input and output links with respect to the joint 1 2

22 sin( 1 2 ) l1 22 sin1 2 Ci qi (11)

axes, respectively, is mass per unit length of the 2 i 1

N

2 l1 2 cos1 2 C q l

coupler link, and rM is the position vector of a point sin 1.1 l1 cos 1.2

i i 1

M on the coupler link given as i 1

rM rA x u e1 l1l 22 l23

N

(6) 1 cos1 2 l11 cos1 2 Ci qi 2

2 i 1 3

The coordinates of the point M in the fixed N N l l 2

N

coordinate system are given as:

2 2 Di qi mij qi q j 1 2 12 sin1 2

i 1 2

i 1 j 1

xM l1 cos 1 ( x u ) cos 2 N N N N

y M l1 sin 1 ( x u ) sin 2

(7) l112 sin1 2 Ci qi 2 2 Di q i

mij q i q j

i 1 i 1 i 1 j 1

By differentiating the equations (7) combined l 2 u B sin 2 .1 l 2 u B cos 2 .2

with equation (4), and then substituting into the (12)

equation (5), the kinetic energy is obtained as

I C3 l3 sin3 1 l3 cos3 2 0 (13)

l l 2

1

1

T I O l12 l2 12 I C 32 1 2 1 2 cos1 2 N

l11 sin 1 2 C i mij q j

2 2 2

l23 2 2 N N N

2 2 2 Di qi mij qi q j

j 1

6 2 i 1 N

l1 12 cos 1 2 C i 22 Di mij q j

i 1 j 1

(14)

N N N

2

mij qi q j l112 cos1 2 Ci qi

i 1 j 1 i 1 N

j 1

N EA k ij q j 1 cos 2 2 sin 2 i

l11 sin1 2 Ci qi (8) j 1

i 1

l2 l2 l2 where i = 1,2,..,N;

where Ci X i dx , Di xX i dx ; mij X i X j dx when i 2 k 1, k 1,2 ,...

1

0 0 0 i

1 when i 2 k , k 1,2 ,...

7

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 006-010

3. Dynamic analysis clearer, since the larger torque causes larger elastic

deformations.

A set of (3+N) differential equations (11-14) and

two algebraic constraint equations (1) are the motion Table 1. Parameters of four-bar mechanism

equations of mechanism with an elastic link.

Constant Description Value

Therefore, we have (5+N) differentialalgebraic

[unit]

equations with (5+N) variables given as

l0[m] Length of the ground link 0.4064

M( s ,t)s sT (s,t ) p1 (s, s, t ) (15) l1[m] Length of the input link 0.0635

f(s,t) = 0 (16) l2[m] Length of the coupler link 0.3048

l3[m] Length of the output link 0.3048

where s = [1 2 3 q1 qN 1 2]T ; is vector of

Lagrange multipliers; f is the vector of constraint IO[kgm2] Moment of inertia of the 7.466

equations. In this paper, the Lagrange multipliers input link x10-6

partition method is used to solve the system of IC[kgm2] Moment of inertia of the 2.002

differential-algebraic equations (15) and (16) output link x10-3

numerically. Some other algorithms can be found in [kg/m] Mass per unit length 0.2237

Khang [8]. E[N/m2] Modulus of elasticity 2.06x1011

For comparison purposes, another set of

A[m2] Cross-sectional area of 8.19

simulations is carried out by assuming that the

the coupler link x10-6

coupler link behaves as a rigid body (i.e., neglecting

m1[kg] Mass of the input link 0.0142

the longitudinal deformations). The values of the

parameters used in the simulations are given in Table m2[kg] Mass of the coupler link 0.0682

1. The torque on the input link is given by:

m3[kg] Mass of the output link 0.0682

sin( 2t / Tm ) t Tm

(t ) 0 (17)

0 t Tm

the torque.

The initial conditions are selected as follows:

angle of input 10 = /2, angular velocity of input link

10 0 , elastic deformations qi0 = 0 and elastic

deformations velocity qi0 0 . By using the Newton -

Raphson method for solving constraint equations (1a,

b) with the initial conditions as above, we obtain the

initial positions of the other links as:

20 0.6752 rad , 30 2.1564 rad , 20 0 , 30 0 . Fig. 2. Crank angle, 0 = 0.03 Nm.

rigid, flexible.

Figures 2 and 3 compare responses of rigid and

flexible mechanism with a peak torque magnitude of

0 = 0.03 Nm and Tm = 1s. As mentioned in section 1,

because of the fully coupled nature of the equations,

the rigid body coordinates (e.g., input and output link

angular displacements) are affected by the elastic

deformation of the coupler link. However, this effect

is negligible when the peak of torque is small.

Another set of simulations is carried out with a

peak torque magnitude of 0 = 0.1 Nm, Tm = 1s and

the simulations are performed during the period from

0 to 3s. The responses for the flexible and rigid

models of the four-bar mechanism are shown in

Figures 4 through 6. The effect of flexibility is now Fig. 3. Output angle, 0 = 0.03 Nm.

rigid, flexible.

8

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 006-010

The governed equations are highly non-linear

differential equations. Most control designs require a

linear unconstrained model. In this case a

straightforward linearization is not possible since it

may be difficult to find an operating point. However,

the equations can be linearized around a rigid body

trajectory. Since the main goal of the controller is to

suppress vibrations, a rigid body trajectory can be

used as the nominal trajectory and the deviations

from this can be assumed small. The real trajectory of

flexible mechanism can be obtained as follows

1 1d y1

2 2 d y2

Fig. 4. Crank angle, 0 = 0.1 Nm (18)

rigid, flexible. 3 3 d y3

y3i qi

where 1d, 2d, 3d represent the rigid mechanism

trajectory; y1, y2, y3 are deviation of flexible trajectory

versus rigid trajectory. It is assumed that y1, y2, y3 ,

y3+i are small.

In order to investigate whether it is possible to

suppress vibrations of the flexible link by a control

torque applied to the input link, a simple control

strategy, in particular PD controller is used. The

target of the controller is that y1, y2, y3 , y3+i approach

zero when time approaches infinity (or large

enough). The control torque applied to the input link

is given by:

c K P y1 K d y 1 (19)

Fig. 5. Output angle, 0 = 0.1 Nm. y1 1 1d ; y 1 1 1d . Thus, the total torque

rigid, flexible. acting on the input link is + C.

Fig. 6. Longitudinal deformation of flexible coupler Fig. 7. Crank angle with PD controller, 0 = 0.1 Nm

link, 0 = 0.1 Nm. rigid, flexible.

9

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 006-010

simple PD controller was designed which does not

require measurement of the elastic deformations. The

controller has been shown to be efficient in

suppressing the vibrations of the flexible link as well

as controlling the rigid body motion.

References

[1] Sandor, G. N. and Erdman, A. G. (1984) Advanced

Mechanism Design: Analysis and Synthesis.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

[2] Sung, C. K. and Chen, Y. C (1991) Vibration control

of the elastodynamic response of high-speed flexible

linkage mechanisms. ASME Journal of Vibration and

Acoustics 113, 14-21.

Fig. 8. Output angle with PD controller. 0 = 0.1 Nm.

rigid, flexible. [3] Beale, D. G. and Lee, S. W. (1995) The applicability

of fuzzy control for flexible mechanisms. ASME

Design Engineering Technical Conferences DE-Vol.

84-1, 203-209.

[4] Liao, W. H. Chou, J. H. and Horng, I. R (1997).

Robust vibration control of flexible linkage

mechanisms using piezoelectric films. Smart Materials

and Structures 6, 457-463.

[5] Schwab, A. L. and Meijard, J. P. (1997) Small

vibrations superim - Posedon non-linear rigid body

motion. Proceedings of the 1997 ASME Design

Engineering Technical Conferences, Sacramento,

CA,1-7.

[6] Yigit, A. Scott, R.A. and Ulsoy, A.G (1988), Flexural

motion of aradially rotating beam attached to a rigid

body. Journal of Sound and Vibration 121, 201 - 210.

[7] Khang, N.V (2005), Engineering vibrations (in

Fig. 9. Longitudinal deformation of flexible coupler Vietnamese), Science and Technics Publishing House

link with PD controller, 0 = 0.1 Nm.

[8] Khang, N.V (2017), Dynamic of multibody system (in

rigid, flexible. Vietnamese, 2. Edition) Science and Technics

Now, we will suppress vibrations in case the Publishing House.

peak torque magnitude of 0 = 0.1 Nm and Tm = 1s [9] Reddy, J.N (2002), Energy Principles and Variational

(e.g., Figures 4 6). The parameters used in the Methods in Applied Mechanics, John Wiley and Son,

simulations are given in Table 1. The controller gains ISBN: 978-0-471-17985-6.

are chosen as Kp = 0.5, Kd = 0.2. The calculating

[10] Bajodah, A. H. Hodges, D. H. and Chen, Y. H (2003)

results are shown in Figs 7 9. These New form of Kanes equations for constrained

results show that controller is able to suppress the systems. Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics

vibrations and control the link angular motions. In 26:7988.

Figure 9 the longitudinal deformation is suppressed

within 0.85 s.

5. Conclusions

In this study, dynamic modeling and control of a

four-bar mechanism with flexible coupler link has

been investigated and it was assumed that there is

only axial deformation. The non-linear equations of

motion are obtained through a constrained

Lagrangian approach and described by a set of

differential-algebraic equations. The governed

differential-algebraic equations are solved

10

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 011-015

Welding of Thick Plate Steel

Lam Tran1*, Van Anh Nguyen2, Shinichi Tashiro2, Manabu Tanaka2, Thuc Ha Nguyen1

1

Hanoi University of Science and Technology - No. 1, Dai Co Viet Str., Hai Ba Trung, Ha Noi, Viet Nam

2

Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka, 567-0047, Japan

Received: October 06, 2016; accepted: June 9, 2017

Abstract

Welding is present in all industrial sectors as a necessary technological process. One of the principal

directions for the progress of the welding is the development of hybrid welding processes. Plasma-MIG

hybrid welding was developed several decades ago. Nowadays, it becomes a bright technology in materials

processing. One of the versions of the PlasmaMIG processes is basically a combination of a keyhole

plasma arc with a MIG arc in order to deliver greater welding speeds, deeper weld penetration, and reduced

heat input. In this paper, plate to plate butt joint welds were conducted on mild steel plates and the aims of

this research is developed a Plasma-MIG hybrid welding process for single pass welding of thick steel

plates. As a result, it was found that the successful single-sided welding in one pass with complete

penetration and improve the weldability of welding joints in comparison with MIG welding process.

Keywords: Plasma keyhole, GMAW, Plasma-MIG hybrid welding, Hybrid arc.

validated as a viable alternative to GTAW in tube

Welding* is present in all industrial sectors as a

joining application [2]. Jeff Palms has established the

necessary technological process. One of the principal

hybrid Plasma-GMAW (Super-MIG) weld process as

directions for the progress of the welding is the

a viable process for welding Titanium. Compared to

development of hybrid welding processes. Plasma-

traditional GMAW welding, this hybrid process

MIG hybrid welding was developed several decades

dramatically increases welding speed and penetration

ago and nowadays, it becomes a bright technology in

(both more than double) while producing weld joints

materials processing. The hybrid welding technology

with minimal spatter and with superior profile and

combines the deep penetration characteristics of

mechanical properties. Weld joints observed had a

Plasma Arc Welding (PAW) with the high weld

high degree of visual and metallurgical quality, free

deposition rates of MIG. The arc of PAW and the arc

of porosity, cracks and contamination [3]. Emel

of MIG are quite different welding heat sources but

Taban, Erdinc Kaluc and Alfred Dhooge have

both work under a gaseous shielding atmosphere at an

investigated the properties of hybrid (Plasma + Gas

ambient pressure, making it possible to combine these

tungsten arc) welded joints of modified 12% Cr

heat sources in a unique welding technique. The

stainless steel conforming to EN 1.4003 and UNS

combination of the two processes can deliver greater

S41003 steels using austenitic stainless steel type of

welding speeds under variable root opening

consumables such as 309 and 316 [4]. Welding

conditions, deeper weld penetration, and reduced heat

Solutions from the North American also reported that

input. In turn, lower heat input results in a narrower

Plasma-MIG hybrid welding process was able to

heat-affected zone (HAZ) and less distortion [1].

replace SAW with the hybrid process enabled the

Recent years, the interest has been increased in 100% joint penetration requirement to be met with

applying PAW process in industry due to the higher single sided welding in one pass on heavy thickness

welding speeds providing improved productivity and plate of mild steel [1].

producing welds with high penetration/width ratios.

However, the explanations given above and from

Since, Plasma Laser Technologies (Yokneam, Israel)

the literature on the Plasma-MIG hybrid welding are

developed a new hybrid Plasma-MIG welding

still indistinct and are little quantified, as well as

process that is helping meet the challenges of

mostly dating back to the 1970s and 1980s when the

increased demand, faster cycle times and more

technology available was unable to make the process

efficient manufacturing for tube joining application.

viable for the industry at that time. Therefore, there is

a need to develop new technologies and knowledge

* for this process. In this paper, plate to plate butt joint

Corresponding author: Tel: (+84)983.077.322

welds were conducted on mild steel plates and the

Email: lam.tran@hust.edu.vn

11

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 011-015

aims of this research is developed a Plasma-MIG constant current characteristics and base metal. The

hybrid welding system for single pass welding of configuration of the torches were set up based on the

thick steel plates. As a result, it was found that the distance and angle between the crossing positions of

successful single-sided welding in one pass with the electrodes-axis and surface on base metal shown

complete penetration and improve the weldability of as Fig.2, thus the leading Plasma and trailing MIG

welding joints in comparison with MIG welding were configured. Concerning the arc ignition steps,

process. In addition, the metal transfer from MIG Plasma arc was started firstly and weld pool was

wire was imaged by using high speed video camera formed on the surface of base metal, and then MIG

(HSVC) in order to know the interaction between the arc was started. In addition, metal transfer from MIG

plasma arc flow and the MIG arc promotes wire wire filler was imaged by using a high speed video

heating and current transfer at the anode spot (at the camera for evaluating the condition under which the

end of the MIG wire) where the molten weld metal metal transfer was stabilized as shown Fig.3.

droplets form and subsequently detach.

In order to develop a Plasma-MIG hybrid

2. Experimental procedure welding process for single pass welding of thick steel

plates, plate to plate butt joint welds were conducted

The classical representation of Plasma-MIG

on mild steel plates by varying experimental

hybrid welding process was shown in Fig.1. This

parameters such as the plate specifications including

Plasma electrode establishes an arc at the leading

the thick and initial position of base metal plate,

position of the welding process, and a keyhole is

plasma current, the energy input rate of MIG process,

created within the base material by the plasma arc.

the wire feed rate, welding speed. This paper also

GMAW follows and operates typically in the

presents an example of experimental results in which

conduction welding mode to fill the void created by

the weld has complete penetration, very good

the plasma arc. The interaction between the plasma

metallurgical, without porosity, cracks, and undercuts

arc flow and the GMAW arc promotes wire heating

in comparison with MIG welding process. The

and current transfer at the anode spot (at the end of

parameters of tests were shown in Table.1 and the

the GMAW welding wire) where the molten weld

initial plate positioning for hybrid welding of plate to-

metal droplets form and subsequently detach. The

plate butt joints was shown in Fig.2. The bead

resultant magnetic force F, shown in Fig.1, occurs as

appearance and the bead cross section of Plasma-

a result of the interaction of the electric currents

MIG hybrid welding and MIG welding was observed

passing through the two electrodes [1].

using the conventional techniques of macrograph on

The experimental apparatus consists of a Plasma cross-sections taken from the welded test plates (300

torch, a MIG torch, MIG power source with the mm bead). For each test plate, a cross-sections was

constant voltage characteristics, plasma source with cut approximately in the middle of the bead.

Parameters Value Unit

Base metal Mild steel; Size: 300x50x9 (mm)

MIG welding wire JIS Z3312; Wire diameter: 1,2 mm

Groove angle 45 Degree

Plasma welding current 140 Ampere

MIG welding current 105 Ampere

MIG welding voltage 21 Voltage

Distance between the tip and base metal for MIG 20 mm

Arc length of Plasma 5 mm

Welding speed 12 cm/min

Wire feed rate 240 cm/min

Band pass filter 960 nm

Frame rate 3000 fps

Shielding gas for MIG and Plasma welding Argon

Gas flow rate 7.5 l/min

Back shielding gas flow rate 7.5 l/min

The distance between two torches 20 mm

The angle between two torches 10 Degree

12

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 011-015

Fig.1 Principle of Plasma MIG hybrid welding. 1Work-piece; 2Plasma jet; 3Plasma nozzle; 4Melting

metal; 5Plasma arc electrode axis; 6Wire axis; 7Angle between electrodes axes; 8-Tungsten electrode; 9

Consumable electrode (wire); 10MIG arc; 11Low temperature plasma; 12Wire current Iw direction; 13

Plasma current Ip direction; 14Magnetic forces F applied to plasma arc; 15Magnetic forces applied to MIG

arc

Fig.2 The schematic illustration of the configuration of Fig.3 The photograph of the experimental setup

Plasma and MIG torch including Plasma torch, a MIG torch and the high

speed video camera (HSVC).

(a) (b)

Droplet Droplet

Fig.4 Observation of weld pool and droplet during welding. (a) The metal transfer of MIG welding

imaged by HSVC; (b) The metal transfer of Plasma-MIG hybrid imaged by HSVC.

Fig.5 The bead appearance of MIG welding (Welding current: 105 A; welding voltage: 21V; wire

feed rate: 240 cm/min; welding speed: 12 cm/min)

13

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 011-015

resultant effect is a substantial increase in the plasma

arc rigidity and stability leading to a substantial

increase of penetration depth and welding speed.

Fig.5 presents the bead appearance observed by

using an optical microscope of MIG welding. The

bead with not completed weld bead at the top surface

and uncomplete joint penetration at the bottom

surface were found because of the heat input of MIG

welding process is not enough. Fig.6 presents the

bead appearance observed by using an optical

microscope of Plasma-MIG hybrid welding. The bead

Fig.7 The bead cross-sections of MIG welding with good quality at the top surface and complete

(Welding current: 105 A; welding voltage: 21V; joint penetration with a single pass at the bottom

wire feed rate: 240 cm/min; welding speed: 12 surface were found because of the heat input of

cm/min) Plasma-MIG hybrid welding process is enough.

The cross section of MIG weld illustrated in Fig.7

shows a poor metallurgical integrity of the weld with

undercuts at the top surface of the weld and lack of

fusion at the bottom surface of the weld. The weld

has uncomplete penetration. The cross section of

Plasma-MIG hybrid weld illustrated in Fig.8 shows

very good metallurgical integrity and consistency of

the weld without porosity, cracks, and undercuts. The

weld has improved wettability and complete

penetration [5].

Fig.8 The bead cross-section of Plasma-MIG

hybrid welding 4. Conclusions

hybrid welding process for butt joint welding of thick

The metal transfer of both Plasma-MIG hybrid plate steel. The following conclusions are deduced

welding and MIG welding was imaged using HSVC from this study:

as shown in Fig.4. As seen in the figure the

interaction between the plasma arc flow and the MIG 1) The metal transfer of both Plasma-MIG

arc promotes wire heating and current transfer at the hybrid welding and MIG welding was imaged using

anode spot (at the end of the MIG welding wire) HSVC. As seen in the figure the interaction between

where the molten weld metal droplets form and the plasma arc flow and the MIG arc promotes wire

subsequently detach. The resultant magnetic force F, heating and current transfer at the anode spot (at the

shown in Fig.1 causes deflection of the plasma arc end of the MIG welding wire) where the molten weld

toward the front of the weld pool, thus compensating metal droplets form and subsequently detach. The

for the plasma arcs natural tendency to trail behind resultant effect is a substantial increase in the plasma

14

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 011-015

arc rigidity and stability leading to a substantial [2] Plasma Laser Technologies. Hybrid Plasma/MIG

increase of penetration depth and welding speed. Welding Reduces Welding Time. Power Engineering,

ProQuest Central. 112(8), (2008) 75-77.

2) The Plasma-MIG hybrid welding technology

is capable of achieving single-sided complete joint [3] Jeff Palms. Joining Methodologies for Titanium Alloys

- Hybrid Plasma and MIG combination. Advanced

penetration welds of the butt-joint welding of thick Industrial Technology, (2004).

plate steel with good weld shape, dimensions, and

metallurgical integrity in comparison with MIG [4] Emel Taban, Erdinc Kaluc and Alfred Dhooge. Hybrid

welding process. (plasma + gas tungsten arc) weldability of modified

12% Cr ferritic stainless steel. Materials and Design. 30

Acknowledgements (2009) 42364242.

The work was jointly supported by JICA Project [5] Shinichi Tashiro and Manabu Tanaka. Development of

(AUN/SEED-Net) with SRJP program and plasma MIG brazing process for dissimilar metal

TANAKAs Lab, JWRI, Osaka University, JAPAN. joining of aluminum to steel. International Symposium

on Interfacial Joining and Surface Technology (IJST),

References (2014).

[1] Madison Heights. Hybrid Welding: An Alternative to

SAW. Welding Solutions, Inc. (2007).

15

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 016-021

the SKD61 Workpiece Surface in PMEDM using Tungsten Carbide Powder

Le Van Tao1,2,*, BanhTien Long1, Tran Xuan Thai 1, Nguyen Thi Hong Minh 1

1

Hanoi University of Science and Technology No. 1, Dai Co Viet Str., Hai Ba Trung, Ha Noi, Viet Nam

2

Military Technical Academy - No. 236, Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, Hanoi, Viet Nam

Received: January 10, 2016; accepted: June 9, 2017

Abstract

In the study, the authors studied the effect of the electrical current (Ip); the time-on discharge (Ton) on the

penetration of tungsten into the surface of SKD61 steel at different concentrations of tungsten carbide

powder used in powder mixed electrical discharge machining. The research has shown that the electrical

current and the time-on discharge can impact greatly on the penetration of tungsten and the carbidation of

the steel surface. In the mode of low electrical discharge, the penetration of tungsten into the surface and

the carbidation of the surface is better than that of the mode of high electrical discharge.

Keywords: EDM, PMEDM, Surface modification, Tungsten carbide powder.

that enables the carbidation process on the surface of

The material SKD61 is a material with the

workpiece in PMEDM. Therefore, the surface quality

mechanical properties suitable for molds and machine

is improved considerably, especifically the micro

parts. Especially when heat-treated or chemically

hardness and the abrasion resistance. These are the

treated, SKD61 can achieve good mechanical

main reasons for many researchers to focus on

properties. Tungsten is a metallic element with the

PMEDM.

low thermal expansion and high strength, a high

melting temperature of about 3422C. In addition, the In 1980, Erden and Bilgin [3] detected the effect

resistance to oxidation, acid and alkali corrosion of of impurities in the dielectric liquid of EDM method,

tungsten is very good. These characteristics are also the authors have verified the experiments and theory

shown when tungsten is penetrated into SKD61 to determine the influence of impurities, which found

surfaces. The valuable surface characteristics created that adding the alloy powders impurities in the

by the penetration of tungsten is being useful in tools dielectric liquid that has improved the quality surface

and molds in the practice, particularly in the of workpiece after machining. Following the ensuing

mechanical engineering industry. years many authors have studied the effect of

impurities are mixed in the dielectric liquid of EDM,

In the method of processing, the electrical

specifically with some typical authors:

discharge machining (EDM) is widely used in

mechanical engineering. EDM is used for machining Wang et al [4] studied the impact of mixed the

high-strength material that are difficult with other alloy powders (Al and Cr) in the oil dielectric of

methods. In recent years, there have been some EDM process. Wang proved the electric parameters,

studies to improve the quality of surface workpiece the nature and concentration of the alloy powders in

by EDM. One of the methods to improve the the dielectric liquid are influential in technology

machining quality is to add powder into the dielectric properties and quality surface. Thus the coated metal

fluid. In the process of powder mixed EDM and the surface roughness are changed.

