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British Standard

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18 December 2002

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Steel, concrete and

composite bridges
Part 9: Bridge bearings

Section 9.2 Specification for materials,

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manufacture and installation of bridge


UDC 624.21.01:624.078.5
BS 5400-9.2:1983

Cooperating organizations

The Civil Engineering and Building Structures Standards Committee, under

whose direction this British Standard was prepared, consists of
representatives from the following:

Aluminium Federation
Association of Consulting Engineers*
Brick Development Association
British Constructional Steelwork Association*
British Precast Concrete Federation Ltd.*
British Steel Industry*
Cement and Concrete Association*
Concrete Society Limited*
Consumer Standards Advisory Committee of BSI
Convention of Scottish Local Authorities
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County Surveyors Society

Department of the Environment (Building Research Establishment)*
Department of the Environment (Housing and Construction)
Department of the Environment (PSA)*
Department of the Environment (Transport and Road Research Laboratory)*
Department of the Environment (Water Directorate)
Department of Transport*
Federation of Civil Engineering Contractors*
Health and Safety Executive
Institution of Civil Engineers*
Institution of Public Health Engineers
Institution of Structural Engineers*
Institution of Water Engineers and Scientists
Local Authorities Organization
Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food
National Federation of Building Trades Employers
National Water Council
Royal Institute of British Architects
Scottish Development Department*
Timber Research and Development Association
Trades Union Congress

The organizations marked with an asterisk in the above list, together with the
following, were directly represented on the Technical Committee entrusted
with the preparation of this British Standard:

Association of County Councils

British Railways Board
British Structural Bearings Manufacturers Association
Constructional Steel Research and Development Organization
Greater London Council
Institution of Highway Engineers
London Transport Executive
This British Standard, having Ministry of Defence
been prepared under the Sand and Gravel Association Limited
direction of the Civil Engineering
Welding Institute
and Building Structures
Standards Committee, was
published under the authority
of the Board of BSI and comes
into effect on Amendments issued since publication
31 January 1983.
Amd. No. Date of issue Comments
BSI 12-1998

The following BSI references

relate to the work on this
Committee reference CSB/30
Draft for comment 81/10184 DC

ISBN 0 580 13016 9

BS 5400-9.2:1983


Cooperating organizations Inside front cover
Foreword iv
1 Scope 1
2 References 1
3 Materials 1
3.1 General 1
3.2 Steel 1
3.2.1 General 1
3.2.2 Hardened steel for rollers and rockers 1
3.3 Cast iron 1
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3.4 Cast aluminium 1

3.5 Copper alloy castings 1
3.6 Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) 1
3.6.1 General 1
3.6.2 Lubrication cavities 1
3.6.3 Lubricants 1
3.6.4 Adhesives 1
3.7 Elastomer 1
3.7.1 General 1
3.7.2 Mechanical properties 2
3.7.3 Methods of test 2 Hardness 2 Tensile strength and elongation at break 2 Ageing 2 Compression set 2 Low temperature brittleness 2 Low temperature stiffening 2 Low temperature crystallization 2 Ozone resistance 2 Shear modulus 2
3.7.4 Test pieces 2 General 2 Test samples from surface of bearing 3 Test samples from body of bearing 3
3.7.5 Frequency of tests 3
3.8 Fastenings 3
3.9 Locating keys and keyways 3
3.10 Other materials 3
4 Workmanship 3
4.1 Interchangeability of parts 3
4.2 Steel parts 3
4.3 Metal elements 3
4.3.1 Finished surfaces 3
4.3.2 Bolts and bolt holes 3
4.3.3 Welding 3 General 3 Aluminium 3 Stainless steel 3

BSI 12-1998 i
BS 5400-9.2:1983

4.3.4 Fixing of stainless steel sheet 3 Welding 3 Mechanical fixing with peripheral seal 3 Bonding 4
4.3.5 Steel reinforcing plates for elastomeric bearings 4
4.4 Bonding of PTFE 4
4.5 Bonding of elastomer 4
4.6 Forming of elastomeric bearings 4
4.6.1 Plain pad bearings and strip bearings 4
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4.6.2 Laminated bearings 4

4.6.3 Spacers in moulds 4
4.7 Final assembly and clamping 4
4.8 Marking 4
5 Manufacturing tolerances 4
5.1 General 4
5.2 Types of tolerance 4
5.2.1 Standard tolerances 4
5.2.2 Size 4
5.2.3 Fit 4
5.2.4 Surface roughness 4
5.3 Overall dimensions of assembled bearings 4
5.3.1 General 4
5.3.2 Parallelism of outer surfaces 5
5.4 Dimensions of bearing parts 5
5.4.1 Roller bearings 5 General 5 Cylindrical rollers 5 Non-cylindrical rollers 5
5.4.2 Rocker bearings 5 Steels with hardness of 300 HB and over 5 Steels with hardness under 300 HB 5
5.4.3 Knuckle bearings 5 Pin and leaf knuckle bearings 5 Cylindrical and spherical knuckle bearings 5
5.4.4 Plane sliding bearings 5 PTFE sheet 5 Mating surfaces 6
5.4.5 Elastomeric bearings 6 Parallelism 6 Size 6
5.4.6 Pot bearings 6
5.4.7 Guides 6
5.4.8 Fixing holes in bearing plates 6
6 Protective measures 6
6.1 Aluminium alloy components 6
6.2 Ferrous components 6
6.3 Dissimilar materials 6

ii BSI 12-1998
BS 5400-9.2:1983

6.4 Damaged areas 6
7 Inspection and testing 7
7.1 Materials and workmanship 7
7.2 Testing of complete bearings 7
8 Handling, transport, storage and installation 7
8.1 Care and protection 7
8.2 Handling devices 7
8.3 Installation 7
8.3.1 General 7
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8.3.2 Tolerances 7 General 7 Setting of bearings 7 Concrete surfaces 7
8.3.3 Threaded fixings 7
8.3.4 Bedding 7
Guidance clauses 9
3 Materials 9
3.2 Steel 9
3.3 Cast iron 9
3.6.3 Lubricants 9
3.7 Elastomer 9
3.10 Other materials 9
4 Workmanship 9
4.7 Final assembly and clamping 9
5 Manufacturing tolerances 9
6 Protective measures 10
7 Inspection and testing 10
7.2 Testing of complete bearings 10
8 Handling, transport, storage and installation 12
8.3 Installation 12
Appendix A A method for determination of shear stiffness in
elastomeric bridge bearings 8
Table 1 Steel products 1
Table 2 Elastomer properties 2
Table 3 Tolerances on overall size 4
Table 4 Dimensional tolerances on PTFE sheet 6
Table 5 Profile tolerance on PTFE projection 6
Publications referred to 16

BSI 12-1998 iii

BS 5400-9.2:1983


BS 5400 is a document combining codes of practice to cover the design and

construction of steel, concrete and composite bridges and specifications for loads,
materials, and workmanship. It comprises the following Parts and Sections:
Part 1: General statement;
Part 2: Specification for loads;
Part 3: Code of practice for design of steel bridges;
Part 4: Code of practice for design of concrete bridges;
Part 5: Code of practice for design of composite bridges;
Part 6: Specification for materials and workmanship, steel;
Part 7: Specification for materials and workmanship, concrete,
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reinforcement and prestressing tendons;

Part 8: Recommendations for materials and workmanship, concrete,
reinforcement and prestressing tendons;
Part 9: Bridge bearings;
Section 9.1: Code of practice for design of bridge bearings;
Section 9.2: Specification for materials, manufacture and installation of
bridge bearings;
Part 10: Code of practice for fatigue.
This Section of Part 9, together with Section 9.1, supersede appendix F of
BS 5400-2:1978, which is to be withdrawn by an amendment.
A British Standard does not purport to include all the necessary provisions of a
contract. Users of British Standards are responsible for their correct application.
Compliance with a British Standard does not of itself confer immunity
from legal obligations.