(PMEDM), the conductive particles mixed in the

Mohri et al [5,6,7] studied the effect of the

dielectric fluid reduces the insulation possibility of

silicon powders on the quality surface of workpiece

the dielectric fluid and therefore increases the

after machining. The results are surface resistant to

electrical discharges between the electrode and the

corrosion and the surface roughness (Ra) of less than

workpiece [1]. Besides, the spark discharges are more

2 m.

even and extended [2]. In addition, during spark

discharges, a thermal channel is formed which allows Uno et al [8] showed that the nickel powders

the melting of the metal particles and the chemical mixed in the dielectric liquid of EDM process, that

has transformed the surface of workpiece in bronze,

*

Corresponding author: Tel: 0912505036 aluminum. The nickel powders was used to coat a

Email: taoitd@yahoo.com surface layer on the workpiece to make high abrasion

16

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 016-021

resistance. Also authors pointed that coating Table 4. The Particle Size in Weight Percentage of

thickness increased with increasing concentrations of Tungsten Carbide Metal Powder

nickel powders.

5.5m 11m 16m 22m 31m

In the world, very few authors studied tungsten 5.23% 25.98% 59.74% 89.35% 98.93%

carbide powders mixed in the dielectric liquid of

EDM process to alter surface properties of workpiece. 2.1. Materials and Equipment

Within the framework of the paper, the authors

investigate the impact of electrical parameters on the The experiment used Daido Steel SKD61-

surface properties such as micro hardness of the steel Amistar (JIS- Japan) with the chemical composition

SKD61 as well as the study of carbidation process of as shown in Table 1. The dielectric fluid is Shell Oil

the surface after PMEDM. EDM Fluid 2. The technical properties are shown in

Table 2. The particle size and the chemical

2. Experiment composition in percent by weight of tungsten carbide

The total experiment plan is shown in Figure 1. metal powder is shown in Table 3 and Table 4.

The following sessions describe in details the

materials and methods of the experiments. 2.2. Experiment Method

An electrical discharge machine from the

Aristech Company, model CNC-460 EDM, was used

to remove the upper part of the SKD61 workpiece

to obtain dimensions as in Table 5. The copper

electrode polarity was negative. In this experiment,

tungsten carbide metal powder was mixed into the

dielectric fluid with the concentrations as in Table 5.

Table 5. Experimental Conditions

Deposition Condition Detail

Current (A) (Ip) 1A, 2A

Pulse on (s) (Ton) 16 s, 32 s, 50 s, 200 s

Pulse off (s) (Toff) 50s

The dielectric fluid Shell EDM Fluid 2

Polarity of Cu-electrode Negative ()

Fig. 1. Experimental flow

Current voltage (V) 80-120 V

Powder concentration (g/l) 20; 40; 60

Table 1. The Chemical Composition in Weight The parameters of the process are given in Table

Percentage of SKD61 5. The chemical composition was measured by

C% Si% Cr% Mo% V% Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) on a

0.38 1.0 5.0 1.25 1.0 scanning electron microscope JSM6610LA- JEOL

(JAPAN). Layer coating in surface of workpiece

was taken by a microscope AXIO-A2M. Micro

Table 2. The Technical Properties of Shell Oil EDM hardness of surface was determined by micro

Fluid 2 hardness tester DURAMIN- STRUERS

Properties Unit Value

3. Results and discussion

0

Velocity at 40 C cSt 2.25

Density at 150C kg/l 0.773 3.1. Analyzing the content of the element tungsten

0 penetration into the surface of workpiece

Freezing temperatures (max) C -27

Thermal conductivity W/m 0C 0.01 Using the EDX method to determine the

chemical composition of surface by region. As shown

Table 3. The Chemical Composition of Tungsten in Figure 2

Carbide Metal Powder As shown in Figure 3a;3b;3c, the chemical

composition of surface is determined at the mode I p =

C% Co% Fe% W% Other components 1 A, Ton = 16 s, 60g/l. The tungsten content of the

5.56 11.9 0.02 82.5 <0.01 surface is averaged among the three surface region on

the workpiece.

17

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 016-021

composition of surface by EDX

001

2400

2100 W: 62.13%

Si

1800

W

1500 Fe

Cr

Counts

1200

V W

900 C Fe W Mo FeKesc

Fe

Cr Cr W

600 Mo W W

V V V Cr Fe Fig. 4. The tungsten content penetration into the

W

300 surface of workpiece at Ip = 1A

0

0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00

keV

002

2400

2100

Si

1800

W

W: 62.38%

1500

Counts

Cr

1200 Fe

V W

900

Fe FeKesc

C Fe

Cr W Mo Cr W W

600 V Mo W

V V Cr Fe W

300

0

0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00

keV

003

2400

2100

Si W: 62.71%

1800

Fe

W Fig. 5. The tungsten content penetration into the

1500

Cr surface of workpiece at Ip = 2A

Counts

1200 Cr

V W FeKesc

900 Fe The tungsten content penetrate into the surface layer

C Fe W Mo Cr W

W W of workpiece at Ip = 1A; Ip = 2A from figures 4 and 5:

600

V Mo

V V Cr Fe W

300 According to the graph in Figure 4, 5:

0

0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00

Considering at the pulse on time, or time-on

keV

(Ton), the element tungsten always penetrated into the

surface of SKD61 steel. The only at two modes of Ton

Fig. 3c. The region III = 200 s, Ip = 1A, the concentration of 20 g/l and 40

18

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 016-021

g/l (Figure 2), the tungsten does not penetrate into the dielectric or the based material. This explains the fact

surface of workpiece. that the micro hardness on the surface of workpiece

in PMEDM is higher than the micro hardness on the

The cause of this phenomenon can be explained

surface of workpiece in EDM. The improvement

as follows: The heat of the electrical discharges has

comparing between the micro hardness on the surface

molten the tungsten carbide powder which later on

of workpiece in PMEDM and the micro hardness on

penetrate into the surface of workpiece. The element

the surface of workpiece in EDM is lowest by 2.76%

tungsten does not penetrate into the surface of

at the mode Ton = 200 s; Ip = 1 A and concentration

workpiece at Ton = 200 s mode, Ip = 1A, the

20g/l. The highest improvement of micro hardness on

concentration of 20 g/l and 40 g/l, is due to the

the surface of workpiece between PMEDM and EDM

prolonged sparks time, the high bubble pressure of

is 129.17% at the mode T on = 16 s; Ip = 1 A and

the previous period reduced the concentration of

concentration 60g/l.

tungsten powder in the next period, leading to little or

no penetration of tungsten carbide into the workpiece

surface.

At the short time of eletrical discharges (Ton),

the tungsten content in the surface of workpiece are

more than that at the long time of eletrical discharges

(Ton). At the mode Ton = 16 s, the tungsten content

in the surface of workpiece is more than at the Ton =

32 s; 50 s; 200 s at Ip = 1 A and Ip = 2 A. Also,

according to the diagram in Figure 4, Ton = 16 s; Ip =

1 A and concentration of 60 g/l having the highest

tungsten content into the surface of workpiece, which

is 62.407%.

This phenomenon is due to the short time of

electrical discharges, which leads to the low bubble

pressure of the previous period, leading to a higher

concentration of tungsten powder in the next period. Fig. 6. Micro hardness on the surface of

Therefore, during the next electrical discharge period, workpiece (HV) at Ip = 1 A

the tungsten penetration into the surface of workpiece

in the discharge channel forming region is much

higher. Also, the time of electrical discharge and the

current of electrical discharges are at reasonable

levels to generate a heat channel to melt the tungsten

powder and then generates the energy imbalances in

the surface of workpiece, enabling of tungsten

penetration into the surface of workpiece.

3.2. Micro hardness on the surface of workpiece.

Using the micro hardness tester DURAMIN-

STRUERS to determine the micro hardness of

surface. The micro hardness of the surface is an

average value of three point on the surface of

workpiece.

According to the graph in Figure 6, 7, the micro

hardness on the surface of workpieces in PMEDM

method are higher than the micro hardness of the

surface of workpieces in the EDM method. Fig. 7. Micro hardness on the surface of

workpiece (HV) at Ip = 2 A

This phenomenon can be explained by the

appearance of the tungsten content in the surface of

workpiece after machining, according to Figure 8, 9.

The tungsten content are changed in to carbide on the

surface of workpiece under the thermal effect of the

EDM process. The carbon may come from the

19

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 016-021

content of the surface. Also, the high concentration of

the metal powder particles during forming the

discharge channel has resulted in an unstable spark

discharges condition [3]. This is also the main cause

of reduction in chemical carbidation process due to

the formation of heat channels.

Considering the micro hardness using the

tungsten powder, where Ip = 1 A; Ip = 2 A, the micro

hardness increases with the increasing concentration.

However, the micro hardness at Ip = 1 A; Ton = 50 s;

60g/l is lower than the micro hardness at 40 g/l.

Similarly, the micro hardness at Ip = 2 A; Ton = 32 s;

40 g/l is lower than the micro hardness at Ip = 2 A;

Ton = 32 s; 20 g/l, the micro hardness at Ip = 2 A; Ton

= 50 s; 60 g/l is lower than the micro hardness at Ip

= 2 A; Ton = 50 s; 20 g/l and 40 g/l.

4. Conclusions

The research investigating the tungsten

penetration into the surface of workpiece under the

influence of the electrical discharges curent (Ip), the

time electrical discharges (Ton) and the powder

concentration in PMEDM using tungsten carbide

alloy powder mixed into the oil dielectric has

achieved the following new results:

Fig. 8. The tungsten carbide phase of longitudinal section 1. The micro hardness on the workpiece surface

at Ip = 1 A, 500 times magnification in PMEDM is improved as compared to that of EDM.

2. The highest tungsten content at Ip = 1 A; Ton

= 16 s and concentration 60 g/l, where the

penetration into the surface of workpiece is 62.407%.

3. The improvement of the micro hardness of

the workpiece surface of PMEDM as compared to

that of EDM is lowest by 2.76% at the mode T on =

200 s; Ip = 1 A and concentration 20 g/l. The highest

change of micro hardness of the workpiece surface

between PMEDM and EDM of 129.17% was

obtained at the mode Ton = 16 s; Ip = 1 A and

concentration 60 g/l.

4. At Ip = 1 A; Ton = 16 s with all the different

concentrations, the tungsten penetration into the

surface of workpiece is highest and there is a

significant improvement the micro hardness of

PMEDM in comparison with EDM.

References

[1] K. Furutani, A. Saneto, H. Takezawa, N. Mohri, H.

Miyake, Accertation of titanium carbide by electrical

Fig. 9. The tungsten carbide phase of longitudinal discharge machining with powder suspended in

working fluid, Prec. Eng. 25 (2001) 138 144.

section at Ip = 2 A, 500 times magnification

[2] W.S. Zhao, Q.G. Meng, Z.L. Wang, The application

of research on powder mixed EDM in rough

machining, J. Mater. Process. Technol.129 (2002)

3033.

20

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 016-021

[3] A. Erden, S. Bilgin, Role of impurities in electric International Symposium on Machine Tool

discharge machining,in: Proceedings of 21st Designand Research, UK, 1985, pp. 329336.

International Machine Tool Design and Research

Conference, Macmillan, London, 1980, pp. 345350. [7] N. Mohri, J. Tsukamoto, M. Fujino, Surface

modification by EDMan innovation in EDM with

[4] C.H. Wang, Y.C. Lin, B.H. Yan, F.Y. Huang, Effect semi-conductive electrodes, in: Proceedings of Winter

of characteristics of added powder on electric Annual Meet ASME, vol. 34, 1988, pp. 2130.

discharge machining, J. Jpn. Inst. Light Met. 42 (12)

(2001) 25972604. [8] Y. Uno, A. Okada, Y. Hayashi, Y. Tabuchi, Surface

integrity in EDM of aluminum bronze with nickel

[5] N. Mohri, N. Saito, M.A. Higashi, A new process of powder mixed fluid, J. Jpn. Soc. Elec. Mach. Eng. 32

finish machining onfree surface by EDM methods, (70) (1998) 2431 (in Japanese).

Annals CIRP 40 (1) (1991) 207210.

[6] N. Mohri, J. Tsukamoto, M. Fujino, Mirror-like

finishing by EDM, in: Proceedings of the 25th

21

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 022-027

Amplification Compliant Mechanism

Dang Bao Lam1*, Nguyen Tuan Khoa1,2, Nguyen Dang Thuan3, Pham Hong Phuc1

1

Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No. 1, Dai Co Viet, Hai Ba Trung, Hanoi, Viet Nam

2

Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Australia

3

Smart System Laboratory, Hanbat National University, Korea

Received: January 13, 2017; accepted: June 9, 2017

Abstract

This work reports a novel design of a micro gripper, in which V-shaped electrothermal actuators are used to

create gripping force and a compliant mechanism is integrated to amplify displacements of the actuators.

The gripper is designed to handle micro samples of various sizes from 5 m to 50 m by applying

appropriate driving voltages. Those voltages are ranged from 5 V to 25 V, which are relatively low in

comparison with driving voltages of the electrostatic micro grippers. The compliant mechanism with

amplifying ratio 5.2, arranged between the actuators and the jaws, is aimed to compensate small strokes of

the actuators. Simulation by Finite-Element Analysis has also been carried out to confirm results of the

theoretical calculation and designing process. The micro gripper can be implemented in micro devices such

as micro robots or micro assembling systems, in which it can perform gripping and transporting tasks.

Keywords: Micro gripper, V-shaped actuator, Compliant mechanism.

micro mechanism is an effective solution.

Today acronym MEMS, which stands for Micro

Electro Mechanical System, has become more and Compliant mechanisms, which are jointless and

more familiar with all of us. MEMS technology has monolithic mechanical device, are very appropriate to

been widely researched and rapidly developed since use in the MEMS systems instead of the conventional

the last decades of twentieth century. Nowadays, mechanisms with classic revolute and prismatic joints

MEMS products have been applied into numerous [12-14]. Another reason for implementation of the

areas such as biomedical engineering, automobile compliant mechanism into micro gripper is the output

industry, military industry, aviation and space motion. All the electrostatic, electrothermal and

technology etc. as well as into human daily life. In piezoelectric micro actuators produce relatively small

those micro systems and devices, there is a demand strokes. The compliant mechanisms can help to

for micro grippers, which can manipulate tiny objects amplify those displacements and make them proper

with sizes ranged from few micrometers to hundreds for gripping task. In this work, the authors present the

of micrometers. Various types of micro actuators micro gripper driven by the V-shaped electrothermal

have been used for driving those grippers, including actuators and amplifying mechanism, which can grip

electrostatic [1-3], piezoelectric [4-6], shape-memory the micro samples sized up to 50 m and can be

alloys SMA [7-9] and electrothermal [10, 11]. In applied in micro robot or micro analysis systems.

comparison with other actuation methods, the micro

electrothermal grippers have the advantage of lower 2. Theoretical calculation

driving voltage (comparing with the electrostatic 2.1. Configuration and geometrical displacements

grippers), simple fabrication process (comparing with

the piezoelectric and SMA grippers) and large 2.1.1. Working principle

generated forces. On the other hand, those thermal Figure 1 shows the configuration of the micro

devices also have some disadvantages, such as gripper, which consists of three main parts: actuating

thermal dependence, lower working frequencies and unit with the V-shaped electrothermal actuators (1),

relatively small displacement. To overcome the last amplifying unit with the compliant mechanism (2)

and gripping jaws (3). The beams of the V-shaped

actuators are fixed at one end with the anchors (4),

the other end of the beams are connected to the main

*

Corresponding author: Tel.: (+84) 904.359.539 beam (5). When applying a driving voltage, the wings

Email: lam.dangbao@hust.edu.vn

22

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 022-027

of the V-shape beam will expand and push the main Because only geometrical displacements of the

beam (5) forward. The compliant mechanism (2) with compliant mechanism and the jaws are taken into

the flexural joints (6) is designed to convert consideration, we substituted the flexural joints with

displacement in y-direction into rotation movement of revolute joints and omit the elastic forces. The

the jaws (3), and also to amplify displacement of the equivalent model of the gripper is shown in figure 2.

actuators. Calculation is being carried out with only one wing

due to the symmetries of the gripper structure.

43

y Because three points F, B and C belong to one

rigid body, in order to find out displacement of the tip

x F of the jaw, position of the points B and C must be

36

2 determined. In figure 3 we can see under the input

displacement , the jaw i.e. BC will rotate an angle .

Using geometrical equations, the displacements of the

04 point B and C in x-direction and y-direction can be

calculated as:

65

) (1)

Dy DD' x OO' x AB 2 ( AU d )2 AB.sin( BAU

1 ) (2)

Cy CC' x OO' x AB 2 ( AU d )2 AB.sin( BAU

Fig. 1. Configuration of the micro gripper

Bx BBx' BC 2 CO x BC 2 CO 2

2

(3)

F

) (4)

By BB' y OO' AB2 ( AU d )2 AB.sin( BAU

Where B,C,D are the new position of B, C, D under

influence of the input displacement . From position

of BC and BC we can find the virtual center of

E

rotation I as below:

W

B 'C y' BH x BC y BH x'

I D

C H

B L L L B 'C y' BC y

L I (5)

60 L

90 B 'C y' BH y BCx BH x' BCx BH x BC y BH y

C

D D

B 'C y' BC y

A

60

And the rotation angle can be expressed as follows:

Fig. 2. Equivalent model of the micro gripper 2

L L

3L2 3

2

y

2

cos (6)

I 2L

C

H

B

H

C Where the length of BC, CD and BD at the initial

O

O

position is L. And finally, we have the lateral

B

D displacement of the jaw tip F as well as the

D amplifying ratio KA of the compliant mechanism:

d

cos cos .IF (7)

A U U x

K A 5.2 (8)

Fig. 3. Displacement of the links For example, there is input set of parameters

with AB = 200 m, BD = BC = 100 m, FH = 600

2.1.2. Geometrical displacements

m, and the angles are designed with the values as

shown in figure 2. We can calculate that for creating

23

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 022-027

25 m displacement for one gripper jaw, only 4.8 m beam (5) FS1 equals 100 N (see figure 6). Assuming

input displacement is needed. that deformation in the gripper structure is purely

elastic, meaning that relation between the input force

2.2. Displacements of the V-shaped actuators

and displacement of the gripper jaws is linear. With

Calculation for the V-shaped electrothermal the value 3.15 m of output displacement, we can

actuators has been presented in [15]. According to calculate the stiffness of the gripper structure: kS =

that paper, if we have the thermal actuator with FS1/3.15 = 31.75 N/m.

dimension as shown in figure 4, we can calculate

force F and displacement S as follows:

l

F 2nEbh sin (10)

l

D

b Similarly, with simulating gripping force FG1 = 100

N located on the tip of the gripper jaws, the

displacement obtained by simulation is 2.48 m (see

h

can be calculated as: kG = FG1/2.48 = 40.32 N/m.

Fig. 4. V-shaped actuator

18 18

16 16

14 14

Displacement (um)

12 12

Force (mN)

10 10

8 8

6 6

4 4

Force

Fig. 7. Simulation of gripping force

2 2

Displacement

0 0 3.2. Displacements

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

Voltage (V) To drive the gripper, the V-shaped electro-

thermal actuator with following specification was

Fig. 5. Relation between voltage and displacement, chosen: number of beams n = 10, the length of each

force of the actuator beam l = 750 m, beam width b = 4 m, beam height

Where b, h and l are the width, height and length of h = 30 m, and the range of the driving voltages 030

V. Table 1 shows the relation between voltages and

the actuator beam. is the slope angle of the beam.

displacement S of the actuator. We have to take into

And n is the number of the beams in the actuator. In

consideration that simulation was carried out just

figure 5 is the graph showing the relation between

only for the thermal actuator itself.

driving voltages and forces, as well as displacements

of the V-shaped actuator. Table 1. Relation between displacements and driving

voltages of the actuator

3. Simulation

3.1. Stiffness calculation U(V) 5 10 15 20 25 30

Simulation was carried out with simulating S(m) 1.76 3.12 5.39 8.56 12.64 17.63

thermal-expansion force located at the tip of the main

24

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 022-027

To simulate whole system with AB = 200 m, Comparing S and , we can find the compressing

BD = BC = 100 m, FH = 600 m, we can find the ratio KC between displacements of the main beam of

displacements of the jaw tip of the gripper (see in the V-shaped actuator when it works alone and when

table 2). In section 2.1, we have already found the it is integrated into the gripper:

amplifying ratio of the gripper KA is 5.2. Therefore,

KC S

we can also find out the displacements of the 2.4 (11)

thermal V-shaped actuator while it is integrated into

the gripper. Deviation between displacements and S 3.3. Calculation of the minimum voltage for

can be explained by the fact that when the actuator is gripping micro objects

connected to the compliant mechanisms and the jaws,

it will operate as a member in the complex system

and can only be able to produce smaller

displacement.

In figure 8, we can see simulation result of the

displacement = 18.46 m of the jaw under the

driving voltage of 20 V. The calculated and simulated

displacements of the gripper are shown in figure 9.

The curve of the theoretically calculated

displacements and the curve expressing simulating Fig. 10. Jaws and micro object

results are almost identical. In figure 10, we can see the jaws and the micro

Table 2. Relation between driving voltages and sample with diameter D m. Supposed the initial gap

displacements and between the jaws is G m.

object is calculated as follows:

(m) 3.80 6.74 11.62 18.46 27.26

(m) 0.73 1.29 2.23 3.55 5.24 x = = (G-D)/2 (12)

Using equation (8) and (11), the displacement S

of the V-shaped actuator can be expressed as:

S =KC. = KC./KA (13)

From (13) we can establish relation between the

minimum voltage for driving the micro gripper and

the sample diameter in form of the graph as shown in

figure 11.

3.4. Calculation of the gripping force with the micro

sample with diameter 30 m

Fig. 8. Simulation of complex gripping system

From (12), with the initial gap G=60 m, we can

calculate the displacement of one jaw to approach the

GD

40

object as: x 15 m

35

2

30 From the relation between the driving voltage

Displacement (um)

25

and displacement (Figure11 - table 2), if we consider

that this relation with U ranged from 15 V to 20 V is

20

approximately linear, corresponding with x = 15 m,

15

we can obtain Umin = 17.47 V.

10

Simulated The process of handling the micro object can be

5

Calculated split into 2 following phases. Firstly, the voltage

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

increases to the value of Umin, and the jaws are

Driving voltage (V) approaching and touching the object. And secondly,

the voltage continues to increase to U*, and generates

Fig. 9. Displacements of the gripper the gripping force Fk. In this second phase, the

gripping force has the value equaling the elastic force

25

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 022-027

generated when one jaw is compressed by x, and Fk systems, in which it can perform gripping and

can be expressed as follows: transporting tasks.

Fk kG . x => x= Fk/ kG Acknowledgments

This research is funded by Vietnam National

The stiffness kG = 40.32 N/m has been

Foundation for Science and Technology

obtained by simulation (Fig. 7). We can calculate the

Development (NAFOSTED) under grant number

voltage U for gripping the micro sample with

107.01-2015.18

diameter D with the gripping force Fk as follows:

U= Umin+ Ux (14) References

[1]. Heng-Chung Chang, Julius Ming-Lin Tsai, Hsin-

From (14), the gripping force generated while Chang Tsai, Weileun Fang - Design, fabrication, and

working with the sample with diameter 30 m can be testing of a 3-DOF HARM micromanipulator on (1 1

calculated as shown in the table 3. 1) silicon substrate, Sensors and Actuators A 125

(2006) 438445.

Table 3. Relation between driving voltages and

gripping force Fk [2]. A.Nikoobina, M.Hassani Niaki. - Deriving and

analyzing the effective parameters in microgrippers

Fk(N) x(m) Ux(V) U(V) performance, Scientia Iranica B (2012) 19 (6), 1554

100 2.48 3.26 20.73 1563.

200 4.96 6.97 24.44 [3]. Olivier Millet et al. - Electrostatic actuated micro

gripper using an amplification mechanism, Sensors

300 7.44 10.71 28.19 and Actuators A 114 (2004) 371378.

400 9.92 13.25 30.73

[4]. S.K. Nah, Z.W. Zhong - The A microgripper using

500 12.40 15.57 33.04 piezoelectric actuation for micro-object manipulation,

Sensors and Actuators A 133 (2007) 218224.

60

[5]. Chang-Seong Jeon, Joon-Shik Park, Sang-Yeol Lee,

50 Chan-Woo Moon - Fabrication and characteristics of

out-of-plane piezoelectric micro grippers using

40 MEMS processes, Thin Solid Films 515 (2007) 4901

Diamerer D (um)

4904.

30

[6]. Bong-Seok Kim, Joon-Shik Park, Byoung Hun Kang,

20 Chanwoo Moon - Fabrication and property analysis

of a MEMS micro-gripper for robotic micro-

10

manipulation, Robotics and Computer-Integrated

Manufacturing 28 (2012) 5056

0

5 10 15 20 25

Voltage (V)

[7]. S.B.Choi, Y.M.Han, J.H.Kim, C.C.Cheong Force

tracking control of a flexible gripper featuring shape

memory alloy actuators, Mechatronics 11 (2001) 677-

Fig. 11. Relation between sample diameter and 690.

driving voltage

[8]. Z.W. Zhong, C.K. Yeong - Development of a gripper

4. Conclusion using SMA wire, Sensors and Actuators A 126 (2006)

375381.

In this paper, the design, calculation and

simulation of the electrothermal micro gripper have [9]. M.Kohl, B.Krevet, E.Just - Shape memory alloy

been presented. The compliant mechanism with the device, Sensors and Actuators A 97-98 (2002) pp.

646-652.

amplifying ratio KA= 5.2 was used to magnify the

input displacement of the V-shaped actuator. The [10]. Timothy Moutlon, G.K. Ananthasuresh -

gripper is designed to work with the driving voltages Micomechanical devices with embedded electro-

ranged from 5 V to 25 V, and to grip the micro object themal-compliant actuation, Sensors and Actuators A,

vol. 90 (2001), pp. 38-48.

with diameter ranged from 5 m to 50 m. This

device can be fabricated by the bulk micromachining [11]. B.E. Volland et al. - Duo-action electro thermal micro

technologies using only one photomask on a SOI gripper, Sensors and Actuators A, vol. 97-98 (2007),

(silicon-on-insulator) wafer. Simulation has been pp. 646-652.

carried out to confirm the results of calculating work. [12]. Sridhar Kota et al. - Design of Compliant

The micro gripper can be implemented in micro Mechanisms: Applications to MEMS, Analog

devices such as micro robots or micro assembling

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Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 022-027

Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing (2001), [14]. Byoung Hun Kang, John T. Wen - Design of

29,pp. 715. Compliant MEMS Grippers for Micro-Assembly

Tasks, Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE/RSJ,

[13]. Xiantao Sun, Weihai Chen, Yanling Tian, Sergej DOI: 10.1109/IROS.2006.282626.

Fatikow,Rui Zhou, Jianbin Zhang, and Manuel

Mikczinski - A novel flexure-based microgripper with [15]. Nguyen Tuan Khoa, Dang Bao Lam, Dinh Khac

double amplification mechanisms for micro/nano Toan, Phm Hong Phuc - Design and fabrication of

manipulation, Review of Scientific Instruments 84, the micro bi-directional motor driven by electro-

085002 (2013). thermal actuators, Journal of Science and

Technology, Vol. 69(2013), pp. 62-68.

27

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 028-031

Spectrum Measurement by Fourier Transform Method

Doan Giang1,2, Nguyen Van Vinh1 , Nguyen Thi Phuong Mai1, Vu Thanh Tung1*

1

Hanoi University of Science and Technology No. 1, Dai Co Viet Str., Hai Ba Trung, Ha Noi, Viet Nam

2

Military Institute of Environmental Chemistry, Hanoi, Vietnam

Received: April 04, 2017; accepted: June 9, 2017

Abstract

The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer is widely utilized for the detection and identification of

gas in laboratories and open environments. The measurement sensitivity and range of the spectrometry are

limited due to the strength of the absorption or emission signals. This study proposes the use of the

sinusoidal phase modulation technique to improve the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the detected signal of

an FTIR spectrometer. In this technique, a sinusoidal signal is applied to a voice coil to create movement of

a mirror. Hence, the intensity of the interference signal is a series of harmonics. A synchronous detection

(lock-in amplifier) is then utilized to detect and amplify only one suitable harmonic and removed all other

harmonics and noise. Therefore, the SNR of the harmonic is improved significantly. In this paper, a weak

infrared emission from a commercial heat-lamp is detected successfully using the proposed system.

Keyword: FT-TR spectroscopy, Frequency modulation, Phase modulation, Michelson interferometer.

amplifier technique). The main disadvantage of this

Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR)

method is that the beam of radiation is interrupted by

spectrometers are powerful instruments for

the chopper, the reduction in output is significant.

measurements of the intensity of infrared radiation as

Wavelength/frequency modulation technique has the

a function of frequency or wavelength [1, 2]. The

advantages over the amplitude modulation method

instruments are based on the idea of the interference

[7]. Both the reduction in output and the background

of radiation between two beams to generate an

noise are minimal [8]. However, this technique

interferogram. The intensity of the interference signal

requires a high-cost electro-optic modulator (EOM)

is a function of the optical path difference (OPD)

and it still has some residual amplitude modulation.

change between two beams. When Fourier Transform

algorithm on the signal is performed, the frequency In this paper, a simple phase modulation method

(wavelength) respond can be determined. Different to improve the signal to noise ratio of an FTIR

FT-IR spectrometers used different interferometers, spectrometer is proposed. In the proposed system, the

such as Michelson interferometer [3], Fabry-Perot OPD between two arms of the Michelson

interferometer [4], and grating interferometer [5]. interferometer is modulated by modulating the

Among these kinds of the spectrometer, the FT-IR oscillating of the mirror. Hence, the intensity of the

spectrometers using the Michelson interferometers interference signal is series of harmonics and each

are preferred. These have some advantageous features harmonic is a function of the OPD. Using the lock-in

over other techniques such as high precision and high amplifier technique [9], any harmonic of the

energy throughout. In this paper, the characteristics of interference signal can be detected accurately without

the FT-IR spectrometer based on the Michelson noise effect. The frequency/wavelength respond is

interferometer is first investigated. then determined using Fourier Transform method. In

the experiment, our proposed system is utilized to

Actually, the influence of environmental

detect an infrared radiation from a commercial heat-

background limits the measurement precision of the

lamp.

FT-IR spectrometer. To remove the background

effects, some modulation methods were employed. 2. Measurement principle

The earliest spectrometer used a chopper to modulate

2.1 Phase modulation Michelson interferometer

the intensity of the radiation sources [6]. The

background noise can be eliminated using mechanical The schematic diagram of the FT-IR

spectrometer based on the Michelson interferometer

is shown in figure 1. The radiation from an IR source

* that is placed at the focal point of a parabolic mirror

Corresponding author: Tel.: (+84) 976.516.396

Email: tung.vuthanh@hust.edu.vn (PM1) propagates to a beam splitter (BS). The beam

28

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 028-031

half of the radiation striking it and reflects the other

half. One beam passes through the beam splitter to a

fixed mirror and the second reflects off the beam

splitter to a moving mirror. The moving mirror is

driven by a voice coil actuator and it can move back Equation (3) shows that the interference signal of the

and forth precisely around a balanced point. The modulated interferometer is a series of harmonics.

fixed and movable mirrors reflect the radiation back Therefore, any harmonic from the signal can be

to the beam splitter. Another parabolic mirror (PM2) detected using the lock-in amplifier technique [8, 9].

directs the combined beam into an IR detector. When the signal enters a lock-in amplifier, it is first

Concurrently, a He-Ne laser propagates the same path multiplied by a reference value at a chosen frequency

with the IR radiation. The displacement of the and then passes through a low-pass filter (LPF).

moving mirror is determined accurately using the Therefore, the amplitude of any harmonic at a

interference signal of He-Ne laser that is collected significant modulation frequency can be accurately

using a photo-detector. The infrared spectrum is detected and all other higher order harmonics are

obtained by first collecting an interferogram using the removed. Hence, we can detect a pure harmonic

interferometer, and then performing a Fourier without noise. This signal is then amplified with a

Transform on the interferogram to obtain the suitable factor using an amplifier that is integrated

spectrum. into the lock-in amplifier. In this study, the first

harmonic is utilized. Using the lock-in amplifier, the

In this section, we propose a new method to intensity of the first harmonic is

improve SNR of an FT-IR spectrometer using the ph-

. (4)

When a polychromatic radiation source enters

the Michelson interferometer, but has a spectral

distribution given by I( ) as shown in Eq. (2), and the

light at different frequency is incoherent, then the

total intensity can be found be adding intensities for

different

. (5)

In the same way, as a monochromatic is used, using

the lock-in amplifier technique, we can determine the

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of FT-IR spectrometer.

total intensity of the first harmonic at different

PM: Parabolic mirror; M: Mirror; BS: beam splitter;

FG: function generator; LIA: lock-in amplifier; DAQ: frequency

data acquisition; PC: personal computer. . (6)

-ase modulation technique. When the moving mirror

The right-hand side is nothing more than the

is modulated at a modulation frequency so that

the delay time between two arms of the Michelson sine form of the Fourier transform of I 1( ) so we

interferometer ( =OPD/c; c is the speed of light) have succeeded in writing an explicit form of the

varies with time as the following equation [10] relation ) = F{ }. When the Fourier

Transform algorithm is performed, both the

(1) amplitude and frequency of all components of the

where is the initial delay time caused by the radiation spectrum are determined.

unbalanced length between two arms and is the 2.2 Determination of radiation frequency of based

modulation excursion. on the zero path difference point

For a monochromatic radiation of frequency, the The zero path difference point (ZPD) is located

intensity of the interference signal is given as where the moving and fixed mirrors are the same

distance from the beam splitter. Therefore, all

(2) components of radiation with different frequencies

where is the average intensity. Using the are in-phase at the ZPD. Their contributions are all at

maximum and a very strong signal is produced by the

Bessel function, Eq. (2) is given by

IR-detector. When the OPD increases, different

29

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 028-031

positions of the movable mirror.

The laser He-Ne is utilized to measure the

displacement of the moving mirror from the ZPD.

The laser beam propagates the same path as the IR-

radiation in the interferometer and produces its own

interferogram at a photo-detector. This signal is used

as an extremely accurate measure of the OPD.

Therefore, when the moving mirror moves away from

the ZPD, the position of any peak in the

interferogram caused by different frequencies of the

IR- radiation is determined. A noteworthy is that, at Fig. 4. He-Ne laser interference signal. (a):

any peak position of the interferogram from the ZPD, interference fringes; (b): intensity of the interference

the displacement of the moving mirror is the signal.

wavelength of the radiation. The ZPD point can be detected by monitoring

3. Experiments the interference signal when all different frequencies

of radiation were in phase and they made a very

The experimental system is shown in figure 2. A strong signal as shown in figure 3. The ZPD point

commercial heat-lamp was used as an IR source. The was the biggest spike in the center of the burst. The

spectrum of the lamp was first measured using a interference signal of He-Ne laser is shown in figure

commercial radiometer (12-550 Mark III radiometer, 4. This signal was used to determine the displacement

Infrared Systems Development Corp.) and used as a of the movable mirror from the ZPD

reference. A modulation frequency of 20 Hz was

supplied for the voice coil actuator to modulate the The spectrum of the heat lamp measured using

OPD, hence the delay time between two arms of the our proposed system is shown in figure 5(a).

interferometer was modulated. A lock-in amplifier Concurrently, the spectrum of the lamp was measured

(PS1 Sciencetech Inc.) was used to detect the first using the commercial radiometer (12-550 Mark III

harmonic from the interference signal. The cutoff radiometer, Infrared Systems Development Corp.),

frequency of the lock-in amplifier was 1Hz. The figure 5(b). The measurement range of the radiometer

interference signal of radiation is collected using an covers the 1 to 16 um range. The experiment results

IR-detector (MCT-14-10-LN, Sciencetech Inc.) that using our proposed system and using the commercial

was cooled using Nitrogen liquid. radiometer show the same spectrum. The strongest

radiation was figured out at the wavelength of 3,2

m. It means that the spectrum of the heat lamp was

successfully determined using our proposed system.

(a)

(b)

obtained using the radiometer, (b) the spectrum

Fig. 3. Interferogram of the heat-lamp source obtained using our system (cutoff frequency of 1Hz).

30

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 028-031

and Actuators A: Physical Vol.149, (2009), 221-228.

The sinusoidal phase modulation FT-IR

spectrometer was performed. The advantageous [5] Lucey, Paul G., and Jason Akagi. "A Fabry-Perot

features of the sinusoidal phase interferometer and interferometer with a spatially variable resonance gap

employed as a Fourier transform spectrometer." SPIE

the lock-in amplifier detection were analysed. The Defense, Security, and Sensing, International Society

first harmonic of the modulated interference signal for Optics and Photonics, (2011).

was used for the spectrum measurement of broadband

radiation. The spectrum of a commercial heat-lamp [6] Bhattacharyya, et al., Wavelength modulation

was determined using our proposed method. This spectroscopy using novel mechanical light chopper

blade designs, Review of scientific instruments,

result opened a direction to develope FT-IR

Vol. 76, (2005), 083903.

spectrometer for a broadband radiation source such as

a blackbody or IR-lamps. [7] Lindsay, I. D., et al. "Mid-infrared wavelength-and

frequency-modulation spectroscopy with a pump-

References modulated singly-resonant optical parametric

oscillator." Optics Express, Vol. 14, (2006), 12341-

[1] Galina I. Dovbeshko, et al., FTIR spectroscopy

12346.

studies of nucleic acid damage, Talanta, Vol. 53,

(2000), 233-246. [8] Thanh-Tung Vu, et al., Accurate displacement-

measuring interferometer with wide range using an I2

[2] R. Harig, and G. Matz, Toxic cloud imaging by

frequency-stabilized laser diode based on sinusoidal

infrared spectrometry: A scanning FTIR system for

frequency modulation, Measurement Science and

identification and visualization, Field Analytical

Technology, Vol. 27, (2016), 105201.

Chemistry & Technology, Vol. 5, (2001), 7590.

[9] Thanh-Tung Vu, et al., Sinusoidal frequency

[3] L. Genzel and J. Kuhl, A new version of a Michelson

modulation on laser diode for frequency stabilization

interferometer for Fourier transform infrared

and displacement measurement, Measurement,

spectroscopy, Infrared Physics, Vol. 18, (1978), 113-

Vol. 94, (2016), 927-933.

120.

[10] Hariharan P, Optical Interferometry 2nd Edition,

[4] Lee, Feiwen, et al. "A MEMS-based resonant-

Academic Press, Elsevier, 2003.

scanning lamellar grating Fourier transform micro-

31

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 032-036

Industrial Robots

Duong Minh Tuan*, Le Duc Do

Hanoi University of Science and Technology No. 1, Dai Co Viet Str., Hai Ba Trung, Ha Noi, Viet Nam

Received: December 21, 2016; accepted: June 9, 2017

Abstract

This paper presents a low cost method for measuring accuracy and pose repeatability of industrial robots,

which can be used for robot home calibration, accuracy improvements, robot control compensation or

evaluating robot features. The method is proposed based on the kinematical relations of the robot joints and

the geometrical data from the robot controller with respect to several defined coordinate systems. The

experimental setup consists of three dial gauges, capturing position measurements of a KUKA KR6/2 robot

end-effector. The positions of the end-effector are employed to estimate robot pose accuracy and

repeatability. Moreover, experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the method and can be used for

improving the robot accuracy as well as robot pose repeatability in industrial applications.

Keywords: Pose Repeatability, Accuracy, Industrial robot, KUKA KR 6/2

* and calibrations. The measurement results show the

Recently, industrial robots (IRs) have been

efficiency of the method.

more and more used to realize continuous operations

such as prototyping, premachining of cast parts as 2. Method

well as end-machining of middle tolerance parts [1].

The method and the experimental setup

In addition, for repetitive tasks such as placing,

including a KUKA KR6/2 (6kg of payload) robot at

welding, and assembling, the repeatability of IRs

the laboratory of Machine-Tools and Tribology are

typically ranging from 0.03 to 0.1 mm and their

presented in this section. To derive the accuracy and

several millimeters accuracy are commonly used.

the repeatability from the experimental data, the

Thus, measurement approaches for accuracy and

coordinate systems must be defined for the proposed

repeatability have been used for enhancing actual

measurement method. All coordinate systems are

robot positioning accuracy. Lombard and Perrot [2]

depicted in Fig. 1. The world frame so-called w is

have implemented an automatic method to measure

fixed. The User frame can be defined at an arbitrary

robot accuracy. The most widely applied approach is

location in the robot cell (Fig. 2) with a designed

to use theodolite systems for calibration

point of a working table as the origin of the frame.

measurements [3]. Another high precision devices

The Tool frame has the origin at the Tool Center

like Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMMs) have

Point (TCP), see Fig.1.

been widely used for industrial dimension

measurement [4]. Laser Tracking Systems (LTS) [5] 2.1 Principle for Robot Pose Measurements

can combine the advantages of a large working space,

high accuracy and dynamic pose measurements. KUKA Robot language runing on VxWork - a

real time operating system (parallel with Windows),

However, they are high cost, and hence it is

controls the robot. This can provide the position and

prohibitive to calibrate and measure robot poses with

the orientation of the end-effector (Tool frame) via 6

low costs. A simple approach to measure an error

along a direction by a dial gauge has been discussed articulated joint angles. Thus, the robot pose can be

in [6]. However, this could only give accuracy for displayed on the screen of the KUKA Control Panel

(KCP). For example, when the robot moves to a

one direction. Using three dial gauge fixture for

industrial robots has been investigated in [7,8]. specified location described by pose k for which the

Herein, we employ a general low cost method with a pose variables are defined. That means that the pose

simple measurement fixture using three dial gauges to variables are determined by three position

components ( xk , yk and z k ) and three orientation

terms, Yaw ( Ak ), Pitch ( Bk ) and Roll (Ck ). As

* illustrated in Fig. 1, the robot changes pose 1 into

Corresponding author: Tel: 0947 036 686

Email: tuan.duongminh@hust.edu.vn

32

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 032-036

pose 2, it needs a transformation matrix called 1 T2 The real or measured transformation matrix from

and these poses are expressed in the World pose 1 to pose 2 can be computed as

coordinates defined by w T1 and w T2 , respectively.

F1m

1 u

u

F2m u F1m 1T2m and 1T2m u

F2m , (5)

Similarly, with respect to the User frame, one can

derive two transformation matrices for pose 1 and 1R m 1

p2m

pose 2 written as u F1 and u F2 , respectively. The

1

T2m 2 , (6)

0 1

controlled transformation matrix from the World

coordinate system to the Tool one describing pose k with 1 R2m and 1 p2m are the rotation matrix and

is evaluated as the position vector from pose 1 to pose 2,

w Rc w

pkc respectively.

w

Tkc wTk1 1Tk2 2Tk3 3Tk4 4Tk5 5Tk6 k , (1)

0 1 The robot absolute pose accuracy or the

positioning and orientation accuracy are defined as a

where wTkc is the transformation matrix from the difference between the measured transformation

w frame to Tool frame of pose k; i 1Tki presents the matrix 1T2m and the controlled counterpart 1T2c .

transformation matrix from joint frame i to joint Obviously, these matrices are independent on the

World and the User frames.

frame i-1, (i=1,2,,6); and w Rkc is the controlled

rotational matrix from the w frame to Tool frame of 2.2 Experimental Setup

pose k calculated as

w

Rkc sin Ck cos Ck 0 0 1 0

0 0 1 sin Bk 0 cos Bk

1 0 0

0 cos A sin A

k k

0 sin Ak cos Ak

(2)

w c

with p is the controlled position vector

k

pkc xk yk zk .

w T

expressed in the w system reads as Fig. 1. Coordinate system definition

Moreover, we obtain the relation for controlled

transformation matrices of poses 1 and 2 with respect

to different frames as seen in Fig. 1

T2c wT1c

1 1

T2c wT1c 1T2c

w 1

T2c . (3)

matrix from pose 1 to pose 2 can be determined as

follows

1R c 1

p2c

1

T2c 2 , (4)

0 1

the position vector from pose 1 to pose 2 which are Fig. 2. Experimental setup for robots pose

used to evaluate the pose measurement data, measurements of KUKA KR6/2.

respectively. On one hand, the transformation matrix

from pose 1 to pose 2 is also calculated by the KRL Fig. 2 shows the experimental setup for robot

software using joint sensor measurements (in each pose measurements with a fixture supporting three

robot joint). On the other hand, the matrix is specified dial gauges with a specified space in which a tooling

by the commands in the robot program on the KCP. cube (A=50mm, made of aluminum) attached to the

robot end-effector can be easily placed. The tooling

33

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 032-036

cube is fixed on the end-effector at the origin of the indications of the dial gauges are recorded. The next

Tool frame and three orthonormal faces with respect step is to measure and record the coordinates of point

to x , y and z axes are well calibrated. The three P in Fig. 3. At last, the measures Px , Py and Pz are

dial gauges have resolution of 0.05 mm and their substituted into Eq. (7). Therefore, the actual position

stroke is of 18 mm. When the three orthonormal faces coordinates; u pkm ( xk , yk , zk ) of the robot end-effector

of the tooling cube touch the tips of the gauges, the

with respect to the User is achieved.

slide rods of the gauges are depressed in the x , y

and z directions. If the movement range of the cube 2.4 Orientation Accuracy

is within the stroke, the dial gauges can directly To determine the orientation of the robot end-

indicate the change of the tooling cube position. The effector, the dial gauges can be placed so that they are

setup is fixed on the table and referred to the not orthogonal together i.e. their axes do not intersect

reference plate (User frame). into a point. Consequently, three measuring points

2.3 Positioning Accuracy P1 ( x1 , y1 , z1 ) , P2 ( x2 , y2 , z2 ) and P3 ( x3 , y3 , z3 ) create

The Tool Center Point can be measured. We call a plane on which the orientation of the robot end-

a reference point on the gauge fixture is P with which effector is defined. By investing this plane for each

sample one can obtain the orientation of the robot

the TCP at pose k can be calculated by

tool frame.

xk Px (0.5 A M1 D1 ) Mathematically, the plane passing the three

yk Py (0.5 A M 2 D2 ), (7) points is constructed and the P1 (x1 , y1 , z1 ) lies in the

z P (0.5 A M D )

k z 3 3

plane yields the plane equation as

TCP k with respect to the User frame. Px , Py and Pz where a, b and c are the direction numbers of the

are the coordinates of the point P on the gauge fixture plane, respectively. On the other hand, the P2 and P3

which can be determined from measurement lying in the plane yields

dimensions as shown in Fig. 3. D1 , D2 and D3 are

the maximum travel limits of gauges 1, 2 and 3, a( x2 x1 ) b( y2 y1 ) c( z2 z1 ) 0

. (9)

respectively. a( x3 x1 ) b( y3 y1 ) c( z3 z1 ) 0

D3 M3 With three variables and three equations (8) and

(9), the system of equations is solved to obtain the

P3 solution as

a ( y3 y1 )( z2 z1 ) ( y2 y1 )( z3 z1 ) ,

(10)

Z Y P2 ( x2 x1 )( y3 y1 ) ( x3 x1 )( y2 y1 )

M2

P1 b ( x3 x1 )( y2 y1 ) ( x2 x1 )( y3 y1 ) ,

O (11)

X P D2 ( x3 x1 )( z2 z1 ) ( x2 x1 )( z3 z1 )

c ( x3 x1 )( y2 y1 ) ( x2 x1 )( y3 y1 ) .