Summary of pages
This document comprises a front cover, an inside front cover, pages i to iv,
pages 1 to 16, an inside back cover and a back cover.
This standard has been updated (see copyright date) and may have had
amendments incorporated. This will be indicated in the amendment table on
the inside front cover.

iv BSI 12-1998
BS 5400-9.2:1983

1 Scope 3.5 Copper alloy castings. Copper alloy castings

shall comply with BS 1400. For knuckle and leaf
This Section of Part 9 of BS 5400 specifies
bearings, phosphor-bronze inserts shall be of grade
requirements for the materials and workmanship
PB1, PB2 or PB4 material and leaded-bronze
commonly used in the manufacture and installation
inserts shall be of grade LB4 material.
of bridge bearings.
NOTE The requirements specified herein are suitable for
3.6 Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)
inclusion in contract documents. 3.6.1 General. Unfilled PTFE shall be pure virgin
PTFE without any addition of regenerated
2 References materials or fillers. It shall be free sintered and not
The titles of the publications referred to in this pressure cooled. The mechanical properties of
Section of Part 9 are listed on the page 16. unfilled PTFE shall comply with grade A of
BS 3784:1973.
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3 Materials The composition of filled PTFE shall be such that its

3.1 General. Where more than one quality of coefficient of friction is not more than twice the
material is specified in the relevant British coefficient of friction of pure PTFE when measured
Standard or more than one British Standard is under the same conditions.
referred to herein, the quality required shall be that 3.6.2 Lubrication cavities. Lubricant retention
specified or approved by the Engineer. cavities in PTFE shall comply with the following
3.2 Steel requirements.
a) The plan area of the cavities shall be
3.2.1 General. Steel products shall comply with the
between 10 % and 30 % of the total PTFE bearing
appropriate standard given in Table 1.
surface including the area of the dimples or
3.2.2 Hardened steel for rollers and rockers. grooves.
Rollers and rockers shall be through hardened and
b) The volume of the cavities shall not be less
not case hardened.
than 3 % nor more than 20 % of the volume of
Table 1 Steel products PTFE including the volume of cavities. Only the
Steel product Standard volume above the top of the recess shall be
Steel plates and flats BS 1449, BS 4360 considered if the PTFE is confined.
Steel sheet and strip BS 1449 c) the depth of the cavities shall not exceed half
the thickness of the PTFE sheet, or in the case of
Steel bars BS 970, BS 1407,
confined PTFE, the height of its projection from
BS 4360
the top of the recess.
Steel sections for material: BS 1775,
BS 4360 The temperature for hot pressing of cavities shall
for sizes: BS 4-1, not exceed 200 C.
BS 4848 3.6.3 Lubricants. Lubricants for use with PTFE
Wrought steel BS 970 sliding surfaces shall be compounded for long life
and to retain their properties within the
Forged steel BS 29, BS 970, BS 4670
temperature range to which the bridge is subject
Cast steel BS 3100 and shall not affect the constituent parts of the
Stainless steel BS 970, BS 1449 bearings.
(the grade of material for 3.6.4 Adhesives. Adhesives for bonding PTFE to
sliding surfaces shall be backing plates shall produce a bond with a
316S16) minimum peel strength of 4 N/mm width when
Hot-dip zinc coated and BS 2989 tested in accordance with BS 5350-C9. They shall be
iron-zinc alloy coated resistant to the action of lubricants, atmospheric
steel, plate and strip and biological agents and temperatures to which the
bearing may be subject.
3.3 Cast iron. Cast iron shall comply with BS 2789.
3.7 Elastomer
3.4 Cast aluminium. Aluminium alloy castings
shall comply with BS 1490 and shall be of grade 3.7.1 General. The elastomer used in the
LM5, LM6 or LM25. Aluminium alloy castings shall manufacture of bridge bearings shall contain either
not be used for roller, rocker, knuckle pin or leaf natural rubber or chloroprene rubber as the raw
bearings. polymer, and shall have a hardness in the range
of 45 IRHD to 75 IRHD (see No reclaimed
or ground vulcanizate rubber shall be used.

BSI 12-1998 1
BS 5400-9.2:1983

The elastomer shall have adequate weathering Low temperature brittleness. A low
resistance, as asessed by the test given in, temperature brittleness test shall be carried out in
and shall be suitable for use up to 6 weeks at accordance with BS 903-A25 to demonstrate that
subzero temperatures with occasional periods of up the impact brittleness temperature lies
to 3 days below 25 C, as assessed by the tests below 25 C.
given in to The shear modulus of the Low temperature stiffening. Low
elastomer, measured by the method given in, temperature stiffening shall be assessed by
shall not vary by more than 15 % from the value measuring increases in hardness. Three test pieces
assumed in the design of the bearing. shall be initially conditioned for 3 h at 23 2 C and
3.7.2 Mechanical properties. The mechanical then their hardness measured. These test pieces
properties of the elastomer shall comply with the shall then be conditioned for 24 h at 25 2 C and
relevant requirements given in Table 2, depending then their hardness shall be remeasured. For any of
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upon the raw polymer used. the test pieces the difference between the above two
Table 2 Elastomer properties measurements shall not exceed 15 IRHD.
Property Rubber Low temperature crystallization. The low
Natural Chloroprene
temperature crystallization resistance of the
Tensile strength, 15.5 N/mm 2
15.5 N/mm2 elastomer shall be assessed from low temperature
minimum (see compression set measurements conducted in
Elongation at break, accordance with BS 903-A39. Two tests shall be
minimum (see made; one with the test pieces maintained
at 10 2 C for 10 days, and the other with test
45 IRHD to 55 IRHD 450 % 400 % pieces held at 25 2 C for 3 days. At the end of
56 IRHD to 65 IRHD 400 % 350 % the chilling period the low temperature
compression set shall be measured after a recovery
66 IRHD to 75 IRHD 300 % 300 %
period of 1 800 s. For acceptance, the set in neither
Ageing resistance test shall exceed 65 %.
(see Ozone resistance. Ozone resistance shall be
Maximum change from determined in accordance with BS 903-A43, using
initial values: an ozone concentration of 25 parts per hundred
million by volume (p.p.h.m.) unless otherwise
Hardness 10 IRHD 15 IRHD
specified by the Engineer, a temperature
Tensile strength 15 % 15 % of 30 1 C, and a duration of 96 h, with the test
Elongation at break 20 % 40 % piece at an elongation of 20 %. At the end of the test
there shall be no visible cracks.
Compression set 30 % 35 %
maximum (see Shear modulus. The shear modulus shall be
determined in accordance with BS 903-A14 at a
3.7.3 Methods of test shear strain of 0.25. Hardness. Hardness shall be determined in 3.7.4 Test pieces
accordance with method N of BS 903-A26. General. The tests required by 3.7.1 Tensile strength and elongation at break. and 3.7.2 shall be performed on specially moulded
Tensile strength and elongation at break shall be test pieces. When, additionally, the Engineer directs
determined in accordance with BS 903-A2 using tests to be made on samples cut from a finished
dumb-bell test pieces. bearing, these samples shall be obtained as Ageing. Accelerated ageing in air shall be specified in and and prepared in
conducted in accordance with either method A or accordance with BS 903-A36.
method B of BS 903-A19. Natural rubber shall be NOTE 1 Test pieces taken from finished bearings will exhibit
mechanical properties different from those of specially moulded
aged for 7 days at 70 1 C and chloroprene rubber pieces. Nevertheless, they have to satisfy fully the requirements
for 3 days at 100 1 C. of 3.7. Compression set. Compression set shall be NOTE 2 Samples for shear tests conducted in accordance with
BS 903-A14 cannot be obtained from a bearing. Appendix A gives
determined in accordance with method A of a method for determining the shear stiffness of a completed
BS 903-A6. The temperature during the bearing, from which the shear modulus can be inferred.
compression period shall be 70 1 C for natural
rubber and 100 1 C for chloroprene rubber.