(12)

( x2 x1 )( y3 y1 ) ( x3 x1 )( y2 y1 )

1

M

P

1

D

Fig. 3. Dimensions of the experimental setup. plane can be evaluated by its cosines

z a / q; cos zm b / q; cos zm c / q , (13)

addressed as follows:

At first, the robot moves to a designed pose k. where q a 2 b 2 c 2 . The direction vector

The tooling cube is installed on designed positions projected on z axis is

P1 , position. As the fixture moves so that the cube

z cos zm l cos zm m cos zm h , (14)

touches the tips of the dial gauges generating P1 , P2

and P3 points, then fixes the fixture in that place. The where l , m, and h are unit direction vectors of

the User frame. Similarly, the direction vector of the

34

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 032-036

x axis is x cos xm l cos xm m cos xm h when the Table 1. Positioning repeatability (mm)

x axis passing P1 and P2 Direction x Axis y Axis z Axis

Max errors 0.125 0.165 0.115

cos xm ( x2 x1 ) / r Min errors -0.145 -0.115 -0.170

cos x ( y2 y1 ) / r ,

m

(15) Mean -0.025 -0.036 0.045

STD 0.045 0.036 0.069

cos x ( z2 z1 ) / r

m

of experimental data were performed for 48 samples

where r ( x2 x1 ) ( y2 y1 ) ( z2 z1 ) .

2 2 2

or 48 times. Obviously, Fig. 4 describes that the

Therewith, the direction of y axis is computed as current robot position repeatability is mostly inside a

sphere (radius of 0.1 mm as the specified

y z x cos yml cos ym m cos ym h . repeatability of the robot by KUKA Company). Of

course there are some experimental measurements

The rotation matrix of the Tool coordinate outside the sphere, larger than 0.1 mm. However, the

system with respect to the User frame reads as measurements are inside the sphere with 95% of

confidence (as the Gauss distribution).

cos xm cos ym cos zm

Rk cos xm

u m

cos ym cos zm . (16)

cos xm cos xm cos zm

Consequently, we combine the position

measurement results and derive the actual or

measured transformation matrix from the User frame

k given by

u Rm u

pkm

u

Fkm k . (17)

0 1

u

Substituting Fkm into Eq. (5) the measured

transformation matrix 1F2m from pose 1 to pose 2 is

explicitly obtained in which both the robot position Fig. 4. Measurements of repeatability.

accuracy and orientation accuracy are evaluated.

Thus, we can clearly define the accuracy of the robot The orientation accuracy represented by the

formulated as rotational matrix in (16) can be derived from the

corresponding triangle. As shown in Fig. 5, the

R2 R2 R2

1 1 c 1 m

triangles connecting three measurement points

1 . (18)

( P1, , P2 , and P3 ) describe the orientation errors from

p2 p2 p2

1 c 1 m

If we reset all measurements of dial gauges of

the pose 1 to zero then the robot pose repeatability

can be derived properly. The pose 2 of the robot is

repeatedly measured with respect to the pose 1 as the

reference for repeatability study. Thus the 1 p2m is the

positioning repeatability and the 1 R2m describes the

orientation repeatability of the robot.

3. Results and Discussion

This section describes the measurements using

the proposed method on the KUKA robot.

Fig. 5. Orientation repeatability described as triangles

Experimental data obtained for 1 p2m shows the

( P1, , P2 , and P3 ).

efficiency of the method. The KR 6/2 robot has the

repeatability of 0.1mm. 1 p2m was calculated by With 48 samples for the robot pose we

invoking the Eq. (18) and shown in Table 1. computed the orientating repeatability as

35

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 032-036

orientation repeatability comprehensively. Therefore,

R2 0.00080.002

1 m

0.6460.031 0.4550.022 studying robot accuracy by this setup is convenient

0.000010.00001 0.000010.00001 0.6450.031

and flexible, particularly in large workshops.

. (19) Furthermore, with the measured accuracy and

repeatability solutions to improve the robots can be

These above values in (19) are Means and STDs found, e.g. improving robot control laws with error

of each entry of the rotational matrix from pose 1 to compensation. Thus the robot accuracy and pose

pose 2. It is obvious that the changes of the repeatability can be enhanced for continuous

orientation of the robot end-effector and positioning operations.

repeatability are acceptable if the robot can be used

for material manipulating. In terms of operations with Acknowledgments

continuous paths such as part machining the changes This research is funded by Hanoi University of

in the orientation might be large and can cause Science and Technology (HUST) under project

significant errors on machined parts. number T2016-PC-058.

The experimental results easily obtained from References

the measurement approach with very low cost dial

gauge fixture. This setup can be successfully used for [1] J. Bauer, M. Friedmann, T. Hemker, Analysis of

large working space of IRs in robot cells or in Industrial Robot Structure and Milling Process

Interaction for Path Manipulation, Process Mach.

industrial applications. The equipment is very flexible Interact. (2013) 245263.

and be placed at anywhere the robot can reach for

experiments. The calibration of the gauges and fixture [2] J. Lombard, J.C. Perrot, Automatic Measurement of

can be done with ease. Therewith the method is the Positioning Accuracy of Industrial Robots, Ann.

helpful for robot calibration at work. In addition to CIRP, 32 (1983) 297299.

that, the robot accuracy can be correctly estimated [3] D.E. Whitney, Industrial Robot Forward Calibration

with low cost. Method and Results, J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control 108

(1986) 18.

Moreover, the pose repeatability can be easily

obtained from the method. The method helps evaluate [4] B.W. Mooring and S.S. Padavala, The effect of

the robot accuracy and repeatability after long time kinematic model complexity on manipulator

accuracy, Proceedings, 1989 Int. Conf. Robot.

use. More importantly, based on the evaluation the

Autom. (1989) 593598.

robot accuracy can be enhanced in order to be used in

high accuracy process such as robot milling. [5] S. Decker, H. Gander, M. Vincze, J.P. Prenninger,

Therewith the robot errors must be compensated by Dynamic measurement of position and orientation of

improving the robot control model [9]. In addition, robots, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 41 (1992) 897

901.

the stiffness of the robot should be taken into account

since it strongly influences on the positioning [6] G.C. Smith, R.A. Smith, A non-contact method for

accuracy, in particular, for different poses and detecting on-line industrial robot position errors using

positions in the IRs volumes. The larger distance of a microwave doppler radar motion detector, Int. J.

the end-effector is, the larger deflection by the robot Adv. Manuf. Technol. 29 (2006) 605615.

end-effector becomes (lower accuracy) [10]. [7] D.D Le, Investigation of robot repeatability of a

However, compared with the accuracy the pose KUKA KR6/2, Thesis, Hanoi University of Science

repeatability is less influenced by target location. and Technology (2006).

Thus, the repeatability is an important robot [8] W. Xu, J.K. Mills, A New Approach to the Position

characteristic. Herein, the load was neglected due to and Orientation Calibration of Robots, Measurement,

the light tooling cube. Factors affecting the (1999).

repeatability will be discussed in the future work.

[9] B. Liu, F. Zhang, X. Qu, A method for improving the

4. Conclusion pose accuracy of a robot manipulator based on multi-

sensor combined measurement and data fusion,

The study presented the low cost measurement Sensors (Switzerland) 15 (2015) 79337952.

method in detail, which can be used for any type of

industrial robot topologies. Both pose accuracy and [10] M.T. Duong, X.T. Nguyen, Calculation method for

deflections of robot manipulators in loading

pose repeatability can be obtained from the method.

conditions, J. Sci. Technol. 64 (2008) 5156.

Interestingly, with very low cost experimental setup

we were able to demonstrate that this approach is

successfully realized on this equipment with the

KUKA KR6/2 robot. The experimental data were

36

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 037-042

of Torsional Vibration

Vu Xuan Truong1, 2, Khong Doan Dien2, Nguyen Duy Chinh2, Nguyen Duc Toan 3,*

1

Graduate University of Science and Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam

2

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Hungyen University of Technology and Education, Hungyen, Vietnam

3

School of Mechanical Engineering, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam

Received: October 24, 2016; accepted: June 9, 2017

Abstract

This paper presents three analytical methods to determine optimal parameters of the passive mass-spring-

disc dynamic vibration absorber (DVA), such as the ratio between natural frequency of DVA and shaft, damping

ratio of DVA. The original model presented by Den Hartog, Luft and Warburton are solved and has shown in

good agreement. Three analytical methods is then adopted for torsional shaft model. The simulation results

indicate that the effectiveness in torsional vibration could be reduced. Finally, the optimal parameters of DVA

were applied to decrease the shaft torsional vibration considering the vibration duration and stability criterion.

Keywords: Dynamic vibration absorber, Torsional vibration, Fixed-points theory.

*

The dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) or tuned- primary structures mass.

mass damper (TMD) is a widely used passive vibration Since then, the xed-points theory and DVA

control device. When a mass-spring system, referred to structures have become one of the design laws used in

as primary system, is subjected to a harmonic excitation optimizing design of the damped and undamped

at a constant frequency, its steady-state response can be primary system [6-8].

suppressed by attaching a secondary mass-spring Luft proposed methodology MEVR (maximum of

system or DVA. This idea was pioneered by Watts in equivalent viscosity resistance) for the original model

1883 and Frahm in 1909. However, a DVA consisting [2]. Later, Warburton used minimum of quadratic

of only a mass and spring has a narrow operation region torque method (MQT) and found that the damping in

the neutralizer can also be optimized [3]. The results

and its performance deteriorates significantly when the

was given by

exciting frequency varies. The performance robustness

can be improved by using a damped DVA that consists 1 / 2 (1 3 / 4)

opt ; opt (3)

of a mass, spring, and damper. The key design 1 4(1 / 2)(1 )

parameters of a damped DVA are its tuning parameter

and damping ratio. This paper presents three analytical methods such

as FPM, MQT and MEVR to determine optimal

The optimization technique for original model that parameters of the dynamic vibration absorber (DVA)

is described in detail by Den Hartog [1]. The optimum for new shaft model such as the ratio between natural

tuning ratio of the neutralizer was found as a function of frequency of DVA and shaft, the damping ratio of

the neutralizers mass given by absorber. Since then we compare and evaluate optimal

effectiveness of those methods. Based on the main idea

1

opt (1) is to build a program that calculates to prove optimal

1 analytic solution of the original model, which applies to

and the damping ratio of the absorber torsion shaft model. Optimal parameters are presented

3 as very neat analysis. The simulation results indicate

opt (2) that the effectiveness in torsional vibration reduction.

8 1

*

Corresponding author: Tel.: (+84) 988.693.047

Email: toan.nguyenduc@hust.edu.vn

37

Journal of Science and Technology

2. Shaft modeling and equations of vibration J a J aa nca e22a nka e12a 0 (5)

respectively

ka ks

a s (6)

ma Jr

DVA

ma e e

; a ; 1 ; 2 (7)

r a mr r r r

0 ks ka

a ca

; ; (8)

M(t) ca s s maa

Jr Ja

where is the frequency of excitation torque

Fig.1. Modeling of the shaft system with DVA. Therefore, Eqs.(4) and (5) can be expressed by

In this study, the shaft model shown in Figure 1 is

considered. The shaft is modeled as a torsion spring 1

2 2

a 2s

M

Jr

(9)

which has stiffness ks and a disc which has moment of

inertia is Jr and rotating at the constant angular 2 2a n s 2a

velocity 0 is disturbed by harmonic torque M(t). The (10)

n 2 2s 2a 0

passive mass-spring-disc dynamic vibration absorber

(DVA) is attached on the shaft to minimize the The matrix form of Eqs.(9,10) are expressed as

torsional vibration of the shaft.

Mq + Cq + Kq = F (11)

hub

rotor passive disk

where q a

T

e1 e2

The mass matrix, viscous matrix, stiffness matrix

r a and excitation force vector can be derived as

r ka

ca

M(t)

1 2 2 0 0

M 2

C 2 (12)

2

0 n s

M (t )

2 0

Fig. 2. Modeling of the DVA K s 2

F Jr (13)

0 n s

2 2

0

Figure 2 shows the model of the DVA used in this

study. The DVA contains a passive disk and springs-

dampers system. The radius and moment of inertia of 3. Determine optimal parameters of the DVA

the passive disk are R, Ja, respectively. The shaft and 3.1. Fixed-points theory for optimal design

the passive disc are linked together by springs and

dampers system. The stiffness of each spring is ka. The The forced vibration of this system will be of the form

viscous coefficient of each damper is ca. n is the

number of springs-dampers. The angular displacement M (t ) M eIt (14)

of the rotor is r and the torsional vibration of shaft

Thus, the stationary response of this system which can

can be written as (t ) r 0t . be written as

The relative angular displacement between the rotor

(t ) eIt , a (t ) a eIt (15)

and passive disk as a .

The system equations of motion can be expressed by where and a are complex amplitude vibration of

J r J a J aa ks M (t ) (4)

the primary system and DVA, respectively.

38

Journal of Science and Technology

Substituting Eqs.(14-15) into Eq.(11), this becomes some of damping ratio. For c = 0 or c becomes infinite

so the amplifier fuction curve becomes infinite. That

means some where in between there must be a value of

2 1 2 2 damping ratio for which the peak becomes a minimum.

2 Two other curves are draw in Fig. 3, for = 0.1 and 0.4.

2

2i 0 0 1 M The first step of this method is to specify two

0 n 2 0 (16) fixed points. Suppose that two points (S and T) with

a ks

horizontal coordinates as a 1, 2. The conditions for A

s

2

0 n

2 2

s

follows

A

0 (20)

Hence the stationary response of the primary

system is expressed as

Substituting Eq.(19) into Eq.(20), this becomes

A iA2 M

1 (17)

A3 iA4 k s ( A12 A42 A22 A32 )

0, (21)

A12 A22 2

where A

2

4

2

A 3

2 2

A32 A42 2

A1 2 2 n 2 2 ; A2 n 2 ;

A12 A42 A22 A32 0 (22)

A3 n n n

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 2

From Eq.(22), we have

A4 3 2 2 n 3 2 n 2 n

A1 A2

1

1

(23)

After short caculation the Eq.(17) we obtained the A3 A4

real amplitude of the vibration response, which can be

written as

A1 A2

(24)

A12 A22 2 M M A3 2

A4 2

(t ) A (18)

A3 A4 k s

2 2 2

ks

We obtain the value of A at two points (S, T) these

where A is called the amplifier function that is are expressed as follows

defined by

A2

AS (25)

A A

2 2 2

A4 1

A 1 2

(19)

A A 2

3

2 2

4

A2

AT 2

(26)

A4

function does not change in between the two peaks (S,

0

T) when the vertical coordinates of the S and T must be

equal. In this condition, we have

0 0.4 AS AT (27)

S T

solving Eqs.(23-27) which can be written as

* (28)

n 2 1

Fig. 3 The graph of amplifier function

1

1,2

2

1,2

* 2

(29)

Figure 3 shows a plot of the amplifier fuction with 2 2 2 1

39

Journal of Science and Technology

Then, the optimum absorber damping can be 3.2. Minimum of quadratic torque (MQT) for optimal

identified as follows design

A The state equations of Eqs.(9,10) are expressed as [3,9]:

0 (30)

y (t ) By (t ) H f M (t ) (38a)

Eq. (19) gives where

T

A2 A32 A42 2 A12 A22 2 (31) y a a (38b)

Taking derivative of Eq.(31) with respect to , this

form

becomes

0 E

B -1

A A A -M -1C

(38c)

A A3 3 AA32

2

A1 1 -M K

2 (32)

A4 2 A A2 where E is matrix unit, E 2

A A4

2

AA4 A2

In this study, the B matrix can be obtained as

Substituting Eq.(30) into Eq.(32) we obtain

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

A3 A

A2 A3 A1 1 B s

2

n s 2

2 2

0 n s 2

2

A A4

A4

A2

A2

(33)

2 1 n 2 2

2s 2 1 n s

2 2 2 2

s 0

2

2 2

(39)

Substituting Eqs.(28-29) into Eq.(33), this becomes

Matrix of excitation force is obtained as [4,9]

A1 A

A1 A2 A3 3 Hf

1 T

0 M 1F 0 0 J r1

T

J r1 (40)

M (t )

12 (34)

A2 A

A2 A2 A4 4

1

The quadratic torque matrix P is solution of the

Lyapunov equation [3]

A1 A

A1 A2 A3 3 torque. The quadratic torque for vibration of shaft is

22 (35) determined by solving the Eq.(41)

A2 A

A2 A2 A4 4 n 2 4 4 1 2 2

2

n 2 4 (1 2 )

Brock [5] reported that the optimal value of n

damping as follows 1 2 2 2 (2 2 ) 4

P11 S f (42)

2 3s n 2 mr2 r2 4

12 22

opt * (36)

2 Minimum condition are expressed as

Substituting Eqs.(34-35) into Eq. (36) we obtain the

optimal value of damping ratio as following P11 P11

0; 0 (43)

* *

2

3

opt * (37)

2 2n(1 2 ) The optimal parameters of the DVA for design that was

determined by solving the Eqs.(42,43)

40

Journal of Science and Technology

2 n(2 )

2 ctd c td

opt (44) 0; 0 (54)

2 n (1 2 ) * *

2 2 (4 3 2 )

opt (45) solving the equation Eqs.(53-54)

2 2 n(1 2 )(2 2 )

3.3.Maximum of equivalent viscous resistance opt * (55)

(MEVR) for optimal design

n(1 2 )

2

quadratic torques. By solving the Eq.(41) these opt * (56)

quadratic torques for vibration of shaft were obtained as 2 n

P32 (46)

2 2 r4 mr2 2s In this paper, we survey the shaft with the

parameters in Table 2. The shaft rotating is disturbed by

the harmonic torque M(t) of amplitude 5 Nm and

4 2 4 n2 4 4 n2

Sf 2 4 2 2 frequency 18.849 rad/s.

4

n 2 n

2 2 2

2s n 2 mr2 r4 4

Parameters FPM MQT MEVR

S f ( 2 2 n 2 ) 0.6670 0.6703 0.6737

P34 (48)

2ns 2 r4 mr2 2 0.0656 0.0537 0.0541

After short caculation the Eqs.(4,5) we obtained Table 2. The input parameters for simulation

mr 5.0 kg

Hence the equivalent resistance torque on the primary ma 0.1 kg

structure which was obtained as 0.1 m

M eqv nka e12a nca e22a (50) 0.1 m

e1 0.06 m

Substituting Eqs.(7,8) into Eq.(50), this becomes e2 0.08 m

n 6 -

M eqv nma 22s 2 r2a n mas 2 r2a (51)

the primary structure was obtained as

n ma s 2 r2 a

nma 2 2s 2 r2 a

ctd (52)

2

with a white noise spectrum Sf, then the average value of

Eq.(52) are the components of the matrix P in Eq.(41),

Lyapunov equation, this means

n mas 2 r2 P34

Fig. 4. Torsional vibration with optimized DVA

nma s r P32

2 2 2 2

P33

corresponding to the input data of Table 2. Simulation

Maximum condition are expressed as results with optimal parameters described in Fig. 4.

41

Journal of Science and Technology

These results show that torsional vibration of shaft (NAFOSTED) under grant number 107.02-2016.01.

without DVA has a harmonic form amplitude of about

References

0.02 rad.

[1]. Den Hartog J.P., Mechanical Vibrations, 4th Edition,

Figure 4 shows that in the first 0.4s, the amplitude McGraw-Hill, NY, (1982).

of the torsional vibration reduces rapidly. Effectiveness

of the optimal DVA using FPM is highest in [2]. Luft, R.W., Optimal Tuned Mass Damper for building,

comparison to the two other methods, however, the J. Struct. Div., ASCE, 105(12) (1979) 2766-2772.

difference between the viration response curves are [3]. Warburton G.B., Optimum absorber parameters for

negligible, especially vibration responses of the system various combinations of response and excitation

with MQT and MEVR are nearly the same. This shows parameters, earthquake Engineering and Structural

the strength of the fixed-points theory compared to Dynamics, (1982) 381-401.

other analytical methods. After the above period, the [4]. Khang N.V, Engineering Mechanics, Viet Nam

torsional vibration of the shaft shifts to the steady state Education Publishing House, (2009).

with a very small amplitude of about 1.20E-03 rad. At

[5]. Brock J.E, A Note on the Damped Vibration Absober,

this stage, the vibration responses with optimal DVA J. Appl. Mech., 13(4). A-284, 1946

determined by all methods are almost identical.

[6]. Nishihara O, and Asami T, Close-form solutions to the

5. Conclusions exact optimizations of dynamic vibration absorber

(minimizations of the maximum amplitude

In this paper, three analytical methods have been

manification factors), Journal of Vibration and

developed and examined for new shaft model. The Acoustics, 124, 576-582, 2002.

same procedure as in the conventional analytical theory

has been used to derive the optimum tuning and [7]. Liu K, and Liu J, The damped dynamic vibration

damping ratios of the device. Research results are absorber: revisited and new result, Journal of Sound

and Vibration 284, 1181-1189, 2005.

verified by numerical simulation with high reliability.

The optimal parameters were determined in analytical [8]. Anh N.D, and Nguyen N.X, Design of TMD for

form and furthermore leads to the simple explicit damped linear structures using the dual criterion of

formulas. The results presented in this paper may offer equivalent linearization method, International Journal

new ways of using the device over the conventional one. of Mechanical Sciences 77, 164-170, 2013.

law for active tuned mass damper, Earthquake

This research is funded by Vietnam National engineering and structural dynamic, 30: 1221-1242,

Foundation for Science and Technology Development (2001).

42

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 043-047

100Cr6 Steel - Simulation and Experiment

Tran Thi Xuan1*, Nguyen Van Tu1, Le Thi Chieu2, Vu Dinh Toai1

1

Hanoi University of Sciense and Technology - No. 1, Dai Co Viet Str., Hai Ba Trung, Ha Noi, Viet Nam

2

Vietnam Casting - Metallurgy Society, 4th floor, No.91 Lang Ha Str., Dong Da, Hanoi

Received: December 18, 2016; accepted: June 9, 2017

Abstract

Polymer quenchants based on polyalkylene glycols (PAG) are currently the most widely used type of

aqueous quenchants. In this paper, the numerical simulation method by Sysweld software was used to

predict the distortions of C-ring model using 100Cr6 steel when quenched in the difference media. The

simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental values, and they also showed that the top of

C-ring was opened after deformation. The gap opening of C-ring specimens when quenched in PAG 20%

solution is the smallest in comparison to the specimens quenched in water, oil and PAG 10% solutions. On

the other hand, the research results also show that the distortion at the top of C-ring is the largest and they

are decreased from the top downward the bottom of C-ring.

Keywords: Distortion, quenching, numerical simulation, C-ring, 100Cr6 steel, poly(alkylene glycol)

polymer quenchants were developed and are used to

Heat treatment is used to improve some of the

control distortion and to prevent the crack in steel

mechanical properties of steel components, and

parts during the quenching process. Currently, a

commonly involves a quenching step which may

number of polymers have been used as the

cause undesired geometrical distortions in the

quenchants for heat treating applications. These

processed parts. The dimensional accuracy of these

include: poly(vinyl alcohol), poly(alkylene glycol),

parts is affected and leads to production and

Poly(acrylamide), polyvinylpyrolidine, poly(sodium

economic losses. An example of this situation is the

acrylate), poly(ethyl oxazoline). Of these, the most

production of rolled and heat treated rings with large

commonly used are poly(alkylene glycol) PAG,

diameters and small thickness, quenching causes out-

poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) PVP, and poly(ethyl

of-roundness of the rings.

oxazoline) PEOX. However, the most common

In quenching process, the quenchant (namely quenchants encountered for induction heat treating

the heat transfer coefficient of quenchant) decided to applications worldwide are PAG type [1].

microstructure, hardness, residual stresses and

The simulation of metal heat treatment was

distortion of quenched components. Requirements set

studied by some authors, but the simulation of fully

that the quenchants must have the high enough of the

mechanical physical metallurgical behavior is

cooling rate to transform austenite into martensite

researched by the very little author, because of the

with the very high hardness, at the same time they

limit of the simulation software and computer

have the small enough of the cooling rate to limit the

capacities. Among the commercial simulation

distortion of quenched details. Therefore, the research

software today, Sysweld software is considered as the

in order to limit the distortion of the steel parts when

strongest and most complete application for the heat

quenching is very important.

treatment of metals. For deformation problems,

The oil quenchants are often used, but they Sysweld not only calculates the distortion due to

present both fire and smoke hazards. For many years, thermal expansion as other software, it also calculates

water-in-oil emulsions were used to obtain better fire- the distortion caused by the phases transformation as

resistance but these fluids were particularly shown in Fig. 1. [2].

susceptible to biological attack. Water quenchants

Based on above advantages, the Sysweld

although harmless and cheaper, but the very high

software was selected to simulate the distortion of C-

cooling rate of its can cause the crack in quenched

ring model made by 100Cr6 steel when quenched in

components and therefore it is not appropriate to

various media, they are including water, oil and PAG

liquid solution of 10% and 20%. After simulation, the

*

Corresponding author: Tel.: (+84) 986.985.861 results are verified by experiment.

Email: xuan.tranthi@hust.edu.vn

43

Journal of Science and Technology

Fig. 1. The strain (distortion) caused by phases PAG 10%

transformation in steel [2]

PAG 20%

Oil

dimensions in mm)

Water

2. Methodology

2.1 Modeling of the quenching process

The testing of the Navy C-ring type was

described by Narazaki and Totten (2006) as a

procedure to evaluate the propensity for quenching

distortion in several materials. M. Manivannan et al

(2014) used this test to study and predict the

distortion in heat treatment components [3]. Until

now, the C-ring has been one of the most common Fig. 5. HTC of water quenchant

types of specimen used for observing the dimensional Combine the two features mentioned above, the

changes (distortion) after heat treatment. In this author uses the type of element which has 5 faces and

research, the shape and dimensions of the C-ring 15 nodes with straight and curved edges combination

specimen are given in Fig. 2. The material employed for meshing the C-ring model. To achieve the

for the C-ring specimen was a 100Cr6 (DIN 17230) necessary precision, the size of the elements must be

with the nominal chemical composition (certified by small enough [4] and in this study, the model has

the supplier) of 1.04% C, 0.26% Si, 0.33% Mn, meshed with the biggest element edge is 2 mm.

0.31% Ni, 1.53% Cr, 0.01% Mo, 0.01% Mo.

To build the simulation project, the model must

Using Sysweld software to discrete the C-ring also be assigned a full set of parameters on the

model in Fig. 2, we get the finite element model as mechanical - physical - metallurgical properties of the

shown in Fig. 3. Here, by the cross section of the material and the other simulation conditions. For the

model have the curve, so to ensure the accuracy when problem of quenching, the heat transfer coefficient

meshing the model, the authors use element type has (HTC) at the surface of the model which is the

curved edges. On the other hand, in the direction of boundary condition of simulation. The value of an

thickness, the model has a uniform cross-section HTC function at the surface of the model is

shape, so the element type with the straight edge will determined by experiment and will be incorporated

fit in the direction of thickness. into the Sysweld software to simulate (Fig. 4, 5):

44

Journal of Science and Technology

The C-ring specimens were heated up to 850 C Using Sysweld software to perform the

in Nabertherm (Germany) furnace and held at this simulation of quenching process for the model in Fig.

temperature for 20 minutes. Then, the samples are 3 with the full material parameters of 100Cr6 steel

quenched in the water, oil and PAG quenchants of and boundary conditions as shown in the Fig.s 4 and

10% and 20%. 5, we have determined the distortions of the model

after quenched 500 seconds corresponding to the

The measurement of the C-ring dimensions

quenchants as follows:

before and after the heat treatment was performed on

the coordinate measuring machine, model YM21 3.1. Distortion of the C-ring specimen when

(Fig. 6) with an accuracy of 0.001 mm. The quenched in PAG 10%

dimensional change was analyzed: gap opening G

Fig. 8 displays the simulated displacement in the

based on Fig. 7, the dimensional change may be

x direction of the points in the cross-section of the C-

expressed as: G = n n

ring which is quenched in PAG 10% solution. The

results show that in the right half of C-ring model, the

nodes are displaced in the positive direction of the Ox

axis and in the left half of C-ring, the nodes are

displaced in the negative direction of the Ox axis.

Thus, the distortion on the specimen tends to open up

the C ring. The node 480 is displaced along the

positive direction of the Ox axis with a distance of

approximately 0.066 mm, while node 402 is

displaced along the negative direction of the Ox axis

with the same distance. It means that the gap opening

of the C-ring is about 0.132mm. The simulated results

in Fig. 8 also show that the distortion of C-ring

specimen decreases from the top (node 480) to the

Fig. 6. Universal Microscopy YM21 bottom (node 432). At the node 801, the displacement

is about 0.02 mm and the displacement of node 432 is

nearly zero.

The comparison between the experimental and

simulated values for the distortion of C-ring when

quenched in PAG 10% solution as shown in Table 1.

The compare shows that the relative difference for

gap opening is smaller than 4%.

Table 1. Comparison of experimental and simulated

distortions of the C-ring after quenched in PAG 10%

Quenchant Gap opening (G) (mm) Difference

Fig. 7. C-ring specimen in before (gap opening n) and (%)

after (gap opening n) quenching. Experimental Simulation

PAG 10% 0.128 0.132 3.03

quenched in PAG 20%

The computation results of displacements in the

x-direction of the points in the cross section of the C-

ring model when quenching in PAG 20% as shown in

Fig. 9. In this case, the computation results show that

the biggest displacement in the x direction (Ux) is

0.043 mm, achieved at node 480 and displacement at

the node 402 is -0.043 mm. It means the gap opening

of the C-ring is about 0.086 mm. The computation

results in Fig. 9 also show that the Ux distortion at the

Fig. 8. Simulated displacements in the x direction of

the C-ring, after quenched in PAG 10% solution

45

Journal of Science and Technology

bottom zone of the C-ring is the smallest, namely the Table 2 presents a comparison between

displacement of the node 432 is zero. the experimental and computation values for the

distortion of the specimen when quenched in PAG

Comparing these results with the sample results

20% solution. In this case, the gap opening

are quenched in PAG 10% solution we can see that in

computation result of the C-ring is only of 0.086 mm

this case, the samples have the smaller deformation.

and the measuring result on the coordinate measuring

This means that when quenching in polymer

machine is 0.08 mm. Thus, the corresponding error,

quenchants if the concentration of polymer is higher

in this case, is 7%.

then the distortion of the sample is smaller. This can

be explained by the cooling rate of the specimen to be 3.3. Distortion of the C-ring specimen when

quenched in PAG 20% is lower than it has been quenched in water

quenched in PAG 10% [5].

With such samples, in water heat treatment as we

Table 2. Comparison of experimental and simulated obtain the results as shown in Fig. 10. The simulation

distortions of C-ring after quenched in PAG 20% results in this case also reflect a trend of deformation

of the sample is similar to the heat treatment in the

Quenchant Gap opening (G) (mm) Difference polymer quenchants. That is, after quenching, the C-

Experimental Simulation (%) ring samples are also deformed with trend opens and

PAG 20% 0.08 0.086 7 the deformation of the sample is also distributed

symmetrically through the center. The nodes in the

Table 3. Comparison of experimental and simulated right half are moved in the positive direction of the

distortions of C-ring after quenched in water Ox axis, while the nodes in the left half are moved in

Quenchant Gap opening (G) (mm) Difference the opposite direction, making the sample was opened

Experimental Simulation (%) - This is like observing in experimental samples. The

Water 0.176 0.18 2.2 simulated deformation in Ox direction at node 480, in

this case, is 0.09 mm and -0.09 mm at nodes 402.

That is the gap opening of the C-ring is 0.18 mm.

Comparing these results with the results of the

specimen to be quenched in PAG 10% and PAG 20%

solution, we see that the samples, in this case, have

the greater deformation. It is caused by the cooling

rate of the sample when quenched in the water is

higher than PAG solution [6].

Compare the measuring gap opening of the C-

ring with the simulated values when quenched in

water, we received the result as shown in Table 3. In

this case, the relative difference for gap opening is

smaller than 3%.

Fig. 9. Simulated displacements in the x direction of 3.4. Distortion of the C-ring specimen when

the C-ring, after quenched in PAG 20% solution. quenched in the oil

When the simulation of the quenching process of

the research model in traditional quenchant is oil, we

received the displacement in an x-direction of the C-

ring model as shown in Fig. 11. Like the simulated

results of the quenched model in water, PAG 10%

and 20%, when the specimen was quenched in oil, the

displacement in the x-direction at node 480 is also

largest (about 0.059mm). In this case, the gap

opening of the C-ring model is about 0.118 mm.

Thus, the distortion of the C-ring model, when

quenched in oil, is smaller in compare with the model

which quenched in PAG 10% and water, but larger

than the quenched model in PAG 20%.

Fig. 10. Simulated displacements in the x direction of The comparison between the experimental and

the C-ring, after quenched in water. simulated distortions of the C-ring when quenched in

46

Journal of Science and Technology

oil as shown in Table 4. It is seen that the relative also reflect the properties of the quenching media as

difference for gap opening is smaller than 5%. shown in the Fig.s 4 and 5: the HTC of the specimen

to be quenched in PAG 20% is smallest, it will have

The simulated and measured distortions of the

minimal distortion.

C-ring specimens, when they were quenched in the

different quenchants, are shown in Fig. 12. We see Acknowledgments

that if the specimen is quenched in water then the gap

This research is funded by Hanoi University of

opening of C-ring is largest; whereas if that was

Science and Technology (HUST) under project

quenched in PAG 20% solution, it will have minimal

number T2016-PC-150.

distortion.

4. Conclusions

Table 4. Comparison of experimental and simulated

distortions of C-ring after quenched in oil. Based on the simulation and actually measuring

results of C-ring deformation above, the following

Quenchant Gap opening (G) (mm) Difference conclusions can be drawn:

Experimental Simulation (%)

Oil 0.113 0.118 4.2 The simulation results based on finite element

method are in good agreement with the experimental

values. The maximum difference between the

experimental and the simulated values for the C-ring

gap opening was only about 7%. I.e. above

simulation method is accurate and reliable.

The gap opening of the C-ring specimen that

quenched in PAG 10% solution is smaller than the

specimen quenched in water but larger than quenched

specimen in oil.

The quenching distortion of C-ring specimen is

the largest at the top (including the nodes 480, 402,

474 and 396) and decreases to zero at the bottom of

C-ring (node 432).

With PAG 20% aqueous solution, the gap

Fig. 11. Simulated displacements in the x direction of

opening of the quenched C-ring specimen is the

the C-ring, after quenched in oil.

smallest. i.e. the PAG 20% quenchant is most suitable

to quench the 100Cr6 steel when compared with oil,

water or PAG 10% quenchants.

References

[1] George E. Totten, Polymer quenchants for introduction

heat treating applications: The basic, Union Carbide

Corporation 771 Old Saw Mill River Road Tarrytown,

NY 10591.

[2] ESI Group, Sysweld 2010 Reference manual, January

2010.

Fig. 12. Comparison of distortion when quenched in

different quenchants: simulation and experiment. [3] M. Manivannan, D. O. Northwood & V. StoilovNavy,

Use of Navy C-rings to study and predict distortion in

The simulated and measured results also shown heat treated components: experimental measurements

that the distortion of the specimen, when quenched in (2014), University of Windsor, Ont., Canada.

PAG 10%, is nearly equal to the distortion of the [4] Bathe, K. J., Finite Element Procedures in Engineering

sample when quenched in the oil. In the process of Analysis (1982) Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs.

measuring the deformation, due to the device's

accuracy and the operator's subjective factors, the [5] Mr. P.K.Deval, New Generation Polymer Quenchant for

heat transfer coefficient is additionally calculated Heavy Forgings, Dy. General Manager Hardcastle

Petrofer Pvt. Ltd

based on the simulation software through the cooling

speed value provided by experimental measurements. [6] M. Eshraghi-Kakhki, M.A. Golozar, A. Kermanpur,

These factors can also lead to some minor differences Application of polymeric quenchant in heat treatment

between experiment and calculation. These results of crack-sensitive steel mechanical parts: Modeling and

experiments (2010), Elsevier Ltd.

47

Journal of Science and Technology

48

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 048-053

by Continuous Element Method

Le Thi Bich Nam1, *, Nguyen Manh Cuong1, Tran Ich Thinh1,

Duong Pham Tuong Minh2, Le Quang Vinh3

1

School of Mechanical Engineering, Hanoi University of Science and Technology

2

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Thai Nguyen University of Technology

3

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Viet tri University of Industry

Received: December 08, 2016; accepted: June 9, 2017

Abtract

This paper presents a new continuous element model for studying the dynamic behavior of complex tubes

composed by cylindrical shell, annular plate and conical shell which are widely used in automobile exhausts,

sewer pipes and pipelines. Based on the analytical solutions of the system of differential equations for

cylinders, cones and annular plates, the dynamic stiffness matrix for complex composite tubes has been

established and assembled. Natural frequencies and harmonic responses for composite tubes have been

calculated and validated by comparing with the literature and with Finite Element Method. The assembly

procedure of Continuous Element Method demonstrated remarkable advantages in terms of precision,

volume of data storage, calculating time and larger range of studied frequencies.

Keywords: Complex shell, tube, Continuous Element Method, composite shell

multilevel partition technique. Kang [6] investigated

The complex composite tubes have many

the free vibration of joined thick conicalcylindrical

applications in various branches of engineering such

shells with variable thickness using a three-

as automobile, aeronautical, marine, civil and power

dimensional Ritz method.

industry. Hence, the comprehension of dynamic

behaviors of such structures is of great important in The main draw-back of traditional methods like

order to design and fabric safer and stronger FEM is the discretization of the domain which causes

composite shell structures. Different methods for errors in dynamic analysis, especially in medium and

analyzing free vibrations of isotropic and composite high frequencies. The Continuous Element Method

joined conical-cyclindrical shells have been applied. (CEM) or Dynamic Stiffness Method (DSM) based

Liang et al. [1] have investigated the dynamic on the closed form solution of the system of

characteristics of a symmetric cross-ply laminated differential equations of the structure is developed to

conical shell with an annular plate at the top end overcome these difficulties. The CE models for

using the transfer matrix method. The free vibration composite cylindrical shell presented in works of

of joined isotropic conical-cyclindrical shells has Tran Ich Thinh and Nguyen Manh Cuong [7] imposes

been solved by Irie et al. [2] using the transfer matrix a considerable advancement of the study on CEM for

approach. Caresta and Kessissoglou [3] have composite structures. Recently, the new research for

analyzed the free vibrations of joined truncated thick laminated composite joined cyclindrical-conical

conical-cyclindrical shells using a power series shells by Nguyen Manh Cuong et al. [8] has

solution and a wave solution method. Kouchakazadeh emphasized the strong capacity of DSM in

and Shakouri [4] presented a study dealing with assemblying complex structure. Le Thi Bich Nam et

vibrational behavior of two joined cross-ply al. [9] have proposed a new continuous element

laminated conical shells, joined cylindrical-conical formulation for cross-ply annular plates.

shells using thin-walled shallow shell in which the

However, there is a lack of researches on

expressions among stress resultants and deformations

combined cylinder-annular plate-cone structures. The

are extracted as continuity condition at the joining

purpose of this paper is presenting a new continuous

section of the cones. Recently, Qu et al. [5] proposed

element for thick combined cross-ply laminated tubes

free vibration characteristics of conicalcylindrical

composed by cylinder, annular plate and conical

spherical shell combinations with ring stiffeners by

shells taking into account the effect of shear

using a modified variational method, Reissner

deformations and rotational inertia as well as the

* continuity conditions at joined sections. Obtained

Corresponding author: Tel.: (=84) 24.3868.0103 results using this model have been compared with

Email: nam.lethibich@hust.edu.vn

48

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 048-053

those of FEM and with available results in other with R=R1+s.sin (3)

investigations and good agreement was obtained and

advantages of CE model have been confirmed. 2.1.3. Force resultantsdisplacement relationships

of revolution

Q

2.1. Theory of composite conical shells

2.1.1. Constitutive relations

The plane stress-reduced stiffnesses of a

laminate composite composed by N orthotropic layers

are: Fig. 2. Force and moments resultants on shells

E1 E E2

Q11 , Q12 12 2 , Q22 , Fig. 2 illustrates the force and moment

1 1221 1 1221 1 1221 resultants on a shell. The forces-displacements

Q66 G12 , Q44 G23 , Q55 G13 (1) expressions for laminated composite conical shell are

N

1 N k 4 written as follows:

Aij Q ( z k 1 z k ) , Aij Qij ( z k 1 z k ) (i, j 4,5),

k

ij

4

k 1 4 k 1 u0 A12 v B

N S A11 u0 sin 0 w0 cos B11 S 12 S sin

1 N 1 N s R s R

Bij Qijk ( z k21 z k2 ), Dij Qijk ( z k31 z k3 ) (i, j 1,2,6)

2 k 1 3 k 1 w0 cos 1 w0

QS kA55 S , Q kA44 0

where Ei,Gij, 12, 21: elastic constants of the kth layer, s R R (4)

Aij, Bij, Dij: laminate stiffness coefficients and zk-1 and u0 A22 v B

N A12 u0 sin 0 w0 cos B12 S 22 S sin

zk are the boundaries of the kth layer. s R s R

2.1.2. Strains, stress and forces resultant v 1 u 0 sin 1 S sin

N S A66 0 v0 B66

s R R R s R

Following the First Order Shear Deformation u0 B12 v0 w0 cos S D12

Therory (FSDT), the displacement components are M S B11 u0 sin D11 S sin

s R R s R

written as (see Fig. 1):

u0 B22 v D

M B12 u0 sin 0 w0 cos D12 S 22 S sin

us, , z, t u0 s, , t zs s, , t , s R s R

v0 u 0 sin 1 S sin

vs, , z, t v0 s, , t z s, , t M S B66 0 D66

s R R R s R

ws, , z, t w0 s, , t (2) where k is the shear correction factor (k=5/6), (Ns, N,

Ns) are force resultants, (Ms, M, Ms) are moment

with u0,v0,w0: displacements of the point Mo at the

resultants and (Qs,Q) are shear force resultants at s

median radius of the shell and S, : rotations of a and directions, respectively

transverse normal about the -axis and s-axis.