2 BSI 12-1998
BS 5400-9.2:1983 Test samples from surface of bearing. Test 4.3 Metal elements
pieces for the determination of hardness, tensile 4.3.1 Finished surfaces. Metal-to-metal contact
strength and elongation at break, ageing resistance, surfaces within bearings shall be prepared either by
ozone resistance and low temperature brittleness machining or fine grinding. As far as practicable,
shall be such that one of the two larger surfaces is machining shall be carried out after welding has
part of the outer surface of the bearing. been finished. Machining of rolling contact surfaces Test samples from body of bearing. Test of roller bearings or sliding contact surfaces shall be
pieces for the determination of compression set, low carried out only in the principal direction of
temperature stiffness and low temperature movement. Care shall be taken to remove abrasive
crystallization shall be taken from as near the materials from finished surfaces, which shall also be
middle of the bearing as possible. cleaned with a degreasing agent. Finished surfaces
3.7.5 Frequency of tests. The tests for low shall be protected from contamination and/or
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temperature brittleness, stiffening and mechanical damage.

crystallization and for ozone resistance need only be NOTE Surfaces that are to be in contact with grout or bedded
made at the time of development of the elastomer on a suitable material may be left unmachined.
compound. The results of these tests shall be made 4.3.2 Bolts and bolt holes. Bolt holes shall be
available to the Engineer on request. All other tests drilled or reamed. Where specified by the Engineer,
in 3.7.3 shall be made both at the time of bolts or screws shall be of a vibration resistant type.
development of the compound and for each batch of Taper washers of the correct angle of taper shall be
bearings. provided under all heads and nuts bearing on
3.8 Fastenings. Fastenings shall comply with the bevelled surfaces.
appropriate British Standard. 4.3.3 Welding
3.9 Locating keys and keyways. Machined keys General. Welding procedures shall be such
and keyways locating parts of bearings in relation to as to minimize distortion of the bearing components
each other shall comply with BS 46-1. and to avoid damage to finished work or bonded
3.10 Other materials. Where materials complying materials.
with specifications other than those referred to in Aluminium. Metal-arc welding of
this Section of Part 9 are proposed, the performance aluminium shall be in accordance with the
requirements for such materials, which shall be recommendations of BS 3571-1.
demonstrated by testing, shall be as given in the Tungsten-arc welding of aluminium shall be in
relevant specifications quoted in this Section of accordance with the recommendations of BS 3019-1.
Part 9. If materials not specified in this Section of
Part 9 are proposed for use in a bearing, full details Stainless steel. Welding of stainless steel
of the bearing including specification and drawings sheet to a mild steel backing plate shall be by an
together with relevant test reports shall be inert gas-shielded metal-arc or tungsten inert gas
submitted to the Engineer for approval. metal-arc process. Electrodes used with the former
method shall be austenitic steel electrodes
4 Workmanship complying with BS 2926.
4.3.4 Fixing of stainless steel sheet
4.1 Interchangeability of parts. Unless specified
by the Engineer corresponding parts need not be Welding. The weld attaching the stainless
interchangeable. steel to its backing plate shall be continuous so as to
4.2 Steel parts. Workmanship in connection with prevent ingress of moisture and shall be clean,
parts made of steel shall comply with Part 6 and as sound, smooth, uniform, without overlaps and
specified in this Section of Part 9. properly fused. Mechanical fixing with peripheral seal.
Where mechanical fixing is augmented by
peripheral sealing, the backing plate shall be
completely protected against corrosion by painting
prior to the fixing of the stainless steel sheet. A
continuous flexible seal shall be provided around
the periphery of the stainless steel.

BSI 12-1998 3
BS 5400-9.2:1983 Bonding. The stainless steel sheet to be 4.8 Marking. Completed bearings shall have the
bonded shall be prepared for bonding in accordance suppliers name (or trade mark) and a serial number
with BS 5350-A1. It shall be bonded over its entire indelibly marked thereon. The serial number shall
area. be unique and such as to enable other bearings
4.3.5 Steel reinforcing plates for elastomeric manufactured at the same time to be traced through
bearings. Internal steel laminates shall be free the production control records should the need arise.
from sharp edges. Methods used for forming holes or Where practicable the serial number shall also be
cutting plates shall be such as to leave the material visible after installation of the bearing in the
free from flaws, tears and rough edges. structure. The top of each bearing shall be clearly
marked and the size and direction of preset, if any,
4.4 Bonding of PTFE. The surface of PTFE to be
and the direction of installation shall be indicated.
bonded shall be prepared for bonding in accordance
with BS 5350-A1. The minimum bond strength
5 Manufacturing tolerances
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between the PTFE and its backing plate, when

tested in accordance with BS 5350-C9, shall 5.1 General. The tolerances given in this clause
be 4 N/mm width. shall be observed unless otherwise specified or
4.5 Bonding of elastomer. Prior to the bonding approved by the Engineer.
process the steel plates shall be freed from all 5.2 Types of tolerance
contamination by a mechanical or chemical method. 5.2.1 Standard tolerances. Tolerances for
Bonding shall be carried out during vulcanization flatness, roundness, cylindricity, profile of a surface,
such that the bond peel strength is at least 7 N/mm parallelism, squareness and position referred to in
width when tested in accordance with method B of this Section of Part 9 shall be in accordance with the
BS 903-A21. descriptions and illustrations given in BS 308-3. All
4.6 Forming of elastomeric bearings other tolerances are defined in 5.2.2 to 5.2.4.
4.6.1 Plain pad bearings and strip bearings. 5.2.2 Size. Tolerances for size referred to in this
Plain pad bearings shall be moulded in one piece, or Section of Part 9 shall be taken to be variations from
comprise single pieces cut from previously moulded the nominal dimensions. They shall be used to
strips or slabs. Cutting shall produce a smooth control the overall dimensions of components with
surface without injurious heating of the elastomer. respect to length, thickness, height and diameter.
4.6.2 Laminated bearings. A laminated bearing 5.2.3 Fit. Tolerances for fit referred to in this
shall be moulded as a single unit under pressure Section of Part 9 relate to clearance and shall be
and heat. taken as the difference between the sizes of an
4.6.3 Spacers in moulds. When spacers are used element and the hole in which it fits, where this
in moulds to ensure correct cover to outer plates, difference is positive.
they shall comply with the following requirements: 5.2.4 Surface roughness. Surface roughness
a) The resulting exposed steel surfaces shall referred to in this Section of Part 9 shall be taken as
eventually be covered when the bearings are the arithmetical mean deviation Ra defined in and
installed in the bridge structure. measured in accordance with BS 1134-1.
b) The spacers shall be located with a minimum 5.3 Overall dimensions of assembled bearings
distance of 10 mm from the reinforcing plate edge 5.3.1 General. Overall dimensions of assembled
to the edge of the spacer. bearings shall be within the tolerances given in
c) The size of the hole left at the surface of the Table 3.
bearing shall not exceed 10 mm diameter. Table 3 Tolerances on overall size
d) The minimum practical number of spacers Type of bearing Tolerance on size
shall be used to ensure correct location of plates Overall Overall
but in no case shall the total area of spacers plan thickness
exceed 3 % of the bearing compression area. dimensions or height