2.1.4. Equations of motion

The equations of motion using the FSDT for

laminated composite conical shell are [8]:

N S sin N S

N S N 1 I 0u 0 I 1 S

s R R

N S 2 sin 1 N cos

N S Q I 0 v0 I 1

s R R R

M S sin

Fig. 1. Geometries of a shell edge by FSDT M S M 1 M S QS I 1 u0 I 2S

s R R (5)

2.1.2. The strain-displacement relations of conical

M S 2 sin 1 M

shell M S Q I 1 v0 I 2

s R R

u 0 1 S sin QS 1 Q sin cos

S k S kS s QS N I 0 w 0

s R s R s s R R R

N zk 1

1 v 0 cos 1 w0

u 0 sin w0 cos , Z 0 with I i z dz (i 0,1,2)

(k ) i

R R R k 1 zk

1 v0 1 u 0 sin

where (k): material mass density of the kth layer.

k S sin S v0 ,

R s R R

49

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 048-053

The equations for cylindrical shells and annular 4.1. Continuity conditions

plates can be derived from equations (4), (5) by using

The continuity conditions for assembling tubes

= 0o and = 90o respectively.

composed by cylinder, cone and annular plate are

3. Continuous element for thick composite shells of

revolution expressed as follows [3]:

3.1. State vector u1 = u2 cos w2 sin, v1 = v2, s1 = s2 , (9)

The state-vector for the investigated conical w1 = u2 sin + w2 cos, Qs1 = Ns2 sin + Qs2 cos,

shells is yT = {u0, v0, w0, S, , NS, NS, QS, MS,

Ns1 = Ns2 cos - Qs2 sin, Ms1 = Ms2, Ms1 = Ms2

MS}T. Using the Fourier series expansion, state

variables for the circumferential wave m are written 4.2. Assembly procedure

as:

The performant assembly procedure of

uo (s, , t ), wo (s, , t ), s (s, , t ), N S (s, , t ), QS (s, , t ), M S (s, , t )T Continuous Elements presented in our previous

u

research [8] is used to construct the Dynamic

( s), wm ( s), s m ( s), N S m ( s), QS m ( s), M S m ( s) cos me it

T

m

m 1

Stiffness Matrix for combined cylindrical-annular

vo ( s, , t ), ( s, , t ), N ( s, , t ), Q ( s, , t ), M ( s, , t )T plate-conical shells. First, the dynamic stiffness

matrix for cylinder, annular plate and cone must be

v ( s ), m ( s ), N m ( s), Q m ( s ), M m ( s ) sin me it (6)

T

m

evaluated separately. Then the dynamic stiffness

m 1 matrix for the tube can be constructed by employing

Substituting (6) in (4) and (5), a system of the assembly procedure similar to those of FEM for

differential equations in the s-coordinate can be assembling stiffness matrix illustrated in Fig. 3.

expressed in the matrix form as: dym / ds Am (s, )y m

Kcylinder

with Am is a 10x10 matrix (7)

Kannular

3.2. Dynamic stiffness matrix K() K() = plate

Kcone

Then, the dynamic stiffness matrix K()m for

conical shell is determined by [8], [9]:

T121 T11 T121

K ( ) m 1 Fig. 2. Construction of dynamic stiffness matrix for

T21 T22 T12 T11 T22 T121 m composite tubes

L

with Tm e 0 11 12 (8)

T21 T22 5.1. Modal analysis

4. Continuous element method for composite tubes A Matlab program based on presented

formulations is developed for analyzing the vibration

Consider a joined cylindrical shell-annular

of a joined cylinder-annular plate-cone tube. First, a

plate- conical shell in Fig. 3 with R1: radius of the

composite conical shell with an annular plate at the

cylinder, R2 and R3: small and large radius of the

top end subjected to the free-clamped boundary

cone. L1 and L2: lengths of the cylinder and cone

condition is taken for example. Geometric properties

along its generator, h: thickness of shells, : half cone are R = 200 mm, R1 = 180 mm, R2 = 100 mm, h = 2

angle. mm, and L2 = 100 mm where R and R1: radius of

large and small edges of the cone, R2: inner radius of

the annular plate, material parameters are E1 = 135

GPa, E2 = 8.8 GPa, G12 = G13 = G23 = 4.47 GPa and

12 = 0.33, = 1600 kg/m3 with layer configuration

[90/0/0/90] (Material 1). Obtained dimensionless

frequencies =R(h2/D11)1/4 calculated by the

present formulation and by Liang et al. [1] using both

FEM and Transfer matrix method are compared in

Table 1. Here m represents the number of

circumferential waves and n the number of axial half

Fig. 3. Geometry of a tube composed by cylinder, annular

plate and cone waves. It is easy to remark that the present method

gives high precise results which are very closed to

those from Liang et al. [1], especially to the transfer

50

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 048-053

matrix method solution. Tiny differences (0.07% to model is valid for analyzing the considered tube with

3.49%) between our formulation and those in [1] different modes and boundary conditions.

confirm that the present solution is exact and the

5.2. Harmonic responses

present formulations can be applied to study the

dynamic behavior of tubes. This section confirms important advantages of CE

models with respect to other methods for complex

There is no comparative data from literature for

structures. Fig. 3 shows the comparison of FE and CE

complex composite tubes. Therefore, obtained natural

harmonic responses for the studied tube subjected to

frequencies of our CE program will be validated with

the C-C (left) and F-C boundary condition (right).

respect to those of FEM. For FE models, the Ansys

SHELL181 elements with the 180x20 mesh assure It is seen that using a raw mesh (10x80) the

good results after a convergence test. The parameters discrepancies between FE and CE curves are noticed

of the considered tube are: h = 0.002m, R1 = 0.1m, R2 from 1495.5 Hz for the 1st test and at 1660 Hz for the

= 0.18m, R3 = 0.2 m, L1 = L2 cos = 0.1 m, Material second one. More precise FE solutions are obtained

1. The comparison of CE and FE results for clamped- by using a finer meshing (20x120) because the FE

clamped (C-C), free-clamped (F-C) and supported- curves coincide with CE one within a larger

clamped (S-C) composite tubes for various vibration frequency range. However, important differences

modes is illustrated in Table 2. It is seen from this between two solutions still occur from 2556 Hz for

table that good agreements are noticed between CE the 1st test and from 2413,5 Hz for the second one. It

and FE solutions. CE model give excellent solutions is clear to remark that FE models converge towards

which are close to FE results with small errors those of CE when reducing the element sizes.

varying from 0% to 3.75%. The precision of our

Table 1. Comparison of R 4 h 2 / D11 for a cross-ply combined conical shell-annular plate with layer scheme

[90o/0o]s, Material 1 and R1 = 200mm, h1 = h2 = 2 mm, R2 = 180mm, 1 = -11.77o

n=0 FEM [1] 5.4672 0.18 11.745 0.35

Transfer matrix [1] 5.4575 0 11.786 0

CEM 5.3911 1.23 11.7452 3.49

n=1 FEM [1] 5.9070 0.88 11.876 0.65

Transfer matrix [1] 5.8554 0 11.799 0

CEM 5.8660 0.18 11.7904 0.07

n=2 FEM [1] 7.1143 0.79 12.048 0.39

Transfer matrix [1] 7.0588 0 12.001 0

CEM 7.1306 1.00 12.117 0.95

-40 -60

2656.5

1.5

178.5

355.5

532.5

709.5

886.5

1063.5

1240.5

1417.5

1594.5

1771.5

1948.5

2125.5

2302.5

2479.5

2833.5

709.5

1594.5

2479.5

1.5

178.5

355.5

532.5

886.5

1063.5

1240.5

1417.5

1771.5

1948.5

2125.5

2302.5

2656.5

2833.5

-60 -80

-80 -100

20 log10|w|

20 log10|w|

-100 -120

-120

-140

-140

-160

-160

-180

-180 FEM 80x10 FEM 80x10

-200

-200 FEM 120x20 FEM 120x20

-220 CEM 3 -220 CEM

Fig. 3. Comparison of harmonic responses computed by FEM and by CEM for a C-C cylinder-annular plate-cone tube

(Left) and a F-C cylinder-annular plate-cone tube (Right)

51

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 048-053

Table 2. Comparison of natural frequencies for a composite tube with C-C, F-C and S-C boundary conditions (h = 0.002m,

R1 = 0.1m, R2 = 0.18m, R3 = 0.2 m, L1 = L2 cos = 0.1 m. Material 1)

Condition n m FEM (180x20) CEM Error (%)

1 1 1036.1 1035.7 0.04

1 2 1047.4 1047.7 0.03

1 3 1102.6 1104.2 0.14

1 4 1235.6 1238.2 0.21

C-C 1 5 1463.2 1464.9 0.12

1 6 1665.8 1660.2 0.34

1 7 1755.2 1745.7 0.54

2 5 1825.5 1820.7 0.26

1 1 184.51 187.8 1.75

1 2 268.54 279.0 3.75

1 3 619.83 626.3 1.03

2 2 1063.5 1065.3 0.17

F-C 2 1 1072.2 1072.2 0.00

2 0 1120.4 1121.5 0.10

2 3 1122.2 1124.3 0.19

1 4 1144.7 1147.9 0.28

1 1 1035.9 1035.5 0.04

1 0 1043.0 1042.6 0.04

1 2 1047.2 1048.9 0.16

1 3 1101.7 1105.9 0.38

S-C 1 4 1236.1 1241.8 0.46

1 5 1466.8 1470.1 0.22

1 6 1674.7 1662.1 0.76

2 1 1725.4 1714.6 0.63

Using a minimum meshing, CE model The exactness and validity of continuous model

demonstrates considerable advantages when dealing for different properties of geometry, vibration mode

with complex structures in terms of calculating time and boundary conditions have been confirmed by the

and the saving of data storage volume. For example, excellent agreements between obtained results with

the required time for plotting FE harmonic response those published by other researches and by Finite

curves of the 1st test are 143 minutes (10x80 FE Element Method. In conclusion, the proposed

mesh), 289 minutes (20x120 FE mesh) but is only 81 Continuous Element model consists an interesting

minutes for CE model with only 3 elements. These approach to calculate the natural frequencies of thick

CE advantages are verified for different boundary combined cross-ply laminated tube with high

conditions and for all frequency range. accuracy, especially for medium and high frequencies

where other current methods give unreliable

6. Conclusions

solutions. With a minimum meshing for complex

This research has presented a new Dynamic structures, our model accelerates the calculating

Stiffness Matrix for thick combined cross-ply speed and saves the volume of data storage.

laminated tube composed by cylinder, annular plate

The introduced Continuous Element can be

and conical shells taking into account the effect of

developed to resolve the problem of shells on elastic

shear deformations and rotational inertia as well as

foundation and containing flowing fluid, shells on

the continuity conditions at joined sections.

non-homogenous elastic foundations, shells with

damping or shells with stiffeners.

52

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 048-053

analysis of joined thick conical-cylindrical shells of

[1] Sen Liang, H.L. Chen, Tianning Chen, Michael Yu revolution with variable thickness, J. of Sound and

Wang (2007). The natural vibration of a symmetric Vibration 331(2012) 41874198.

cross-ply laminated composite conical-plate shell,

Comp. Struct. 80 (2007) 265278. [7] Tran Ich Thinh, Nguyen Manh Cuong (2013).

Dynamic stiffness matrix of continuous element for

[2] T. Irie, G. Yamada and Y. Muramoto (1984). Free vibration of thick cross-ply laminated composite

vibration of joined conical-cylindrical shells, Journal cylindrical shells. Compos Struct; 98:93102.

of Sound and Vibration (1984) 95(l), 31-39.

[8] Nguyen Manh Cuong, Tran Ich Thinh and Vu Quoc

[3] Mauro Caresta, Nicole J. Kessissoglou (2010). Free Hien (2014). Vibration analysis of cross-ply

vibrational characteristics of isotropic coupled composite joined conical-cylindrical shells by

cylindricalconical shells, Journal of Sound and Continuous Element Method, Proceedings of the

Vibration 329 (2010) 733751. International Conference on Engineering Mechanics

[4] M.A.Kouchakzadeh, M.Shakouri (2014). Free vibration and Automation-ICEMA3, Pages 401-408.

analysis of joined cross-ply laminated conical shells, [9] Le Thi Bich Nam, Nguyen Manh Cuong, Tran Ich

International Journal of Mechanical Sciences Thinh (2014). Continuous Element formulation for

78(2014)118125. vibration of thick composite annular plates and rings,

[5] Yegao Qu, Shihao Wu, Yong Chen, Hongxing Hua Tuyn tp cng trnh Hi ngh C hc k thut ton

(2013). Vibration analysis of ring-stiffened conical quc K nim 35 nm thnh lp Vin C hc,

cylindricalspherical shells based on a modified 10/4/1979-10/4/2014, (2), Pages 319-324

variational approach, International Journal of

Mechanical Sciences 69 (2013) 7284.

53

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 054-058

Using a Stress Invariant Based Criterion

Vu Quoc Huy*, Vu Dinh Quy, Le Thi Tuyet Nhung

Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No. 1, Dai Co Viet Str., Hai Ba Trung, Ha Noi, Viet Nam

Received: May 06, 2016; accepted: May 05, 2017

Abstract

Predicting fatigue damage for structural components subjected to variable amplitude loadings is a complex

issue. In order to estimate fatigue life under those loading conditions, a multiaxial fatigue criterion must

gather with a fatigue damage accumulation rule that allows capturing different damage mechanisms when

they are activated. In this paper, combinations of a stress invariant based fatigue criterion with some

damage accumulation rules are carried out to deal with variable amplitude loadings. An approach combining

three tools, including multiaxial criterion, multiaxial S-N curves and cumulative damage rule are used in this

study. Results show good correlations of fatigue life between experimental and predicted results for 1045

steel.

Keywords: Variable amplitude loading, multiaxial fatigue criterion, Damage accumulation.

this study. The approach includes following steps:

Damage evaluation of variable amplitude

loadings is a challenge in multiaxial fatigue Step 1: choose a reference S-N curve (under

characterization. Under the variable amplitude fully reversed torsion, for instance) and identify the

loadings, different damage mechanisms can be function of the reference S-N curve (power law

activated. To predict fatigue life, a multiaxial fatigue function) from experimental data:

criterion must gather with a fatigue damage

t1

accumulation rule that allows capturing the different xya (1)

damage mechanisms when they are activated. In 1 N

general, four categories of fatigue criteria can be

where and are material parameters, xya is shear

distinguished: critical plane approaches, integral

approaches, approaches based on the stress invariants stress amplitude and N is number of cycles.

and energy approaches [1]. Among multiaxial fatigue Step 2: predict the fatigue limit values of

criteria, the approaches based on stress invariants different constant amplitude multiaxial loading cases

have an obvious advantage of computation time by a multiaxial fatigue criterion.

compared to the critical plane and the integral

approaches. A recent stress based criterion proposed Step 3: build the S-N curve of each constant

by Vu et al. [1] shows a very good prediction quality amplitude multiaxial loading case from its fatigue

for a wide range of experimental data conducted on limit value and the function of reference S-N curve

various steels. Regarding damage accumulation rules, [3].

a comprehensive review of many approaches can be Step 4: estimate the cumulative damage and the

found elsewhere [2]. In this paper, combinations of

fatigue life of the multiaxial variable amplitude

the Vu et al. criterion and some damage accumulation

loading (many blocks) by using a cumulative damage

rules are carried out to deal with variable amplitude

rule.

loading conditions.

In this study, a fatigue criterion based on stress

2. Fatigue life prediction methodology invariants is used in step 2 and different cumulative

2.1. Prediction approach rules (Miner, DCA) will be applied in step 4. More

details about step 1 and step 3 may be found in [3].

In order to predict the fatigue life under

multiaxial variable amplitude loading, an approach 2.2. A fatigue criterion based on stress invariants

combining three tools (multiaxial criterion, multiaxial

Vu et al. [1] proposed a multiaxial criterion for

high cycle fatigue based on invariants of macroscopic

* stress tensor (denoted as Vu criterion). By

Corresponding author: Tel.: (+84) 904.169.355

Email: huy.vuquoc@hust.edu.vn

54

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 054-058

introducing quantity J2,mean, the multiaxial fatigue The presence of J2,mean quantity allows capturing

endurance criterion is established as follows: accurately effects of phase shift and frequency on

fatigue limit of material under multiaxial loading. The

f 1 J '2 (t ) 2 2 J 2,2 mean 3 I f I1, a , I1, m prediction capacity of the criterion is tested on 119

iso-frequency axialtorsion experiments and some

(2)

other more complex loadings: biaxial loading and

where 1, 2, 3 and are material parameters; J '2 (t ) asynchronous loading and the results show that the

and J 2,mean capture shear stress effect and phase shift criterion is in good accordance with the experimental

data [1]. Under proportional loading, the assessment

effect. J '2 (t ) is the second invariant of stress of the criterion can be carried out from an analytical

amplitude part defined from the deviator of the solution. Under others loading cases, the numerical

a

amplitude of the stress tensor S (t ) and J 2,mean is the implementation of the criterion is very simple and can

be easily integrated in a damage model or in a finite

mean value of J '2 (t ) during period T: element code.

J '2 (t )

a

S (t ) : S (t ) (3)

2 Damage accumulation models aim to account

T

accumulated damage in material based on damage

1

T 0

J 2, mean J '2 (t ) dt (4) parameters. Basically, damage parameters are used to

estimate fatigue strength under certain stress level

and loading path. Then, a relation between the

I f I1, a , I1, m is a function of I1,a and I1,m reflecting estimated fatigue life and the loading cycles is

respectively the effects of amplitude and mean value performed. Among the cumulative damage rules, the

simplest and well-known is the linear accumulation

of the hydrostatic stress. The values of I1,a and I1,m

rule proposed by Miner [4] as follows:

are defined from I1 (t ) tr ( ) that is the first

# blocks # cycles ni

invariant of the stress tensor: D (10)

i 1 N i , f j

j 1

1

I1, a max I1 (t ) min I1 (t ) (5)

2 tT tT

where D is the accumulated damage, ni is the applied

number of cycles at the life level Ni,f. Miners rule

I1, m

1

max I1 (t ) min I1 (t )

2 tT tT

(6) predicts that the failure occurs when D 1.

Damage Curve Approach rule (DCA) is a

Vu criterion is identified from two fatigue nonlinear damage accumulation [5]. The DCA

limits, under fully reversed torsion ( t1 ) and under concept is that damage accumulation proceeds along

fully reversed tension ( f 1 ), for instance. The value the curve associated with the life level at which a

of 1, 2, 3 and are determined from the two fatigue cycle ratio is applied. In general case when K block

limits: loadings are applied before failure occurs, the

equation for DCA becomes:

t1 (7)

( N1 / N 2 )0.4 ( N 2 / N3 )0.4

t f /3

2 2

{[(n1 / N1 ) n2 / N 2 ] ...

3 1 1

(8) (11)

f 1 )0.4

nK 1 / N K 1} nK / N K 1

( N K 1 / N K

4

1 2 1 (9) Note that the subscripts 1, 2, K-1, K are the

2

sequence numbers of the loadings as they occurs. A

In order to capture the effects of phase shift and mean

particular interest in (11) is the exponent 0.4. It is

stress, Vu et al. [1] proposed to distinguish two

shown that this value is reasonable for many

categories of metals based on ultimate strength Rm:

materials.

Low-strength metals (Rm < 750 MPa):

3. Application to multiaxial variable amplitude

1 = 0.65 and 2 = 0.8636; I f I1, a , I1, m I1, a I1, m loading

High-strength metals (Rm > 750 MPa): 3.1. Multiaxial S-N curves

1 = 0.65 and 2 = 0.8636;

This paragraph introduces the application of the

I f I1, a , I1, m I1, a

f 1

I1, m mentioned above approach for 1045 carbon steel

t1

under multiaxial variable amplitude loading. The

55

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 054-058

Youngs modulus E = 205 (GPa), yield stress Rp0.2 =

280 (MPa) and ultimate strength Rm = 580 (MPa).

The fatigue limits in fully reversed torsion ( t1 ) and

fully reversed tension ( f 1 ) have been reported in [6]

as: t1 169 (MPa), f 1 240 (MPa). The parameters

and in equation (1) are identified using fully

reversed torsion test data and the results are:

1206.39 , 0.7805 . With these values of

, and the fatigue limits of different multiaxial

constant amplitude loading cases, the functions of S-

N curves are as follows:

Under fully reversed torsion: Fig. 2. S-N curve under reversed tension

1.2812

xya

N 1206.391.2812

169

(12)

xya

Under fully reversed tension:

1.2812

xa

N 1206.39 1.2812

(13)

xa 240

where xa is normal stress amplitude.

k = xya / xa = 0.5):

xa

1.2812 Fig. 3. S-N curve under in phase tension torsion

N 1206.39 1.2812

(14) (k=0.5)

xa 190

Under in phase tension torsion (stress ratio

k = 1):

1.2812

xa

N 1206.391.2812 (15)

xa 132

(k=1)

Fig. 1 to Fig. 4 show the correlation between

experimental data [6] and predicted values for S-N

curves under fully reversed torsion (Fig. 1), fully

reversed tension (Fig. 2), in phase tension torsion

k=0.5 (Fig. 3) and in phase tension torsion k=1

(Fig. 4). It can be seen that the predicted S-N curves

Fig. 1. S-N curve under reversed torsion fit well with the experimental points both in values

and in trends for all studied loading cases. This

56

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 054-058

reveals that the Vu criterion is suitable for the Miner or DCA damage rule is then used to estimate

prediction of multiaxial S-N curves. the cumulative damage and the coresponding fatigue

life of each load case. Table 2 shows the experimental

3.2. Experiment data

and the predicted fatigue life of all studied loading

A testing campaign of variable amplitude cases.

loading is carried out by Flacelire in [6]. The

Table 2. Fatigue life of 1045 steel

variable amplitude loading is created by multiple

blocks of constant loading. These blocks have Speci Test Miner DCA

different loading natures, including fully reversed Case -men Nf (x105) Nf (x105) Nf (x105)

torsion (denoted as To), fully reversed tension (cycles) (cycles) (cycles)

(denoted as Ta), in phase tension-torsion (denoted as

TaTo) (k = 0.5) and in phase tension-torsion (TaTo) 1 6,27

1 6,02 5,94

(k = 1). Many loading profiles are conducted based 2 6,21

on two principal element blocks (denoted as Block A

1 4,84

and Block B). All the load cases are resumed in Table

1. One or several specimens are tested for each load 2 2 5,59 6,03 6,10

case. For more details, with load case 1, the two 3 9,54

element blocks are fully reversed tension in 105

cycles (Ta) and fully reversed torsion in 105 cycles 3 1 5,65 5,66 5,78

(To). The loading profile of load case 1 includes 4 1 3.93 5,84 5,99

repeatedly one block A followed by one block B until

5 1 5.23 6,24 6,36

the failure of specimen. The same loading profiles are

applied for load cases 2, 6 and 7. For the loading 1 2,58 2,02 1,71

profile of load cases 3, 4 and 5, the block A is 6 2 1,27 2,64 2,54

respectively repeated 1, 2 and 3 times before the

block B is applied until the failure. 3 4,18 2,75 2,65

Table 1. Variable amplitude tests on 1045 steel [6] 1 4,89 5,4 5,32

7 2 6,37

Load Block A Block B 3,55 3,62

Loading profile 3 4,12

case (cycles) (cycles)

1 Ta (105) To (105) (A/B)/(A/B)/... For better comparison of the results, fatigue life

5 5 predictions are illustrated in Fig. 5. These graphs

2 To (10 ) Ta (10 ) (A/B)/(A/B)/...

display the predicted life versus the experimental life

5 5

3 To (10 ) Ta (10 ) (A)/(B/B/...) on log-log coordinates. The solid line represents

4 5

To (10 ) 5

Ta (10 ) (A/A)/(B/B/...) perfect correlation between experimental and

5 5

predicted values. The outer bound (dash lines) is

5 To (10 ) Ta (10 ) (A/A/A)/(B/A/B...) related with a factor of two of fatigue life. Data points

6 TaTo TaTo that fall below the solid line represent conservative

k=1 k=0.5 (A/B)/(A/B)/... estimations and points above represent non-

(105) (105) conservative prediction. The Fig. 5a shows the

correlation between the estimations using Miner rule

7 TaTo TaTo and the experimental data while the Fig. 5b shows the

k=0.5 k=1 (A/B)/(A/B)/... results by using DCA rule. As shown in Fig. 5a and

(105) (105) Fig. 5b, there is not a significant difference in the

predictions using Miner rule and using DCA rule.

3.3. Results and discussion This reveals that the effect of load sequence is

For the experimental tests shown in Table 1, relatively small for the considered loading cases. The

fatigue life predictions were carried out based on the predicted results of both Miner rule and DCA rule are

methodology mentioned in section 2.1. For each quite satisfactory. All the data points are in the limit

block, the life level Ni,f is determined from S-N curve zone. It can be concluded that the fatigue life

functions (12, 13, 14, 15) depending on the nature of prediction method gives good estimation for 1045

loading (Ta, To, TaTo k = 0.5 or TaTo k =1). The steel.

57

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 054-058

1,E+06 1,E+06

Non-Conservative Non-Conservative

Estimated fatigue life (cycles)

Miner rule DCA rule

1,E+05 1,E+05

Conservative Conservative

1,E+04 1,E+04

1,E+04 1,E+05 1,E+06 1,E+04 1,E+05 1,E+06

Experimental fatigue life (cycles) Experimental fatigue life (cycles)

Fig. 5. (a) Miner rule and (b) DCA rule fatigue life correlation of 1045 steel under variable amplitude loading

107.02-2014.25.

In this paper, the criterion based on stress

invariants developed by the present authors, was used References

to account fatigue damage accumulation under

[1] Q.H. Vu, D. Halm, Y. Nadot, Multiaxial fatigue

variable amplitude loading conditions. The criterion for complex loading based on stress

concluding remarks are as follows: invariants, International Journal of Fatigue. 32 (2010)

10041014.

The Vu criterion is suitable for the prediction

of multiaxial S-N curves. [2] A. Fatemi, L. Yang, Cumulative fatigue damage and

life prediction theories: a survey of the state of the art

Under variable amplitude loading, the for homogeneous materials, Int. J Fatigue. 20(1)

prediction approach combining three tools (1998) 9-34.

(multiaxial criterion, multiaxial S-N curves,

[3] V. Papadopoulos, Long life fatigue under multiaxial

damage accumulation rule) gives good loading, International Journal of Fatigue. 23 (2001)

estimation of fatigue life. 839849.

Both Miner and DCA damage rules are [4] M. A. Miner, Cumulative damage in fatigue, Journal

appropriate for prediction of fatigue life of of Applied Mechanics. 67 (1945) A159-A164.

1045 steel.

[5] S.S. Manson, G.R. Halford, Practical implementation

The prediction methodology used in this study of the double linear damage rule and damage curve

could be modified to deal with more complex loading approach for treating cumulative fatigue damage, Int.

such as random loading in service. Cycle counting Journ. of Fracture. 17 (1981) 169-192.

techniques and/or overload effects need to be taken [6] L. Flacelire, Contribution la modlisation du

into account in further study. dommage en fatigue multiaxiale dun acier C36

Confrontation lexprience. PhD Thesis, University

Acknowledgments of Poitiers, France (2004).

This research is funded by Vietnam National

Foundation for Science and Technology

58

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 059-065

Numerical Simulation Method for Multiphase Flows

Vu Van Truong

Hanoi University of Science and Technology - No. 1, Dai Co Viet Str., Hai Ba Trung, Ha Noi, Viet Nam

Received: August 24, 2016; accepted: June 9, 2017

Abstract

This paper evaluates the performance of a direct numerical simulation (DNS) method called "front-tracking"

for multiphase flows. The interface separating two fluids or two phases is represented by connected

elements that move on a fixed rectangular grid used for solving the Navier-Stokes equations. The phases

values of material properties are specified by an indicator function that is reconstructed from the interface

point location. The interface points are updated by the velocities, which are interpolated from the velocities

on the fixed grid. The method is evaluated through a thorough investigation of the performance using a

variety of verification and validation test cases including advection of the interface, computations of the

surface tension, and interplay of the viscous and interfacial tension terms. The method is then used to

simulate the evolution of the RayleighTaylor instability. Good agreement in comparison of the present

method with the previous literature proved the accuracy and capability of the method.

Keywords: DNS, Front-tracking, Performance evaluation, Multiphase flow, Rayleigh-Taylor instability

further discussions of these methods, the reader is

Multiphase flows play an important role in the

referred to Sussman et al. [3] for the LS method, [4]

workings of nature and engineering problems. In

for the phase field method, and Takewaki et al. [5] for

terms of mathematics, multiphase problems are very

the CIP method. Instead of advecting the marker

difficult. Therefore, exact analytical solutions are

function directly, the interface between the different

available only for the simplest problems. In addition,

fluids can be tracked using marker points, and then

experimental studies of multiphase flows are not easy

the marker function is reconstructed from the

to carried out. Accordingly, computational fluid

information of the interface points. These methods

dynamics, including direct numerical simulations

are referred to as "front-tracking" (FT) methods. One

(DNS), becomes a standard tool in multiphase flow

of the most popular FT method is that introduced by

research.

Unverdi and Tryggvason [6]. Detailed description of

For DNS, it is necessary to solve the full Navier- the method and its applications can be found in [7]. In

Stokes equations, and a number of different the above-mentioned approaches, only one single

approaches have been developed and applied. One of field governing equations are used, and the boundary

the pioneering works calls back to Harlow and Welch conditions, e.g., the surface tension force, at the

[1], in which the authors distributed marker particles interface are introduced to the equations as the source

throughout the fluid region. They solved the terms. Accordingly, these methods are called "one-

governing equations on a regular grid that covers the fluid" approaches. A long with development of the

fluid-filled and the empty part of the domain. one-fluid formulation methods, other techniques were

Accordingly, the method is called "marker-and-cell" also explored, such as the boundary-fitted lagrangian

(MAC) method. The next generation of methods for method

multiphase flows was developed gradually from the

The front-tracking method introduced in [6] has

MAC method. One of the most known methods is the

been widely used in multifluid and multiphase

volume of fluid (VOF) method that was introduced

problems [7], and recently in our works [1012].

and discussed by Hirt and Nichols [2]. In the VOF

Despite the wide use of the front-tracking method, its

method, the different fluids are identified by a marker

evaluation has been conned to validation problems

function that takes different values in the different

specic to the particular applications of interest to the

fluids. Other maker function methods include the

respective authors. This calls to question the

level set (LS) method, the phase field method, and the

performance of the method for the various multiphase

ow problems. Accordingly, this paper presents a

Corresponding author: Tel.: (+84) 915.058.146 detailed analysis of the behavior of the method over a

Email: truong.vuvan1@hust.edu.vn wide range of verication and validation problems

59

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 059-065

the interfacial tension, and interplay of the viscous

and interfacial tension terms. These problems are where V is the velocity at the front point, which is

commonly used to verify and validate the accuracy interpolated from the fixed grid points using a smooth

and capability of the DNS methods for multiphase weighting function [13]

flows. We focus here only 2D problems.[8], and the

lattice-Boltzmann method [9]. V wij uij (4)

wij d x f ih d y f jh (5)

1 4h 1 cos r 2h , r 2h

d r (6)

0 , r 2h

indices of the fixed grid point. The information of the

front points is used to reconstruct an indicator that

has a value of one in one fluid and zero in the other:

I x x f n f dS (7)

f

Fig. 1. An interface represented by connected Then the density and viscosity fields are updated:

elements on a fixed grid. Information is passed

between the front points and the fixed grid 1 I 1 I 2 ; 1 I 1 I 2 (8)

2. Numerical method To calculate the interfacial tension force, we first

The fluids are assumed incompressible, calculate the net force on each front element:

immiscible and Newtonian. All phases are treated as

one fluid with variable density and viscosity . In Fl nds t s ds t 2 t1 (9)

s s

terms of the one-fluid formulation, the governing

equations include: where t is the tangents of the end points of each

element. After that, this force is transferred to the

u t uu p u uT fixed grid (so that it is included in the solution of the

Navier-Stokes equations) using the same smooth

weighting function, i.e. Eq. (6),

g n f (x x f )dS (1)

Fij Fl wij sl h2

f

(10)

u 0 (2) l

Here, u is the velocity vector, p is the pressure, g is Here sl is the length of the element. In the following,

the gravitational acceleration, and t is time. The we briefly describe the solution procedures.

superscript T denotes the transpose. The last term in

Suppose n time steps have been completed, to

Eq. (1) accounts for the interfacial tension force at the

calculate the solution at time level n+1 carry out the

interface. At the interface, denoted by f, is the following steps:

interfacial tension coefficient, is twice the mean

curvature, and nf is the unit normal vector to the 1. Update the position of the interface points

interface. The Dirac delta function (xxf) is zero [Eq. (3)]

everywhere except a unit impulse at the interfaces xf. 2. Reconstruct the indicator function, update the

The above equations are discretized using a second- material properties, and calculate the interfacial

order centered difference approximation for the tension force

spatial derivatives and an explicit predictor-corrector

method for time integration. The discretized 3. Calculate an intermediate velocity field:

u* tA n n u n n 1

equations are solved on a fixed, staggered grid using

the MAC method [1]. (11)

The interface separating two fluids is where the advection, the diffusion, the gravitational

represented by connected points on a fixed grid (Fig. body force and the interfacial tension force in Eq. (1)

1). The movement of the interface points is given as are denoted by A

60

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 059-065

4. Find the pressure field by solving the Poisson u, v 50 y 314, x 50 314 (14)

equation:

The grid resolution is 100100. Fig. 2 indicates

un1 u* t 1

n 1

p (12) that after one revolution, the interface of Zalesak's

disk is almost identical to the initial shape.

where un1 0 3.2. A circular drop in a vortical flow field

5. Compute the divergence-free time level n+1 This accuracy test introduced by Bell et al. [16]

fluid velocity field is to test how well a method to resolve thin laments

on the scale of the mesh which can occur in stretching

u n 1 u* t p n 1 (13) and tearing ows. A circular drop with a radius of

0.15 is initially located at (0.5, 0.75) in a box of

This solution procedure for time integration is first

order, to produce a second-order scheme, the 1.01.0 (Fig. 3a). The velocity field is given as:

technique described by Esmaeeli and Tryggvason u 2 cos t T sin 2 x sin y cos y

[14] is used. More detailed description of the method (15)

v 2 cos t T sin y sin x cos x

2

can be found in [7].

3. Performance tests where T is the period. This velocity field first

The following, we present the verication and stretches the drop into a thinner lament that is

validation of the method. The congurations to be wrapped around the center of the box, then slowly

adopted in these tests follow directly from the reverses and pulls the lament back into the initial

respective references, including dimensions and circular shape, i.e. at the end of the period T, the

velocity elds. shape should be the same as the initial one (Fig. 3a).

The grid resolution is 3232 with T = 8. Fig. 3b

3.1. A notched disc in rotating ow shows the drop shape at time t = T computed by the

Solid body rotation of a notched disc introduced present front-tracking method (FT) the dash line in

by Zalesak [15] (Fig. 2) is a test commonly used for Fig. 3b in comparison with the initial shape.

evaluating the accuracy of a method in maintaining a Obviously, the difference is barely visible. In contrast,

sharp corners. The initial data is a slotted circle the level set method (LS) [17] produced remarkable

centered at (50,75) with a radius of 15, a slot width of difference (the dash-dot line in Fig. 3b) even though a

5, and a slot length of 25. The domain is 100100. much finer grid 256256 was used.

3.3. Stationary drop

This accuracy test is to test how well a method

to predict the pressure difference between the inside

and outside of the drop. This pressure difference is

induced by the surface tension force acting on the

interface, as given by Laplace's law. For a circular

droplet in equilibrium the velocity should be exactly

zero. However, because of numerical errors, the

velocity field is not zero, and is referred to "spurious

currents" (Fig. 4). A good method should produce the

accurate pressure difference with spurious currents as

small as possible. There are three dimensionless

numbers that characterize the flow: the Laplace

number La d D d2 where D is the drop diameter,

and density and viscosity ratios d c and

d c . The subscripts d and c respectively represent

the fluids inside and outside the drop. The maximum

nondimensional velocity, i.e., the capillary number

Fig. 2. Comparison of the Zalesak disk interface

Ca, is defined as Ca dU max .

before (top) and after one rotation (bottom)

The velocity field is given as:

61

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 059-065

We consider a circular drop with a radius of 0.5 different techniques for computing surface tension,

placed at the center of a box of 22 with all other e.g., the continuous surface force (CSF) and the

properties set to unity except for (Fig. 4a). The grid continuous surface stress (CSS) [18], the magnitude

resolution is 6464. Accordingly, the value of is of the spurious currents produced by the front-

equal to the value of La. For instance, La = 0.12 tracking is much smaller as shown in Table 1.

yields = 0.12, and according to the YoungLaplace 3.4. A damped surface wave

equation the pressure difference is pexact = /R =

0.24. Fig. 4 indicates that the method predicts the To verify the interaction of the viscous term

pressure rise reasonable well with Ca = 2.6510-4. In with the surface tension term, we perform a

comparison with the VOF method implemented with simulation a damped surface wave between two

superposed immiscible uids, as shown in Fig. 5, and

compare the computational results with the initial

value theory of Prosperetti [19]. In a [0, 2][0, 2]

domain, two uids are initially separated by an

interface dened by

points. (a) The initial shape (t = 0) and the shape at

half period (t = T/2). (b) The shape of the drop at the

end of the period (t = T ) computed by the FT method,

i.e. the dash-line, compared with that computed by the Fig. 4. (a) The spurious currents generated by a

LS method [17], i.e. the dash-dot line (the solid line circular drop with La = 0.12 and (b) the distribution of

representing the initial shape). The LS method was the resulting pressure field along the line y = 1.0. The

used with a 256256 grid resolution grid resolution is 6464 with a domain of 22

62

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 059-065

La d c d c

VOF FT CSS (VOF) CSF (VOF) FT

0.357 1 1 32 32 310-3 1.210-2 2.710-4

where the wavelength is set to 2, and the initial shows the temporal evolution of the wave amplitude

amplitude A0 is set to 0.01. The boundary conditions normalized by in comparison with the theory of

are shown in Fig. 5a. Three grid resolutions are used: Prosperetti [19]. The figure shows that while 3232

3232, 6464 and 128128. The surface tension predicts an incorrect frequency the finner grid

coefficient is set to 2. The densities of two fluids 128128 produces a satisfactory result. This conrms

are identical and set to 1 = 2 = 1. The kinematic that the method is capable of accurately predicting

this ow.

viscosity of both uids is set to 0.064720863. The

time is non-dimensionalized by the inviscid 3.5. RayleighTaylor instability

We consider the growth of a two-dimensional

RayleighTaylor instability that has been studied by

numerous methods to characterize the quality of

interface transport methods, see, for example [20], as

shown in Fig. 6a. Two immiscible fluids with the

denser one at the top are placed in a box of 14. The

interface separating two fluids is defined as:

y 2 A0 cos 2 x (17)

density 1 = 1.225, while the bottom fluid has a

density of 2 = 0.1694. Both fluids have the same

domain, and (b) evolution of the amplitude of the

wave versus nondimensional time = 0t Fig. 6. RayleighTaylor instability problem

63

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 059-065

Fig. 7. Temporal evolution of the interface computed by the front-tracking method (left) in comparison with the

results predicted by Herrmann [20] (right)

viscosity 1 = 2 = 0.00313. The gravity acceleration some other direct numerical simulation methods, e.g.,

is set to 9.81. The boundary conditions are periodic at level set method and volume of fluid method for the

the left and right sides, and no-slip at the top and problems investigated in this study, with the similar

bottom. A grid resolution of 128512 is used. As grid resolutions the front-tracking method yielded the

time progresses, the heavy fluid (top) falls into the results which are more accurate, especially, in the

lighter fluid (bottom) due to gravity, and rolls up into case of calculating surface tension forces. In addition,

two counter-rotating vortices as shown in Fig. 6b. the present 2D method is quite simple and very easy

to be implemented. This facilitates computations of

Fig. 7 shows the evolution of the interface shape many multiphase problems.

at different times in comparison with the results

predicted by another numerical method of Herrmann However, the results presented in this paper are

[20] in which the author used a much finer grid of limited to the 2D cases. Therefore, in future research,

5122048. In each frame of Fig. 7, the left is the we will investigate some 3D problems to evaluate the

present result while the right is Herrmann's result. performance of the 3D front-tracking method.

Excellent agreement has been archieved. This Acknowledgments

confirms that front-tracking method produces the

accurate results for this multiphase problem. This research was supported by Hanoi

University of Science and Technology (HUST) under

5. Conclusion grant number T2016-PC-028.

We have presented the results of a number of References

verification and validation problems for the front-

tracking method, which has been widely used for [1] F.H. Harlow, J.E. Welch, Numerical calculation of

multiphase problems. The interface separating two time-dependent viscous incompressible flow of fluid

phases or fluids is represented connected elements with free surface, Phys. Fluids. 8 (1965) 21822189.

that are used to calculate the interfacial tension force. [2] C.. Hirt, B.. Nichols, Volume of fluid (VOF) method

The discretized governing equations are solved by the for the dynamics of free boundaries, J. Comput. Phys.

second-order predictor-corrector method. The various 39 (1981) 201225.

problems have been solved: a notched disk in rotating [3] M. Sussman, E. Fatemi, P. Smereka, S. Osher, An

ow, a circular drop in a vortical flow field, a improved level set method for incompressible two-

stationary drop, and a damped surface wave. The phase flows, Comput. Fluids. 27 (1998) 663680.

method is then used to simulate the Rayleigh-Taylor

[4] D. Jacqmin, Calculation of two-phase NavierStokes

problem. The numerical results produced by the

flows using phase-field modeling, J. Comput. Phys.

method are reasonably accurate and satisfactory. This 155 (1999) 96127.

confirms and supports the accuracy of the method for

numerous multiphase problems. In comparison with [5] H. Takewaki, A. Nishiguchi, T. Yabe, Cubic

interpolated pseudo-particle method (CIP) for solving

64

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 059-065

hyperbolic-type equations, J. Comput. Phys. 61 (1985) [12] T.V. Vu, G. Tryggvason, S. Homma, J.C. Wells,

261268. Numerical investigations of drop solidification on a

cold plate in the presence of volume change, Int. J.

[6] S.O. Unverdi, G. Tryggvason, A front-tracking Multiphase Flow. 76 (2015) 7385.

method for viscous, incompressible, multi-fluid flows,

J. Comput. Phys. 100 (1992) 2537. [13] C.S. Peskin, Numerical analysis of blood flow in the

heart, J. Comput. Phys. 25 (1977) 220252.

[7] G. Tryggvason, B. Bunner, A. Esmaeeli, D. Juric, N.

Al-Rawahi, W. Tauber, J. Han, S. Nas, Y.-J. Jan, A [14] A. Esmaeeli, G. Tryggvason, Computations of film

front-tracking method for the computations of boiling. Part I: numerical method, Int. J. Heat Mass

multiphase flow, J. Comput. Phys. 169 (2001) 708 Transfer. 47 (2004) 54515461.

759.

[15] S.T. Zalesak, Fully multidimensional flux-corrected

[8] C.W. Hirt, J.L. Cook, T.D. Butler, A Lagrangian transport algorithms for fluids, J. Comput. Phys. 31

method for calculating the dynamics of an (1979) 335362.

incompressible fluid with free surface, J. Comput.

Phys. 5 (1970) 103124. [16] J.B. Bell, P. Colella, H.M. Glaz, A second-order

projection method for the incompressible Navier-

[9] X. Shan, H. Chen, Lattice Boltzmann model for Stokes equations, J. Comput. Phys. 85 (1989) 257

simulating flows with multiple phases and 283.

components, Phys. Rev. E. 47 (1993) 1815.

[17] D. Enright, R. Fedkiw, J. Ferziger, I. Mitchell, A

[10] T.V. Vu, S. Homma, G. Tryggvason, J.C. Wells, H. hybrid particle level set method for improved interface

Takakura, Computations of breakup modes in laminar capturing, J. Comput. Phys. 183 (2002) 83116.

compound liquid jets in a coflowing fluid, Int. J.

Multiphase Flow. 49 (2013) 5869. [18] G. Tryggvason, R. Scardovelli, S. Zaleski, Direct

numerical simulations of gas-liquid multiphase flows,

[11] T.V. Vu, G. Tryggvason, S. Homma, J.C. Wells, H. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; New York,

Takakura, A front-tracking method for three-phase 2011.

computations of solidification with volume change, J.

Chem. Eng. Jpn. 46 (2013) 726731. [19] A. Prosperetti, Motion of two superposed viscous

fluids, Phys. Fluids. 24 (1981) 12171223.

[20] M. Herrmann, A balanced force refined level set grid

method for two-phase flows on unstructured flow

solver grids, J. Comput. Phys. 227 (2008) 26742706.

65

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 066-070

Amorphous Powder

Nguyen Thi Hoang Oanh, Tran Quoc Lap, Pham Ngoc Dieu Quynh, Le Hong Thang,

Nguyen Thi Anh Nguyet, Pham Ngoc Huyen, Nguyen Hoang Viet*

Hanoi University of Science and Technology No. 1, Dai Co Viet Str., Hai Ba Trung, Ha Noi, Viet Nam

Received: June 15, 2016; accepted: June 9, 2017

Abstract

The crystallization kinetics of an Al80Fe20 amorphous powder alloy were investigated by thermal analysis.

Crystallization of amorphous Al80Fe20 during continuous heating undergoes four stages. The first-stage

crystallization leads to the formation of fcc-Al from amorphous matrix. The next stages are the

decomposition of the residual amorphous phase into several intermetallic compounds. The activation

energies of the alloy were calculated from differential scanning calorimetry data using the Kissinger, Ozawa

and AugisBennett models. The non-isothermal crystallization kinetics are analyzed by Johnson-Mehl-

Avrami equation. The value of the Avrami index indicated that the crystallization is interface - controlled

growth.

Keywords: amorphous alloys, mechanical alloying, crystallization kinetics, Avrami exponent

kinetics by so-called non-isothermal methods.

Al-rich metallic glasses have generated

Several reports on the successful formation of

considerable research interest because of the excellent

an amorphous phase through MA have been

mechanical and chemical properties. Tensile strength

published for Al80Fe20 amorphous alloy [2, 8-10]. But

of Al-based amorphous alloys is 2-5 times higher

there is a lack of studies regarding the crystallization

than their conventional crystalline counterparts [1-3].

kinetics of Al80Fe20 amorphous alloy.

Their high tensile strength can be further enhanced if

In this study, the thermal stability as well as the

fcc-Al nano-particles are homogeneously dispersed

crystallization kinetics of the mechanically alloyed

within a certain size and fraction range through

Al80Fe20 amorphous powder has been investigated

primary crystallization [4, 5]. One of the critical

using DSC in non-isothermal modes. The value of the

aspects of their applications is thermal stability, as the

Avrami index is calculated by Johnson-Mehl-Avrami

amorphous state is a non-equilibrium phase which

equation to determine crystallization mechanism of

irreversibly crystallizes upon heating. The

Al80Fe20 amorphous powder.

crystallization kinetics are very important for the

development of amorphous alloys and nanocrystalline 2. Experimental

materials, the properties of which are strongly

Al80Fe20 amorphous alloy powder was prepared

affected by the crystallization process. Therefore, the

via mechanical alloying process after 60h of milling

crystallization kinetics of amorphous alloys have

(more details in [11]). The structure of the as-

been studied extensively. Controlling the

received samples was confirmed by XRD

microstructure development from the glassy

measurements using RIGAKU RINT-2000 with

precursors requires detailed understanding of the

CuK (=1.5405) radiation. Morphology of the

specific mechanisms influencing structural

amorphous powder samples was observed by a field

transformations. Moreover, crystallization studies are

emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM).

essential for the proper choice of the consolidation

The crystallization kinetic of the powders was

parameters in order to maximize densification and, at

evaluated by non-isothermal DSC under a continuous

the same time, retaining the desired microstructure [6,

flow of Ar gas (70 mL/min) at heating rates of 5, 10,

7].

20 and 40 K/min using NETZSCH STA 409C, where

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

platinum cups were used as containers.

technique allows a rapid and precise determination of

crystallization temperatures of amorphous materials. 3. Results and disscution

Fig. 1 shows the XRD pattern of Al80Fe20

* powder mixture presented a fully amorphous

Corresponding author: Tel.: (+84) 904.777.570

structure after 60 hours of milling.