4.7 Final assembly and clamping. After final Elastomeric

inspection and acceptance of the various parts of the up to and including +6 1 mm
finished bearing, they shall be assembled and 20 mm thickness or mm
clamped together. If specified by the Engineer, height
sliding and roller bearings shall be preset at the above 20 mm thickness or +6 5%
time of fixing the clamping devices. All deleterious height mm
materials shall be excluded from sliding and other
Other than elastomeric 3 mm 3 mm
contact surfaces.

4 BSI 12-1998
BS 5400-9.2:1983

5.3.2 Parallelism of outer surfaces. When Steels with hardness under 300 HB. For
designed to be parallel, the tolerance on parallelism steels with a hardness less than 300 HB,
of the upper surface of a bearing with respect to the determined in accordance with BS 240-1, the
lower surface of the bearing, as datum, shall tolerance on flatness, along the line of contact, for
be 0.2 % of the diameter for surfaces circular in plan plates mating with rockers shall be 0.1 mm for
and 0.2 % of the longer side for surfaces rectangular lengths up to and including 250 mm, and 0.04 % of
in plan. the length for lengths above 250 mm.
5.4 Dimensions of bearing parts For rockers, the profile of surface tolerance for the
length of the surface over which contact can occur
5.4.1 Roller bearings
shall be 0.05 mm. General. The tolerance on flatness for roller
The surface roughness Ra of both rocking surfaces
plates measured in any direction shall be 0.025 mm
shall not exceed 0.5 m.
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for lengths up to and including 250 mm and 0.01 %

of the length, in the direction of measurement, for 5.4.3 Knuckle bearings
lengths above 250 mm. Pin and leaf knuckle bearings. For pins and
The surface roughness Ra of rolling surfaces shall seatings, the tolerance on cylindricity shall
not exceed 0.8 m. be 0.025 mm. Cylindrical rollers. The tolerance on For pins up to and including 250 mm diameter, the
cylindricity shall be 0.025 mm. diameter of the pins shall be within a size tolerance
The tolerance on size of single rollers with respect to of 0.25 mm to 0.40 mm and the diameter of the
their nominal diameter shall be + 0.5 mm seating shall be within a size tolerance of 0.0 mm
and 0.0 mm. to + 0.15 mm. For pins exceeding 250 mm diameter,
the clearance between the pin and the seating shall
The tolerance on size of multiple rollers with respect be not less than 0.4 mm and not more than 0.75 mm.
to their nominal diameter shall be + 0.08 mm
and 0.0 mm. Cylindrical and spherical knuckle bearings.
The tolerances on flatness and profile of surface for Non-cylindrical rollers. Curved surfaces cylindrical knuckle bearings and tolerance on
shall have a profile of surface tolerance of 0.3 % of profile of surface for spherical knuckle bearings
the intended radius. shall be 0.0002Xh mm or 0.24 mm, whichever is the
The tolerance on size with respect to the height at greater, where X is the length of the chord (in mm)
the centreline of the bearing shall be + 0.5 mm between the ends of the PTFE surface in the
and 0.0 mm. direction of rotation, and h is the projection of the
The tolerance on parallelism between the chord line PTFE (in mm) above the top of the confining recess,
joining the ends of the top rolling surface with for confined PTFE, or the thickness (in mm) for
respect to the chord line joining the ends of the bonded PTFE. The tolerance on size with respect to
bottom rolling surface as datum shall be 1 mm. the radius of the curved surface on the finished
The tolerance on squareness between the plane bearing shall be 3 % of the intended radius.
passing through the centres of the rolling surfaces The surface roughness Ra of metal curved sliding
as datum and the top and bottom chord lines joining surfaces shall not exceed 0.5 m.
the ends of the rolling surfaces shall be 1 mm. Where PTFE forms one of the contact surfaces it
5.4.2 Rocker bearings shall comply with the appropriate requirements
given in 5.4.4. Steels with hardness of 300 HB and over. For
steels with a hardness not less than 300 HB, 5.4.4 Plane sliding bearings
determined in accordance with BS 240-1, the PTFE sheet. The tolerance on flatness of
tolerance on flatness, along the line of contact, for PTFE sheet shall be 0.2 mm where the diameter or
plates mating with rockers shall be 0.075 mm for diagonal is less than 800 mm and 0.025 % of the
lengths up to and including 250 mm, and 0.03 % of diameter or diagonal where this dimension is
the length for lengths above 250 mm. greater than or equal to 800 mm.
For rockers, the profile of surface tolerance for the On PTFE surfaces made up of more than one piece
length of the surface over which contact can occur of PTFE the above conditions shall apply to the
shall be 0.025 mm. diameter or diagonal dimension of the inscribing
The surface roughness Ra of rocking surfaces shall circle or rectangle around the PTFE.
not exceed 0.8 m. The dimensional tolerances on PTFE sheet shall be
as given in Table 4.

BSI 12-1998 5
BS 5400-9.2:1983

Table 4 Dimensional tolerances on PTFE 5.4.5 Elastomeric bearings

sheet Parallelism. The tolerance on parallelism for
Diameter or Tolerance Tolerance on thickness the axes of reinforcing plates with respect to the
diagonal on plan base of the bearing as datum shall be 1 % of the
dimension diameter, for plates circular in plan, or 1 % of the
Recessed Bonded shorter side, for plates rectangular in plan.
PTFE PTFE Size. The tolerance on size with respect to
mm mm mm mm the plan dimensions of plates for reinforcing
+0.5 +0.1 elastomeric bearings shall be + 0 mm and 3 mm.
600 1.0 The tolerance on size with respect to the thickness
0 0
of the top and bottom covers for laminated
> 600, 1 200 1.5 +0.6 +0.2 elastomeric bearings shall be between + 20 %
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0 0 and 0 % of the nominal thickness, or 1 mm,

+0.7 Not whichever is the lesser.
> 1 200 2.0
0 applicable The tolerance on size with respect to the thickness
of an individual inner layer of elastomer in a
The gap between the edge of the PTFE sheet and the laminated elastomeric bearing shall be 20 % of its
edge of the recess in which it is confined shall not nominal thickness value, or 3 mm, whichever is the
anywhere exceed 0.5 mm or 0.1 % of the lesser.
corresponding plan dimensions of the PTFE sheet,
in the direction measured, whichever is the greater. The tolerance on size with respect to the thickness
of the side cover for a laminated elastomeric bearing
The profile tolerance on the specified projection of shall be + 3 mm and 0 mm.
PTFE above its confining recess shall be as given in
Table 5. 5.4.6 Pot bearings. The tolerance of fit between the
piston and the pot shall be + 0.75 mm to + 1.25 mm.
Table 5 Profile tolerance on PTFE
projection 5.4.7 Guides. The surface roughness Ra of metal
sliding surfaces shall not exceed 0.5 m.
Maximum dimension of PTFE Tolerance on specified
(diameter or diagonal) projection above recess 5.4.8 Fixing holes in bearing plates. Where
required, tolerances on the position for centres of
mm mm
fixing holes shall be as specified or approved by the
600 +0.5 Engineer.
6 Protective measures
> 600, 1 200 +0.6
0 6.1 Aluminium alloy components. Permanently
exposed surfaces of aluminium alloy components
> 1 200, 1 500 +0.8 shall be degreased and painted as specified or
approved by the Engineer. Where aluminium would
All measurements on PTFE sheet shall be made at otherwise be in contact with Portland cement
a temperature of 20 C to 25 C. concrete, the former shall be suitably protected. Mating surfaces. For planar surfaces mating 6.2 Ferrous components. Exposed parts of iron
with PTFE, the flatness tolerance in all directions and steel shall be protected against corrosion as
shall be 0.0002Lh mm, where L is the length (in specified or approved by the Engineer.
mm) of the PTFE surface in the direction measured 6.3 Dissimilar materials. Care shall be taken to
and h is the projection of the PTFE (in mm) above prevent electrolytic action between dissimilar
the top of the confining recess, for confined PTFE, or metals in contact by the use of suitable insulation
the thickness (in mm) for bonded PTFE. and prevention of moisture penetration.
The surface roughness Ra of metal planar sliding 6.4 Damaged areas. Any damaged areas of
surfaces shall not exceed 0.15 m. protective treatment shall be made good to the
satisfaction of the Engineer or the damaged parts

6 BSI 12-1998
BS 5400-9.2:1983

7 Inspection and testing 8.3.2 Tolerances

7.1 Materials and workmanship. The testing and General. The tolerances given in and
inspection of materials and workmanship used in shall be observed unless otherwise specified
the manufacture of bearings shall be carried out to or approved by the Engineer.
ensure compliance with the appropriate Setting of bearings. Bearings shall be located
requirements of clauses 3, 4 and 5 of this Section of so that their centrelines are within 3 mm of their
Part 9 to the approval of the Engineer. Test correct position. The level of a single bearing or the
certificates shall be made available for inspection by mean levels of more than one bearing at any support
the Engineer. shall be within a tolerance of 0.0001 times the
7.2 Testing of complete bearings. Testing of sum of the adjacent spans of a continuous girder but
complete bearings, when specified or required by not exceeding 5 mm.
the Engineer, shall be carried out in accordance Bearings shall be set to their correct inclination
Licensed Copy: Sheffield University, University of Sheffield, 18 December 2002, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI

with his instructions. The bearings shall be within a tolerance of 1 in 200 in any direction unless
considered satisfactory when the results of the tests otherwise specified by the Engineer. Departures
comply with this Section of Part 9 and any other from common planarity of twin or multiple bearings
special requirement specified by the Engineer. shall be within such tolerances as may be specified
by the Engineer.
8 Handling, transport, storage and Concrete surfaces. Concrete surfaces for the
installation direct setting of elastomeric bearings shall not vary
8.1 Care and protection. During handling, from a flat plane by more than 1 in 200 within the
transport, storage and installation, bearings shall plan area of the bearing, and local irregularities
be kept clean and protected from mechanical shall not exceed 1 mm in height.
damage, heat, contaminants and other deleterious 8.3.3 Threaded fixings. Threaded fixings shall be
effects. tightened uniformly to avoid overstressing any part
8.2 Handling devices. Suitable handling devices of the bearing. Where significant vibration may
shall be provided as required. Temporary clamping occur, fasteners shall be of a vibration resistant
devices shall be used to maintain the correct type.
orientation of the parts but shall not be used for 8.3.4 Bedding. Bearings shall be bedded over their
slinging or suspending bearings unless specifically whole area. After installation there shall be no voids
designed for this purpose. or hard spots. The bedding material shall be capable
8.3 Installation of transmitting the applied load to the structure
without damage.
8.3.1 General. Bearings shall be installed in the
Surfaces to receive bedding mortar shall be
structure as specified or approved by the Engineer.
adequately prepared to a state compatible with the
Bearings that have been pre-assembled shall not be
mortar chosen.
dismantled except with the prior approval of the
Engineer. The position of any temporary packing The top surface of any extension of the bedding
between the outer bearing plates and the structure beyond the bearing shall have a slope away from the
shall be agreed with the Engineer. bearing.
After installation, bearings and their surrounding
areas shall be left clean. Temporary transit clamps
shall be removed at a time to be agreed by the

BSI 12-1998 7
BS 5400-9.2:1983

Appendix A A.3.3 Conditioning load. Condition the bearings

A method for determination of shear first by applying a horizontal load to the
intermediate plate until a horizontal deflection
stiffness of elastomeric bridge equal to the total height of elastomer in one bearing
bearings has been reached. Release the load.
A.1 Apparatus. The testing apparatus should be A.3.4 Test loading and recording. Reapply the
capable of applying concurrent horizontal and horizontal load in five approximately equal
vertical loads. Mechanical, optical or electrical increments until a horizontal deflection equal to the
means capable of measuring horizontal deflection in total thickness of elastomer in the bearing is
units of 0.01 mm should be provided and used in obtained. For each increment of load, measure and
conjunction with the testing apparatus. record the horizontal deflection. Measurements
A.2 Test piece. The shear stiffness should be should not be taken until all short-term creep has
Licensed Copy: Sheffield University, University of Sheffield, 18 December 2002, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI

determined using bearings of the same design, ceased. From the recordings, plot the horizontal
material and geometry and with compression load/deflection graph for one bearing.
deflection characteristics within 5 % of one another. A.4 Assessment of shear modulus. Provided that
there was no evidence of instability during the test,
A.3 Test procedure the shear stiffness can be obtained from the
A.3.1 Assembly for test. Locate bearings in pairs load/deflection graph as the slope Ks of the chord
opposite each other on both sides of a suitable robust between the points u = 0.05tq and u = 0.25tq.
plate; test a sufficient number of pairs of bearings The shear modulus G for the elastomer may then be
simultaneously to prevent instability of the estimated from the expression
assembly during testing. Place the assembly G = Kstq/A
horizontally in a compression testing machine such
that a horizontal load can be applied to the where
intermediate steel plate while a vertical load is
applied simultaneously to the assembly. All u is the horizontal deflection;
surfaces in contact with the bearings should be tq is the total thickness of elastomer in the
plane and prepared so as to prevent slippage bearing in shear measured in the unloaded
between the contact surfaces without causing any state;
damage to the bearing. A is the area of the bearing.
A.3.2 Compression load. Apply and hold constant
throughout the test a compression load, normal to
the horizontal load plate and equal to the nominal
dead load plus superimposed dead load for each
bearing multiplied by the number of pairs of
bearings in the assembly.