Email: viet.nguyenhoang@hust.edu.vn

66

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 066-070

peak temperature (Tp) values at different heating rates

are summarized in Table 1.

Table 1. Characteristic temperature at crystallization

peaks of Al80Fe20 powder at different heating rates

Heating rate, Tp1, Tp2, Tp3, Tp4,

K/min C C C C

5 360.9 412.0 486.0 576,.9

10 366.1 424.0 496.5 587.6

20 371.7 438.2 506.8 596.4

Fig. 1. X-ray diffraction patterns of Al80Fe20 40 373.6 445.9 512.5 601.3

amorphous powder.

Similar observation for the temperature peak for

the first crystallization peak of those amorphous

samples were made by F. Zhou [8] with Tp1 about 400

o

C. These amorphous alloys have crystallization

temperature range from 300 oC to 640 oC by F. Zhou

and from 350 oC to 630 oC in this study.

The activation energy of the crystallization

process gives important information regarding the

thermal stability of the sample. It can be evaluated

5m from constant-rate heating DSC curves taken at

different heating rates using the Kissinger Ozawa and

Fig. 2. FE-SEM image of Al80Fe20 amorphous Augis-Bennett equations, as given by equation (1),

powder after 60h of milling. (2), (3), respectively: [12]

E

ln 2 a const (1)

T RTp

p

Ea

ln( ) const (2)

RTp

E

ln

T T a const (3)

p o RTp

at the exothermal peak, R is the gas constant and Ea is

the activation energy of crystallization. Figure 4-6

show that Kissinger plot ln(/T p2) versus 1000/Tp,

Fig. 3. DSC curves of Al80Fe20 amorphous powder at Ozawa plot ln() versus 1000/Tp, Augis-Bennett plot

various heating rates. ln(/Tp-To) versus 1000/Tp, which yields straight lines

with a good fit, respectively. Table 2 presents results

Fig. 2 illustrates the SEM/EDS observation for of the activation energy calculated through three

as-received Al80Fe20 amorphous powder. It can be methods.

seen that fine powder particles, the particle size

mostly below 15 m, were agglomerated to form Table 2. Activation energy (Ea [kJ/mol]) of Al80Fe20

larger particles amorphous powder for the crystallization stages

determined via three methods

Fig. 3 presents the DSC diagram for the Al80Fe20

amorphous powder as a function of temperature taken Active Energy, kJ/mol

Methods

at different heating rates. As can be seen, this powder Peak 1 Peak 2 Peak 3 Peak 4

has four crystallization peaks, which means that Kissinger 510.1 230.2 362.6 493.2

powder undergoes four crystallization stages.

Ozawa 520.7 241.8 375.4 507.6

Moreover, increasing the heating rate from 5 to 40

o

C/min caused all position of the exothermic Augis-Bennett 515.4 236.0 369.0 500.4

67

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 066-070

can be obtained by Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA)

equation: [12]

x(t ) 1 e k

n

(4)

where x is the crystallization volume fraction at

time t, n is the Avrami exponent and k is the reaction

rate constant related to absolute temperature

described by Arrhenius equation:

Ea

k ko e RT

(5)

Fig. 4. Kissinger plots of the Al80Fe20 amorphous

powder. where is a constant, is the activation

energy, R is the gas constant and T is the absolute

temperature.

There are 2 methods to determine the Avrami

parameter. The first method was proposed by Ozawa.

We have:

d ln( ln(1 x))

n

d ln T

(6)

The value of x at any selected T is calculated

from the ratio of the partial area of the crystallization

peak at the selected temperature T to the total area of

the exothermic peak. Fig. 7 shows diagram of

crystallized volume fraction for Al80Fe20 amorphous

Fig. 5. Ozawa plots of the Al80Fe20 amorphous powder.

powder.

Fig. 6. Augis-Bennett plots of the Al80Fe20 powder at different heating rates.

amorphous powder.

Combining equation (6) and plot (7), at any

It can be seen, the values of the activation fixed temperature, we can consider the Avrami

energies calculated from three models are parameter to be 0.91 in the first crystallization event.

approximate. Therefore, we can use one of the three

methods to calculate the activation energy. The second method to calculate Avrami

parameter is through the activation energy calculated

The Avrami index (n) gives detailed information by Kissinger method, as following

on the nucleation and growth mechanism of new

68

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 066-070

R ln( ln(1 x)) amorphous alloy were made by F. Zhou et al. [8],

n( x ) (7) and M. Krasnowski [2].

1

Ex

T

The crystallized volume fraction is also

determined by measuring the corresponding partial

area of the exothermic peak. Plotting ln[-ln(1-x)]

versus ln(1/T) with x between the range of 15% to

85% of transformed fractions, the JMA plots at

different heating rates are obtained as in Fig. 8.

after heat treatment at temperatures at (a) 413, (b)

468, (c) 535 and (d) 670 C.

4. Conclusion

Crystallization kinetics of mechanically alloyed

Al80Fe20 amorphous powder have been investigated

Fig. 8. JMA plots for 1st crystallization peaks of using DSC in non-isothermal modes. The

Al80Fe20 amorphous alloys at different heating rates. crystallization behavior of amorphous powder occurs

The Avrami index was obtained by the slopes of in four stages in the temperature range of 350 and 630

o

these plots. The Avrami index (n) is 0.80 in the first C. The primary phase of fcc Al together with

crystallization process. According to calculated maintaining amorphous phase in the first

Avrami index calculated by 2 methods is approximate crystallization event followed by formation of

to 1. The Avrami index usually between 1 and 4 if the Al13Fe4, Al3Fe and Al6Fe intermetallic phases in the

growth of the crystal is diffusion controlled. With n second crystallization event. At the higher

less than 1, the crystal growth has been shown to be crystallization temperature in the third crystallization

interface controlled [13]. A low value of n has also stage, intermetallic phases of Al13Fe4 and Al6Fe

been reported by other investigators in the primary occurred. In the final exothermic event, phases of fcc-

crystallization of amorphous alloys. This value Al, Al13Fe4 and AlFe3 can be realized. The values of

suggesting that the transformation in this stage is activation energy calculated from three methods

interface-controlled growth [14]. Kissinger, Ozawa and Augis-Bennett are almost

same. The Avrami exponent is less than 1 for the first

In order to determine the products of crystallization peak, suggesting that the

crystallization, milled powders were annealed in the transformation was interface - controlled growth.

DSC by heating at 20 C/min to temperature in the

range of 413 and 670 C, coressponding to the end Acknowledgments

temperatures of four crystallization reactions. Fig. 9 This research is funded by Vietnam National

shows XRD spectra from the amorphous Al80Fe20 Foundation for Science and Technology

alloy after heat treatment at different temperatures. Development (NAFOSTED) under grant number

After heating to 413 C, the amorphous alloy began 103.02-2012.19.

to crystallize into fcc-Al phase and remain

amorphous phase. After increase heating temperature References

to 468 C intermetallic phases of Al13Fe4, Al3Fe and [1]. John H. Perepezko and Rainer J. Hebert,

Al6Fe can be detected from XRD pattern in Fig. 8 (b). Amorphous Aluminum AlloysSynthesis and

At higher temperature of 535 C cleary diffraction Stability. JOM, 54 (2002) 34-39.

peaks of Al13Fe4 and Al6Fe phases can be seen Fig. 8

(c). At the final heating temperature of 670 C, no [2]. M. Krasnowski and T. Kulik, Nanocrystalline

amorphous phase can be retained, phases of fcc-Al and amorphous Al-Fe alloys containing 60-85%

and Al13Fe4 can be obtained. Similar observation of Al synthesised by mechanical alloying and

regarding products of structural changes for the phase transformations induced by heating of

69

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 066-070

milling products. Materials Chemistry and Al80Fe20 alloy powders prepared by ball milling.

Physics, 116 (2009) 631-637. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 250252,

Part 2 (1999) 704-708.

[3]. Akihisa Inoue, Amorphous,

nanoquasicrystalline and nanocrystalline alloys [9]. J. Noetzel, D.C. Meyer, A. Tselev, A. Mcklich,

in Al-based systems. Progress in Materials P. Paufler, F. Prokert, E. Wieser, and W. Mller,

Science, 43 (1998) 365-520. Amorphization of Fe/Al: bulk and thin-film

effects. Applied Physics A, 71 (2000) 47-54.

[4]. Sergio Scudino, Kumar B. Surreddi, Hoang V.

Nguyen, Gang Liu, Thomas Gemming, Mira [10]. Wang Genmiao, Zhang Daoyuan, Chen Huiyu,

Sakaliyska, Ji S. Kim, Jens Vierke, Markus Lin Bixia, Wang Weihua, and Dong Yuanda,

Wollgarten, and Jurgen Eckert, High-strength Formation and properties of Fe20Al80 amorphous

Al87Ni8La5 bulk alloy produced by spark plasma powder. Physics Letters A, 155 (1991) 57-61.

sintering of gas atomized powders. Journal of

[11]. Nguyen Hoang Viet, Nguyen Thi Hoang Oanh,

Materials Research, 24 (2009) 2909-2916.

Pham Ngoc Dieu Quynh, Tran Quoc Lap, and

[5]. Akihisa Inoue and Hisamichi Kimura, High- Kim Ji Soon. Bulk Amorphous Al80Fe20

strength Al-based nanostructure alloys. Current Produced by Mechanical Alloying and Spark-

Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science, 2 Plasma Sintering. in The 2nd International

(1997) 305-310. Conference on Advanced Materials and

Nanotechnology 2014. Hanoi: Bach Khoa

[6]. P. P. Choi, J. S. Kim, O. T. H. Nguyen, D. H.

Publishing house.

Kwon, Y. S. Kwon, and J. C. Kim, Al-La-Ni-Fe

bulk metallic glasses produced by mechanical [12]. Miray elikbilek, Ali Erin Ersundu, and

alloying and spark-plasma sintering. Materials Sheyla Aydn, Chapter 6 - Crystallization

Science and Engineering: A, 449-451 (2007) Kinetics of Amorphous Materials, in Advances

1119-1122. in Crystallization Processes, Y. Mastai, Editor.

2012, InTech. p. 127-158.

[7]. K. B. Surreddi, S. Scudino, M. Sakaliyska, K.

G. Prashanth, D. J. Sordelet, and J. Eckert, [13]. S. W. Du and R. V. Ramanujan, Crystallization

Crystallization behavior and consolidation of and magnetic properties of Fe40Ni38B18Mo4

gas-atomized Al84Gd6Ni7Co3 glassy powder. amorphous alloy. Journal of Non-Crystalline

Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 491 (2010) Solids, 351 (2005) 3105-3113.

137-142.

[14]. J.W. Christian, The Theory of Transformations

[8]. F. Zhou, R. Lck, M. Scheffer, D. Lang, and K. in Metals and Alloys. 1975, Netherlands:

Lu, The crystallization process of amorphous Pergamon, Oxford.

70

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 071-075

Carbide-Reinforced Copper-Based Composite Synthesized

by Powder Metallurgy

Le Minh Hai

Hanoi University of Science and Technology - No. 1, Dai Co Viet, Hai Ba Trung, Hanoi, Viet Nam

Received: December 21, 2016; accepted: June 9, 2017

Abstract

An in-situ Cu-(Nb,Ti)C composite was prepared through mechanical alloying of Cu-Nb-Ti-C mixture, followed

by pressing and sintering. The obtained results showed that compaction pressure has a great influence on the

properties of the bulk composite. Density, microhardness and electrical conductivity of the bulk composite

increased with increasing compaction pressure as increasing pressure provides better packing and lower

porosity. The microhardness increased from 369 to 443 HV and the electrical conductivity of the Cu-(Nb,Ti)C

composite increased, going from 7.46 to 8.93 (m-1x108) as the compaction pressure was increased into the

range of 500 - 1000 MPa. A good combination of microhardness of 425 HV and electrical conductivity of

8.62 x 10-8 (m)-1 of the Cu-15%vol. (Nb,Ti)C composite was obtained at compaction pressure of 800MPa.

Keywords: Cu, (Nb,Ti)C, mechanical alloying, sintering, compaction pressure.

achieved in-situ Cu-(Nb,Ti)C powder via powder

Mechanical alloying (MA) is a potential powder

metallurgical routes including compaction by uniaxial

metallurgical route for preparing in-situ ceramic

cold pressing and sintering in an inert atmosphere.

particle-reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs)

Consequently, powder consolidation step has a

from a mixture of starting elemental powders by high

significant influence in determining the final

energy ball-milling [1-3]. The greatest advantage of

properties of the in-situ copper matrix composite.

this route is it is able to develop nanostructured

Compaction pressure is expected to play an important

materials such as nanocomposites [4]. For example,

role in developing a process to produce a bulk in-situ

Krasnowski et al. [5] have produced FeAl30%TiC

Cu-(Nb,Ti)C composite with a good combination of

nanocomposite by MA and hot-pressing consolidation

strength and electrical conductivity. In present work,

from pure elemental Fe, Al, Ti, and C powders.

we studied the influence of the compaction pressure on

Nanocomposite materials provide the possibility for

both mechanical and electrical conductivity of the bulk

enhanced functionality and multifunctional properties

Cu-15% vol. (Nb,Ti)C composite.

in contrast with their more limited single component

counterparts [6]. 2. Experimental procedure

In our previous work [7], the in-situ Cu-15% vol. The starting powders used were pure elemental

(Nb,Ti)C nanocomposite powder has been Cu, Nb, Ti and C powders, purchased from Sigma-

successfully synthesized via MA at room temperature Aldrich, with mixture composition corresponding to

without subsequent heat treatment. After 10 hours of Cu-15vol.% (Nb,Ti)C. The copper powder was of

milling the peaks observed for the starting Nb and Ti 99.8% purity with an average particle size of 32.9 m;

powders are no longer observable, while the peaks of the niobium powder was of 99.9% purity with an

niobium-titanium carbide (Nb,Ti)C appear implying average particle size of 4.7 m; the titanium powder

that a significant volume fraction of carbide had was of 98% purity with a particle size of 30.2 m; and

already formed. Maximum volume fraction of the the graphite powder was 99.99% pure with an average

carbide was reached after 20 hours of milling. The particle size of 4.08 m.

formed in-situ carbide (Nb,Ti)C particles exhibited an

The mixture of powders was milled using a

excellent interfacial bonding with the copper matrix

Fritsch Pulveristte 6 planetary ball mill in an argon

and a good dispersion with particle size ranging from

atmosphere with a rotation speed of 400 rpm. The ball-

20 to 80 nm.

*

Corresponding author: Tel.: (+84) 912.098.484

Email: hai.leminh@hust.edu.vn

71

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 071-075

to-powder ratio was 10:1 with 10mm-diameter Increasing pressure provided better packing and led to

stainless steel balls. a decrease in porosity with the formation of new

particle contacts [9]. High pressure caused localized

After 20 hours of milling, the as-milled powders

deformation at the contacts allowing new contacts to

were extracted for further characterization by X-ray

form as the gaps between particles collapsed [10-11].

diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron

Consequently, further gains in green density require

microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray

greater expenditures of energy from the external

(EDX) analysis. The as-milled powders were

pressure source.

compacted in a cylindrical steel mould and then the

compacted composites were sintered by vacuum As can be observed in the green density curve in

sintering. In order to investigate the influences of Figure 2, the response of the as-milled composite

compaction pressure, the sintering temperature was powders during uni-axial pressing can be divided into

fixed at 900oC and the compaction pressure was varied two stages. During the first stage (below 800MPa)

in a range of 500-1000MPa. The density of the sintered densification increased abruptly until the start of the

in-situ Cu-(Nb,Ti)C composite was determined based second stage (above 800 MPa), where the densification

on Archimedes principle using a Satorious electronic rate lowered and remained constant, reflecting the

analytical balance and reported as relative density. particle work hardening. The sintered densities of the

Micro-hardness and electrical conductivity of the composites followed an increasing trend similar to that

composite were measured using a Shimadzu Vickers of green density. Figure 2 also shows clearly that the

micro-hardness tester at a load of 100 g and a four- sintered densities are higher than the green densities.

point probe Changmin Tech CMT-SR2000N, This phenomenon can be explained by a reduction in

respectively. surface tension, dimension shrinkage of the composite

and a reduction of internal voids during sintering [12].

3. Results and discussion

Because the compaction pressure plays a

In order to study the effects of compaction

significant role in the densification of the specimen, it

pressure on the properties of the composite, the Cu-15

is expected that varying the pressure of compaction

vol.% (Nb,Ti)C as-milled powder after 20 hours of

should drastically alter the microhardness. The

milling was compacted at different pressures in the

average values of five runs of Vickers microhardness

range of 500-1000 MPa. SEM images of the polished

for the sintered composites with different compaction

cross-sections of the sintered composites produced

pressures are given in Figure 3. The microhardness

with different compaction pressures are shown in

values increased from 369 to 443 HV as the

Figure 1 (a-f). Increasing the compaction pressure

compaction pressure increased from 500 to 1000 MPa.

causes considerable change in the compact

This increase in microhardness is the result of work

microstructure as the size and fraction of pores

hardening due to severe plastic deformation during

decrease remarkably. Furthermore, the pore shape

uni-axial compaction. On the other hand, it is well

varies as well. According to Gessinger et al. [8], the

known that the mechanical properties of powder

shape of pores shows more acute angles when

metallurgical materials are degraded by the presence

consolidating at higher pressure. Therefore, the driving

of pores which reduce the effective cross-sectional

force for shrinkage increases with the compacting

area and negatively affect strength. When the pressure

pressure since the curvature of the core increases.

of compaction is kept low, the interparticle contacts

As applied pressure increases, the density of the are randomly distributed with the presence of voids

powder compact increases while porosity decreases. between particles. When the pressure of compaction is

Determination of the densification behaviour of a increased, particle contacts get rearranged to fill these

powder is usually based on the measurement of the voids and pores, resulting in greater densification of

density of the powder compact as a function of the the specimen and increased microhardness.

compaction. Figure 2 shows the density of the sintered Furthermore, higher compaction pressure also

composite as a function of compaction pressure. An increased the dislocation population, resulting in an

application of higher loads increases both green and initially faster sintering rate [11]. Higher compaction

sintered densities of the composites. The green density pressure, therefore, contributes to the increase of

increases from 5.55 g/cm3 [corresponding to 73.3% hardness of the sintered composite.

theoretical density (TD)] to 5.91 g/cm3 (78.9% TD),

while the sintered density increases from 6.09 g/cm3

(82.1% TD) to 6.79 g/cm3 (91.8% TD) as compaction

pressure increases from 500 MPa to 1000 MPa.

72

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 071-075

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

(e) (f)

Fig. 1. SEM images showing morphology of Cu-15% vol. (Nb,Ti)C sintered pellets with different compactions

pressure (a) 500 MPa (b) 600 MPa (b) 700 MPa (c) 800 MPa (d) 900 MPa (e) 1000 MPa

the composite to obtain good conductivity. High

porosity compaction led to a high resistance to the

The dependence of electrical conductivity on

conduction of electron because the pores reduced the

compaction pressure is plotted in Figure 4. Like

effective cross-sectional area for electron movement

microhardnes, conductivity of the Cu-(Nb,Ti)C

[13].

composite also increased, going from 7.46 to 8.93

(m-1x108) as the compaction pressure was increased Figure 5 indicates that a good combination of

into the range of 500 - 1000 MPa. Electrical microhardness and electrical conductivity of the

conductivity of the sintered composite was found to be composite was obtained at 800 MPa of compaction

a strong function of compaction pressure. Higher pressure, where the microhardness and conductivity

applied compaction pressure increased considerably were 430.5 HV and 8.77 x 108 (m)-1, respectively,

the electrical conductivity of the sintered composite. suggesting that to produce Cu-(Nb,Ti)C composite

The different electrical conductivity might be with high microhardness and high electrical

attributed mainly to the existence of residual pores. conductivity, the optimum compaction pressure is

Presence of closed porosities in the compact restricts 800MPa.

73

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 071-075

1.0

7.4 Green density

Sintered density 0.9

7.0

Density (g/cm3)

6.6

0.8

6.2

0.7

5.8

5.4 0.6

5.0

400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 0.5

Compaction pressure P (MPa) 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100

Compaction pressure P (MPa)

Fig. 2. Effect of compaction pressure on the green and

sintered density at 900oC of Cu-15%vol. (Nb,Ti)C Fig. 4. Effect of compaction pressure on the electrical

composites conductivity of Cu-(Nb,Ti)C composite

450 10.0

900 MPa

430

Micro-hardness (HV)

9.0

800 MPa

410

600 MPa 1000

8.0

390 700 MPa MPa

7.0

350

400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 6.0

Compaction pressure P (MPa) 350 380 410 440

Microhardness (HV)

Fig. 3. Effect of compaction pressure on the

microhardness of of Cu-15%vol. (Nb,Ti)C composites Fig. 5. Variations in microhardness and electrical

sintered at 900oC conductivity of Cu-15%vol. (Nb,Ti)C composites with

compaction pressure

4. Conclusion

Compaction pressure played a significant role in

the density, consequently on the microhardness and References

electrical conductivity of the bulk sintered Cu-

[1] M.S El-Eskandarany, Mechanical alloying for

(Nb,Ti)C. As applied pressure increases, the density of

fabrication of advanced engineering materials, Noyes

the powder compact increases while porosity Publications, New York, USA (2001) 16-18

decreases. The microhardness values increased from

369 to 443 HV and the electrical conductivity of the [2] C. Suryanarayana, Mechanical Alloying and Milling,

Cu-(Nb,Ti)C composite increased, going from 7.46 to Marcek Dekker, New York, USA (2004) 59-66, 83-87

8.93 (m-1x108) as the compaction pressure was [3] Lu L., Lai M. O. (1998), Mechanical Alloying, Kluwer

increased into the range of 500 - 1000 MPa. The Academic, USA, p.48.

obtained results suggest that to produce Cu-(Nb,Ti)C [4] L. Froyen, J.D. Wilde, Materials Science Forum Vols

composite with high microhardness and high electrical 437-438 (2003) 141-144.

conductivity, the suitable compaction pressure is

800MPa. [5] M. Krasnowski, T. Kulik, Journal of Alloys and

Compounds 448 (2008) 227-233.

74

Journal of Science & Technology 119 (2017) 071-075

[6] K.M. Hanif, R.W. Meulenberg, F.F. Strouse, Journal [10] W.F. Wang, Powder Metallurgy 40(4), (1997) 295-

of the American Chemical Society 124 (2002) 11495- 300.

11502.

[11] R.M. German, Powder Metallurgy Science, Second

[7] L.M. Hai and T.D. Huy, Journal of Science and edition, Metal Powder Industries Federation, New

Technology 112 (2016) 80-84. Jersey (1994) 173-175.

[8] Gessinger G.H., Powder metallurgy 3(1) (1971) 29-32 [12] M.P. Groover, Fundamentals of modern

manufacturing: Materials, Process & Systems, John

[9] I.M. Moon, J.S. Choi, Powder Metallurgy 28 (1) Wiley & Sons, New York (2002) 334-348.

(1985) 21-28.

[13] L. Li, Y.S. Wong, J.Y.H. Fuh, L. Lu, Materials and

Design 113 (2001) 563567.

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