8 BSI 12-1998
BS 5400-9.2:1983

Guidance clauses 3.10 Other materials. When assessing the

suitability of materials other than those specified in
These clauses represent a standard of good practice
this Section of Part 9 for use in bridge bearings, the
and give guidance on the requirements of this
Section of Part 9. The clause numbers and titles following factors should be taken into consideration.
correspond to those given in the text. a) Physical and mechanical properties
ultimate compressive strength;
3 Materials uiltimate tensile strength;
3.2 Steel. Precautions should be taken to prevent ultimate shear strength;
staining of the supporting structure.
proof strength;
For high resistance to corrosion, stainless steel
alloy 316S16 or 320S17 complying with BS 970-4 or impact strength;
resistance to sustained and repeated loading;
Licensed Copy: Sheffield University, University of Sheffield, 18 December 2002, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI

BS 1449-2 are recommended.

Alloys 321S12, 321S20 and 347S17 provide good permissible bearing stress;
weldability. Alloy 431S29 gives high strength and permissible tensile stress;
machineability, but lower corrosion resistance, and
is unsuitable for welding. permissible shear stress;
3.3 Cast iron. Where cast iron is subject to stress/strain curves;
significant tensile stresses, it should have an elastic modulus;
elongation of not less than 7 %. bulk modulus;
3.6.3 Lubricants. Certain silicone greases to which creep, ductility, pliability;
metallic soaps have been added as thickeners are coefficient of friction (static and dynamic);
normally used for lubricating PTFE sliding
surfaces. effect of high and low temperatures on these
3.7 Elastomer. The ozone resistance test referred
to in is an accelerated test. In order to obtain b) Durability
a meaningful result a high ozone concentration attack by water, alkalis, acids, bacteria,
of 2.5 p.p.h.m. is used. oxygen, ozone, chlorides, sulphates,
In the test to determine the shear stiffness in hydrocarbons, and other chemicals commonly
accordance with appendix A, instability becomes transported by road;
apparent from the load/deflection graph. Slip or effect of ultraviolet and infra-red rays, fire,
bond failure may show as excessive set or a marked heat and cold;
reduction in the slope of the load/deflection curve. electrolytic action between materials likely to
Where the shear modulus inferred from the results be in contact with each other.
of tests carried out in accordance with appendix A
varies considerably from that assumed in the design 4 Workmanship
of the bearing, further testing should be considered; 4.7 Final assembly and clamping. If bearings are
for example, tests to determine the tensile strength preset at the manufacturers works, the amount of
and elongation at break and high temperature preset is very difficult to determine owing to the
compression set of the elastomer from samples cut uncertainty of the amount of creep and shrinkage
from the bearing in accordance with that will have taken place and the temperature at
and the time of installing the bearing. If bearings are to
Test samples required to be taken from near the be preset on site, the manufacturer should be so
centre of a laminated bearing may be taken from a notified at the time of ordering so that due provision
finished bearing when it has been manufactured can be made for the movement of the relevant parts.
with steel reinforcing plates having holes of suitable Wherever possible, presetting of bearings should be
size and location to allow cored samples to be taken. avoided.
Finished bearings having test samples removed
may be used provided that, after repair, they pass 5 Manufacturing tolerances
the compression test outlined in guidance The diagrams and the section on terminology and
clause 7.2 b) 2) i). definitions in BS 4500-1 usefully supplement the
information given in this Section of Part 9. The term
clearance is used in the same context as in
BS 4500-1.

BSI 12-1998 9
BS 5400-9.2:1983

Tolerances given in this Section of Part 9 are The usual tests are:
suitable for bearings in normal use. In special 1) Prototype tests, to verify the adequacy of
circumstances of unusual loading or movement, it design. These tests are generally carried out by
may be necessary to specify different tolerances. the manufacturer during the development of
For flat-sided rollers, the tolerances for roundness, the bearing.
cylindricity and size apply to the remaining parts of 2) Production tests, to ensure the use of correct
the rollers as though they were part of a whole materials and procedures in manufacture.
cylinder. These tests are carried out by the
Tolerances for holes for fixing bolts should be manufacturer for his own guidance and
related to the function of the bolts and the likely control.
conditions prevailing at the time of installation of 3) Acceptance tests, to confirm that the
the bearings. As a guide, holes for fixing bolts or complete bearing complies with the specified
Licensed Copy: Sheffield University, University of Sheffield, 18 December 2002, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI

locating devices should be drilled within 1 mm of the requirements. These tests should be carried
positions shown on the drawings. Their diameter out as specified or when required by the
should be 2 mm larger than the nominal diameter of Engineer. When available, the results of
the bolt or locating key for fixing bearings to steel or prototype and production tests should be taken
precast concrete members, and 3 mm larger than into account in specifying the acceptance tests.
the nominal diameter of bolt or shear key for fixing
In deciding on the need for and the type and scope
bearings to cast-in-place concrete. For bolts or
of the acceptance tests, the following factors are
locating devices required to resist horizontal forces
in shear, a close tolerance fit may need to be
provided. i) The existence of previous well attested and
documented information.
6 Protective measures Well attested data should give a full
Guidance on protective measures that can be description of the bearings tested, their
adopted to prevent the corrosion of iron and steel material properties, and all other data that
under various atmospheric conditions is given in could affect the performance of the bearing.
BS 5493. Shop-applied treatment should be ii) Service conditions of the bearings.
returned on to faces not permanently exposed, other Careful consideration should be given to
than sliding, mating and interleaved surfaces, for a conditions likely to affect the bearing in
distance of at least 20 mm. service and reduce its efficiency. These should,
Because of the risk of electrolytic action, it is where practicable, be simulated in the tests.
important to prevent the contact of dissimilar Examples of possible causes of adverse effects
materials. In this context, mild steel and stainless are: extremes of temperature, variations in
steel are dissimilar. In particular, direct contact rate of loading compared to that used in the
between copper, nickel and their alloys (e.g. brass tests, exposure of rubber to sunlight,
and bronzes) with aluminium, and aluminium with deterioration of lubricants used to reduce the
steel should be avoided. Copper may be affected by coefficient of friction in sliding bearings.
direct contact with concrete. (For further iii) The importance of the bearing in relation to
information refer to PD 6484 and BRS Digest 71 the structure.
second series.)
iv) The complexity of the bearing design.
7 Inspection and testing v) The extent of testing and inspection of
materials and workmanship during
7.2 Testing of complete bearings
a) Selection of tests. The requirement for and the
vi) The extent to which previous tests are
extent of testing of completed bearings depend
representative of the routine fabrication
upon the evidence of previous tests and the level
of quality control on the bearings and their parts
(materials and workmanship). The properties vii) The access for inspection and ease of
and performance of proprietary and special types replacement of the bearing after installation.
of bearings should be confirmed to the viii) The type of testing required.
satisfaction of the Engineer by tests or by The choice of the type of test or combination of
properly documented evidence. tests will be determined by the objectives,
since each of the tests has a different purpose.

10 BSI 12-1998
BS 5400-9.2:1983

In the case of bearings whose performance After being tested, a bearing should be
cannot be fully evaluated prior to dismantled as necessary for inspection. Where
manufacture, the need for well attested data a bearing is to be test loaded to both limit
and testing to validate their design is usually states, it should be tested for serviceability
essential. first and be dismantled as necessary and
ix) The number of bearings of any one type to inspected before being tested for the ultimate
be tested. Additional bearings should be limit state. In such cases it should have a
allowed for where any testing under ultimate second bedding-in cycle before the second load
limit state loads is called for. Sampling of test.
bearings for the test should be as Load tests to check the performance of a
representative as possible. bearing at the serviceability limit state should
x) The availability of facilities for testing. be carried out using the serviceability design
Licensed Copy: Sheffield University, University of Sheffield, 18 December 2002, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI

load effects on the bearing multiplied by the

In deciding on the nature and extent of
partial material factor, m. A bearing should
testing, due regard should be paid to the
be considered to have passed a serviceability
availability of equipment of adequate
limit state test provided that there is no
capacity. Where such equipment is not readily
visible damage or permanent deformation of
available, proof loading may be impracticable
any part due to loading cycles subsequent to
and tests on reduced-size bearings may have
the initial bedding-in cycle.
to be adopted to provide evidence of the
performance of full-size bearings. Load tests to check the performance of a
bearing at the ultimate limit state should be
b) Load testing
carried out using the ultimate design load
1) Bearings, other than elastomeric bearings. effects on the bearing multiplied by m. A
For bearings other than elastomeric bearings, bearing may be considered to have passed this
load tests are made to check the performance test if it supports the test load. However, due
of the bearing at both serviceability and regard should be paid to the results of the
ultimate limit states. tests to establish the strength of materials
Both vertical and horizontal loads, where used in the fabrication of the bearing. Where
applicable, should be applied to the bearing in the material strength is significantly above
the most adverse combinations as specified in the minimum specified, the possibility of
Part 2. weaker materials being used in other bearings
Where load transfer due to tilting of the should be taken into account when assessing
bearing can occur it should be taken into the strength of such bearings.
account. Bearings tested for the serviceability limit
Before recording measurements, the bearing state should be suitable for subsequent
should be bedded in by applying a load equal incorporation in the structure, but bearings
to the serviceability limit state load and then tested for the ultimate limit state should not
releasing it. The test loads should then be be expected to be suitable for further use.
applied in increments and load deflection 2) Elastomeric bearings. As the loads on
measurements made at each increment. The elastomeric bearings are limited by long
rate of loading should be slow enough to avoid service considerations, the single application
any adverse shock effects and the maximum of either the serviceability or ultimate limit
load should be maintained until any obvious state design load to a bearing cannot be
short-term creep has ceased. expected to produce any visible permanent
The load should then be removed in damage. However, load tests should be made
decrements and load deflection measurements on laminated bearings to check other
made at each decrement. For serviceability properties of the bearing. The following tests
limit state load tests, after complete are commonly employed.
unloading, the amount of set should be i) Quick production test. This test is
checked and, if significant, the loading and normally made on all bearings by the
unloading cycle repeated. If the set is shown to manufacturer to check for misplaced
be progressive, the bearing should be deemed reinforcing plates, bond failures at the
not to comply with this Section of Part 9. steel/elastomer interface, surface defects
and stiffness.

BSI 12-1998 11
BS 5400-9.2:1983

A compressive test load, normally the c) Testing resistance to movement

serviceability limit state load, should be 1) Frictional. Bearings designed and
applied to the bearing and held constant fabricated in accordance with this Section of
while a visual examination for the above Part 9 need not be tested for resistance to
defects is made. Where defects are movement, unless the supplier claims a
suspected they should be proved by other substantial improvement in this respect. The
appropriate tests. design coefficients of frictional resistance
During this test the deflection between given in Section 9.1 are intended to represent
one-third and full test load should be the worst coefficients likely to develop during
recorded and used to check the consistency the life of the bearing and can only be verified
of the stiffness values. The details of this by tests simulating the conditions that may be
method used to obtain the deflection expected to arise during the design life of the
Licensed Copy: Sheffield University, University of Sheffield, 18 December 2002, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI

measurement should be such that the bearing.

result for stiffness obtained for any Short-term tests are not suitable for
particular bearing is repeatable to determining coefficients of friction for design
within 5 %. Where test results on a series of purposes, as such tests will give much lower
bearings are being compared, the same coefficients than recommended in Section 9.1,
method should be used throughout. Where, the reduction depending on the type of bearing
on a batch of the same bearings, the and the nature of the contact surfaces,
vertical stiffness value of an individual especially if lubricants are used.
bearing varies by more than 20 % from the
2) Elastomeric. Where well attested test
average value from the batch, the bearing
results are available for both compression and
should be deemed not to comply with this
shear stiffness tests and where the
Section of Part 9.
compression stiffness test result for a bearing
If the manufacturer performs this test as is within 20 % of the average of the previous
part of his own quality control procedures, results, the shear stiffness of such a bearing
and makes the results available to the may be assumed to be within 20 % of the
Engineer, further tests for acceptance of average of the corresponding shear stiffness
bearings should not be necessary. results.
ii) Stiffness test. This test should be made Where such results are not available, or where
where the compressive stiffness of the the Engineer requires additional
bearing is critical to the design of the confirmation, a shear stiffness test may be
structure. The quick production test is likely performed as described in appendix A.
to overestimate the bearing stiffness.
Should the method described in appendix A
Prior to any measurement being recorded, a prove unsatisfactory owing to instability, the
vertical conditioning load, equal to the shear stiffness can be calculated from the
serviceability limit state load, should be shear modulus of the elastomer obtained as
applied to the bearing and then released. described in It should be noted that, in
The vertical test load, equal to the these circumstances, the calculated value of
serviceability limit state load, should then shear stiffness for a single bearing may give
be applied in increments to the bearing. an overestimate of the actual value and
The load should then be released in should only be used as an upper bound value.
Load/deflection measurements should be 8 Handling, transport, storage and
taken at each increment and decrement installation
after any obvious short-term creep has 8.3 Installation
ceased. The vertical deflection of the
a) General. Bearings should be installed with care
bearing, between one-third and full test
load, for the last loading cycle, should be to ensure their correct functioning in accordance
used to calculate the vertical stiffness of the with the design for the whole structure. In order
that moving surfaces are not contaminated,
bearing, which should lie within the range
bearings should not normally be dismantled after
allowed in the design of the structure.
leaving the manufacturers works but, if for any
The range of compressive stiffness used in reason they are, then this should only be done
the design of the structure should be as under expert supervision and the manufacturers
large as possible to give the bearing assistance should be sought.
designer maximum flexibility.

12 BSI 12-1998
BS 5400-9.2:1983

Transfer of superstructure weight on to bearings To ensure even loading of bearings and their
should not be allowed until sufficient strength supporting structures, it is essential that any
has developed in the bedding to resist the bedding material, whether above or below the
applied load. Temporary clamping devices bearing, extends over the whole area of the
should be removed at the appropriate time before bearing.
the bearings are required to accommodate c) Fixing of bearings other than elastomeric. To
movement. Consideration should be given to any cater for vibration and accidental impact, some
treatment required to holes exposed on the fixing should be provided. Shear keys or
removal of temporary transit clamps. Where holding-down bolts should be accurately set into
reuse of these fixing holes may be required, the recesses cast into the structure using templates,
material selected to fill them should not only and the remaining voids in the recesses should be
give protection against deterioration but also filled with a material capable of withstanding the
Licensed Copy: Sheffield University, University of Sheffield, 18 December 2002, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI

should be easily removable without damaging loads involved. Close tolerance bolts should be set
any threads. using the bearings as templates. In this case
Where necessary, suitable arrangements should special precautions should be taken to prevent
be made to accommodate thermal movement and contamination of the bearings during bolt
elastic deformation of the incomplete installation.
superstructure. When provided, temporary Bearings that are to be installed on temporary
supports under bearing baseplates should be supports should be firmly fixed to the
compressible under design loading or removed substructure by the holding-down bolts or other
once the bedding material has reached the means to prevent disturbance during subsequent
required strength. Any voids left as a operations. The method of bolt tightening should
consequence of their removal should be made be such as not to deform the bearings. Finally,
good using the same type of bedding material. voids beneath the bearings should be completely
Steel folding wedges and rubber pads are filled with bedding material using the
suitable for temporary supports under bearing appropriate method.
Hardspots should be avoided, e.g. by removal of
The installation tolerances given in 8.3.2 may be temporary packing shims and the use of
relaxed by the Engineer provided he allows for sufficiently resilient washers under backnuts.
the relaxed tolerances in his design. Twin and Alternatively, bearings may be fixed directly to
multiple bearings are normally used on box metal bedding plates that may be cast in or
girders; the tolerances for departures from bedded on top of the supporting structure to the
common planarity should be determined by the correct level and location. Only a thin layer of
Engineer from the capacity of the box girders to bedding mortar should be used and when other
resist torsion caused by this imperfection. than synthetic resin mortar is used for this
b) Bedding. The choice of bedding material is purpose it should be housed in a recess suitably
influenced by the method of installing the reinforced on all sides.
bearings, the size of the gap to be filled, the If the substructure is of steel, the bearings may
strength required and the required setting time. be bolted directly to it. In such cases there may
When selecting the bedding material, be difficulties in achieving location to line and
consideration should therefore be given to the level within the tolerances unless other provision
following factors: type of bearing; size of bearing; is made. Before providing for adjustment, the
loading on bearing; construction sequence and need for such accurate location should be
timing; early loading; friction requirements; assessed.
dowelling arrangements; access around the
d) Fixing of elastomeric bearings. Elastomeric
bearing; thickness of material required; design
bearings may be laid directly on concrete,
and condition of surfaces in the bearing area;
provided it is within the specified tolerance for
shrinkage of the bedding material.
flatness and smoothness. Alternatively, they may
It is essential that the composition and be laid on a layer of bedding material.
workability of the bedding material is specified
with the above factors in mind. In some cases it
may be necessary to carry out trials to ascertain
the most suitable material. Commonly used
materials are cementitious or chemical resin
mortar, grout and dry packing. The use of
materials such as lead, which tend to flow under
load, leaving hard spots, should be avoided.

BSI 12-1998 13
BS 5400-9.2:1983

e) Bearings supporting in situ concrete deck.

Where bearings are installed prior to forming an
in situ concrete deck, formwork around bearings
should be carefully sealed to prevent grout
leakage. However, it is essential that the
bearings and particularly the working surfaces
are protected during concreting operations.
Sliding plates should be fully supported and care
taken to prevent tilting, displacement or
distortion of the bearings under the weight of wet
concrete. Any mortar contaminating the bearings
should be completely removed before it sets.
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f) Bearings supporting precast concrete or steel

elements. A thin layer of synthetic resin mortar
should be used between bearings and precast
concrete beams. Alternatively, bearings with
outer bearing plates may be bolted to anchor
plates or sockets embedded in precast elements,
or to machined sole plates on steel elements.

14 BSI 12-1998
Licensed Copy: Sheffield University, University of Sheffield, 18 December 2002, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI

BS 5400-9.2:1983

Publications referred to

Standards publications

BS 4, Structural steel sections.

BS 4-1, Specification for hot rolled sections.
BS 290, Specification for carbon steel forgings above 150 mm ruling section.
BS 46, Keys and keyways and taper pins.
BS 46-1, Keys and keyways.
BS 240, Method for Brinnell hardness test.
BS 240-1, Testing of metals.
BS 308, Engineering drawing practice.
BS 308-3, Geometrical tolerancing.
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BS 903, Methods of testing vulcanized rubber.

BS 903-A2, Determination of tensile stress-strain properties.
BS 903-A6, Determination of compression set after constant strain.
BS 903-A14, Determination of modulus in shear of rubber (bonded quadruple shear test piece).
BS 903-A19, Heat resistance and accelerated air ageing tests.
BS 903-A21, Determination of rubber-to-metal bond strength.
BS 903-A25, Determination of impact brittleness temperature.
BS 903-A26, Determination of hardness.
BS 903-A36, Preparation of test pieces.
BS 903-A39, Determination of compression set under constant deflection at low temperatures.
BS 903-A43, Determination of resistance to ozone cracking (static strain test).
BS 970, Wrought steels in the form of blooms, billets, bars and forgings.
BS 1134, Method for the assessment of surface texture.
BS 1134-1, Method and instrumentation.
BS 1400, Copper alloy ingots and copper and copper alloy castings.
BS 1407, High carbon bright steel (silver steel).
BS 1449, Steel plate, sheet and strip.
BS 1490, Aluminium and aluminium alloy ingots and castings.
BS 1775, Steel tubes for mechanical, structural and general engineering purposes.
BS 2789, Iron castings with spheroidal or nodular graphite.
BS 2926, Chromium-nickel austenitic and chromium steel electrodes for manual metal-arc welding.
BS 2989, Specification for continuously hot-dip zinc coated and iron-zinc alloy coated steel: wide strip,
sheet/plate and slit wide strip.
BS 3019, General recommendations for manual inert-gas tungsten-arc welding.
BS 3019-1, Wrought aluminium, aluminium alloys and magnesium alloys.
BS 3100, Specification for steel castings for general engineering purposes.
BS 3571, General recommendations for manual inert-gas metal-arc welding.
BS 3571-1, Aluminium and aluminium alloys.
BS 3784, Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sheet.
BS 4360, Specification for weldable structural steels.
BS 4500, ISO limits and fits.
BS 4500-1, General, tolerances and deviations.
BS 4670, Alloy steel forgings.
BS 4848, Hot-rolled structural steel sections.
BS 5350, Methods of test for adhesives.
BS 5350-A1, Adherend preparation.

BSI 12-1998
BS 5400-9.2:1983

BS 5350-C9, Floating roller peel test.

BS 5400, Steel, concrete and composite bridges.
BS 5400-2, Specification for loads.
BS 5400-6, Specification for materials and workmanship, steel.
BS 5493, Code of practice for protective coating of iron and steel structures against corrosion.
PD 6484, Commentary on corrosion at bimetallic contacts and its alleviation.

Other publications

BRS Digest 71 Second series.

Licensed Copy: Sheffield University, University of Sheffield, 18 December 2002, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI

BSI 12-1998
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